Kazakhstan: Prime Minister Nurlan Balgimbayev resigns. Foreign Minister Kasymzhomart Tokayev is named acting prime minister. On October 12 he is confirmed in that position. Mazhit Yesenbayev becomes finance minister and Sat Tokpakbayev defense minister.
San Marino: Marino Bollini (Socialist) and Giuseppe Arzilli (Christian Democrat) take office as captains-regent.
Austria: In parliamentary elections, the Social Democratic Party wins 33.2% of the vote (65 of 183 seats), the Freedom Party of Austria 26.9% (52), the Austrian People's Party 26.9% (52), the Greens 7.4% (14), and the Liberal Forum 3.7%. Turnout is 80.4%.
Georgia: In Abkhazia, Vladislav Ardzinba is reelected president with 99% of the vote. Turnout is 87%.
India: In parliamentary elections held September 4, 11, 18, 25, and October 3, the National Democratic Alliance led by Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee's Bharatiya Janata Party wins 298 seats, the Congress-led Alliance 134, and others 105. Turnout is below 60%. As a result of state elections, S.M. Krishna becomes chief minister of Karnataka (October 11) and Vilasrao Deshmukh chief minister of Maharashtra (October 18).
Canada: Gary Doer (NDP) takes office as premier of Manitoba.
Egypt: Atef Ebeid becomes prime minister.
Japan: In a cabinet reshuffle, Yohei Kono becomes foreign minister, Tsutomu Kawara defense minister, and Kosuke Hori home affairs minister.
Canada: Adrienne Clarkson takes office as governor general.
Poland: Marek Biernacki becomes interior minister.
Germany: In state elections in Berlin, the Christian Democratic Union wins 40.8% of the vote, the Social Democratic Party 22.4%, the Party of Democratic Socialism 17.7%, the Greens 9.9%, the Republicans 2.7%, and the Free Democratic Party 2.2%. Turnout is 65.9%.
Kazakhstan: In the first round of parliamentary elections, the Otan party, which backs President Nursultan Nazarbayev, wins 30.5% of the vote, followed by the Communist Party with 17.8%, the Agrarian Party with 12.6%, and the Civilian Party with 10.9%.
Liberia: President Charles Taylor reshuffles his government. Nathaniel Barnes replaces John Bestman as finance minister, and Maxwell Poe takes over as interior minister from Edward Sackor.
Peru: President Alberto Fujimori names Alberto Bustamante Belaúnde as prime minister. He is sworn in on October 13 with a cabinet including Efraín Goldenberg Schreiber as finance minister.
Portugal: In parliamentary elections, the Socialist Party wins 44% of the vote (111 of 230 seats), the Social Democratic Party 32.3% (79), the United Democratic Coalition 9% (17), and the People's Party 8.4% (14). In the new cabinet announced October 21 and sworn in October 25, Júlio Castro Caldas becomes defense minister, Fernando Gomes interior minister, and Joaquim Pina Moura finance minister.
United Kingdom: Geoff Hoon becomes defense secretary, replacing George Robertson, Baron Robertson of Port Ellen, who becomes NATO secretary-general on October 14.
Pakistan: Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif is ousted in a military coup led by Gen. Pervez Musharraf, who on October 14 declares himself chief executive, retroactive to October 12. On October 25 a National Security Council (cabinet) is formed, with Abdus Sattar as foreign minister and Shaukat Aziz as finance minister.
Switzerland: Former Landammann of Sankt Gallen (1973-74, 1980-81, 1985-86) Willi Geiger dies.
Tanzania: Former president (1962-85) Julius Nyerere dies.
Botswana: In parliamentary elections, President Festus Mogae's Botswana Democratic Party wins 33 of 40 seats, the Botswana National Front 6, and the Botswana Congress Party 1. On October 21 a new cabinet is formed, with Baledzi Gaolathe as finance minister.
Niger: In the first round of presidential elections, Mamadou Tandja wins 32.3% of the vote and former prime minister Mahamadou Issoufou 22.8%; former president Mahamane Ousmane comes third with 22.5%. Turnout is 43.7%. A runoff will be held November 24.
United Kingdom: Ralph Francis Alnwick Grey, Baron Grey of Naunton, former governor of Northern Ireland (1968-73) and, as Sir Ralph Francis Alnwick Grey, governor of British Guiana (1958-64) and The Bahamas (1964-68), dies.
Australia: Steve Bracks (ALP) becomes premier of Victoria.
Indonesia: The People's Consultative Assembly elects Abdurrahman Wahid president, with 373 votes against 313 for Megawati Sukarnoputri, who is elected vice president the following day. On October 26 Wahid names his cabinet, including Alwi Shihab as foreign minister, Juwono Sudarsono as defense minister, Surjadi Sudirdja as interior minister, and Bambang Sudibyo as finance minister.
