Index Am-Aq

Amadeo I, in full Fernando María Amadeo de Saboya y Austria (b. May 30, 1845, Turin, Piedmont [now in Italy] - d. Jan. 18, 1890, Turin), king of Spain (1871-73); son of Vittorio Emanuele II.

Amadeo, Mario (Octavio) (b. Jan. 15, 1911, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. March 19, 1983, Buenos Aires), foreign minister of Argentina (1955). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1958-62) and ambassador to Brazil (1966-69).

Amadi Lubenga, Jean-Pierre (b. March 13, 1970, Kasongo, Congo [Kinshasa]), acting governor of Maniema (2020-21).

Amado, Luís (Filipe Marques) (b. Sept. 17, 1953, Porto de Mós, Portugal), defense minister (2005-06) and foreign minister (2006-11) of Portugal.

Amado y Reygondaud de Villebardet, Andrés (b. Dec. 14, 1886, Alicante, Spain - d. Aug. 7, 1964, Madrid, Spain), finance minister of Spain (Franco government, 1936-39).

Amador Fierro, Manuel (b. June 27, 1832, Cartagena, New Granada [now Colombia] - d. Nov. 12, 1881, Cartagena), president of Bolívar (1867-70) and war and navy minister of Colombia (1870-71, 1871, 1879-80). He was also minister of education (1880).

Amador Guerrero, Manuel (b. June 30, 1833, Turbaco, near Cartagena, New Granada [now Colombia] - d. May 2, 1909, Panama City, Panama), president of Panama (1904-08). He was acting president of the Colombian state of Panamá in 1886. When the Colombian Senate in 1903 refused to ratify the Hay-Herrán Treaty granting the United States a right-of-way for the Panama Canal, he and others organized a secret secession movement. He communicated the secessionists' plan to the highest officials of the U.S. government and reportedly was assured that the U.S. Navy would intervene on behalf of the secessionists. The revolution succeeded according to plan on Nov. 3, 1903, and a treaty authorizing a canal right-of-way was soon signed. He was unanimously selected as the first president of the new republic by the constitutional convention despite a stipulation in the constitution that the president be born in Panama.

H. Amadou

Amadou, Hama (b. 1950, Youri village, near Niamey, Niger), prime minister of Niger (1995-96, 2000-07). He also served as information minister (1988-90). He was a presidential candidate in 2011. Later in 2011 he became president of the National Assembly. In 2014 he fled the country after his immunity was lifted in a baby trafficking scandal. He was arrested in November 2015. From behind bars he ran again in the 2016 presidential election and came second, but he boycotted the runoff against President Mahamadou Issoufou.

Amadou, Marou (b. Jan. 1, 1972, Kotaki, Falmey département, Niger), justice minister (2011-21) and acting foreign minister (2020-21) of Niger. He was appointed ambassador to Ethiopia in 2021.

Amaechi, (Chief Chibuike) Rotimi (b. May 27, 1965, Ubima, Ikwerre local government area [now in Rivers state], Nigeria), governor of Rivers (2007-15). He was also Nigerian minister of transportation (2015-22).

Amagayev, Matvey (Innokentyevich) (b. June 30 [June 18, O.S.], 1897, Doodo-Naymagut ulus, Irkutsk province, Russia - d. Aug. 18, 1944, Sevzheldor camp, Komi A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Buryat-Mongol A.S.S.R. (1923-24). He was also chairman of the Buryat-Mongol Revolutionary Committee (1922-23) and people's commissar of finance (1923-24).

Amambahy, Antonio Maria Coelho, barão do (b. Sept. 8, 1827, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil - d. Aug. 29, 1894, Corumbá, Mato Grosso [now in Mato Grosso do Sul]), governor of Mato Grosso (1889-91). He was made baron in 1889.

Amamou, Mohamed (b. Oct. 7, 1933, Kairouan, Tunisia - d. March 30, 2014, Tunis, Tunisia), secretary-general of the Arab Maghreb Union (1991-2002). He was also Tunisian chargé d'affaires in Jordan (1969-71) and ambassador to Zaire (1972-73), Lebanon and Jordan (1974-78), Morocco and Portugal (1985-87), and Syria (1987-89).

Åman, (Oskar) Valter (b. March 2, 1905, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Feb. 8, 1998), governor of Örebro (1961-71).

Aman Mikael Andom (b. July 21, 1924, Khartoum, Sudan - d. Nov. 23, 1974, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia), chairman of the Provisional Military Administrative Council of Ethiopia (1974). Shortly after being pushed out of his position by more radical elements of the PMAC, he either committed suicide or was killed while resisting arrest.

Amanbayev, Jumgalbek (Beksultanovich) (b. Feb. 2, 1946, Chayok village, Dzhumgal rayon, Issyk-Kul oblast, Kirgiz S.S.R. - d. Feb. 7, 2005), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Kirgiz S.S.R. (1991). He was also first secretary of the party committee of Issyk-Kul oblast (1988-91), a deputy prime minister (1993-95), and a presidential candidate (1995).

Amangeldiyev, Dadebay (Saparovich), Turkmen Dädebaý (Saparowiç) Amangeldiýew (b. 1965, Khudik Muradov village, Turkmen S.S.R. [now in Dashoguz velayat, Turkmenistan]), a deputy prime minister of Turkmenistan (2017-19). He was also chairman of Turkmenavtoyollary State Concern (2013-17).

Amanmuradov, Orazgeldy, Turkmen Orazgeldi Amanmyradow (b. 1970, Dostluk village, Turkmen S.S.R. [now in Akhal velayat, Turkmenistan]), interior minister of Turkmenistan (2007-09).

Amani N'Guessan, Michel (b. 1957), defense minister of Côte d'Ivoire (2007-10). He was also minister of national education (2000-07).

