Rulers: German Democratic Republic

Ministries, political parties, etc.


Key ministries


Foreign Affairs

Ministers
11 Oct 1949 - 23 Jan 1953  Georg Dertinger              CDU   (b. 1902 - d. 1968)
23 Jan 1953 -  1 Oct 1953  Anton Ackermann (acting)     SED   (b. 1905 - d. 1973)
 1 Oct 1953 - 24 Jun 1965  Lothar Bolz                  NDPD  (b. 1903 - d. 1986)
24 Jun 1965 - 20 Jan 1975  Otto Winzer                  SED   (b. 1902 - d. 1975)
20 Jan 1975 - 12 Apr 1990  Oskar Fischer                SED   (b. 1923)
12 Apr 1990 - 20 Aug 1990  Markus Meckel                SPD   (b. 1952)
20 Aug 1990 -  2 Oct 1990  Lothar de Maizière           CDU   (b. 1940)

Defense

Ministers
18 Jan 1956 - 14 Jul 1960  Willi Stoph                  SED   (b. 1914 - d. 1999)
14 Jul 1960 -  2 Dec 1985  Heinz Hoffmann               SED   (b. 1910 - d. 1985)
 3 Dec 1985 - 18 Nov 1989  Heinz Kessler                SED   (b. 1920)
18 Nov 1989 - 12 Apr 1990  Theodor Hoffmann             SED   (b. 1935)
12 Apr 1990 -  2 Oct 1990  Rainer Eppelmann             DA;
                                            5 Aug 1990: CDU   (b. 1943)

Finance

Ministers
11 Oct 1949 - 25 Nov 1955  Hans Loch                    LDPD  (b. 1898 - d. 1960)
25 Nov 1955 - 12 Dec 1966  Willy Rumpf                  SED   (b. 1903 - d. 1982)
12 Dec 1966 -  5 May 1980  Siegfried Böhm               SED   (b. 1928 - d. 1980)
 4 Jun 1980 - 26 Jun 1981  Werner Schmieder             SED   (b. 1926)
26 Jun 1981 - 18 Nov 1989  Ernst Höfner                 SED   (b. 1929 - d. 2009)
18 Nov 1989 - 12 Apr 1990  Uta Nickel (f)               SED   (b. 1941)
12 Apr 1990 - 15 Aug 1990  Walter Romberg               SPD   (b. 1928)
15 Aug 1990 -  2 Oct 1990  Werner Skowron               CDU   (b. 1943)

Interior

Ministers
11 Oct 1949 -  9 May 1952  Karl Steinhoff               SED   (b. 1892 - d. 1981)
 9 May 1952 -  1 Jul 1955  Willi Stoph                  SED   (b. 1914 - d. 1999)
 1 Jul 1955 - 14 Nov 1963  Karl Maron                   SED   (b. 1903 - d. 1975)
14 Nov 1963 - 18 Nov 1989  Friedrich Dickel             SED   (b. 1913 - d. 1993)
18 Nov 1989 - 12 Apr 1990  Lothar Ahrendt               SED   (b. 1936)
12 Apr 1990 -  2 Oct 1990  Peter-Michael Diestel        DSU
                          (to 30 Jun 1990); 3 Aug 1990: CDU   (b. 1952)

State Security

 8 Feb 1950                Ministry for State Security established
24 Jul 1953 - 24 Nov 1955  State Secretariat for State Security (under the Ministry
                           of Interior)
18 Nov 1989                Office for National Security
11 Jan 1990                abolished

Ministers
 8 Feb 1950 - 24 Jul 1953  Wilhelm Zaisser              SED   (b. 1893 - d. 1958)
24 Jul 1953 -  1 Nov 1957  Ernst Wollweber              SED   (b. 1898 - d. 1967)
                           (state secretary to 24 Nov 1955)
 1 Nov 1957 - 18 Nov 1989  Erich Mielke                 SED   (b. 1907 - d. 2000)
18 Nov 1989 - 11 Jan 1990  Wolfgang Schwanitz           SED   (b. 1930)
                           (director)

