Amado, Luís (Filipe Marques) (b. Sept. 17, 1953, Porto de Mós, Portugal), defense minister (2005-06) and foreign minister (2006-11) of Portugal.
Amadou, Hama (b. 1950, Youri village, near Niamey, Niger), prime minister of Niger (1995-96, 2000-07). He also served as information minister (1988-90). He was a presidential candidate in 2011. Later in 2011 he became president of the National Assembly. In 2014 he fled the country after his immunity was lifted in a baby trafficking scandal.
Amaechi, (Chief Chibuike) Rotimi (b. May 27, 1965, Ubima, Ikwerre local government area [now in Rivers state], Nigeria), governor of Rivers (2007- ).
Amamou, Mohamed (b. Oct. 7, 1933, Kairouan, Tunisia - d. March 30, 2014, Tunis, Tunisia), secretary-general of the Arab Maghreb Union (1991-2002). He was also Tunisian ambassador to Zaire (1972-73), Lebanon and Jordan (1974-78), Morocco and Portugal (1985-87), and Syria (1987-89).
Amanbayev, Jumgalbek Beksultanovich (b. Feb. 2, 1946, Chayok village, Dzhumgal rayon, Issyk-Kul oblast, Kirgiz S.S.R. - d. Feb. 7, 2005), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Kirgiz S.S.R. (1991). He was deputy prime minister in 1993-95 and a presidential candidate in 1995.
Amantea, Luigi (b. Nov. 30, 1869, Rossano, Calabria, Italy - d. April 9, 1949, Rome, Italy), high commissioner of Fiume (1921).
Amanullah Khan (b. June 1, 1892, Paghman, Afghanistan - d. April 25, 1960, Zürich, Switzerland), ruler of Afghanistan (1919-29). He was the third son of Emir Habibullah Khan. When the latter was assassinated in February 1919, Amanullah was governor of Kabul and in possession of the arsenal and the treasury. He took the throne over the prior claims of his uncle Nasrullah, whom he denounced as an usurper and an accomplice in the murder of his father. The British had granted subsidies to previous Afghan rulers in exchange for control over Afghan foreign relations. Amanullah, however, declared full independence from Great Britain in his coronation address. British reluctance to accept this led to Afghan attacks on British India, marking the start of the third Anglo-Afghan War. But Britain was war-weary and no serious fighting occurred. In August 1919 the Treaty of Rawalpindi was signed by which Afghanistan gave up the subsidy in exchange for freedom from control. Amanullah was hailed momentarily at home as a liberator, and within the next two years signed treaties with the Soviet Union, Turkey, France, Italy, Germany, and Iran. He introduced many reforms, including an education program and road-building projects. But he faced opposition by reactionaries and was soon engaged in subduing internal revolts. In 1926 he changed his title from amir to padshah (king). After making a prolonged tour of Europe in 1928, he tried to impose monogamy and introduce European clothing, which alienated the powerful mullahs. A tribal revolt in that year resulted in a chaotic situation during which a notorious bandit leader, Baccheh Saqow, seized Kabul and declared himself ruler. Amanullah was forced to abdicate in January 1929 and went into exile in May, settling in Italy and later in Switzerland.
Amar, Jean Baptiste André (or Jean Pierre André Amar) (b. May 11, 1755, Grenoble - d. Dec. 21, 1816), president of the National Convention of France (1794).
Amar, Shlomo (b. 1948, Morocco), Sephardic chief rabbi of Israel (2003- ).
Amaraich, Andon (L.) (b. Aug. 24, 1932, Ta island, Truk [now Chuuk], Micronesia [now in Federated States of Micronesia] - d. Jan. 26, 2010, Honolulu, Hawaii), foreign minister of the Federated States of Micronesia (1979-90). In 1992 he became associate justice, and in 1994 chief justice, of the Supreme Court, serving until his death.
Amaral, Francisco Joaquim Ferreira do (b. June 11, 1844, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Aug. 11, 1923, Lisbon), governor of São Tomé and Príncipe (1879), governor-general of Angola (1882-86) and Portuguese India (1885-86), and foreign minister (1892-93) and prime minister (1908) of Portugal.
Amaral, Francisco Xavier do (b. 1937, Turiscai village, Portuguese Timor [now Timor-Leste] - d. March 6, 2012, Dili, Timor-Leste), East Timorese leader. Amaral became the first president of the Democratic Republic of East Timor proclaimed by the Fretilin movement on Nov. 28, 1975. He remained in Dili while his foreign minister, José Ramos-Horta, went abroad to seek diplomatic recognition. Dressed in olive-green fatigues, giving a clenched-fist salute with his colleagues outside the former Portuguese governor's office in Dili, Amaral's place on the world stage did not last long. Ten days later, on Dec. 7, 1975, Indonesian troops landed in Dili and drove Fretilin into the mountains. A split developed among the guerrillas as the Indonesians tightened their grip. Amaral was overthrown (1978), held in an underground cell, and tortured with hot irons. He was accused of having radio contact with the Indonesian military as part of a plot to betray the resistance, known as Operation Skylight. He vehemently denies the charge. When their position at the mouth of the Dilor River, near Viqueque, was surrounded by Indonesian troops, his captors abandoned him and fled. After being paraded before media cameras, he was flown to Bali and placed in the residential compound of Gen. Dading Kalbuadi, who was then responsible for East Timor. When General Dading was moved to Jakarta in 1983, Amaral went with him, continuing in the role of household factotum. In the 1990s, with General Dading dying and the general's children uneasy with a Timorese in their home, Amaral bought a tiny plot of land in Jakarta and built a shack. With change in the wind, Amaral reestablished contact with Timor. He returned to Timor on Feb. 4, 2000, and was officially rehabilitated by Fretilin in May. He was a candidate in the first presidential election for the newly-independent state in 2002, and again in 2007.
F.X. do Amaral
Amarasiri (de Silva), M(atarage) S(irisena) (b. Sept. 5, 1925 - d. Jan. 7, 2007, Maharagama, Sri Lanka), Sri Lankan politician; chief minister of Southern province (1988-93) and governor of Uva (1999-2003).
Amarjargal, Rinchinnyamyn (b. Feb. 27, 1961, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia), foreign minister (1998) and prime minister (1999-2000) of Mongolia.
Amato, Giuliano (b. May 13, 1938, Turin, Italy), prime minister of Italy (1992-93, 2000-01). He joined the Italian Socialist Party in 1958. In 1967-68 and 1973-74, he directed the legislative office of the Ministry of the Budget and of Economic Planning. He became a member of parliament in 1983 and served as undersecretary of state to the prime minister's office (1983-87), treasury minister (1987-89), and deputy prime minister (1987-88). In May 1992 he succeeded Bobo Craxi (son of former prime minister Bettino Craxi) as secretary of the city's party organization after a corruption scandal. Investigation of the Milan affair subsequently expanded to address similar corruption nationwide, and swept away almost an entire class of political leaders. In June Amato, a comparative outsider, became prime minister, heading a coalition of the Socialist Unity Party (as his party was renamed) with Christian Democrats, Liberals, and Social Democrats. The government had only a slim majority in the Chamber of Deputies, and Amato sought support from the Democratic Party of the Left, the former Communist Party. He passed a tight deficit-cutting budget, asking Italians "to put one hand on their hearts and get their wallets out with the other." Untainted by the corruption scandals that felled his government in 1993, he was president of the Italian Antitrust Authority (1994-97), minister for institutional reforms (1998-99), and again treasury minister (1999-2000). In April 2000 he again became prime minister, but his centre-left coalition was too quarrelsome and divided; in September 2000 he stepped aside as prime ministerial candidate for the May 2001 elections, in which the coalition was defeated. He was a vice-chairman of the European Convention of 2002-03, which drafted a European constitution. When the centre-left returned to power he became interior minister (2006-08).
Ambane, Louis (d. May 10, 2003, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea), governor of Simbu (1997-98, 1999-2003).
Ambrazevicius, Juozas, family name changed to Brazaitis in 1955 (b. Dec. 9, 1903, Trakiskiai, Marijampol region, Russia [now in Lithuania] - d. Nov. 28, 1974, South Orange, N.J., U.S.), prime minister of Lithuania (1941).
Ambrose, Myles J(oseph) (b. July 21, 1926, New York City - d. June 3, 2014, Leesburg, Va.), director of the Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement (1972-73).
Ambrosiis, Giuseppe (Tommaso) (b. Dec. 28, 1755, Novi, Italy - d. 18...), member of the Extraordinary Commission of Government of the Ligurian Republic (1801-02).
Ameerali, Robert (Leo Antonius) (b. 1962?), vice president of Suriname (2010- ).
Amerasinghe, Hamilton Shirley (b. March 18, 1913, Colombo, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. Dec. 4, 1980), president of the UN General Assembly (1976-77). He was also Sri Lankan high commissioner to India and ambassador to Nepal and Afghanistan (1963-67), permanent representative to the UN (1967-78), and ambassador to Brazil (1973-78).
Amerman, A(lmeron) Earl (b. March 24, 1878, Houston, Texas - d. May 31, 1958, Houston), mayor of Houston (1918-21).
Ames, Adelbert (b. Oct. 31, 1835, Rockland, Maine - d. April 13, 1933, Ormond, Fla.), governor of Mississippi (1868-70, 1874-76).
