Croatia: Prime Minister Ivo Sanader resigns. On July 3 President Stipe Mesic names Jadranka Kosor as prime minister-designate. On July 6 the parliament endorses (83-45) Kosor and her cabinet (with no change in key portfolios) and she is sworn in.
Panama: Ricardo Martinelli takes office as president. Juan Carlos Varela becomes vice president and foreign minister, José Raúl Mulino interior minister, and Alberto Vallarino finance minister.
Switzerland: Urs Wüthrich-Pelloli becomes president of the government of Basel-Land, Beat Fuchs Landammann of Nidwalden, and Hans Matter Landammann of Obwalden.
United States: Dan Sullivan takes office as mayor of Anchorage.
United States: Sarah Palin announces she will resign as governor of Alaska on July 26. Lieutenant Governor Sean Parnell succeeds her on that date.
Switzerland: Former president of the government of Thurgau (1979-80, 1983-84, 1987-88, 1991-92) Hanspeter Fischer dies.
Bulgaria: In parliamentary elections, Citizens for the European Development of Bulgaria wins 39.7% of the vote (116 of 240 seats), the Bulgarian Socialist Party 17.7% (40), the Movement for Rights and Freedoms 14.4% (38), Ataka 9.4% (21), the Blue Coalition 6.8% (15), and Order, Law, Justice 4.1% (10). Turnout is 60.2%. On July 16 President Georgi Purvanov asks Boiko Borisov to form a government. On July 23 Borisov announces the composition of his cabinet, including Rumiana Jeleva as foreign minister, Nikolay Mladenov as defense minister, Tsvetan Tsvetanov as interior minister, and Simeon Djankov as finance minister. The new government is sworn in on July 27.
Japan: In gubernatorial elections in Shizuoka, Heita Kawakatsu (backed by the Democratic Party of Japan, the Social Democratic Party, and the People's New Party), with 39.6% of the vote, defeats Yukiko Sakamoto (supported by the Liberal-Democratic Party and New Komeito), with 38.8%, and Toru Unno (independent), with 18.1%. Turnout is 61.1%.
Mexico: In parliamentary elections, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) wins 36.7% of the vote (241 of 500 seats), the National Action Party (PAN) 28% (147), the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) 12.2% (72), and the Ecologist Green Party of Mexico 6.7% (17). Results of gubernatorial elections:
Sri Lanka: Janaka Priyantha Bandara is sworn in as governor of Sabaragamuwa.
- Campeche: Fernando Ortega Bernés (PRI) defeats Mario Ávila (PAN), about 51%-45%.
- Colima: Mario Anguiano (PRI) defeats Martha Leticia Sosa Govea (PAN), about 50%-45%.
- Nuevo León: Rodrigo Medina (PRI) defeats Fernando Elizondo (PAN), about 49%-44%.
- Querétaro: José Calzada (PRI) defeats Manuel González (PAN), about 49%-43%.
- San Luis Potosí: Fernando Toranzo (PRI) defeats Alejandro Zapata (PAN), about 46%-43%.
- Sonora: Guillermo Padrés Elías (PAN) defeats Alfonso Elías Serrano (PRI), about 49%-45%.
Bosnia and Herzegovina: Zeljko Komsic becomes chairman of the presidency.
United States: Former defense secretary (1961-68) Robert S. McNamara dies.
Argentina: In a cabinet reshuffle, Aníbal Fernández is appointed as cabinet chief and Amado Boudou as economy minister. They take office on July 8.
Lithuania: Ingrida Simonyte is sworn in as finance minister.
Solomon Islands: Frank Kabui is sworn in as governor-general.
Zambia: Defense Minister George Mpombo resigns. On July 9 Home Affairs Minister Kalombo Mwansa is appointed defense minister and Lameck Mangani home affairs minister.
Honduras: Foreign Minister Enrique Ortez Colindres is named to become interior minister. He is sworn in on July 13, along with Carlos López Contreras as new foreign minister. On July 14, however, Ortez resigns. On July 15 Óscar Raúl Matute becomes interior minister.
Indonesia: In presidential elections, incumbent Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (Democratic Party coalition) wins 60.8% of the vote, former president Megawati Sukarnoputri (Indonesian Democratic Party-Struggle and Great Indonesia Movement Party coalition) 26.8%, and Vice President Jusuf Kalla (Golkar and People's Conscience Party coalition) 12.4%.
Guatemala: Raúl Velásquez is sworn in as interior minister, replacing Salvador Gándara.
Jersey: Michael Birt is sworn in as bailiff.
Macedonia: Parliament approves Zoran Stavreski as finance minister.
Peru: President Alan García names Javier Velásquez as prime minister. Rafael Rey becomes defense minister and Octavio Salazar interior minister.