Amannepesov, Nurmukhammed (Kakabayevich), Turkmen Nurmuhammet (Kakabaýewiç) Amannepesow (b. 1965, Kelteminar, Karakalpak A.S.S.R., Uzbek S.S.R.), a deputy prime minister of Turkmenistan (2022- ). He was also minister of health (2013-22).

Amano, Kimiyoshi (b. March 2, 1921, Tokyo, Japan - d. July 29, 1990), home affairs minister of Japan (1976). He was also director-general of the Hokkaido Development Agency (1976).

Amano, Yukiya (b. May 9, 1947, Kanagawa prefecture, Japan - d. July 18, 2019, Japan), director-general of the International Atomic Energy Agency (2009-19).

Amanov, Batyr (Amangeldiyevich), Turkmen Batyr (Amangeldiýewiç) Amanow (b. 1978, Ashkhabad, Turkmen S.S.R. [now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan]), a deputy prime minister of Turkmenistan (2023- ). He was also chairman of Turkmengaz State Concern (2020-23).

Amanov, Charymurad (Kakaliyevich), Turkmen Çarymyrat (Kakalyýewiç) Amanow (b. 1966, Geoktepe rayon, Turkmen S.S.R. [now Gyokdepe etrap, Akhal velayat, Turkmenistan]), a deputy prime minister of Turkmenistan (2020-22). He was also minister of national security (2007-11) and secretary of the State Security Council (2020-22).

Amansakhatov, Dzhumageldy, Turkmen Jumageldi Amansahatow (b. 1950, Geoktepe, Ashkhabad oblast, Turkmen S.S.R. [now Gyokdepe, Akhal velayat, Turkmenistan]), a deputy prime minister of Turkmenistan (1992-96). He was also head of Akhal velayat (1992-96).

Amantea, Luigi (b. Nov. 30, 1869, Rossano, Calabria, Italy - d. April 9, 1949, Rome, Italy), high commissioner of Fiume (1921).

Amanuel Giorgio, Eritrean diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (2016-19).

Amanullah Khan (b. June 1, 1892, Paghman, Afghanistan - d. April 25, 1960, Zürich, Switzerland), ruler of Afghanistan (1919-29). He was the third son of Emir Habibullah Khan. When the latter was assassinated in February 1919, Amanullah was governor of Kabul and in possession of the arsenal and the treasury. He took the throne over the prior claims of his uncle Nasrullah, whom he denounced as an usurper and an accomplice in the murder of his father. The British had granted subsidies to previous Afghan rulers in exchange for control over Afghan foreign relations. Amanullah, however, declared full independence from Great Britain in his coronation address. British reluctance to accept this led to Afghan attacks on British India, marking the start of the third Anglo-Afghan War. But Britain was war-weary and no serious fighting occurred. In August 1919 the Treaty of Rawalpindi was signed by which Afghanistan gave up the subsidy in exchange for freedom from control. Amanullah was hailed momentarily at home as a liberator, and within the next two years signed treaties with the Soviet Union, Turkey, France, Italy, Germany, and Iran. He introduced many reforms, including an education program and road-building projects. But he faced opposition by reactionaries and was soon engaged in subduing internal revolts. In 1926 he changed his title from amir to padshah (king). After making a prolonged tour of Europe in 1928, he tried to impose monogamy and introduce European clothing, which alienated the powerful mullahs. A tribal revolt in that year resulted in a chaotic situation during which a notorious bandit leader, Baccheh Saqow, seized Kabul and declared himself ruler. Amanullah was forced to abdicate in January 1929 and went into exile in May, settling in Italy and later in Switzerland.

Amar, Agdanbuugiyn, also appearing as Anandyn Amar (b. 1886, in present Khangal sum, Bulgan aymag, Mongolia - d. [executed] July 27, 1941, Butovo, near Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), foreign minister (1923-24, 1936-39), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1928-30, 1936-39), and chairman of the Presidium of the State Little Khural (1932-36) of Mongolia. He was also deputy premier (1923-28). He was arrested in March 1939 and sentenced to death by a Soviet military tribunal in July 1941, but posthumously rehabilitated in 1962.

Amar, Jean Baptiste André (or Jean Pierre André Amar) (b. May 11, 1755, Grenoble, France - d. Dec. 21, 1816), president of the National Convention of France (1794).

Amar, Shlomo (b. 1948, Morocco), Sephardic chief rabbi of Israel (2003-13).

Amar, Sidi Mohamed Ould Taleb (b. Dec. 31, 1963), Mauritanian politician. He was minister for hydraulics and energy (2004-05) and rural development, hydraulics, and environment (2005), ambassador to China (2007-09) and Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Ukraine, Latvia, and Estonia (2009-18), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2019-20).

Amaraich, Andon (L.) (b. Aug. 24, 1932, Ta island, Truk [now Chuuk], Micronesia [now in Federated States of Micronesia] - d. Jan. 26, 2010, Honolulu, Hawaii), foreign minister of the Federated States of Micronesia (1979-90). In 1992 he became associate justice, and in 1994 chief justice, of the Supreme Court, serving until his death.

Amaral, Angelo Thomaz do (b. 1822, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. August 1911), president of Amazonas (1857), Alagoas (1857-59), and Pará (1860-61).

Amaral, Antonio Joaquim Alvares do (b. July 25, 1795, São Salvador da Bahia [now Salvador], Brazil - d. May 18, 1853, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Sergipe (1845-46) and Maranhão (1848-49).

Amaral, Francisco Joaquim Ferreira do (b. June 11, 1844, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Aug. 11, 1923, Lisbon), governor of São Tomé and Príncipe (1879), governor-general of Angola (1882-86) and Portuguese India (1886), and prime minister of Portugal (1908). He was also minister of marine and colonies (1892), foreign affairs (1892-93), and interior (1908).