Ireland: Former prime minister (1966-73, 1977-79) John Lynch dies.
Australia: Former Tasmania premier (1958-69, 1972-75) Eric Elliot Reece dies.
Hungary: Former prime minister (1955-56) András Hegedüs dies.
United States: Mike Foster (Republican) is reelected governor of Louisiana, defeating William J. Jefferson (Democrat) 62%-29%.
Argentina: In presidential elections, Fernando de la Rúa of the Alliance (Radical Civic Union and Frepaso) wins 48.5% of the vote, followed by Eduardo Duhalde (Peronist) with 37.9% and Domingo Cavallo (Action for the Republic) with 10.2%. As a result of parliamentary elections, the Alliance will have 63 seats, the Peronists 52, and Action for the Republic 9. In gubernatorial elections, Vice President Carlos Ruckauf wins in Buenos Aires province with 48.3% of the vote, compared to 41.4% for Graciela Fernández Meijide; the Peronists also prevail in Jujuy and La Pampa, while the Alliance wins in Chubut, Entre Ríos, and Mendoza.
Ghana: Former foreign minister (1969, 1969) Patrick Dankwa Anin dies.
Mali: Former foreign minister (1964-68) Ousmane Ba dies.
Switzerland: In parliamentary elections, the Swiss People's Party wins 22.6% of the vote (44 of 200 seats), the Social Democrats 22.5% (51), the Free Democrats 19.9% (43), the Christian Democrats 15.8% (35), and the Greens 5% (9).
Tunisia: In presidential elections, incumbent Zine El Abidine Ben Ali is reelected with 99.4% of the vote. Turnout is 91.4%. In parliamentary elections, the ruling Constitutional Democratic Rally wins 91.6% of the votes (148 of 182 seats).
United States: Former Rhode Island governor (1963-69) John H. Chafee dies.
East Timor: The Security Council of the United Nations establishes the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET), which is to serve as the ruling authority until a constitutional government is set up. On the same day, Secretary-General Kofi Annan appoints Sérgio Vieira de Mello as administrator.
Guinea-Bissau: Former prime minister (1982-84) Victor Saúde Maria dies.
Uganda: Former prime minister (1986-91) Samson Kisekka dies.
Albania: Prime Minister Pandeli Majko resigns. On October 27 President Rexhep Meidani asks Ilir Meta to form the next government. He is sworn in October 29.
Azerbaijan: Foreign Minister Tofik Zulfugarov is dismissed. He is replaced by Vilayat Guliyev.
Estonia: Johannes Käbin, first secretary of the Communist Party (1950-78) and chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1978-83) of the Estonian S.S.R., dies.
Afghanistan: Mullah Wakil Ahmad Muttawakil is named foreign minister and Mullah Abdul Razzaq interior minister.
Armenia: Prime Minister Vazgen Sarkisyan is killed in a shooting in parliament. Among the other fatalities of the attack are Karen Demirchyan, speaker of the National Assembly and former first secretary of the Armenian Communist Party (1974-88), and Leonard Petrosyan, former prime minister of Nagorno-Karabakh (1994-98). On October 28 Interior Minister Suren Abramyan resigns.
Lithuania: Prime Minister Rolandas Paksas resigns. Irena Degutiene becomes acting prime minister. On October 29 Andrius Kubilius is designated for the post.
Singapore: Former governor (1954-57) Sir Robert Black (also governor of Hong Kong 1958-64) dies.
Georgia: In parliamentary elections, the ruling Citizens' Union wins 44.5% of the vote (129 of 235 seats), against 26.9% (59) for the main opposition bloc Union for Revival. Turnout is 67.9%.
Macedonia: In the first round of presidential elections, Tito Petkovski wins about 33% of the vote, Boris Trajkovski about 21%, Vasil Tupurkovski about 16%, and Stojan Andov about 11%. A runoff will be held November 14.
Ukraine: In the first round of presidential elections, incumbent Leonid Kuchma wins 36% of the vote, followed by Petro Symonenko with 22% and Oleksandr Moroz and Nataliya Vitrenko with 11% each. Turnout is 70%.
Uruguay: In the first round of presidential elections, Tabaré Vázquez of the Popular Front wins 39% of the vote, followed by Jorge Batlle of the Colorado Party with 31.7%, former president Luis Alberto Lacalle of the National Party with 21.5%, and Rafael Michelini of the New Forum with 4.3%. Vázquez and Batlle will go to a runoff election on November 28. In parliamentary elections, the Popular Front (38.5% of the vote) wins 40 out of 99 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 12 out of 30 seats in the Senate.