Ames, Albert A(lonzo), byname Doc Ames (b. Jan. 18, 1842, Boone county, Ill. - d. Nov. 16, 1911), mayor of Minneapolis (1876-77, 1882-84, 1886-89, 1901-02).
Ames, Benjamin (b. Oct. 30, 1778, Andover, Mass. - d. Sept. 25, 1835, Houlton, Maine), governor of Maine (1821-22).
Ames, Eli B. (b. Aug. 3, 1820, Colchester, Vt. - d. Feb. 12, 1897), mayor of Minneapolis (1870-72).
Ames, Julian, president of the Board of Trustees of San Diego (1855?-57?).
Ames, Oliver (b. Feb. 4, 1831, North Easton, Mass. - d. Oct. 22, 1895), governor of Massachusetts (1887-90).
Amézaga (Landaraso), Juan José (Julián) de (b. Jan. 28, 1881, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. Aug. 21, 1956, Montevideo), president of Uruguay (1943-47).
Amherst, Jeffrey Amherst, Baron (b. Jan. 29, 1717, Sevenoaks, Kent, England - d. Aug. 3, 1797, Sevenoaks), commander of Cape Breton Island (1758), governor-general of British North America (1760-63), and governor of Virginia (1763-68) and Guernsey (1770-97). He was knighted in 1761 and created a baron in 1776.
Amiama Tió, Fernando (Arturo) (b. March 1913, San Pedro de Macorís, Dominican Republic - d. Sept. 23, 2005), foreign minister of the Dominican Republic (1967-70). He was also minister of labour (1975-78).
Amiama Tió, Luis (Emilio) (b. Nov. 9, 1914, San Pedro de Macorís, Dominican Republic - d. December 1980), member of the Civic-Military Council of the Dominican Republic (1962); brother of Fernando Amiama Tió.
Amici, Denis (b. June 10, 1972, San Marino, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2013).
Amici, Giuseppe (b. Jan. 6, 1939, Fiorentino, San Marino - d. Feb. 24, 2006, Borgo Maggiore, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (1979-80, 1984-85).
Amin, Hafizullah (b. Aug. 1, 1929, Paghman, Afghanistan - d. Dec. 27, 1979, in or near Kabul, Afghanistan), president of the Revolutionary Council of Afghanistan (1979). He joined the Wikh-i-Zalmayan ("awakened youth"), a reform-minded brotherhood. In 1963 Amin became a member of the leftist Khalq ("masses") faction of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA). He was the only Khalq member to be elected to parliament in 1969. When the police arrested leading PDPA members in April 1978, Amin, who had become the Khalq strong man, was the last one to be arrested and even then the police officer, who was a secret PDPA member, postponed his imprisonment for five and a half hours, during which time Amin engineered the coup that toppled the government of Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan. But Khalq founder Nur Mohammad Taraki became president of the Revolutionary Council, while Amin was made foreign minister. On March 27, 1979, Amin was named prime minister, but six months later, in another coup, he succeeded the pro-Soviet Taraki as president. When the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in late December and installed Babrak Karmal as president, Amin was assassinated.
Amin (Dada Oumee), Idi (b. 1925?1, Koboko, Uganda - d. Aug. 16, 2003, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia), president of Uganda (1971-79). A Muslim who belonged to the Kakwa ethnic group, he joined the King's African Rifles, a British colonial unit, in 1946, and served in Kenya during the suppression of the Mau Mau revolt (1952-56). When Uganda achieved independence in 1962, he was one of only two African officers in the Ugandan armed forces. He was an early supporter of Prime Minister (later Pres.) Milton Obote, who promoted him to major general and deputy commander and later commander of the armed forces. But conflict arose and Obote placed Amin under house arrest in 1970. On Jan. 25, 1971, Amin ousted Obote while the latter was abroad. Ugandans initially welcomed Amin, but his brutality quickly dampened his popularity. Among his first targets were the ethnic Acholi and Lango, who dominated the army. In 1972 he expelled all Asians from Uganda, which dealt a severe blow to the economy. In 1976 he was involved in the Palestinian hijacking of a French plane full of Israelis to Entebbe; Israeli paratroopers freed the hostages. Amin orchestrated the murders of numerous prominent as well as lesser-known Ugandans. He made himself field marshal in 1975 and life president in 1976; he was also defense minister (1971-75), internal affairs minister (1973, 1978-79), foreign minister (1974-75, 1978-79), and OAU chairman (1975-76). Paranoid, volatile, sadistic, and irrational, his charisma and humorous antics in front of the international press nevertheless enabled him to cultivate an image abroad as a populist leader defying the imperialist neocolonial forces. In October 1978 Tanzania sent troops into Uganda which, supported by Ugandan rebel forces, reached Kampala, the capital, in April 1979. Amin first fled to Libya and then settled in Saudi Arabia. In 1989 he made an attempt to return to Uganda, but was detained in Zaire and sent back to Saudi Arabia.
1 According to Fred Guweddeko writing in The Monitor of Uganda after Amin's death, his original name was Idi Awo-Ongo Angoo and he was born May 17, 1928, in Kampala.
Amini, Ali (b. Sept. 12, 1905, Tehran, Iran - d. Dec. 12, 1992, Paris, France), prime minister of Iran (1961-62); grandson of Mozaffar ad-Din Qajar, nephew of Mohammad Ali Qajar, and cousin of Soltan Ahmad Qajar. He was also minister of economic affairs (1951-53) and finance (1953-55) and ambassador to the United States (1956-58).
Ammash, Saleh Mahdi, Arabic Salih Mahdi `Ammash (b. 1924 - d. [reportedly executed] 1983), defense minister (1963), foreign minister (1963), interior minister (1968-70), and vice president (1970-71) of Iraq.
Ammons, Elias M(ilton) (b. July 28, 1860, near Franklin, N.C. - d. May 20, 1925, Denver, Colo.), governor of Colorado (1913-15).
Ammons, Teller (b. Dec. 3, 1895, Denver, Colo. - d. Jan. 16, 1972, Denver), governor of Colorado (1937-39); son of Elias M. Ammons.
Ammoun, Fouad (Scandar), Arabic Fu´ad Iskandar `Ammun (b. Nov. 26, 1899, Dayr al-Qamar, Lebanon - d. Feb. 11, 1977), foreign minister of Lebanon (1964). He was also a judge of the International Court of Justice (1965-75).
Amnuay Viravan (b. May 22, 1932, Bangkok, Thailand), finance minister (1980-81, 1996-97) and foreign minister (1996) of Thailand.
Amon Nikoi, Gloria (b. 1930), foreign minister of Ghana (1979).
Amorim, Celso (Luiz Nunes) (b. June 3, 1942, Santos, São Paulo state, Brazil), foreign minister (1993-95, 2003-11) and defense minister (2011-15) of Brazil. He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1995-99) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (2001-02).
Amorín Larrañaga, Julio (b. July 9, 1923 - d. June 3, 2009), labour minister of Uruguay (1972).
Amory, Derick Heathcoat Amory, (1st) Viscount (b. Dec. 26, 1899, Tiverton, Devon, England - d. Jan. 20, 1981, Tiverton), British politician. Amory entered national politics after World War II, being elected Conservative member for Tiverton in 1945. In 1951 he was appointed minister for pensions and subsequently served as minister of state at the Board of Trade (1953-54) and as minister of agriculture, fisheries, and food (1955-58). In January 1958, when the three Treasury ministers simultaneously resigned, Prime Minister Harold Macmillan made Amory chancellor of the exchequer. Self-effacing and moderate, he initiated no major changes in economic strategy. Amory was created a viscount when he retired from politics in 1960 and then served (1961-63) as U.K. high commissioner in Canada. He was created G.C.M.G. in 1961 and K.G. in 1968 and succeeded his brother as 4th Baronet in 1972.
Amory, Vance (Winkworth) (b. May 22, 1949, Rawlins village, Gingerland, Nevis), premier of Nevis (1992-2006, 2013- ).
Amos, Jacob (b. Dec. 18, 1853 - d. Aug. 10, 1932), mayor of Syracuse (1892-95).
Amouzegar, Jamshid (b. June 25, 1923, Tehran, Iran), finance minister (1965-74), interior minister (1974-76), and prime minister (1977-78) of Iran.
Ampatuan, Zaldy (Uy), byname Datu Puti (b. Aug. 22, 1967), governor of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (2005-11). In 2009 he was arrested and jailed in connection to the brutal killings of 57 people in Maguindanao province; he and various relatives were accused of masterminding the murders.
Amr, Mohamed Kamel, Arabic Muhammad Kamil `Amru (b. Dec. 1, 1942), foreign minister of Egypt (2011-13).
Amri, Hassan al- (b. 1916, Yemen - d. 1989, Egypt), prime minister of Yemen (Sana) (1964, 1965, 1965-66, 1967-69, 1971).
Amrih, Gatot (Achmad Sapari) (b. May 19, 1936, Magelang, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Tengah, Indonesia]), governor of Kalimantan Tengah (1984-89).
Amugi II, Nii (b. June 8, 1940 - d. July 13, 2005), Gã Mantse (ruler of Gã) (1965-2005).
Amyx, Jay S. (b. Sept. 27, 1923, Decatur, Texas - d. Jan. 24, 2014), mayor of Boise (1966-74).
Anand Panyarachun (b. Aug. 9, 1932, Bangkok), prime minister of Thailand (1991-92, 1992).