F.X. do Amaral
Amaral, Francisco Xavier do (b. 1937, Turiscai village, Portuguese Timor [now Timor-Leste] - d. March 6, 2012, Dili, Timor-Leste), East Timorese leader. Amaral became the first president of the Democratic Republic of East Timor proclaimed by the Fretilin movement on Nov. 28, 1975. He remained in Dili while his foreign minister, José Ramos-Horta, went abroad to seek diplomatic recognition. Dressed in olive-green fatigues, giving a clenched-fist salute with his colleagues outside the former Portuguese governor's office in Dili, Amaral's place on the world stage did not last long. Ten days later, on Dec. 7, 1975, Indonesian troops landed in Dili and drove Fretilin into the mountains. A split developed among the guerrillas as the Indonesians tightened their grip. Amaral was overthrown (1978), held in an underground cell, and tortured with hot irons. He was accused of having radio contact with the Indonesian military as part of a plot to betray the resistance, known as Operation Skylight. He vehemently denies the charge. When their position at the mouth of the Dilor River, near Viqueque, was surrounded by Indonesian troops, his captors abandoned him and fled. After being paraded before media cameras, he was flown to Bali and placed in the residential compound of Gen. Dading Kalbuadi, who was then responsible for East Timor. When General Dading was moved to Jakarta in 1983, Amaral went with him, continuing in the role of household factotum. In the 1990s, with General Dading dying and the general's children uneasy with a Timorese in their home, Amaral bought a tiny plot of land in Jakarta and built a shack. With change in the wind, Amaral reestablished contact with Timor. He returned to Timor on Feb. 4, 2000, and was officially rehabilitated by Fretilin in May. He was a candidate in the first presidential election for the newly-independent state in 2002, and again in 2007.

Amaral, Honorio Gurgel do (b. March 14, 1860, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Oct. 21, 1920, Rio de Janeiro), acting prefect of Distrito Federal (1899-1900).

Amaral, José Mariano Lustosa do (b. 1829, Parnaguá, Piauí, Brazil - d. 1902, Parnaguá), acting president of Piauí (1859, 1859, 1861, 1878-79).

Amaral, José Rodrigues Coelho do (b. May 15, 1808, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Dec. 14, 1873, Mozambique), governor-general of Angola (1854-60, 1868-70) and Mozambique (1870-73) and governor of Macau (1863-66). He was also Portuguese minister of navy and colonies (1868).

Amaral, Leopoldo Afrânio Bastos do (b. Oct. 14, 1893, Belém, Pará, Brazil - d. Oct. 8, 1965, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil), federal interventor in Bahia (1930-31). He was also acting mayor of Salvador (1930).

Amaral, Sergio Silva do (b. June 1, 1944, São Paulo, Brazil - d. July 13, 2023), Brazilian diplomat/politician. He was ambassador to the United Kingdom (1999-2001), France (2003-05), and the United States (2016-19) and minister of development, industry, and foreign trade (2001-03).

Amarante Baret, Carlos (Alberto) (b. July 3, 1960, Moca, Dominican Republic), interior minister of the Dominican Republic (2016-18). He was also minister of education (2013-16).

Amarasiri (de Silva), M(atarage) S(irisena) (b. Sept. 5, 1925 - d. Jan. 7, 2007, Maharagama, Sri Lanka), Sri Lankan politician; chief minister of Southern province (1988-93) and governor of Uva (1999-2003).

Amari, Michele (b. July 7, 1806, Palermo, Sicily [Italy] - d. July 16, 1889, Florence, Italy), Italian politician. Also known as a historian, he was minister of education (1862-64).

Amarjargal, Rinchinnyamyn (b. Feb. 27, 1961, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia), foreign minister (1998) and prime minister (1999-2000) of Mongolia.

Amaro Domínguez, Joaquín (b. Aug. 16, 1889, Hacienda Corrales de Abrego, Sombrerete, Zacatecas, Mexico - d. March 15, 1952, Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico), war and marine minister of Mexico (1924-29, 1929-31).

Amaryn, Uladzimir (Viktaravich), Russian Vladimir (Viktorovich) Amarin (b. 1961, Minsk, Belorussian S.S.R.), finance minister of Belarus (2014-18).

Amas, Aleksandr (Semyonovich), original surname Amirbekov (b. May 1, 1904, Tiflis, Russia [now Tbilisi, Georgia] - d. [executed] May 10, 1938, Kuybyshev, Russian S.F.S.R. [now Samara, Russia]), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of Abkhazia (1928-29).

Amathila, Libertina (Inaviposa), née Appolus (b. Dec. 10, 1940, Fransfontein, South West Africa [now Namibia]), deputy prime minister of Namibia (2005-10). She was also minister of regional and local government and housing (1990-96) and health and social services (1996-2005).

Amato, Giuliano (b. May 13, 1938, Turin, Italy), prime minister of Italy (1992-93, 2000-01). He joined the Italian Socialist Party in 1958. In 1967-68 and 1973-74, he directed the legislative office of the Ministry of the Budget and of Economic Planning. He became a member of parliament in 1983 and served as undersecretary of state to the prime minister's office (1983-87), treasury minister (1987-89), and deputy prime minister (1987-88). In May 1992 he succeeded Bobo Craxi (son of former prime minister Bettino Craxi) as secretary of the city's party organization after a corruption scandal. Investigation of the Milan affair subsequently expanded to address similar corruption nationwide, and swept away almost an entire class of political leaders. In June Amato, a comparative outsider, became prime minister, heading a coalition of the Socialist Unity Party (as his party was renamed) with Christian Democrats, Liberals, and Social Democrats. The government had only a slim majority in the Chamber of Deputies, and Amato sought support from the Democratic Party of the Left, the former Communist Party. He passed a tight deficit-cutting budget, asking Italians "to put one hand on their hearts and get their wallets out with the other." Untainted by the corruption scandals that felled his government in 1993, he was president of the Italian Antitrust Authority (1994-97), minister for institutional reforms (1998-99), and again treasury minister (1999-2000). In April 2000 he again became prime minister, but his centre-left coalition was too quarrelsome and divided; in September 2000 he stepped aside as prime ministerial candidate for the May 2001 elections, in which the coalition was defeated. He was a vice-chairman of the European Convention of 2002-03, which drafted a European constitution. When the centre-left returned to power he became interior minister (2006-08).

