Japan: Former prime minister (1996-98) Ryutaro Hashimoto dies.
Kuwait: The cabinet of Prime Minister Sheikh Nasser Muhammad Al Ahmad Al Sabah resigns. He is asked to form a new cabinet on July 2. It is named on July 10, with no change in the key portfolios.
Switzerland: Urs Wüthrich-Pelloli becomes president of the government of Basel-Land, Beatrice Jann Landammann of Nidwalden, Hans Wallimann Landammann of Obwalden, and Alois Christen Landammann of Schwyz.
Japan: Yukiko Kada is elected governor of Shiga. She takes office July 20.
Mexico: In presidential elections, Felipe Calderón of the National Action Party (PAN) wins 35.9% of the vote, Andrés Manuel López Obrador of the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) 35.3%, and Roberto Madrazo of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) 22.3%. Turnout is 58.6%. In parliamentary elections, the PAN wins 41.2% of the votes (206 of 500 seats), the PRD 25.4% (127), and the PRI 20.6% (103). In the Distrito Federal, Marcelo Luis Ebrard Casaubón (PRD) is elected chief of government with 47.1% of the votes against 27.6% for Demetrio Sodi (PAN) and 21.9% for Beatriz Paredes Rangel (PRI). Juan Manuel Oliva Ramírez (PAN) is elected governor of Guanajuato, Emilio González Márquez (PAN) governor of Jalisco, and Marco Antonio Adame Castillo (PAN) governor of Morelos.
Honduras: Rebeca Santos is sworn in as finance minister.
Portugal: Luís Amado is sworn in as foreign minister and Nuno Severiano Teixeira as defense minister.
South Korea: President Roh Moo Hyun names Kwon O Kyu as finance minister.
Lithuania: Parliament approves Gediminas Kirkilas as prime minister (85-13 with 5 abstentions). On July 11 Kirkilas presents his cabinet, including Petras Vaitiekunas as foreign minister, Juozas Olekas as defense minister, and Raimondas Sukys as interior minister, Zigmantas Balcytis continuing as finance minister. Following parliamentary approval the cabinet is sworn in on July 18.
Norway: Former prime minister (1972-73) Lars Korvald dies.
Slovakia: Robert Fico takes office as prime minister with a government including Ján Kubis as foreign minister, Frantisek Kasický as defense minister, Robert Kalinák as interior minister, and Ján Pociatek as finance minister.
Macedonia: In parliamentary elections, the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity (VMRO-DPMNE) wins 32.5% of the vote (44 of 120 seats), Prime Minister Vlado Buckovski's Social Democratic Alliance of Macedonia 23.3% (32), the Democratic Union for Integration 12.2% (18), and the Democratic Party of Albanians 7.5% (11). Turnout is about 56%. On July 28 President Branko Crvenkovski asks Nikola Gruevski to form a government.
Papua New Guinea: A cabinet reshuffle is announced. Martin Aini is to be sworn in as defense minister on July 7, and Prime Minister Sir Michael Somare is to take over the foreign affairs portfolio from Sir Rabbie Namaliu who becomes treasurer (this change is effected on July 12).
Brazil: Former governor of Mato Grosso (1995-2002) Dante Martins de Oliveira dies.
Russia: Former head of the administration of Kaliningrad oblast (1991-96) Yury Matochkin dies.
Albania: Former acting president (1992) Pjetër Arbnori dies.
Ecuador: Armando Rodas is sworn in as economy and finance minister.
Lebanon: Former president (1989-98) Elias Hrawi dies.
Monaco: Henri Fissore is named foreign minister, effective August 1.
The Netherlands: Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende forms a new cabinet without the D66 party; key portfolios are unchanged.
Poland: The resignation of Prime Minister Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz is announced. He is to be replaced by Jaroslaw Kaczynski. Kaczynski is officially appointed by his brother, President Lech Kaczynski, on July 10 and is sworn in on July 14; Stanislaw Kluza becomes finance minister.
Timor-Leste: President Xanana Gusmão names José Ramos-Horta as prime minister. He is sworn in on July 10. On July 14 he unveils his cabinet, including José Luís Guterres as foreign minister; Ramos-Horta retains the defense portfolio.
United States: Maria Cino becomes acting transportation secretary.
Anguilla: Andrew George is sworn in as governor.
India: Mukut Mithi is appointed to succeed M.M. Lakhera as lieutenant governor of Pondicherry (sworn in on July 19). Lakhera is appointed governor of Mizoram (sworn in on July 25); he continues to hold additional charge as lieutenant governor of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Lebanon: Former foreign minister (1952, 1958, 1960-64, 1964-65, 1966, 1974-75, 1975-76) Philippe Takla dies.