Ananda Mahidol, also called Rama VIII (b. Sept. 20, 1925, Heidelberg [now in Baden-Württemberg], Germany - d. June 9, 1946, Bangkok, Thailand), king of Siam/Thailand (1935-46). He was the elder son of Prince Mahidol Adulyadej, Prince of Songkhla. He was only 10 years old and a schoolboy in Switzerland when he was proclaimed king on the abdication of his uncle, King Prajadhipok. He remained in Switzerland (except for a visit to Siam in 1938) until he returned on Dec. 5, 1945, having come of age in September. His effective reign was short-lived, however: early in the morning of June 9, 1946, he was found dead in his bed of a gunshot wound. He had gained great popularity and the news of his death stunned the nation. The case was never fully explained. At first it was announced that the king - a fancier of firearms - accidentally shot himself. A deliberate suicide was also suggested, but ultimately the death was ruled a murder and in 1954 a former royal secretary and two former royal pages were sentenced to death for implication in the killing.
Anani, Jawad (Ahmad al-) (b. June 28, 1943, Halhul, Palestine [now in West Bank]), foreign minister of Jordan (1998). He was also minister of supply (1979-80), labour (1980-84), industry, trade, and tourism (1984), and information (1993-95) and deputy prime minister for development (1997-98).
Anas, Azwar (b. Aug. 2, 1931, Padang, Netherlands East Indies [now in Sumatera Barat, Indonesia]), governor of Sumatera Barat (1977-87).
Anastasiadis, Nikos (Chrysanthou), English Nicos Anastasiades (b. Sept. 27, 1946, Pera Pedi, Limassol district, Cyprus), president of Cyprus (2013- ).
Anaya, Toney (b. April 29, 1941, Moriarty, N.M.), governor of New Mexico (1983-87).
Anaya Arze, Ricardo (b. Feb. 6, 1907, Cochabamba, Bolivia - d. August 1997, Cochabamba), foreign minister of Bolivia (1978). He was also president of the Senate (1966-67), minister of mines and oil (1967-68), and ambassador to Mexico (1968-69).
Anchimaa-Toka, Khertek (Amyrbitovna) (b. Jan. 1, 1912 [official date], Kok-Sook borough, Bay-Taygin kozhuun [district], Tuva - d. Nov. 4, 2008), chairman of the Presidium of the Little Khural of Tuva (1940-44). In 1940 she married Salchak Toka. After Tuva entered the U.S.S.R., she was deputy chairwoman of the Tuva oblast executive committee (1944-61) and then of the Tuva A.S.S.R. Council of Ministers (1961-72).
Ancona Albertos, Antonio (b. June 10, 1883, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico - d. 1954, Mexico City), governor of Yucatán (1920) and Quintana Roo (1926-27).
Andaija, Andrew (d. [air crash] June 19, 1980), premier of Southern Highlands (1978-80).
Andara, José Ladislao (b. June 27, 1864, Coro, Falcón state, Venezuela - d. Sept. 1, 1922, Caracas, Venezuela), foreign minister of Venezuela (1912-13). He was Venezuelan minister to Bolivia (1910), Peru (1910-11), Ecuador (1911), and Cuba (1911-12).
Anders, William, mayor of Houston (1863-66).
Andersen, Anders (b. Oct. 1, 1912, Voldby, Denmark - d. April 14, 2006, Voldby), finance minister of Denmark (1973-75).
Andersen, Elmer L(ee) (b. June 17, 1909, Chicago, Ill. - d. Nov. 15, 2004, Minneapolis, Minn.), governor of Minnesota (1961-63). A Republican, he served in the state Senate (1949-58) before being elected governor in 1960, in an era when Minnesota governors served two-year terms. Democrat Karl Rolvaag beat him in 1962 by just 91 votes (619,842 to 619,751) in the closest gubernatorial race ever in Minnesota. It took four months of recounts before Rolvaag was declared the winner. Andersen's term proved challenging as he often took positions at odds with the Republican Party and conservative constituents. When he pushed for a national park to encompass the lakes and rivers along the Canadian border, northern Minnesotans suspicious of federal intrusion were against the idea. Andersen - who called himself a liberal Republican - forged ahead anyway, and Voyageurs National Park was authorized in 1971. Though he never left the Republican Party, he spoke out when he wasn't happy where it was going. In 2004 he endorsed Democrat John Kerry for president because he said the war in Iraq was unjustified. He also criticized the George W. Bush administration for doing too little for such programs as early childhood education. He also served as a University of Minnesota regent in 1967-75.
Andersen, Knud Børge (b. Dec. 1, 1914, Copenhagen - d. March 23, 1984, Copenhagen), foreign minister of Denmark (1971-73, 1975-78). He was also speaker of the Folketing (1978-81).
Anderson, Andrew (b. c. 1796, New Jersey - d. April 15, 1867), mayor of Nashville (1856-57).
Anderson, Anton, mayor of Anchorage (1956-58).
Anderson, C(lyde) Elmer (b. March 16, 1912, Brainerd, Minn. - d. Jan. 22, 1998, Brainerd, Minn.), governor of Minnesota (1951-55). In 1938, at age 26, he was elected lieutenant governor under Harold Stassen, who was 31. The two formed the youngest ticket in state history. Reelected five times (1940, 1944, 1946, 1948, 1950), Anderson served a record 11 years in the lieutenant governor's post. The Republican succeeded Gov. Luther W. Youngdahl in 1951 when Youngdahl resigned to become a federal judge. Anderson won election in 1952, defeating Orville Freeman, who unseated him two years later.
Anderson, Charles (b. June 1, 1814, Louisville, Ky. - d. Sept. 2, 1895, Paducah, Ky.), acting governor of Ohio (1865-66).
Anderson, Clinton P(resba) (b. Oct. 23, 1895, Centerville, S.D. - d. Nov. 11, 1975, Albuquerque, N.M.), U.S. secretary of agriculture (1945-48).
Anderson, Dillon (b. July 14, 1906, McKinney, Texas - d. Jan. 28, 1974, Houston, Texas), U.S. national security advisor (1955-56).
Anderson, Donald D., acting U.S. commissioner of reclamation (1977).
Anderson, Eileen (R.), née Pulling (b. Oct. 18, 1928, Bell, Calif.), mayor of Honolulu (1981-85).
Anderson, Forrest H(oward) (b. Jan. 30, 1913, Helena, Mont. - d. [suicide] July 20, 1989, Helena, Mont.), governor of Montana (1969-73).
Anderson, George W(helan), Jr. (b. 1906, Brooklyn, N.Y. - d. March 20, 1992, McLean, Va.), U.S. chief of naval operations (1961-63). He was ambassador to Portugal in 1963-66.
Anderson, Hugh J(ohnston) (b. May 10, 1801, Wiscasset, Maine - d. May 31, 1881, Portland, Ore.), governor of Maine (1844-47).
Anderson, J.E., mayor of El Paso (1939-47).
Anderson, John (Duncan) (b. Nov. 14, 1956, Sydney, N.S.W.), leader of the National Party and deputy prime minister of Australia (1999-2005).
Anderson, John, Jr. (b. May 8, 1917, near Olathe, Kan. - d. Sept. 15, 2014, Olathe), governor of Kansas (1961-65).
Anderson, John B(ayard) (b. Feb. 15, 1922, Rockford, Ill.), U.S. presidential candidate (1980). Anderson started the long campaign as a respected but little-known ten-term Republican congressman from Illinois. A conservative at the start of his political career, he stood out from the pack by taking liberal positions unpopular with the conservative constituency other GOP hopefuls were trying to attract. But he gained support from young people, independents, Democrats, and moderate Republicans. Many Democrats crossed over to vote for Anderson in the "open" primaries, enabling him to finish a strong second in Vermont, Massachusetts, and Illinois. This encouraged Anderson to become an independent candidate for president, though he failed to win a single primary. He had no single issue to use as a rallying point. Patrick Lucey, a Democrat and former Wisconsin governor, became his vice-presidential running mate. Despite opposition from the Democrats, who feared he would take votes away from Carter, Anderson fought his way onto the ballot in all 50 states. The polls showed him at about 15% in early September and threatening to hurt Carter in the Midwest and Northeast. The League of Women Voters invited him to participate in the first presidential debate in Baltimore, Md., which Carter avoided because of his presence. Thereafter, his support began to decline as voters became convinced that he could not win. The campaign went heavily into debt and almost collapsed when he was not included in the second and final presidential debate in late October. On election day, he polled 5.5 million votes (6.5%), which qualified him to receive $4 million in federal funds. Reagan overwhelmed Carter, and the so-called "Anderson factor" proved to be of little consequence.
Anderson, Robert B(ernerd) (b. June 4, 1910, Burleson, Texas - d. Aug. 14, 1989, New York City), U.S. politician. He was elected to the Texas house of representatives in 1932 and was appointed to various state administrative positions. Although a Democrat, Anderson was a leading supporter of Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1952 and later turned Republican. President Eisenhower named him secretary of the navy in December 1952; then in 1954, deputy secretary of defense. He resigned the latter office in 1955. He was named secretary of the treasury May 29, 1957, to succeed George M. Humphrey. Upon his nomination, Anderson announced his intention to continue the fiscal policies of his predecessor "in the firm belief that [they] are basic to the continued security and strength of our nation both economically and militarily." Humphrey's key policies had been tight money and checks on federal spending; and these policies Anderson continued. Anderson opposed tax reductions to counteract the recession of 1957-58 but was obliged early in 1958 to recommend raising the permanent national debt ceiling temporarily to $280,000,000,000 and later to $283,000,000,000, with an extra $5,000,000,000 of temporary borrowing authority to be available until July 1959. He left office in 1961. In 1987 he pleaded guilty to charges of evading taxes by illegally operating an offshore bank and was sentenced to jail.