Congo (Brazzaville): In presidential elections, incumbent Denis Sassou-Nguesso wins 78.6% of the vote, Joseph Kignoumbi Kia Mboungou 7.5%, and Nicéphore Fylla de Saint-Eudes 7%. Turnout is 66.4%.
Lithuania: Dalia Grybauskaite takes office as president.
India: J.K. Dadoo takes office as administrator of Lakshadweep.
Italy: Former president of Sicilia (1947-49, 1955-56) Giuseppe Alessi dies.
Lebanon: Former prime minister (1973) Amin Hafez dies.
Japan: A motion of no confidence against Prime Minister Taro Aso's cabinet is defeated 333-139.
Nigeria: In a cabinet reshuffle, Defense Minister Shettima Mustapha and Interior Minister Godwin Abbe exchange their portfolios.
Gabon: Jean Eyeghe Ndong resigns as prime minister. On July 17 Interim President Rose Francine Rogombé names Paul Biyoghé Mba to replace him. His new government, announced on July 22, is unchanged in the key posts.
Belgium: In a cabinet reshuffle, Yves Leterme becomes foreign minister and Annemie Turtelboom interior minister.
Libya: Former prime minister (1969-70) Mahmud Sulayman al-Maghribi dies.
India: Iqbal Singh is appointed as lieutenant governor of Puducherry (sworn in July 27), Jagannath Pahadia as governor of Haryana (sworn in July 27), B.L. Joshi as governor of Uttar Pradesh (sworn in July 28), Devendra Nath Dwivedi as governor of Gujarat, Syed Sibtey Razi as governor of Assam (sworn in July 27), K. Sankaranarayanan as governor of Jharkhand (sworn in July 26), and Margaret Alva as governor of Uttarakhand. On July 22 Gurbachan Jagat, the governor of Manipur, is given additional charge of Nagaland (sworn in July 28). Due to Dwivedi's illness the governor of Maharashtra, S.C. Jamir, is given additional charge of Gujarat on July 30 (sworn in same day).
Mauritania: In presidential elections, Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz wins 52.5% of the vote, Messaoud Ould Boulkheir 16.7%, and Ahmed Ould Daddah 13.5%. Turnout is 65.1%.
Russia: President Dmitry Medvedev nominates incumbent Aleksandr Karlin as governor of Altay kray. He is confirmed by the local assembly on July 29.
Brazil: Former governor of Amazonas (1959-63, 1983-87, 1991-95) Gilberto Mestrinho de Medeiros Raposo dies.
Mayotte: Hubert Derache is named prefect.
Germany: The minister-president of Schleswig-Holstein, Peter Harry Carstensen, loses a vote of confidence (1 yes, 37 no, 28 abstentions).
Kyrgyzstan: In presidential elections, incumbent Kurmanbek Bakiyev wins 76.1% of the vote, Almaz Atambayev 8.4%, and Temir Sariyev 6.7%. Turnout is 79.1%.
Luxembourg: The new government is sworn in (taking office July 24), with Interior Minister Jean-Marie Halsdorf additionally taking the defense portfolio and Luc Frieden becoming finance minister.
Fiji: Ratu Inoke Kubuabola is named foreign minister.
Iraq: Massoud Barzani is reelected president of the Kurdistan autonomous region with 69.6% of the vote. In the parliamentary elections, the Democratic Patriotic Alliance of Kurdistan wins 57.3% of the vote (59 of 111 seats), the Change List 23.8% (25), and the Service and Reform List 12.8% (13).
China: Chui Sai On is elected chief executive of Macau by 282 of 296 votes. He is to be sworn in on December 20.
Guinea-Bissau: In the presidential runoff, Malam Bacai Sanhá wins 63.3% of the vote and Kumba Ialá 36.7%. Turnout is 61%.
Cook Islands: Prime Minister Jim Marurai fires Foreign Minister Wilkie Rasmussen, taking up the portfolio himself. In a reshuffle on July 30 Sir Terepai Maoate is given the portfolio.
Fiji: It is announced that President Ratu Josefa Iloilo will retire on July 30 (when he goes on leave following which he will officially vacate the post). Vice President Ratu Epeli Nailatikau becomes acting president.
India: The chief minister of Jammu and Kashmir, Omar Abdullah, submits his resignation, but on July 29 Governor Narinder Nath Vohra rejects it.
Moldova: In parliamentary elections, the Party of Communists wins 44.8% of the vote (48 of 101 seats), the Liberal Democratic Party 16.5% (18), the Liberal Party 14.6% (15), the Democratic Party 12.5% (13), and the Our Moldova alliance 7.4% (7). Turnout is 58.6%.