Germany: The Landtag of Niedersachsen elects David McAllister as minister-president.
Switzerland: Jörg Krähenbühl becomes president of the government of Basel-Land, Gerhard Odermatt Landammann of Nidwalden, Hans Wallimann Landammann of Obwalden, and Armin Hüppin Landammann of Schwyz.
Argentina: Former governor of Santiago del Estero (1949-52, 1973-76, 1983-87, 1995-98, 1999-2001) Carlos Juárez dies.
Western Sahara: Former prime minister of the Saharan Arab Democratic Republic (1982-85, 1988-93, 1995-99) Mahfoud Ali Beiba dies.
Kyrgyzstan: President Roza Otunbayeva is sworn in under a new constitution, which, along with her position as president for a transitional period until the end of 2011, was approved by more than 90% of voters in a June 27 referendum. She will also head the government until a new cabinet is appointed after parliamentary elections in October.
Somalia: In a cabinet reshuffle, Yusuf Hassan Ibrahim becomes foreign minister, Abukar Abdi Osman Mardadi defense minister, and Hussein Abdi Halane finance minister.
Mexico: Results of gubernatorial elections (PAN=National Action Party, PC=Convergence Party, PRD=Party of the Democratic Revolution, PRI=Institutional Revolutionary Party):
Poland: In the presidential runoff, Bronislaw Komorowski wins 53% of the vote and Jaroslaw Kaczynski 47%. Turnout is 55.3%. On July 8 Komorowski vacates the post of Sejm marshal, by virtue of which he was acting president, and the Senate marshal Bogdan Borusewicz becomes acting president until, later in the day, Grzegorz Schetyna is elected as new Sejm marshal.
- Aguascalientes: Carlos Lozano (PRI) wins 49.1% of the vote, Martín Orozco (PAN) 43.7%.
- Chihuahua: César Duarte (PRI) wins 57.4%, Carlos Borruel (PAN) 40.5%.
- Durango: Jorge Herrera (PRI) defeats José Rosas (PAN), about 48%-46%.
- Hidalgo: Francisco Olvera (PRI) wins 52.5%, Xóchitl Gálvez (PAN) 47.2%.
- Oaxaca: Gabino Cué (PC) wins 51.8%, Eviel Pérez (PRI) 43.3%.
- Puebla: Rafael Moreno (PAN) defeats Javier López (PRI), about 52%-42%.
- Quintana Roo: Roberto Borge (PRI) wins 55.7%, Gerardo Mora (PRD) 27.9%, and Alicia Ricalde (PAN) 16.4%.
- Sinaloa: Mario López (PAN) defeats Jesús Vizcarra (PRI), about 53%-47%.
- Tamaulipas: Egidio Torre (PRI) wins 63.1%, José Julián Sacramento (PAN) 31.6%.
- Tlaxcala: Mariano González Zarur (PRI) wins 48.1%, Adriana Dávila (PAN) 40%.
- Veracruz: Javier Duarte de Ochoa (PRI) wins 44.4%, Miguel Ángel Yunes (PAN) 41.8%, and Dante Delgado (PC) 13.7%.
- Zacatecas: Miguel Alonso (PRI) wins 44.4%, Antonio Mejía (PRD) 23.9%, Cuauhtémoc Calderón (PAN) 17.4%, and David Monreal (Labour Party) 14.3%.
United States: Former commerce secretary (1977-79) Juanita M. Kreps dies.
Benin: Interior Minister Armand Zinzindohoué is dismissed and Candide Azanaď is appointed as interim interior minister. On July 19 Martial Sounton is appointed interior minister.
Kyrgyzstan: Kubatbek Baybolov is appointed interior minister.
Maldives: President Mohamed Nasheed reappoints the members of the cabinet who resigned on June 29.
Canada: David Johnston is named as the next governor-general, to take office on October 1.
Slovakia: Iveta Radicová is appointed prime minister. On July 9 her cabinet is appointed, including Mikulás Dzurinda as foreign minister, Lubomír Galko as defense minister, Daniel Lipsic as interior minister, and Ivan Miklos as finance minister.
Philippines: Jesse Robredo is appointed interior secretary.