Anderson, Rocky, byname of Ross Carl Anderson (b. Sept. 9, 1951, Logan, Utah), mayor of Salt Lake City (2000-08). In 2012 he was presidential candidate of the Justice Party.
Anderson, Sigurd (b. Jan. 22, 1904, Arendal, Norway - d. Dec. 21, 1990, Webster, S.D.), governor of South Dakota (1951-55).
Anderson, Victor Emanuel (b. March 30, 1902, Lincoln, Neb. - d. Aug. 15, 1962, Lincoln), mayor of Lincoln (1950-53) and governor of Nebraska (1955-59).
Anderson, Wendell R(ichard) (b. Feb. 1, 1933, Saint Paul, Minn.), governor of Minnesota (1971-76).
Anderson, William A. (b. Oct. 19, 1873, Adams county, Wis. - d. Dec. 12, 1954), mayor of Minneapolis (1931-33).
Andersson, Sten (Sture) (b. April 20, 1923, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Sept. 16, 2006, Stockholm), foreign minister of Sweden (1985-91). He was also minister of social affairs (1982-85).
Andersson, Sven Olof (Morgan) (b. April 5, 1910, Göteborg, Sweden - d. Sept. 21, 1987, Stockholm, Sweden), Swedish politician. Andersson entered politics early. He was president of the Göteborg district Social Democratic Youth Union (1929-32) and a member of its national committee (1934-40). He later served as general secretary of the Social Democratic Party (1945-48). He was a member of Parliament (1940-44, 1948-76) and served as minister without portfolio (1948-51) and then minister of communications (1951-57). During the latter period he presided over a program of railroad reorganization, the launch of nationwide television, and an expansion of hydroelectric power. He then served as minister of defense (1957-73) and of foreign affairs (1973-76). A supporter of Sweden's traditional neutral stance, Andersson was strongly critical of the U.S. involvement in Vietnam. In 1987 he headed the commission that had been appointed by Prime Minister Olof Palme to investigate the violation of territorial waters by unidentified submarines; it concluded that the submarines belonged to the Soviet Union.
Ando, Tadahiro (b. March 9, 1941 - d. April 30, 2010, Miyazaki, Japan), governor of Miyazaki (2003-06). Because of a scandal involving the rigging of a bid on a bridge project, he was subjected to a no-confidence vote on Dec. 1, 2006, and on December 4 became the second Japanese prefectural governor to resign after such a vote, following Gifu governor Saburo Hirano in 1976. Ando was arrested December 8. He was convicted in early 2010 for colluding with local contractors and was sentenced to 3½ years in prison and a 20-million-yen fine; he was appealing to the Supreme Court when he died.
Andom, Aman Mikael (b. 1924 - d. Nov. 17, 1974), chairman of the Provisional Military Administrative Council of Ethiopia (1974).
Andov, Stojan (b. Nov. 30, 1935, Kavadarci, Yugoslavia [now in Macedonia]), Macedonian politician. A member of the Federal Executive Council of Yugoslavia in the 1980s, he was chairman of the Macedonian parliament (Sobranie) in 1991-96 and again from Nov. 30, 2000, to Oct. 3, 2002. In 1995 he acted as president of Macedonia following an assassination attempt on Pres. Kiro Gligorov. In 1999 he was presidential candidate for the Liberal Democratic Party.
Andrade (Troconis), Ignacio (b. July 31, 1839, Mérida, Venezuela - d. Feb. 17, 1925, Macuto, Venezuela), president (1898-99) and foreign minister (1914-17) of Venezuela. He was also president of the states of Falcón (1883-85) and Miranda (1894-97).
Andrade, João Walter de (b. July 24, 1919, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil - d. April 26, 2008, Aracaju), governor of Amazonas (1971-75).
Andrade, Mário (Coelho) Pinto de (b. Aug. 21, 1928, Golungo Alto, Angola - d. Aug. 26, 1990, London, England), African political figure. In 1948 he went to Portugal to study classical philology at the University of Lisbon. There, in 1951, he was one of the founders of the Centre of African Studies, together with Agostinho Neto, later independent Angola's first president, and Amílcar Cabral of Guinea-Bissau. As a student at the Sorbonne in Paris from 1954, Andrade wrote biting anticolonialist poetry and was an editor of the cultural review Présence Africaine (1955-58). Beginning in 1956 he worked with Neto to merge separate liberation groups into the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), and when Neto was arrested in 1960, Andrade was elected MPLA president. He relinquished the post after Neto escaped from detention in Portugal two years later. Although Andrade remained active in the MPLA until 1973, he split with Neto in 1974 to join Revolta Activa, a dissident group. He later exiled himself to Guinea-Bissau, where he served as coordinator-general of the National Council of Culture (1976-78) and as minister of information and culture (1978-80).
M.P. de Andrade
Andrade Díaz, Manuel (b. Oct. 6, 1965), governor of Tabasco (2002-06).
M. Andrade D.
Andrade Díaz-Durán, Fernando (b. Sept. 23, 1937, Guatemala City, Guatemala), foreign minister of Guatemala (1983-86). In 2012 he became ambassador to Mexico.
André, Charles (Claude Séraphin) (b. Jan. 3, 1920 - d. Aug. 5, 2002), resident of Wallis and Futuna (1953-55).
Andreatta, Beniamino (b. Aug. 11, 1928, Trento [now in Trentino-Alto Adige], Italy - d. March 26, 2007, Bologna, Italy), treasury minister (1980-82), foreign minister (1993-94), and defense minister (1996-98) of Italy.
Andrei, Stefan (b. March 29, 1931, Podari, Dolj county, Romania - d. Aug. 31, 2014, Snagov, Romania), foreign minister of Romania (1978-85).
Andrejevs, Georgs (b. Oct. 30, 1932, Tukums, Latvia), foreign minister of Latvia (1992-94). He was also ambassador to Canada (1995-98).
Andreoli, Paride (b. Sept. 15, 1956), captain-regent of San Marino (1993-94, 1997).
Andreolli, Tarcisio (b. Sept. 20, 1936, Brentonico [now in Trentino-Alto Adige], Italy), president of Trentino-Alto Adige (1992-93).
Andreotti, Giulio (b. Jan. 14, 1919, Rome, Italy - d. May 6, 2013, Rome), prime minister of Italy (1972-73, 1976-79, 1989-92). A Christian Democrat, he was a member of the Constituent Assembly elected in June 1946 and was given an appointment as undersecretary by Premier Alcide De Gasperi in 1947, a post he retained until 1953. He chose to be left out when Giuseppe Pella formed a centre-right government with the Liberal Party in 1953 but was interior minister (1954) in Amintore Fanfani's first government. He was later in charge of finances (1955-58), treasury (1958-59), defense (1959-66, 1974), and industry and commerce (1966-68). His first government, a Christian Democrat minority government, lasted from February to June 1972, followed by his second government (June 1972-July 1973), a coalition with the Liberals and Social Democrats. His third government (July 1976-March 1978) was a one-party minority government voted in only by virtue of the abstention of the Communist Party. That time he survived longer than most Italian premiers because there seemed no suitable alternative to his leadership. His fourth government lasted from March 1978 to March 1979 and his fifth from March to August 1979. After a period as foreign minister (1983-89), he presided over his sixth government, a five-party coalition, from July 1989 to April 1991 and his seventh, a coalition with the Socialists, Social Democrats, and Republicans, from April 1991 to July 1992. He then left the political stage. In 1993 he was accused of having close links to the Mafia. Indicted in 1995, he also went on trial for involvement in the 1979 murder of a muckraking journalist. He was acquitted of both charges in 1999. In 2002 a court reversed the acquittal and sentenced him to 24 years in prison for complicity in the slaying of the journalist, but in a third and final judgment he was again acquitted in 2003.
Andrés Rodríguez, Juan Antonio de (b. 1942, Teruel, Aragón, Spain), president of the Diputación General of Aragón (1982-83).
Andrew, A(bram) Piatt (b. Feb. 12, 1873, La Porte, Ind. - d. June 3, 1936, Gloucester, Mass.), director of the U.S. Mint (1909-10).
Andrew, Joe, byname of Joseph Jerald Andrew (b. 1960, Indianapolis, Ind.), national chairman of the U.S. Democratic Party (1999-2001).
Andrew, John A(lbion) (b. May 31, 1818, Windham, Maine - d. Oct. 30, 1867, Boston, Mass.), governor of Massachusetts (1861-66).
Andrew, (John) Neil (b. June 7, 1944, Waikerie, South Australia), speaker of the House of Representatives of Australia (1998-2004).
Andrews, Charles (b. May 27, 1827 - d. Oct. 22, 1918), mayor of Syracuse (1861-62, 1868).
Andrews, Charles B(artlett) (b. Nov. 4, 1834, Sunderland, Mass. - d. Sept. 12, 1902, Litchfield, Conn.), governor of Connecticut (1879-81).