Russia: The vice president of separatist Chechnya, Shamil Basayev, is killed in a truck explosion.
Saint Kitts and Nevis: In elections on Nevis, the Nevis Reformation Party wins 3 of 5 seats and the ruling Concerned Citizens Movement 2. On July 11 Joseph Parry is sworn in as premier.
United States: Henry M. Paulson, Jr., is sworn in as treasury secretary.
Colombia: Juan Manuel Santos is appointed defense minister, effective July 19. On July 12 María Consuelo Araújo is appointed foreign minister.
Ecuador: President Alfredo Palacio appoints Antonio Andretta as interior minister.
Canada: Barbara Hagerman is appointed as lieutenant governor of Prince Edward Island. She is sworn in on July 31.
Uzbekistan: President Islam Karimov appoints Vladimir Norov as foreign minister.
Chile: Belisario Velasco replaces Andrés Zaldívar as interior minister.
Venezuela: Gen. Rául Baduel is sworn in as defense minister.
Gibraltar: Governor Sir Francis Richards departs. Deputy Governor Philip Barton becomes acting governor.
China: Lin Shusen is appointed acting governor of Guizhou.
French Guiana: Jean-Pierre Laflaquière is appointed to replace Ange Mancini as prefect.
Norway: Former governor of Nordland (1983-91) Odd With dies.
Réunion: Pierre-Henry Maccioni is appointed to replace Laurent Cayrel as prefect.
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon: Yves Fauqueur is appointed to replace Albert Dupuy as prefect.
Wallis and Futuna: Richard Didier is appointed to replace Xavier de Furst as administrator-superior.
Indonesia: In gubernatorial elections in Sulawesi Barat, Anwar Adnan Saleh wins 45% of the vote, Salim Mengga 34%, and Hasyim Manggabarani 20%.
Russia: President Vladimir Putin dismisses the suspended head of administration of Nenets autonomous okrug, Aleksey Barinov, and nominates acting head of administration Valery Potapenko to replace him.
Dominican Republic: Former chairman of the Triumvirate (1963-65) and foreign minister (1963-64, 1964-65, 1986-88) Donald Reid Cabral dies.
Russia: Former head of administration of Krasnoyarsk kray (1992-93) Arkady Veprev dies.
Indonesia: Abraham O. Atururi is installed as governor of Irian Jaya Barat.
Guatemala: Foreign Minister Jorge Briz Abularach resigns. On July 31 Gert Rosenthal is named foreign minister.
Indonesia: Barnabas Suebu is installed as governor of Papua.
Guernsey: Former lieutenant governor (1969-74) Sir Charles Mills dies.
Pakistan: Raja Zulqarnain Khan (Muslim Conference) is elected president of Azad Kashmir with 40 votes, against 8 for Sardar Qamar Zaman (Pakistan People's Party).
San Marino: A new government is sworn in with Fiorenzo Stolfi as foreign minister, Stefano Macina as finance minister, and Valeria Ciavatta as interior minister.
Peru: Alan García is sworn in as president. Luis Giampietri becomes vice president, Jorge del Castillo prime minister, José Antonio García Belaúnde foreign minister, Allan Wagner Tizón defense minister, Luis Carranza finance minister, and Pilar Mazzetti interior minister.
Congo (Kinshasa): In presidential elections, incumbent Joseph Kabila wins 44.8% of the vote, Jean-Pierre Bemba 20%, Antoine Gizenga 13.1%, Mobutu Nzanga 4.8%, and Oscar Kashala 3.5%. Turnout is 70.5%. A runoff is to be held on October 29. In the parliamentary elections, the People's Party for Reconstruction and Democracy wins 111 of 500 seats, the Movement for the Liberation of Congo 64, the Unified Lumumbist Party 34, the Social Movement for Renewal 27, the Forces of Renewal 26, the Congolese Rally for Democracy 15, the Coalition of Congolese Democrats 10, and the Convention of Christian Democrats 10, the remaining seats going to minor parties and independents.
São Tomé and Príncipe: In presidential elections, incumbent Fradique de Menezes wins 60% of the vote and former foreign minister Patrice Trovoada 38.5%. Turnout is 66%.
Seychelles: In presidential elections held July 28-30, incumbent James Michel (Seychelles People's Progressive Front) wins 53.7% of the vote and Wavel Ramkalawan (Seychelles National Party) 45.7%. Turnout is about 86%.
Somalia: Prime Minister Ali Muhammad Ghedi's government survives a no-confidence motion in parliament (126-88; 139 were necessary to adopt the motion).