Parliament


Volkskammer

Presidents
 7 Oct 1949 - 22 Feb 1969  Johannes Dieckmann           LDPD  (b. 1893 - d. 1969)
12 May 1969 - 29 Oct 1976  Gerald Götting               CDU   (b. 1923)
29 Oct 1976 - 13 Nov 1989  Horst Sindermann             SED   (b. 1915 - d. 1990)
13 Nov 1989 -  5 Apr 1990  Günther Maleuda              DBD   (b. 1931 - d. 2012)
 5 Apr 1990 -  2 Oct 1990  Sabine Bergmann-Pohl (f)     CDU   (b. 1946)

Länderkammer

11 Dec 1958                abolished

Presidents
11 Oct 1949 -  5 Mar 1955  Reinhold Lobedanz            CDU   (b. 1880 - d. 1955)
   May 1955 - 11 Dec 1958  August Bach                  CDU   (b. 1897 - d. 1966)

Political parties


National Front

Note: The National Front of Democratic Germany (from 1971, National Front of the German Democratic Republic) (NF) was formed by the parties SED, CDU, LDPD, DBD, NDPD, and the mass organizations Free German Trade Union Federation (FDGB), Free German Youth (FDJ), Democratic Women's Association (DFD), Culture Association (KB), Union of Mutual Peasants' Help (VdgB), Society for German-Soviet Friendship (DSF), Committee of the Anti-Fascist Resistance Fighters (KAW), People's Solidarity (VS), Young Pioneers (JP), and the Writers' Association of the GDR.
Presidents of the National Council of the National Front
   Aug 1950 - 18 May 1981  Erich Correns                      (b. 1896 - d. 1981)
30 Oct 1981 -    Dec 1989  Lothar Kolditz                     (b. 1929)

Socialist Unity Party

22 Apr 1946                Social Democratic Party (SPD) and Communist Party (KPD)
                           in the Soviet occupation zone united as Socialist Unity
                           Party of Germany (SED)
15 Dec 1989                renamed Socialist Unity Party of Germany-Party of
                           Democratic Socialism (SED-PDS)
 4 Feb 1990                renamed Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS)

Co-chairmen
22 Apr 1946 - 25 Jul 1950  Wilhelm Pieck                      (b. 1876 - d. 1960)
                           + Otto Grotewohl                   (b. 1894 - d. 1964)
General secretaries (28 Jul 1953 - 22 May 1976, first secretaries)
25 Jul 1950 -  3 May 1971  Walter Ulbricht                    (b. 1893 - d. 1973)
 3 May 1971 - 18 Oct 1989  Erich Honecker                     (b. 1912 - d. 1994)
18 Oct 1989 -  3 Dec 1989  Egon Krenz                         (b. 1937)
Chairman
 9 Dec 1989 -  4 Feb 1990  Gregor Gysi                        (b. 1948)

Christian Democratic Union

       1945                Christian Democratic Union (CDU) established
 1 Oct 1990                merged into West German Christian Democratic Union

Chairmen
       1945                Andreas Hermes                     (b. 1878 - d. 1964)
 4 Jan 1946 -    Dec 1947  Jakob Kaiser                       (b. 1888 - d. 1961)
   Sep 1948 - 27 Dec 1957  Otto Nuschke                       (b. 1883 - d. 1957)
   Dec 1957 - 23 Mar 1966  August Bach (acting to Oct 1958)   (b. 1897 - d. 1966)
   May 1966 -  2 Nov 1989  Gerald Götting                     (b. 1923)
 2 Nov 1989 - 10 Nov 1989  Wolfgang Heyl (acting)             (b. 1921)
10 Nov 1989 -  1 Oct 1990  Lothar de Maizière                 (b. 1940)

Liberal Democratic Party

       1945                Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) established
   Oct 1951                renamed Liberal Democratic Party of Germany (LDPD)
 9 Feb 1990                renamed Liberal Democratic Party (LDP)
11 Aug 1990                merged into West German Free Democratic Party