Andrews, Charles M(cLean) (b. Feb. 22, 1863, Wethersfield, Conn. - d. Sept. 9, 1943, New Haven, Conn.), president of the American Historical Association (1924-25).
Andrews, Daniel (Michael) (b. July 6, 1972, Williamstown, Vic.), premier of Victoria (2014- ).
Andrews, David, Irish Daithí Mac Aindriú (b. March 15, 1936, Dublin, Ireland), foreign minister (1992-93, 1997-2000), defense minister (1993-94, 1997), and marine minister (1993-94) of Ireland.
Andrews, John Day (b. Aug. 30, 1795, Spotsylvania county, Va. - d. Aug. 30, 1882), mayor of Houston (1841-43).
Andrews, Major Andre (b. July 8, 1792, Cornwall, Conn. - d. Aug. 18, 1834), mayor of Buffalo (1833-34).
Andrews, T(homas) Coleman (b. 1899 - d. 1983), commissioner of the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (1953-55).
Andriamahazo, Gilles (b. May 1919, Fort-Dauphin [now Tolanaro], Toliara province, Madagascar - d. Sept. 13, 1989, Antananarivo, Madagascar), president of Madagascar (1975).
Andriamanjato, Ny Hasina, foreign minister of Madagascar (2009-10).
Andrian, secular name Aleksandr Gennadiyevich Chetvergov (b. 1951 - d. Aug. 10, 2005, during a procession from Kirov to the settlement Velikoretskoye, Yuryansky rayon, Kirov oblast, Russia), metropolitan of Moscow and All Russia, head of the Russian Orthodox Old Believers Church (2004-05).
Andrianarivo, (René) Tantely (Gabrio) (b. May 25, 1954, Ambositra, Madagascar), prime minister of Madagascar (1998-2002). He was placed under house arrest on May 27, 2002, and transferred to jail on October 20. He was accused of "usurpation of functions, diversion of public monies, harbouring wrongdoers, and attacking the interior safety of the state." On Dec. 24, 2003, he was sentenced to 12 years in jail with hard labour and ordered to pay 42 billion Malagasy francs in damages.
Andriantiana, (Jacques) Ulrich (b. June 7, 1977, Morondava, Madagascar), acting foreign minister of Madagascar (2013-14).
Andric, Filip (b. Oct. 20, 1960, Duvno [now Tomislavgrad, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), governor (1996) and premier (1996-98) of West Bosnia.
Andric-Luzanski, Ivo (b. April 3, 1956, Zivinice, near Tuzla [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), president of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1999-2000, 2001).
Andropov, Yury (Vladimirovich) (b. June 15 [June 2, Old Style], 1914, Nagutskoye, Stavropol region, Russia - d. Feb. 9, 1984, Moscow), general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1982-84). He was an organizer for the Young Communist League (Komsomol) in the Yaroslavl region before being put in charge of the Komsomol in the Karelo-Finnish Autonomous Republic (1940-44). Inducted into the Communist Party in 1939, he used the Karelo-Finnish party organization to field guerrilla units behind German lines in World War II. In 1947 he was made second secretary of the Karelian party. In 1951 he was called to Moscow to serve on the staff of the party's Secretariat. He was attached to the diplomatic service in 1953, and as ambassador to Hungary (1954-57) played a major role in coordinating the Soviet invasion of that country in 1956. He became a member of the Central Committee in 1961 and joined the Secretariat a year later. In May 1967, he became head of the KGB, and a month later he was made a candidate member and in April 1973 a full member of the Politburo. His tenure as KGB chief was noted for its suppression of political dissidents; writer Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn was exiled and Andrey Sakharov banished to Gorky. As General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev's health declined, Andropov began to position himself for succession, resigning his KGB post in May 1982 and becoming one of the national party secretaries again. When Brezhnev died in November 1982, Andropov was chosen by the Central Committee to succeed him. In June 1983 he also became chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (head of state). But ill health overtook him, and after Aug. 18, 1983, he was never seen again in public. Having accomplished little, he died after 15 months in office.
Andros, Sir Edmund (b. Dec. 6, 1637, London, England - d. Feb. 24, 1714, London), English colonial administrator. He was the son of Amice Andros, a bailiff of Guernsey who held the title Seigneur of Sausmarez. When Amice died in 1674, Edmund inherited the post of bailiff and the Sausmarez title. That same year, he was sent to North America to become governor of New York and New Jersey. He was knighted in 1678. During Andros' first few years as governor, much time was spent reassessing and consolidating boundaries between the various New England colonies. Because the lands of the New World had not been efficiently surveyed and mapped, the boundaries, as defined in the original charters for the various colonies, tended to overlap. The colonists considered Andros both arrogant and arbitrary, and he was recalled in 1681. In 1686 King James II created the Dominion of New England, depriving the various colonies of any independent status and of any claims to earlier charters. Likewise all the colonial legislatures were dissolved and total power placed in the hands of Andros, who became governor of the dominion. He vigorously enforced the Navigation Acts, limited town meetings and the right of local taxation, forced landowners to take out new patents on their land, and - perhaps most egregious of all - imposed Episcopalian worship in that bastion of Puritan congregationalism, Boston's Old South Meetinghouse. In 1688 James II was overthrown, and when the news reached Boston in 1689, the colonists rose instantly and imprisoned Andros, while his governmental fabric throughout the provinces perished almost in a day. Returned to England, he was tried and immediately released. He later served as governor of Virginia (1692-98) and Maryland (1693-94) and lieutenant governor of Guernsey (1704-06).
Androutsopoulos, Adamantios (b. 1919, Psari, Greece - d. Nov. 10, 2000), finance minister (1967-71), interior minister (1971-73), and prime minister (1973-74) of Greece.
Andrus, Cecil D(ale) (b. Aug. 25, 1931, Hood River, Ore.), governor of Idaho (1971-77, 1987-95) and U.S. secretary of the interior (1977-81).
Anefal, Sebastian (L.) (b. Jan. 21, 1952, Gurur, Gilman municipality, Yap, Micronesia), foreign secretary of the Federated States of Micronesia (2003-07) and governor of Yap (2007-15).
Anethan, Jules Joseph, baron (from 1840) d' (b. April 23, 1803, Brussels - d. Oct. 8, 1888, Schaerbeek [now in Brussels-Capital region], Belgium), cabinet chief and foreign minister (1870-71) and chairman of the Senate (1884-85) of Belgium.
Anga, Pierre (b. 1940 - d. [killed] July 4, 1988, near Owando, Congo [Brazzaville]), member of the Military Committee of the Congolese Labour Party (1977). He led a rebellion with other members of his Kouyou tribe in 1987-88.
Angammarre, Raoul (Eugène) (b. June 23, 1898, Saint-Quentin, Aisne, France - d. ...), governor of New Caledonia (1951-54).
Angelarij, secular name Cvetko Krstevski (b. 1911 - d. [traffic accident] June 15, 1986), archbishop of Ohrid, head of the Macedonian Orthodox Church (1981-86).
Angeli, Pierluigi (b. March 14, 1938, Dro, Trento province, Italy), president of Trentino-Alto Adige autonomous region (1984-87) and of Trento autonomous province (1985-89).
Angeli, Pierre (Louis) (b. 1921, in present Haute-Corse département, France - d. Jan. 5, 2008, Paris, France), governor (1969-73) and high commissioner (1986-87) of French Polynesia.
Angelis, Odysseas (b. Feb. 3, 1912, Chalcis, Greece - d. March 22, 1987, Athens, Greece), Greek politician. He was commissioned in 1934 and served during World War II in Albania (1940-41) and the Middle East (1943-45). In the postwar period he was involved in the anti-Communist campaign in Greece. A member of the military junta headed by Col. Georgios Papadopoulos, which ruled Greece during the period 1967-74, he was chief of army general staff (1967-68) and commander in chief, Hellenic Armed Forces (1969-73), before serving as vice-president of Greece for a short period during 1973. Following the return to civilian rule, Angelis was sentenced in 1975 to 20 years in prison for high treason and insurrection. Although he became eligible to apply for parole in 1986, he refused to do so, maintaining his innocence of the charge. Angelis was found hanged in his cell at Koryllados Prison, and his death was ruled to be a suicide.
Angell, James B(urrill) (b. Jan. 7, 1829, Scituate, R.I. - d. April 1, 1916), president of the American Historical Association (1892).
Angeloz, Eduardo (César) (b. Oct. 18, 1931, Rio Tercero, Córdoba province, Argentina), Argentine politician. The governor of Córdoba (1983-95) was the presidential candidate of the Radical Civic Union (UCR) but lost the May 14, 1989, election to Peronist candidate Carlos Menem.
Angier, Nedon L., mayor of Atlanta (1877-78).
Angjeli, Anastas (Mihal) (b. May 6, 1956, Sarandë, Albania), finance minister of Albania (1991, 1998-2002).
Angot des Rotours, Jean Julien, baron (b. June 2, 1773, Les Rotours, Orne, France - d. March 28, 1844, Paris), governor of Guadeloupe (1826-30).
Angoulvant, Gabriel (Louis) (b. Feb. 8, 1872, Longjumeau, Yvelines, France - d. Oct. 15, 1932, Paris), acting governor of French Somaliland (1900), governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1905-06), French India (1906-07), and Ivory Coast (1908-16), governor-general of French Equatorial Africa (1917-20), and acting governor-general of French West Africa (1918-19).