Amatong, Isagani (Sybico) (b. Oct. 19, 1940, Dipolog City, Zamboanga del Norte, Philippines), Philippine politician; brother of Prospero Amatong; brother-in-law of Juanita Amatong. He was governor of Zamboanga del Norte (1986-95, 1998-2004).

Amatong, Juanita (Dy) (b. March 23, 1935, Bindoy, Negros Oriental, Philippines), finance secretary of the Philippines (2003-05); sister-in-law of Prospero Amatong.

Amatong, Prospero (Sybico) (b. Oct. 18, 1931, Dipolog City, Zamboanga del Norte, Philippines - d. May 16, 2009, New York City), Philippine politician. He was governor of Davao del Norte (1986-87, 1988-98) and Compostela Valley (1998).

Amaya Ramírez, Guillermo (b. March 1, 1903, Facatativá, Colombia - d. Nov. 28, 1967, Bogotá, Colombia), justice minister (1950-51) and interior minister (1958-59) of Colombia.

Amayo, Lazarus Ombai (b. March 23, 1955), Kenyan diplomat. He was high commissioner to India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Singapore (1999-2004), Zambia and Malawi (2006-10), and the United Kingdom (2015-18), permanent representative to the United Nations (2018-20), and ambassador to the United States (2020-24).

Ambachew Mekonnen (b. 1971, Aqeto [now in Amhara region], Ethiopia - d. [assassinated] June 22, 2019, Bahir Dar, Amhara region), Ethiopian politician. He was minister of construction (2015-16), housing and urban development (2016-18), and industry (2018) and president of Amhara region (2019).

Ambane, Louis (d. May 10, 2003, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea), governor of Simbu (1997-98, 1999-2003).

Ambartsumyan, Sarkis (Saakovich) (b. 1880, Shusha, Yelizavetpol province, Russia [now in Artsakh, Azerbaijan] - d. 1944, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Central Executive Committee (1922-25) and chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1925-28) of the Armenian S.S.R. and co-chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Transcaucasian S.F.S.R. (1923-25). He was also people's commissar of health of the Armenian S.S.R. (1921).

Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji, byname Babasaheb Ambedkar (b. April 14, 1891, Mhow [now in Madhya Pradesh], India - d. Dec. 6, 1956, New Delhi, India), Indian politician. In 1924 he organized the Depressed Classes Institute of Bombay, which carried on economic and educational uplift. Soon becoming the foremost champion of the "untouchables" (members of the lowest caste), he also moved into the political arena because he believed that untouchables must take advantage of opportunities afforded by British constitutional reforms. As a member of the Bombay Legislative Council from 1927, he helped the Mahars (his own caste) and other depressed castes receive reserved legislative seats and employment. In the London Round Table Conferences (1930-32), Ambedkar advocated constitutional safeguards for untouchables. In 1942-46 he was labour member of the Viceroy's Executive Council. At odds with Mahatma Gandhi, he wrote What Congress and Gandhi Have Done to the Untouchables (1945). Appointed law minister on independence in 1947, he was the principal author of the Indian constitution, outlawing discrimination against untouchables. He resigned in 1951 with a denunciation of the government's tardiness in adopting the liberalizing principles provided by the new constitution. In October 1956, in despair because of the perpetuation of untouchability in Hindu doctrine, he renounced Hinduism and with thousands of his followers publicly embraced the Buddhist faith at a ceremony in Nagpur.

Amberg, Oskar (b. Dec. 29, 1878, Meeri parish, Russia [now in Estonia] - d. Oct. 24, 1963, Lübeck, West Germany), war minister of Estonia (1924). He was also minister of labour and welfare (1923-24) and transport (1925-26).

Ambrazevicius, Juozas, family name changed to Brazaitis in 1955 (b. Dec. 9, 1903, Trakiskiai, Marijampol region, Russia [now in Lithuania] - d. Nov. 28, 1974, South Orange, N.J.), prime minister of Lithuania (1941).

Ambrose, Myles J(oseph) (b. July 21, 1926, New York City - d. June 3, 2014, Leesburg, Va.), director of the Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement (1972-73).

Ambrosiis, Giuseppe (Tommaso) (b. Dec. 28, 1755, Novi, Italy - d. 18...), member of the Extraordinary Commission of Government of the Ligurian Republic (1801-02).

Ambrósio, Cordolino José (b. 1904, Miracema, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. May 29, 1979, Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro), acting governor of Rio de Janeiro (1964). He was also mayor of Petrópolis (1951-55).

Amdemicael Kahsai (b. Oct. 24, 1942, Gherat Ghebru, Eritrea - d. Aug. 13, 2003, Asmara, Eritrea), Eritrean politician. He was mayor of Asmara (1991-92), ambassador to Italy (1993-94, 2002-03) and the United States (1995-97), permanent representative to the United Nations (1995-97), and minister of transport and communications (2001-02). His death was officially ruled an accident but has also been described as murder.

Amdinov, Meretdin (b. 1905 - d. [executed] 1938), chairman of the Executive Committee of Gorny Badakhshan (1934-37).