Japan: In gubernatorial elections in Shiga, incumbent Yukiko Kada (backed by the Democratic Party of Japan and the Social Democratic Party) wins 63.2% of the vote and Kenichiro Ueno (Liberal-Democratic Party) 31.4%. Turnout is 61.6%.
Congo (Kinshasa): Marcellin Cishambo takes office as governor of Sud-Kivu.
Czech Republic: The government of Prime Minister Petr Necas is sworn in (see June 25).
Germany: The Landtag of Nordrhein-Westfalen elects Hannelore Kraft as minister-president (with a relative majority of 90 of 181 votes).
Kyrgyzstan: Finance Minister Temir Sariyev resigns. Chorobek Imashev becomes finance minister.
Mexico: In a cabinet reshuffle, Francisco Blake Mora is named interior minister.
Mexico: Former governor of Hidalgo (1975-76, 1978-81) Jorge Rojo Lugo dies.
Saint Helena: Former administrator of Ascension (1980-82) and Tristan da Cunha (1989-92) Bernard Pauncefort dies.
Russia: President Dmitry Medvedev accepts the resignation of the president of Bashkortostan, Murtaza Rakhimov, and appoints Rustem Khamitov as acting president. On July 17 Medvedev nominates Khamitov as president of Bashkortostan and another acting incumbent, Andrey Nelidov, as head of the republic of Karelia. On July 19 Khamitov is confirmed by the local State Assembly (105-0) and sworn in (also becoming acting prime minister on July 21), and on July 21 Nelidov is confirmed by the local Assembly (41-4) and sworn in.
Russia: Former head of the administration of Kaluga oblast (1991-96) Aleksandr Deryagin dies.
Germany: The first mayor of Hamburg, Ole von Beust, announces his resignation effective August 25.
Suriname: Dési Bouterse is elected president, winning 36 of 50 votes in parliament, against 13 for Chandrikapersad Santokhi.
Iceland: Former foreign minister (1978-80) and prime minister (1979-80) Benedikt Gröndal dies.
Kyrgyzstan: Defense Minister Ismail Isakov resigns. Abibilla Kudayberdiyev is appointed as new minister on July 21.
United States: Mufi Hannemann resigns as mayor of Honolulu to run for governor of Hawaii. Kirk Caldwell becomes acting mayor.
The Gambia: In a cabinet reshuffle, Abdou Kolley becomes finance minister.
Nepal: Parliament fails to elect a prime minister. Pushpa Kamal Dahal wins 242 votes, with 114 against and 236 abstentions, thus falling short of the 300 votes needed. In another vote, Ram Chandra Poudel receives 124 votes in favour and 235 against, with 228 abstentions. On July 23 the same candidates fail again, Dahal receiving 241 votes and Poudel 123.
Russia: President Dmitry Medvedev nominates Mikhail Ignatyev as president of Chuvashia. He is confirmed by the local State Council (37-5) on July 28.
Papua New Guinea: Peter O'Neill is appointed finance minister.
United States: Former Nevada governor (1999-2007) Kenny Guinn dies.
Burundi: In parliamentary elections, the National Council for the Defense of Democracy-Forces for the Defense of Democracy wins 81 of 106 seats and the Union for National Progress 17. Turnout is about 67%.
The Netherlands: Former queen's commissioner of Groningen (1980-96) Henk Vonhoff dies.
Peru: Former foreign minister (1991) Raúl Sánchez Sotomayor dies.
China: Former governor of Macau (1981-86) Vasco Almeida e Costa dies.
Somalia: Ahmed Mohamed Silanyo is sworn in as president of Somaliland. On July 28 he names his cabinet, including Mohamed Abdullahi Omar as foreign minister, Haji Adam Adami as defense minister, Mohamed Abdi Gabose as interior minister, and Mohamed Hashi Elmi as finance minister.
Bolivia: Former foreign minister (1989) Valentín Abecia Baldivieso dies.
South Korea: Prime Minister Chung Un Chan announces his resignation.
Pakistan: Sardar Attique Ahmed Khan is elected as prime minister of Azad Kashmir.
Uzbekistan: Former chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Uzbek S.S.R. (1970-78) Nazar Matchanov dies.