Anguilé, André Gustave (b. March 3, 1920 - d. May 23, 1999, Paris, France), foreign minister of Gabon (1960-61).
Anguita González, Julio (b. Nov. 21, 1941, Fuengirola, near Málaga, Andalusia, Spain), general secretary of the Spanish Communist Party (1988-98).
Angula, Nahas (Gideon) (b. Aug. 22, 1943, Onyaanya, Oshikoto region, South West Africa [now Namibia]), prime minister (2005-12) and defense minister (2012- ) of Namibia. He was minister of education, culture, and sport in 1990-95 and of higher education in 1995-2005.
Angulo (Hernández), Mauro (b. Nov. 12, 1889, La Magdalena Tlaltelulco, Chiautempan municipality, Tlaxcala, Mexico - d. [assassinated] Feb. 17, 1948, Mexico City, Mexico), provisional governor (1933) and interim governor (1944-45) of Tlaxcala.
Anictomatis, John (Christopher) (b. Dec. 28, 1945, Piraeus, Greece), administrator of the Northern Territory (2000-03).
Anifah (bin Haji) Aman, Datuk (b. Nov. 16, 1953, Keningau, British North Borneo [now Sabah]), foreign minister of Malaysia (2009- ); brother of Datuk Musa Aman.
Anin, Patrick Dankwa (b. July 27, 1928, Bekwai, Amansie East district, Ashanti region, Gold Coast [now Ghana] - d. Oct. 24, 1999, Accra, Ghana), foreign minister of Ghana (1969, 1969). He was also a justice of The Gambia Court of Appeal from 1978 and its president in 1993-94.
Anio, Pama (d. July 3, 2000, Lae, Morobe, Papua New Guinea), premier of Morobe (1978-80).
Anjaiah, Tanguturi (b. 1919 - d. October 1986), chief minister of Andhra Pradesh (1980-82).
Anjos, Assunção (Afonso de Sousa) dos (b. 1946, Luanda, Angola), foreign minister of Angola (2008-10). He was ambassador to Spain (1993-99), France (2000-02), and Portugal (2002-08).
Anjos, Carlos Gustavo dos (b. Sept. 1, 1956, São Tomé), foreign minister of São Tomé and Príncipe (2006-07).
Ankrah, Joseph (Arthur) (b. Aug. 18, 1915, Accra, Gold Coast [now Ghana] - d. Nov. 25, 1992), chairman of the National Liberation Council (1966-69) and foreign minister (1966-67) of Ghana.
Ankvab, Aleksandr (Zolotinskovich) (b. Dec. 26, 1952, Sukhumi, Abkhaz A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R.), prime minister (2005-10), vice president (2010-11), and president (2011-14) of Abkhazia.
Annadif, Mahamat Saleh (b. Dec. 25, 1956, Arada, Chad), foreign minister of Chad (1997-2003).
Annadurai, C(onjeevaram) N(atarajan) (b. Sept. 15, 1909, Kanchipuram [now in Tamil Nadu], India - d. Feb. 3, 1969), chief minister of Tamil Nadu (1967-69).
Annan, Kofi (Atta) (b. April 8, 1938, Kumasi, Gold Coast [now Ghana]), secretary-general of the United Nations (1997-2006). Annan, whose father was elected governor of Ashanti province and a hereditary paramount chief of the Fante people, began working for the UN in 1962, first in Geneva at the World Health Organization. He remained with the UN ever since, except for a stint as director of tourism in Ghana (1974-76). His first high-profile task was negotiating the release of Western hostages in Iraq in 1990. In 1990-92 he was assistant secretary-general for program planning, budget, and finance. On March 1, 1993, he became assistant secretary-general for peacekeeping operations, and in February 1994 he was elevated to under-secretary-general. From November 1995 to March 1996 he served as special representative to the secretary-general for the former Yugoslavia, overseeing the transition of peacekeeping operations from UN forces to NATO forces. U.S. negativism toward the UN was exacerbated by the independent style of Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali, and in 1996, although Boutros-Ghali had widespread support on the Security Council for a second term, the U.S. vetoed his reelection and successfully lobbied for the election instead of Annan, who thus became the first person from sub-Saharan Africa to serve as secretary-general, and the first to rise through the ranks of the organization. He improved relations with the U.S. and streamlined the UN bureaucracy. Calm, approachable, and affable, with his wide range of experience and his gentle manner, he gained wide popularity. One of his priorities was the fight against AIDS. He was appointed to a second term in 2001. That same year he was the corecipient, with the UN itself, of the Nobel Peace Prize.
Anne (b. Feb. 16, 1665 [Feb. 6, 1664, Old Style], St. James Palace, London - d. Aug. 12 [Aug. 1, O.S.], 1714, Kensington Palace, London), queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1702-07) and of Great Britain and Ireland (1707-14).
Annet, Armand (Léon) (b. June 5, 1888, Paris, France - d. April 25, 1973, Paris), governor of French Somaliland (1935-37) and Dahomey (1938-40) and governor-general of Madagascar (1941-42).
Ansari, (Mohammad) Hamid (b. April 1, 1937, Calcutta, India), vice president of India (2007- ). He was also ambassador to the United Arab Emirates (1976-79), Afghanistan (1989-90), Iran (1990-92), and Saudi Arabia (1995-99), high commissioner to Australia (1985-89), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1993-95).
Ansari, Shaukatullah Shah (b. June 16, 1908, Mirzapur, United Provinces [now in Uttar Pradesh], India - d. Dec. 29, 1972), governor of Orissa (1968-71).
Ansary, Hushang (b. 1928), economy minister (1969-77) and finance minister (1974-77) of Iran. He was also ambassador to the U.S. (1967-69). He lives in the U.S. since 1979 and became a citizen in 1986.
Ansel, Martin F(rederick) (b. Dec. 12, 1850, Charleston, S.C. - d. Aug. 24, 1945), governor of South Carolina (1907-11).
Ansell, Graham (Keith) (b. 1931), administrator of Tokelau (1990-92).
Ansip, Andrus (b. Oct. 1, 1956, Tartu, Estonian S.S.R.), prime minister of Estonia (2005-14). He was mayor of Tartu in 1998-2004. In 2014 he was named a vice president of the European Commission.
Anslinger, Harry J(acob) (b. May 20, 1892, Altoona, Pa. - d. Nov. 14, 1975, Holidaysburg, Pa.), commissioner of the U.S. Bureau of Narcotics (1930-62).
Ansquer, Vincent (Félix Jean-Marie) (b. Jan. 11, 1925, Treize-Septiers, Vendée, France - d. June 1, 1987, Paris), president of the Regional Council of Pays de la Loire (1974) and French minister of commerce and craft industry (1974-76) and of quality of life (1976-77).
Antadze, Merab (b. Aug. 4, 1952, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), deputy foreign minister (1998-2006) and acting foreign minister (2003) of Georgia.
Antall, József (b. April 8, 1932, Budapest, Hungary - d. Dec. 12, 1993, Budapest), prime minister of Hungary (1990-93). He was serving as chairman of a revolutionary committee at the Eötvös Gymnasium at the outbreak of the Hungarian revolution of 1956, when the communist regime was overthrown but reinstated seven days later by a Soviet invasion. He was briefly taken into police custody and was banned from teaching and publishing until 1963. Later, when political pluralism was sanctioned by the ruling reform communists, Antall was a founding member (1988) of the centre-right Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF), was elected its chairman in 1989, and showed his skill as a negotiator in the roundtable talks that led to multiparty elections in March 1990. He became prime minister following his party's victory in those elections. He moved the MDF away from its more populist roots towards a more conservative, Christian Democratic profile. His government began the transition to a market economy, sought foreign investment and Western alliances. He died in office.
Antanovich, Ivan (Ivanavich) (b. April 3, 1937, Domashi village, Poland [now in Brest voblast, Belarus]), foreign minister of Belarus (1997-98).
Antas, Francisco Xavier da Silva Pereira, (1º) barão, (1º) visconde e (1º) conde das (b. March 14, 1793, Valença, Portugal - d. May 20, 1852, Lisbon), governor-general of Portuguese India (1842-43).
Anthonioz, Pierre (Amédée Joseph Émile Jean) (b. Jan. 7, 1913, Geneva, Switzerland - d. May 5, 1996), French resident commissioner of the New Hebrides (1949-58) and high commissioner of Mauritania (1959-60). He was also ambassador to Mauritania (1960-62), Ghana (1968-72), and Sri Lanka (1975-78).
Anthony, Doug, byname of John Douglas Anthony (b. Dec. 31, 1929, Murwillumbah, N.S.W., Australia), Australian politician. He was an MP from 1957 to 1983 and was leader (1971-84) of the National Country Party (from 1982 National Party). He held several ministerial portfolios - interior (1964-67), primary industry (1967-71), trade and industry (1971-72), overseas trade (1975-77), national resources (1975-77), trade and resources (1977-83) - and was deputy prime minister (1971-72, 1975-83), in which role he acted formally as prime minister for approximately 25 periods ranging from days to months, and informally on many more.
Anthony, George T(obey) (b. June 9, 1824, Mayfield, N.Y. - d. Aug. 5, 1896, Leavenworth, Kan.), governor of Kansas (1877-79).