Ameerali, Robert (Leo Antonius) (b. Aug. 16, 1961, Paramaribo, Suriname), vice president of Suriname (2010-15).

Amega, Atsu Koffi (Louis) (b. March 22, 1932, Lomé, Togo - d. April 29, 2015, Lomé), foreign minister of Togo (1984-87). He was also president of the Supreme Court (1973-81) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1981-84).

Ameghino, César (b. April 14, 1871, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Sept. 11, 1960, Buenos Aires), finance minister (1943-45) and foreign minister (1945) of Argentina.

Ameliach (Orta), Francisco (José) (b. June 14, 1963, Valencia, Carabobo, Venezuela), governor of Carabobo (2012-17). He was also president of the National Assembly (2003-05) and minister of the presidency (2010-11) of Venezuela.

Amelot de Chaillou, Jean-Jacques (b. April 30, 1689, Paris, France - d. May 7, 1749, Paris), foreign minister of France (1737-44).

Amelunxen, Rudolf (b. June 30, 1888, Cologne, Germany - d. April 21, 1969, Grafschaft [now part of Schmallenberg], Nordrhein-Westfalen, West Germany), Oberpräsident of Westfalen (1945-46) and minister-president of Nordrhein-Westfalen (1946-47).

Amendola, Giovanni (b. April 15, 1882, Rome, Italy - d. [after an attack] April 7, 1926, Cannes, France), Italian politician. He was minister of colonies (1922).

Amer, Abdel Hakim, Arabic `Abd al-Hakim `Amir (b. Dec. 11, 1919, Egypt - d. [alleged suicide] Sept. 14, 1967, Cairo, Egypt), war minister (1954-61), a vice president (1958-61), second vice president (1961-64), and first vice president (1964-67) of Egypt/United Arab Republic. He was also commander-in-chief of the army (1953-62) and "supervisor of general policy in the Syrian Region" (1959-61).

Amerasinghe, Hamilton Shirley (b. March 18, 1913, Colombo, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. Dec. 4, 1980), president of the UN General Assembly (1976-77). He was also Sri Lankan high commissioner to India and ambassador to Nepal and Afghanistan (1963-67), permanent representative to the UN (1967-78), and ambassador to Brazil (1973-78).

Amerman, A(lmeron) Earl (b. March 24, 1878, Houston, Texas - d. May 31, 1958, Houston), mayor of Houston (1918-21).

Adelbert Ames
Ames, Adelbert (b. Oct. 31, 1835, Rockland, Maine - d. April 13, 1933, Ormond, Fla.), governor of Mississippi (1868-70, 1874-76); son-in-law of Benjamin F. Butler.

Ames, Albert A(lonzo), byname Doc Ames (b. Jan. 18, 1842, Boone county, Ill. - d. Nov. 16, 1911), mayor of Minneapolis (1876-77, 1882-84, 1886-89, 1901-02).

Ames, Benjamin (b. Oct. 30, 1778, Andover, Massachusetts Bay [now Mass.] - d. Sept. 25, 1835, Houlton, Maine), acting governor of Maine (1821-22).

Ames, Eli B. (b. Aug. 3, 1820, Colchester, Vt. - d. Feb. 12, 1897), mayor of Minneapolis (1870-72).

Ames, Julian, president of the Board of Trustees of San Diego (1855?-57?).

Ames, Oliver (b. Feb. 4, 1831, North Easton, Mass. - d. Oct. 22, 1895, North Easton), governor of Massachusetts (1887-90).

Amestoy (Borteiro), Juan Pedro (b. 1925, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. 2010), Uruguayan politician. He was minister of industry and commerce (1971-72), president of the Central Bank (1972-73), and ambassador to Peru (1974-77), Egypt (1977-80?), the Soviet Union (1982-87), and Mexico (1990s).

Amet, Sir Arnold (Karibone) (b. Oct. 30, 1952), governor of Madang (2007-08, 2009-11) and justice minister of Papua New Guinea (2010-11); knighted 1993. He was also chief justice (1993-2003).

Amézaga (Landaraso), Juan José (Julián) de (b. Jan. 28, 1881, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. Aug. 21, 1956, Montevideo), president of Uruguay (1943-47). He was also minister of industries (1915-16) and ambassador to Argentina (1916).

Amherd, Viola (Patricia) (b. June 7, 1962, Brig-Glis, Valais, Switzerland), defense minister (2019- ), vice president (2023), and president (2024) of Switzerland.

Amherst, Jeffrey Amherst, (1st) Baron (b. Jan. 29, 1717, Sevenoaks, Kent, England - d. Aug. 3, 1797, Sevenoaks), commander of Cape Breton Island (1758), governor-general of British North America (1760-63), and governor of Virginia (1763-68) and Guernsey (1770-97). He was knighted in 1761 and created a baron in 1776.

Amherst (of Arracan), William Pitt Amherst, (1st) Earl (b. Jan. 14, 1773, Bath, Somerset, England - d. March 13, 1857, Knole, Kent, England), governor-general of India (1823-28); nephew of Jeffrey Amherst, Baron Amherst. He was also British minister to Naples (1809-11) and envoy to China (1816-17). He succeeded as (2nd) Baron Amherst in 1797 and was made earl in 1826.

Amiama Tió, Fernando (Arturo) (b. May 1, 1913, San Pedro de Macorís, Dominican Republic - d. Sept. 23, 2005), foreign minister (1967-70) and interior minister (1974-75) of the Dominican Republic. He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1970-72) and minister of labour (1975-78).