Chairmen
   Jul 1945 -    Nov 1945  Waldemar Koch                      (b. 1880 - d. 1963)
   Nov 1945 - 10 Apr 1948  Wilhelm Külz                       (b. 1875 - d. 1948)
       1948                Arthur Lieutenant (acting)         (b. 1884 - d. 1968)
       1948 - 11 Dec 1952  Karl Hamann (acting to Feb 1949)   (b. 1903 - d. 1973)
       1949 -        1950  Hermann Kastner (co-chairman)      (b. 1886 - d. 1957)
11 Dec 1952 -    Jul 1960  Hans Loch                          (b. 1898 - d. 1960)
   Jul 1960 -    Nov 1967  Max Suhrbier                       (b. 1902 - d. 1971)
   Nov 1967 -  9 Feb 1990  Manfred Gerlach                    (b. 1928 - d. 2011)
 9 Feb 1990 - 11 Aug 1990  Rainer Ortleb                      (b. 1944)

Democratic Peasants' Party

   Jun 1948                Democratic Peasants' Party of Germany (DBD) established
15 Sep 1990                merged into West German Christian Democratic Union

Chairmen
   Jun 1948 -    May 1982  Ernst Goldenbaum                   (b. 1898 - d. 1990)
   May 1982 - 27 Mar 1987  Ernst Mecklenburg                  (b. 1927)
27 Mar 1987 - 30 Jun 1990  Günther Maleuda                    (b. 1931 - d. 2012)
30 Jun 1990 - 15 Sep 1990  Ulrich Junghanns (acting)          (b. 1956)

National Democratic Party

   Dec 1948                National Democratic Party of Germany (NDPD) established
11 Aug 1990                merged into West German Free Democratic Party

Chairmen
   Dec 1948 -    Apr 1972  Lothar Bolz                        (b. 1903 - d. 1986)
   Apr 1972 -  2 Nov 1989  Heinrich Homann                    (b. 1911 - d. 1994)
 2 Nov 1989 - 21 Jan 1990  Günter Hartmann                    (b. 1930)
21 Jan 1990 - 11 Feb 1990  Wolfgang Glaeser                   (b. 1940)
11 Feb 1990 - 11 Aug 1990  Wolfgang Rauls                     (b. 1948)

Social Democratic Party

 7 Oct 1989                Social Democratic Party in the German Democratic Republic
                           (SDP) founded
13 Jan 1990                renamed Social Democratic Party (SPD)
27 Sep 1990                merged into West German Social Democratic Party

Chairmen
 7 Oct 1989 - 22 Feb 1990  Stephan Hilsberg (speaker)         (b. 1956)
22 Feb 1990 -  1 Apr 1990  Ibrahim Böhme                      (b. 1944 - d. 1999)
 1 Apr 1990 -  9 Jun 1990  Markus Meckel (acting)             (b. 1952)
 9 Jun 1990 - 27 Sep 1990  Wolfgang Thierse                   (b. 1943)

Democratic Awakening

17 Dec 1989                Democratic Awakening (DA) founded
 5 Aug 1990                merged into West German Christian Democratic Union

Chairmen
17 Dec 1989 - 14 Mar 1990  Wolfgang Schnur                    (b. 1944)
15 Mar 1990 -  5 Aug 1990  Rainer Eppelmann                   (b. 1943)
                           (acting to 22 Apr 1990)

German Social Union

20 Jan 1990                German Social Union (DSU) founded

Chairmen
20 Jan 1990 - 30 Jun 1990  Hans-Wilhelm Ebeling               (b. 1934)
30 Jun 1990 - 25 May 1991  Hansjoachim Walther                (b. 1939 - d. 2005)
25 May 1991 - 24 Apr 1993  Reinhard Keller
24 Apr 1993 -              Roberto Rink                       (b. 1959)

Labour unions


Free German Trade Union Federation

Chairmen
   May 1946 - 25 Oct 1948  Hans Jendretzky                    (b. 1897 - d. 1992)
25 Oct 1948 - 26 Mar 1975  Herbert Warnke                     (b. 1902 - d. 1975)
26 Apr 1975 -  2 Nov 1989  Harry Tisch                        (b. 1927 - d. 1995)
 2 Nov 1989 -  9 Dec 1989  Annelis Kimmel (f)                 (b. 1934)
 9 Dec 1989 -  1 Feb 1990  Werner Peplowski                   (b. 1944)
 1 Feb 1990 -  9 May 1990  Helga Mausch (f)                   (b. 1945)