Anthony, Henry B(owen) (b. April 1, 1815, Coventry, R.I. - d. Sept. 2, 1884, Providence, R.I.), governor of Rhode Island (1849-51).
Anthony, Kenny (Davis) (b. Jan. 8, 1951, St. Lucia), prime minister of St. Lucia (1997-2006, 2011- ). In August 1979, he took up an appointment as special advisor in the St. Lucia Ministry of Education and Culture, before becoming minister of education (1980-81). In March 1995 he was seconded to the Caribbean Community Secretariat, where he served as general counsel until his resignation to contest the election for the position of political leader of the St. Lucia Labour Party at the party's convention in April 1996. On April 21 he was elected to that position. His party won the parliamentary election of May 23, 1997, in which he was elected from Vieux Fort South, and he became prime minister the following day. He recognized China and dropped relations with Taiwan. His government was reelected in 2001 but defeated in 2006, when he narrowly held his own seat. The following (United Workers Party) government promptly reestablished ties with Taiwan. In 2011 he again won elections, pledging to undertake a review of the island's foreign relations, which was believed to mean a switch to renewed ties with China.
Antich i Oliver, Francesc (b. Nov. 28, 1958, Caracas, Venezuela), president of the government of Baleares (1999-2003, 2007-11).
Antoine, James L. (b. 1949, Fort Simpson, Northwest Territories, Canada), premier of the Northwest Territories (1998-2000).
Anton II, original name T`eimuraz (b. Jan. 8, 1762, Telavi, Georgia - d. Dec. 2, 1827, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia), catholicos-patriarch of Iberia (1788-1811); son of King Irakli II of Georgia.
Antonescu, (George) Crin (Laurentiu) (b. Sept. 21, 1959, Tulcea, Romania), president of the Senate (2012-14) and acting president (2012) of Romania.
Antonescu, Ion (b. June 15, 1882, Pitesti, Romania - d. June 1, 1946, Jilava, Romania), prime minister of Romania (1940-44). He fought with the Romanian armies in World War I and served as military attaché in his country's embassies in London and Paris after the war, later rising to chief of the army's general staff (1934) and minister of war (1937). He was dismissed in 1938 as a sympathizer of the Iron Guard fascist group and later imprisoned for "prohibited political activity." German demands on Romania early in World War II led to serious internal disorders; the country lost Bessarabia to the U.S.S.R. in June 1940 and northern Transylvania to Hungary in August. King Carol II was compelled to offer the premiership to Antonescu on September 4, just three days after releasing him from prison. Antonescu promptly forced Carol's abdication, established a totalitarian dictatorship, and openly embraced the Axis powers. His "National Legionary State" briefly brought the Iron Guard to power, but he suppressed the organization in early 1941. On June 22, 1941, he joined Germany in invading the Soviet Union. Initially popular, his support eroded as losses mounted on the Russian front. In August 1944, during the Soviet counterattack which penetrated Romania, Antonescu was arrested by King Mihai I, and in September he and other Romanians accused of active collaboration with the Nazis were turned over to Soviet military authorities. On May 17, 1946, after a ten-day trial in a Romanian people's court, he and 12 of his associates were convicted on charges of war crimes and sentenced to death. Both the supreme court and the king refused his appeal for clemency, and he was executed by firing squad.
Antonescu, Mihai (b. 1907 - d. [executed] June 13, 1946), foreign minister of Romania (1941-44).
Antonescu, Victor (b. Sept. 3, 1871, Antonesti municipality, Teleorman county, Romania - d. Aug. 22, 1946, Bucharest), finance minister (1935-36) and foreign minister (1936-37) of Romania.
Antonetti, Raphaël (Valentin Marius) (b. Dec. 2, 1872, Marseille, France - d. April 7, 1938, Paris, France), administrator of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1906-08), acting governor of Dahomey (1909-10, 1911) and Senegal (1914-16), acting lieutenant governor of Haut-Sénégal-Niger (1916-17), governor of Ivory Coast (1918-24), and governor-general of French Equatorial Africa (1924-34).
Antonic, Vasilije (b. April 12, 1860, Rudnik, Serbia - d. 1929, Belgrade, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia]), foreign minister of Serbia (1902, 1905-06). He was also armed forces minister (1901-02, 1905-06) and minister to Montenegro.
Antonio, Joseph Philippe (b. July 22, 1939, Saint-Marc, Haiti), foreign minister of Haiti (2001-04).
Antonione, Roberto (b. June 15, 1953, Novara, Italy), president of Friuli-Venezia Giulia (1998-2001).
Antony, A(rakkaparambil) K(urian) (b. Dec. 28, 1940, Cherthala, Kerala, India), chief minister of Kerala (1977-78, 1995-96, 2001-04) and defense minister of India (2006-14). He was also minister of civil supplies (1993-94).
Antosenko, Oleg (Dmitriyevich) (b. Feb. 9, 1959, Kuybyshev, Russian S.F.S.R. [now Samara, Russia]), acting plenipotentiary of the president in Dalnevostochny federal district (2007).
Antrobus, Sir Charles (James) (b. May 14, 1933, Old Montrose, Saint Vincent - d. June 3, 2002, Toronto, Ontario, Canada), governor-general of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1996-2002); knighted 1996.
Antulay, A(bdul) R(ehman) (b. Feb. 9, 1929, Ambet village, Kolaba district [now Raigad district, Maharashtra], India - d. Dec. 2, 2014, Mumbai, India), chief minister of Maharashtra (1980-82). He was also Indian minister of health and family welfare (1995-96), water resources (1996), and minority affairs (2006-09).
Antunes, Ernesto Augusto de Melo (b. Oct. 2, 1933, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Aug. 10, 1999, Sintra, Portugal), Portuguese politician. He was an ideological leader of the Armed Forces Movement that engineered the "Revolution of the Flowers," the overthrow of Marcelo Caetano's right-wing dictatorship in Portugal in a near-bloodless coup on April 25, 1974, and the return to a democratic government, in which he held several posts, notably deputy prime minister and twice foreign minister (1975, 1975-76). He sat on the Council of the Revolution, the body set up to oversee the return to democracy, until it was dissolved as no longer necessary in 1982.
Antunovic, Zdenko (b. Aug. 8, 1960, Bugojno, Yugoslavia [now in Bosnia and Herzegovina]), premier of Central Bosnia (2001-03).
Anwar (bin Datuk) Ibrahim (Abdul Rahman), Datuk Seri (b. Aug. 10, 1947, Cherok Tok Kun, Penang, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), Malaysian politician. As a charismatic student leader, he spent 22 months in jail for leading a demonstration by impoverished farmers. He co-founded the pro-Islamic Malaysian Muslim Youth Movement and battled for a wider role for Islam in running the nation. As his politics moderated, he rose to power on the coattails of his longtime mentor, Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad. He joined Mahathir's ruling party in 1982 and rose quickly to become minister of culture, youth and sports (1983-84), agriculture (1984-86), education (1986-91), and finance (1991-98). In 1993, he engineered a groundswell of support within his party to secure his position as deputy prime minister and deputy president of the ruling United Malays National Organization (UMNO). Mahathir personally groomed Anwar to take over for him when he retired. But as Malaysia's economy slid into recession in 1998, Anwar's standing fell as he differed with Mahathir on the course of recovery. The rift between Mahathir and Anwar surfaced openly in June during the annual UMNO convention, where party leaders suspected he was behind a campaign for political reform. After that campaign was put down by Mahathir, Anwar tried to mend fences with the prime minister, but it was too late. Mahathir sacked him on September 2, accusing him of corruption and sodomy and deeming him morally unfit to take over the country. He was jailed 18 days later. His wife, Azizah Ismail, became the leader of his political reform movement, launching the National Justice Party. Anwar, who had earlier distanced himself from Islamic fundamentalists, aligned himself with them soon after he was fired. He was released in 2004 after his sodomy conviction was overturned. The corruption conviction was, however, upheld, so that he could not return to electoral politics before 2008. In that year he was again charged with sodomy in what he said was a political conspiracy to keep him from entering parliament. He nevertheless did so in a by-election. He was acquitted in 2012. He received the titles Dato' Seri (October 1990), Dato' (July 16, 1991), Datuk Seri (Aug. 15, 1991), Dato' Seri Utama (July 18, 1994), Datuk Seri Panglima (Sept. 16, 1994), and Dato' Seri DiRaja (Dec. 3, 1995).
Anyaoku, Emeka, in full Eleazar Chukwuemeka Anyaoku (b. Jan. 18, 1933, Obosi [now in Anambra state], Nigeria), foreign minister of Nigeria (1983) and secretary-general of The Commonwealth (1990-2000). He was also president of the World Wide Fund for Nature (2002-09).
Anza (Bezerra), Juan Bautista de (b. July 7?, 1736, Cuquiárachi or Presidio de Fronteras, Sonora [near present Douglas, Ariz.] - d. Dec. 19, 1788, Arizpe, Sonora), governor of New Mexico (1777-88).
Anzaldo, Sebastian, byname Subby Anzaldo, acting mayor of Omaha (1994-95).
Anze Matienzo, Eduardo (b. Oct. 14, 1902, Cochabamba, Bolivia - d. 1979, Argentina), foreign minister of Bolivia (1941-42) and UN high commissioner for Eritrea (1951-52). He was also minister to Peru (1940-41).
