Germany: Chancellor Gerhard Schröder loses a vote of confidence (151 yes, 296 no, 148 abstentions).
Switzerland: Elsbeth Schneider-Kenel takes office as president of the government of Basel-Land, Lisbeth Gabriel as Landammann of Nidwalden, and Hans Matter as Landammann of Obwalden.
United States: Antonio Villaraigosa takes office as mayor of Los Angeles.
Albania: In parliamentary elections, the Democratic Party wins 56 of 140 seats, the Socialist Party 42, the Republican Party 11, the Social Democrat Party 7, and the Socialist Movement for Integration 5. The Democratic Party and its allies receive a total of 81 seats and the Socialist Party and its allies 59.
Jordan: Adel Qudah is named finance minister in a cabinet reshuffle.
Mauritius: In parliamentary elections, the Social Alliance wins 49% of the vote (42 of 70 seats) and Prime Minister Paul Bérenger's coalition of the Mauritian Militant Movement and the Militant Socialist Movement 43% (24); the Organization of the People of Rodrigues and the Rodrigues Movement win 2 seats each. Turnout is 81.5%. On July 5 Navin Ramgoolam is installed as prime minister. In his government, named on July 7, he is also defense and interior minister, while Madan Dulloo becomes foreign minister and Rama Sithanen finance minister.
Mexico: In gubernatorial elections in México, Enrique Peña Nieto of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) wins 49.2% of the vote, Rubén Mendoza of the National Action Party (PAN) 25.6%, and Yeidckol Polevnsky of the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) 25.1%. Turnout is 42.7%. In Nayarit, Ney González Sánchez (PRI) wins 47.8%, Miguel Ángel Navarro (PRD) 43.7%, and Manuel Pérez (PAN) 6.2%.
Sri Lanka: Reginald Cooray is sworn in as chief minister of Western province.
United States: Former Wisconsin governor (1959-63) Gaylord A. Nelson dies.
Burundi: In parliamentary elections, the National Council for the Defense of Democracy-Forces for the Defense of Democracy (CNDD-FDD) wins 58% of the vote (64 of 118 seats), President Domitien Ndayizeye's ruling Front for Democracy in Burundi (FRODEBU) 22% (30), and the Union for National Progress (UPRONA) 7% (15).
Georgia: In South Ossetia, President Eduard Kokoyty nominates Yury Morozov as prime minister; he is confirmed by the local parliament on July 5 (23-1).
Honduras: Mario Fortín is sworn in as new foreign minister.
Italy: The resignation of Carlo Perrin as president of Valle d'Aosta is accepted by the Regional Council, which elects Luciano Caveri as new president.
Venezuela: President Hugo Chávez names Adm. Orlando Maniglia as defense minister.
Comoros: In a cabinet reshuffle, Aboudou Soefou replaces Souef Mohamed El-Amine as foreign minister, Abdou Madi Mari replaces Houmed Msaidié as defense minister, and Oubeidi Mze Chei replaces Ahamadi Abdoulbastoi as finance minister.
Australia: Mark Vaile is sworn in as deputy prime minister, succeeding John Anderson.
Slovakia: Prime Minister Mikulás Dzurinda survives a no-confidence vote, which is supported by only 60 deputies in the 150-seat parliament.
Romania: Prime Minister Calin Popescu-Tariceanu announces the resignation of his cabinet. On July 19 he reverses his decision, saying he will not submit the resignation and instead seek a vote of confidence in parliament. He gets it on July 25 when a three-day deadline for parliament to file a no-confidence motion passes with no takers.
Colombia: Defense Minister Jorge Alberto Uribe resigns. Camilo Ospina is named to succeed him; he takes office July 19.
Philippines: Eight ministers, including Finance Secretary Cesar Purisima, resign. On July 12 Margarito Teves is named finance secretary.
Russia: President Vladimir Putin nominates incumbent Oleg Betin as head of administration of Tambov oblast. Betin is confirmed by the local Duma on July 13 (49-0).
The Sudan: John Garang is sworn in as first vice president and also as president of a newly-created Government of Southern Sudan. Ali Osman Mohamed Taha becomes second vice president. Garang dies in a helicopter crash on July 30.
Canada: Former Newfoundland premier (1972-79) Frank D. Moores dies.
Kyrgyzstan: In presidential elections, Acting President Kurmanbek Bakiyev wins 88.7% of the vote. On July 12 Bakiyev reappoints Feliks Kulov as acting first deputy prime minister.
Turks and Caicos Islands: Richard Tauwhare is sworn in as governor.
Croatia: Parliament approves Ivica Kirin as new interior minister.
India: Former chief minister of Kerala (1978-79) P.K. Vasudevan Nair dies.
Nigeria: In a cabinet reshuffle, Magaji Mohammed becomes internal affairs minister.
Belize: In a cabinet reshuffle, Vildo Marin takes up the defense portfolio.