L. Amiama

D. Amici
Amiama Tió, Luis (Emilio) (b. Nov. 9, 1914, San Pedro de Macorís, Dominican Republic - d. December 1980), member of the Civic-Military Council of the Dominican Republic (1962); brother of Fernando Amiama Tió. He was also ambassador to Spain (1977-79).

Amici, Denis (b. June 10, 1972, San Marino, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2013).

Amici, Giuseppe (b. Jan. 6, 1939, Fiorentino, San Marino - d. Feb. 24, 2006, Borgo Maggiore, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (1979-80, 1984-85).

Amidemiri, Fahreddin, until Jan. 1, 1935, Rumbeyoglu Fahreddin Resad Bey (b. May 30, 1867 - d. Nov. 14, 1943), Ottoman official. He was minister to Montenegro (1912) and minister of education (1920).

Amidu, Martin (Alamisi Burns Kaiser), interior minister of Ghana (2010-11). He was also attorney general and justice minister (2011-12) and special prosecutor (2018-20).

Amin, (Mohamad) Ali (b. Oct. 20, 1915 - d. Nov. 3, 2012), governor of Bengkulu (1968-74).

H. Amin
Amin, Hafizullah (b. Aug. 1, 1929, Paghman, Afghanistan - d. Dec. 27, 1979, in or near Kabul, Afghanistan), president of the Revolutionary Council of Afghanistan (1979). He joined the Wikh-i-Zalmayan ("awakened youth"), a reform-minded brotherhood. In 1963 Amin became a member of the leftist Khalq ("masses") faction of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA). He was the only Khalq member to be elected to parliament in 1969. When the police arrested leading PDPA members in April 1978, Amin, who had become the Khalq strong man, was the last one to be arrested and even then the police officer, who was a secret PDPA member, postponed his imprisonment for five and a half hours, during which time Amin engineered the coup that toppled the government of Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan. But Khalq founder Nur Mohammad Taraki became president of the Revolutionary Council, while Amin was made foreign minister. On March 27, 1979, Amin was named prime minister, but six months later, in another coup, he succeeded the pro-Soviet Taraki as president. When the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in late December and installed Babrak Karmal as president, Amin was assassinated.

I. Amin
Amin (Dada Oumee), Idi (b. 1925?1, Koboko, Uganda - d. Aug. 16, 2003, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia), president of Uganda (1971-79). A Muslim who belonged to the Kakwa ethnic group, he joined the King's African Rifles, a British colonial unit, in 1946, and served in Kenya during the suppression of the Mau Mau revolt (1952-56). When Uganda achieved independence in 1962, he was one of only two African officers in the Ugandan armed forces. He was an early supporter of Prime Minister (later Pres.) Milton Obote, who promoted him to major general and deputy commander and later commander of the armed forces. But conflict arose and Obote placed Amin under house arrest in 1970. On Jan. 25, 1971, Amin ousted Obote while the latter was abroad. Ugandans initially welcomed Amin, but his brutality quickly dampened his popularity. Among his first targets were the ethnic Acholi and Lango, who dominated the army. In 1972 he expelled all Asians from Uganda, which dealt a severe blow to the economy. In 1976 he was involved in the Palestinian hijacking of a French plane full of Israelis to Entebbe; Israeli paratroopers freed the hostages. Amin orchestrated the murders of numerous prominent as well as lesser-known Ugandans. He made himself field marshal in 1975 and life president in 1976; he was also minister of defense (1971-75), internal affairs (1973, 1978-79), information and broadcasting (1973, 1978-79), foreign affairs (1974-75, 1978-79), health (1977-79), and tourism, game and wildlife (1978-79) and OAU chairman (1975-76). Paranoid, volatile, sadistic, and irrational, his charisma and humorous antics in front of the international press nevertheless enabled him to cultivate an image abroad as a populist leader defying the imperialist neocolonial forces. In October 1978 Tanzania sent troops into Uganda which, supported by Ugandan rebel forces, reached Kampala, the capital, in April 1979. Amin first fled to Libya and then settled in Saudi Arabia. In 1989 he made an attempt to return to Uganda, but was detained in Zaire and sent back to Saudi Arabia.
1 According to Fred Guweddeko writing in The Monitor of Uganda after Amin's death, his original name was Idi Awo-Ongo Angoo and he was born May 17, 1928, in Kampala.

Amín Saleme, Fabio Raúl (b. Oct. 15, 1976, Lorica, Córdoba, Colombia), Colombian politician. He was president of the Chamber of Representatives (2014-15).

Amini, Ali (b. Sept. 12, 1905, Tehran, Iran - d. Dec. 12, 1992, Paris, France), prime minister of Iran (1961-62); grandson of Mozaffar ad-Din Qajar, nephew of Mohammad Ali Qajar, and cousin of Soltan Ahmad Qajar. He was also minister of economic affairs (1951-53) and finance (1953-55) and ambassador to the United States (1956-58).



Amir H.
Aminuddin (bin) Hassim, Datuk, president of Putrajaya Corporation (2018-20).

Amir-Abdollahian, Hossein (b. 1964, Damghan, Semnan province, Iran - d. [helicopter crash] May 19, 2024, Dizmar forest, northwestern Iran), foreign minister of Iran (2021-24). He was also ambassador to Bahrain (2007-10).

Amir (bin) Hussien, Datuk Seri (b. 1971?, Labuan, Malaysia), president of Labuan Corporation (2018- ).

Amiri, Muhammad Adib al- (b. 1907, Jaffa, Ottoman Empire [now part of Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel] - d. Dec. 15, 1978), foreign minister of Jordan (1967). He was also minister of education (1967-68) and information and tourism (1968-69) and ambassador to Egypt (1968).

Amirkhanov, Abdulpatakh (Gadzhiyevich) (b. May 30, 1962, Khunzakh, Dagestan A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Dagestan (2020-22).