Anziani, Armand (b. November 1904, Marseille, France - d. May 6, 1960, Murcia, Spain), governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1949-50).
Anzilotti, Dionisio (b. Feb. 20, 1867, Pescia, Tuscany, Italy - d. Aug. 23, 1950, Pescia), president of the Permanent Court of International Justice (1928-30).
Anzilotti, Enrico (b. Feb. 8, 1898 - d. Dec. 17, 1983), administrator of Somalia (1957-58); son of Dionisio Anzilotti.
Ao, (P.) Shilu (b. Dec. 24, 1916, Longjang village, Assam [now in Mokokchung district, Nagaland], India - d. Sept. 19, 1988, Mokokchung, Nagaland), chief minister of Nagaland (1963-66).
Aoki, Mikio (b. June 8, 1934, Taisha, Shimane prefecture, Japan), acting prime minister of Japan (2000). A longtime member of the Liberal-Democratic Party (LDP), he was elected as a member of the Shimane prefectural assembly in 1967. After five terms in the assembly, in 1976 he turned his interests to national politics and ran successfully for a seat in the House of Representatives. In 1986 he was elected to the House of Councillors (the upper house). In 1998 he became secretary-general for the LDP's upper house members. He boosted his reputation by winning cooperation from the Buddhist-backed New Komeito Party in passing a number of key bills, including one to legally recognize Japan's national flag and anthem, during the session of parliament which ended in August 1999. The New Komeito was then the second-biggest opposition party, and the LDP-Liberal coalition lacked a majority in the upper house, making support from the New Komeito critical. In October 1999 Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi appointed him chief cabinet secretary. When on April 2, 2000, Obuchi suffered a major stroke, and fell into a deep coma, Aoki was promptly appointed acting prime minister, but controversy soon arose when he and the rest of the cabinet tried to hide the news of the prime minister's condition from the public, fearing the "political vacuum" that could occur if Obuchi was forced to resign. On April 5 Aoki and the cabinet admitted defeat, and agreed to step down. Yoshiro Mori was then elected by the LDP to become prime minister.
Aoshima, Yukio (b. July 17, 1932, Tokyo, Japan - d. Dec. 20, 2006, Tokyo), governor of Tokyo (1995-99). He became a member of the House of Councillors, the upper house of the Diet, in 1968 and was reelected five times, serving 24 years. He ran as an independent in the 1995 Tokyo gubernatorial election and won, beating Nobuo Ishihara, who was backed by almost all the major non-Communist parties. As he promised in his election campaign, he canceled the hosting of the World City Expo in Tokyo's Odaiba waterfront district that was planned for 1996, disrupting several large construction projects. He unsuccessfully ran in the upper house election in 2004.
Aoun, Michel (Naïm), Arabic Mishal Na`im al-`Awn (b. Feb. 18, 1935, Haret Hreïk, Lebanon), Lebanese general. In September 1988, when Parliament could not meet to elect a successor, Pres. Amin Gemayel appointed Aoun, the commander-in-chief of the army, to lead a transitional military government that consisted of six officers. Aoun was to serve as the Christian prime minister, and Salim Hoss was to be his Muslim counterpart. The arrangement fractured, so that Aoun controlled Christian East Beirut and Hoss led Muslim West Beirut. The transitional government was completely unsuccessful, and the country fell nearly into anarchy. Aoun believed his country's problems resulted from the intrusion of foreign invaders rather than from internal differences. In March 1989 he declared a "war of liberation" against Syria. He believed that only after the Syrian military presence was eliminated from Lebanon could the country's other problems be solved. His Muslim counterparts were working closely with Syria, however, which led to an increasingly violent deadlock. Meeting in at-Ta`if, Saudi Arabia, with the support of the Arab League, 62 Lebanese legislators created a new national charter for governing Lebanon. The arrangement called for Syria to redeploy its 40,000 troops into the Beqaa region over the next two years as a first stage toward possible eventual withdrawal from the country. The accord also redistributed political power between Muslims and Christians in the Parliament, neutralizing the Christian dominance mandated by Lebanon's 1943 constitution. Aoun rejected the accord. When parliament elected René Moawad president in November, Aoun denounced the election and remained in the presidential palace in Baabda. He surrendered only on Oct. 13, 1990, and went to the French embassy where he was given political asylum. He lived in exile in France since Aug. 30, 1991, but returned to Beirut on May 7, 2005, after the departure of the last Syrian troops on April 26.
Apang, Gegong (b. Jan. 10, 1947, Karko village, Upper Siang district, Assam [now in Arunachal Pradesh], India), chief minister of Arunachal Pradesh (1980-99, 2003-07).
Apel, Hans (Eberhard) (b. Feb. 25, 1932, Hamburg, Germany - d. Sept. 6, 2011, Hamburg), finance minister (1974-78) and defense minister (1978-82) of West Germany.
Apfel, Kenneth S(tephen) (b. Oct. 12, 1948, Worcester, Mass.), commissioner of the U.S. Social Security Administration (1997-2001).
Apithy, (Joseph) Sourou Migan (Marcellin) (b. April 8, 1913, Porto-Novo, Dahomey [now Benin] - d. Dec. 3, 1989, Paris, France), prime minister (1957-59) and president (1964-65) of Dahomey.
Apodaca, Jerry, byname of Raymond S. Apodaca (b. Oct. 3, 1934, Las Cruces, N.M.), governor of New Mexico (1975-79).
Aponte (Silvero), (José) Alfredo (b. March 19, 1874, Yhacanguazú village, Paraguay - d. 19...), member of the Triumvirate of Paraguay (1912).
Apostol, Danylo (Pavlovych) (b. Dec. 14, 1654 - d. Jan. 28, 1734, Sorochyntsi, Ukraine), hetman of Ukraine (1727-34).
Apostol, Gheorghe (b. May 16, 1913, Tudor Vladimirescu, Galati judet, Romania - d. Aug. 21, 2010), first secretary of the Romanian Workers' Party (1954-55). He was later ambassador to various Latin American countries.
Apostol, John C., mayor of Annapolis (1973-81).
Apostolski, Vanco (b. 1925 - d. Sept. 8, 2008), president of the Presidency of Macedonia (1985-86).
Aquino, Benigno (Simeon, Jr.), byname Ninoy Aquino (b. Nov. 27, 1932, Concepcion, Tarlac province, Philippines - d. Aug. 21, 1983, Manila, Philippines), Philippine politician. He embarked on his political career in 1955 when he was elected mayor of Concepcion, becoming at age 22 the youngest mayor in the archipelago. In 1959, he was elected vice governor of Tarlac province, and he succeeded to the governorship two years later; again he was the youngest such official in the country. In 1963, he was elected governor in his own right. In 1966 he became secretary-general of the Liberal Party, and the prime foe of Pres. Ferdinand E. Marcos, who a year earlier had quit the ranks of the Liberal Party to be elected president as leader of the Nationalist Party. In November 1967 Aquino won one of eight at-large Senate seats with the highest vote of any candidate; the other seven seats all went to Nationalist members or allies. In 1968 he became national leader of the Liberal Party and he was widely viewed as a likely presidential candidate in the 1973 elections. But in September 1971, Marcos charged Aquino with being a Communist, and when Marcos declared martial law on Sept. 23, 1972, Aquino was immediately jailed on charges of murder and subversion. He was sentenced to death in November 1977. In May 1980, his death sentence commuted, he was allowed to travel to the U.S. to undergo heart surgery. He remained in the U.S. until 1983, when he decided to return, hoping to rally the opposition. Having been warned at least three times about assassination plots against him, he donned a bulletproof vest, but while disembarking from the plane in Manila escorted by three security guards, he was shot in the back of the head. The alleged assassin, Rolando Galman, was instantly slain on the heavily guarded tarmac.
Aquino, Benigno, III, in full Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino, byname Noynoy Aquino (b. Feb. 8, 1960, Manila, Philippines), president of the Philippines (2010- ); son of Benigno Aquino and Corazon Aquino.
B. Aquino III
Aquino, (Maria) Corazon (Cojuangco), née Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco, byname Cory Aquino (b. Jan. 25, 1933, Manila, Philippines - d. Aug. 1, 2009, Makati, Philippines), president of the Philippines (1986-92). In 1955 she married Benigno Aquino, who was then a promising young politician. Corazon remained in the background during her husband's subsequent career, rearing their five children while he concentrated on being elected mayor, governor, and senator. But her role began to change in 1972, when Pres. Ferdinand E. Marcos declared martial law and imprisoned Benigno. She accompanied him into exile in 1980. After Benigno was assassinated upon returning to the Philippines in August 1983, she became the symbol of moral opposition to the Marcos regime. When Marcos unexpectedly called presidential elections for February 1986, she became the unified opposition's presidential candidate. Although Marcos was officially declared the winner, independent observers charged the regime with widespread fraud. High officials in the military soon publicly renounced Marcos' continued rule and proclaimed Aquino the rightful president. On Feb. 25, 1986, both Aquino and Marcos were inaugurated as president by their respective supporters, but faced with the desertion of his allies, Marcos fled the country the same day. As president, Aquino moved quickly to end the repression of the Marcos years; a new constitution was ratified by a landslide popular vote in February 1987. However, there was no change in the social and economic conditions, and her popularity declined as mass poverty persisted. She faced continuing problems from communist insurgents and from sections of the military, who mounted unsuccessful coup attempts in 1986, 1987, and 1990.