Maldives: In a cabinet reshuffle, Ahmed Shaheed becomes foreign minister and Ahmed Thasmeen Ali home affairs minister.
French Polynesia: Anne Boquet is appointed high commissioner to replace Michel Mathieu. Mathieu leaves the territory on July 30; Jacques Michaut is acting until the arrival of Boquet in early September.
New Caledonia: Michel Mathieu is appointed high commissioner.
United States: San Diego mayor Dick Murphy leaves office, having announced his resignation on April 25. Deputy Mayor Michael Zucchet becomes acting mayor, but loses his position when he is convicted of corruption charges on July 18. Toni Atkins then becomes acting mayor. In special mayoral elections on July 26, Donna Frye (Dem.) wins 43.3% of the vote, Jerry Sanders (Rep.) 27%, and Steve Francis (Rep.) 23.5%. A runoff election will be held on November 8.
Réunion: Laurent Cayrel takes office as prefect.
United Kingdom: Former prime minister (1970-74) Sir Edward Heath dies.
Bulgaria: President Georgi Purvanov asks Socialist Party leader Sergey Stanishev to form a government. On July 24 a cabinet is proposed including Ivailo Kalfin as foreign minister, Angel Naidenov as defense minister, Plamen Oresharski as finance minister, and Rumen Petkov as interior minister. On July 27 the parliament approves Stanishev as prime minister (120-119) and he is sworn in. His proposed cabinet, however, is rejected (118-117). A new vote on the cabinet is set for July 28, but when this repetition is challenged as illegal, Stanishev returns his mandate to the president. Despite his swearing in, due to the failure of the cabinet vote Stanishev is deemed not to have become prime minister and the post continues to be held by Simeon Sakskoburggotski.
Lebanon: The new cabinet led by Prime Minister Fouad Siniora is announced. Elias Murr keeps the defense portfolio and Hassan Sabaa interior; Fawzi Salloukh is the new foreign minister and Jihad Azour the new finance minister. The government wins a vote of confidence in parliament on July 30 (92-14).
Suriname: In a parliamentary vote for president, no candidate wins the necessary two-thirds majority. Incumbent Ronald Venetiaan receives 27 votes and Rabin Parmessar 20; there are two abstentions. A second-round vote on July 21 is suspended due to concerns over Parmessar's citizenship, but Venetiaan's camp ultimately decides against forcing a vote on Parmessar's eligibility and the second round is held on July 26, with the result being the same as in the first round. The decision is now to be made by the United People's Assembly on August 3.
Portugal: Finance Minister Luís Campos e Cunha resigns. Fernando Teixeira dos Santos is named to replace him and takes office the following day.
African Development Bank: Donald Kaberuka, finance minister of Rwanda, is chosen to become president, beating Olabisi Ogunjobi of Nigeria in a runoff election. Kaberuka is to take office on September 1.
Jordan: Prime Minister Adnan Badran's cabinet receives a vote of confidence in parliament (66-37).
Russia: President Vladimir Putin nominates incumbent Anatoly Artamonov as governor of Kaluga oblast. Artamonov is confirmed by the local legislative assembly on July 26 (33-3).
Cayman Islands: Stuart Jack is appointed governor, to take office in November.
Indonesia: Timbul Pudjianto is sworn in as acting governor of Irian Jaya Barat.
Guinea-Bissau: In the presidential election runoff, João Bernardo Vieira wins 52.4% of the vote and Malam Bacai Sanhá 47.6%. Turnout is 78.6%.
Brazil: Former governor of Paraíba (1958-60, 1961-66) Pedro Moreno Gondim dies.
Australia: Bob Carr announces his resignation as premier of New South Wales, effective August 3.
Falkland Islands: Alan Huckle is appointed as governor. He is to take over in the spring of 2006.
Inter-American Development Bank: Luis Alberto Moreno of Colombia is elected president.
Switzerland: Former president of the Council of State of Fribourg (1973, 1979) Pierre Dreyer dies.
Burundi: In indirect Senate elections, the National Council for the Defense of Democracy-Forces for the Defense of Democracy (CNDD-FDD) wins 32 of 49 seats, the Front for Democracy in Burundi (FRODEBU) 7, the Union for National Progress (UPRONA) 3, the National Council for the Defense of Democracy (CNDD) 3, ethnic Twa members 3, and the Party for National Recovery (PARENA) 1.
Finland: Former governor of Kymi (1984-93) Matti Jaatinen dies.
Mexico: Andrés Manuel López Obrador resigns as chief of government of the Distrito Federal to launch a presidential campaign. Alejandro Encinas Rodríguez replaces him.
Spain: Emilio Pérez Touriño is elected president of the Xunta of Galicia.
European Union: Former president of the European Central Bank (1998-2003) Wim Duisenberg dies.
Malawi: Anna Kachikho becomes home affairs minister in a cabinet reshuffle.