Ammar, Habib (b. May 25, 1936, Sousse, Tunisia), interior minister of Tunisia (1987-88). He was also ambassador to Austria (1989-95) and minister of communications (1995-97).

N. Ammar
Ammar, Nabil (b. Sept. 7, 1965, Tunis, Tunisia), foreign minister of Tunisia (2023- ). He was also chargé d'affaires in Norway (2007-10) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (2012-17), Ireland (2014-17), Belgium (2020-23), and Luxembourg (2021-23).

Ammash, Saleh Mahdi, Arabic Salih Mahdi `Ammash (b. 1924, Baghdad, Iraq - d. Jan. 30, 1985, Helsinki, Finland), defense minister (1963), foreign minister (1963), interior minister (1968-70), and vice president (1970-71) of Iraq. He was also ambassador to the Soviet Union (1972-74), France (1974-75), and Finland (1975-85).

Ammitzbøll-Bille, Simon Emil ("Bille" added on marriage in 2017) (b. Oct. 20, 1977, Hillerød, Denmark), interior (and economic affairs) minister of Denmark (2016-19). He was leader of the short-lived Forward party (2019-20).

E.M. Ammons

T. Ammons
Ammons, Elias M(ilton) (b. July 28, 1860, near Franklin, N.C. - d. May 20, 1925, Denver, Colo.), governor of Colorado (1913-15).

Ammons, Teller (b. Dec. 3, 1895, Denver, Colo. - d. Jan. 16, 1972, Denver), governor of Colorado (1937-39); son of Elias M. Ammons.

Ammosov, Maksim (Kirovich) (b. Oct. 23 [Oct. 11, O.S.], 1897, Namsky district [now in Sakha republic], Russia - d. [executed] July 28, 1938, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Kirgiz S.S.R. (1937). He was also executive secretary of the party committee (1923), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1925-28), and chairman of the Central Executive Committee (1927-28) of the Yakut A.S.S.R. and first secretary of the party committees of Zapadno-Kazakhstan (1932-34), Karaganda (1934-36), and Severo-Kazakhstan (1936-37) oblasti.

Ammosov, Pyotr (Vasilyevich) (b. 1903 - d. 1977), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Yakut A.S.S.R. (1948-54). He was also chairman of the Supreme Soviet (1938-47).

Ammoun, Fouad (Scandar), Arabic Fu´ad Iskandar `Ammun (b. Nov. 26, 1899, Dayr al-Qamar, Lebanon - d. Feb. 11, 1977), foreign minister of Lebanon (1964). He was also attorney-general (1942-43), minister of planning and national economy (1964), and a judge of the International Court of Justice (1965-75).

Ammundsen, J(ohn) Graeme (b. November 1940), acting New Zealand representative in the Cook Islands (1975-76). He was also high commissioner to the Solomon Islands (1978-80) and Tonga (1985-88), chargé d'affaires in Iran (1980-82), and ambassador to Bahrain (1982?-85), the Netherlands (1991-95), and Saudi Arabia (1995-96).

Amnuay Viravan (b. May 22, 1932, Bangkok, Thailand - d. April 18, 2023), finance minister (1980-81, 1996-97) and foreign minister (1996) of Thailand. He was also a deputy prime minister (1992-94, 1996-97).

Amon Nikoi

Amon Tanoh
Amon Nikoi, Gloria (Adwoa), née Addae (b. June 6, 1927), foreign minister of Ghana (1979); widow of Amon Nikoi.

Amon Tanoh, Lambert (b. Nov. 25, 1926, Eboué, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire] - d. Jan. 13, 2022), Ivorian politician. He was minister of national education (1963-70) and ambassador to Algeria (1983-87).

Amon Tanoh, Marcel (b. Nov. 25, 1951, Abidjan, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire]), foreign minister of Côte d'Ivoire (2016-20); son of Lambert Amon Tanoh. He was also minister of transport (2002), tourism (2003-05), and construction, urban planning, and housing (2005-10).

C. Amorim
Amorim, Celso (Luiz Nunes) (b. June 3, 1942, Santos, São Paulo state, Brazil), foreign minister (1993-95, 2003-11) and defense minister (2011-15) of Brazil. He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1995-99) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (2001-02).

Amorim, Eládio de (b. Nov. 30, 1894, Goiás, Goiás, Brazil - d. March 14, 1974), federal interventor in Goiás (1945-46).

Amorim, Maria do Nascimento da Graça, foreign minister of São Tomé and Príncipe (1978-85). She was also ambassador to Portugal (1975-78).

Amorim, Miguel Bernardo Vieira de (b. Oct. 21, 1839, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. Sept. 26, 1901, Taubaté, São Paulo, Brazil), acting president of Espírito Santo (1883-84).

Amorim, Pedro Francisco Massano de (b. Jan. 14, 1862, Fronteira, Portalegre, Portugal - d. May 31, 1929, Goa, Portuguese India [now in India]), governor-general of Angola (1916-17), Mozambique (1918-19), and Portuguese India (1926-29).

Amorín Larrañaga, Julio (b. July 9, 1923 - d. June 3, 2009), labour minister of Uruguay (1972).

Amorín Tenconi, Carlos Daniel (b. Oct. 27, 1956, Montevideo, Uruguay), Uruguayan diplomat. He has been ambassador to Poland (1999-2004), Lithuania (2003-04), and Brazil (2008-17) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2019- ).

Amory, Derick Heathcoat Amory, (1st) Viscount (b. Dec. 26, 1899, Tiverton, Devon, England - d. Jan. 20, 1981, Tiverton), British politician. Amory entered national politics after World War II, being elected Conservative member for Tiverton in 1945. In 1951 he was appointed minister for pensions and subsequently served as minister of state at the Board of Trade (1953-54) and as minister of agriculture, fisheries, and food (1955-58). In January 1958, when the three Treasury ministers simultaneously resigned, Prime Minister Harold Macmillan made Amory chancellor of the exchequer. Self-effacing and moderate, he initiated no major changes in economic strategy. Amory was created a viscount when he retired from politics in 1960 and then served (1961-63) as U.K. high commissioner in Canada. He was created G.C.M.G. in 1961 and K.G. in 1968 and succeeded his brother as 4th Baronet in 1972.

V. Amory
Amory, Vance (Winkworth) (b. May 22, 1949, Rawlins village, Gingerland, Nevis - d. April 2, 2022), premier of Nevis (1992-2006, 2013-17). In 2015-20 he served in the government of St. Kitts and Nevis as senior minister and minister of Nevis affairs, labour, social security, and ecclesiastical affairs.

Amos, Jacob (b. Dec. 18, 1853 - d. Aug. 10, 1932), mayor of Syracuse (1892-95).

Amos, John (Vacher) (b. April 20, 1975), justice minister of Vanuatu (2023- ).

Amoussou, Bruno (Ange-Marie) (b. July 2, 1939, Djakotomey, Dahomey [now Benin]), Beninese politician. He was a presidential candidate (1991, 1996, 2001, 2006), president of the National Assembly (1995-99), and minister of planning and development (1999-2005).

Amoussou, Isidore, finance minister of Dahomey/Benin (1974-84).

Amouzegar, Jahangir (b. Jan. 13, 1920, Tehran, Iran - d. Jan. 17, 2018, Washington, D.C.), finance minister of Iran (1962). He was also commerce minister (1961-62).

Amouzegar, Jamshid (b. June 25, 1923, Tehran, Iran - d. Sept. 27, 2016, Rockville, Md.), prime minister of Iran (1977-78); brother of Jahangir Amouzegar. He was also minister of labour (1958-59), agriculture (1959-60), health (1964-65), finance (1965-74), and interior and employment (1974-76).

Ampatuan, Zaldy (Uy), byname Datu Puti (b. Aug. 22, 1967), governor of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (2005-11). In 2009 he was arrested and jailed in connection to the brutal killings of 57 people in Maguindanao province; he and various relatives were accused of masterminding the murders. He was convicted in 2019 and sentenced to up to 40 years in jail.

Ampthill, (Arthur) Oliver Villiers Russell, (2nd) Baron (b. Feb. 19, 1869, Rome, Papal State [now in Italy] - d. July 7, 1935, London, England), governor of Madras (1900-06). He succeeded as baron in 1884.


Ampuero (Espinoza), Roberto (b. Feb. 20, 1953, Valparaíso, Chile), foreign minister of Chile (2018-19). Also known as a writer, he was ambassador to Mexico (2012-13) and Spain (2019-22) and culture minister (2013-14).

Amr, Mohamed Kamel, Arabic Muhammad Kamil `Amru (b. Dec. 1, 1942), foreign minister of Egypt (2011-13). He was also ambassador to Saudi Arabia (1995-97).

Amri, Hassan al- (b. 1916, Yemen - d. 1989, Egypt), vice president (1963-66) and prime minister (1964, 1965, 1965-66, 1967-69, 1971) of Yemen (Sana). He was also minister of transport (1962-63).

Amrih, Gatot (Achmad Sapari) (b. May 19, 1936, Magelang, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Tengah, Indonesia] - d. July 10, 2019, Semarang, Jawa Tengah), governor of Kalimantan Tengah (1984-89).

Amstad, Christoph (b. Sept. 27, 1973), Landammann of Obwalden (2018-19, 2022-23).

Amugi II, Nii (b. June 8, 1940 - d. July 13, 2005), Gã Mantse (ruler of Gã) (1965-2005).

Amunátegui (Aldunate), Miguel Luis (b. Jan. 11, 1828, Santiago, Chile - d. Jan. 22, 1888, Santiago), foreign minister (1868-70, 1879-80, 1887-88) and interior minister (1868-70) of Chile. He was also minister of justice, worship, and education (1876-78) and president of the Chamber of Deputies (1867-68, 1871-72).

Amunátegui Rivera, José Domingo (b. 1862, Chillán, Chile - d. June 4, 1913, Santiago, Chile), interior minister of Chile (1901). He was also justice and education minister (1897-98, 1902-03) and intendant of Santiago (1906-08).

Amunátegui Solar, Domingo (b. Oct. 20, 1860, Santiago, Chile - d. March 4, 1946, Santiago), interior minister of Chile (1918, 1923-24); son of Miguel Luis Amunátegui. He was also justice and education minister (1907-09, 1910-11) and rector of the University of Chile (1911-23).

Amunátegui Solar, Gregorio (Víctor) (b. Jan. 15, 1868, Santiago, Chile - d. [following automobile accident] July 20, 1938, Santiago), justice (and education) minister of Chile (1915, 1924); son of Miguel Luis Amunátegui; brother of Domingo Amunátegui Solar. He was also rector of the University of Chile (1923-24).

Amundsen, Olaf (b. May 13, 1876, Tromsø, Norway - d. Dec. 12, 1939), justice minister of Norway (1921-22) and governor of Nordland (1922-39).

Amundsen, Per-Willy (Trudvang) (b. Jan. 21, 1971, Harstad, Troms, Norway), justice minister of Norway (2016-18).

Amunugama, Sarath (Leelananda Bandara) (b. July 10, 1939, Kandy, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka]), finance minister (2004-05) and foreign minister (2018) of Sri Lanka. He was also minister of irrigation and water resources management (2000-01), education and higher education (2001), public administration and home affairs (2005-07, 2008-10), enterprise development and investment promotion (2007-10), higher education and research (2015), special assignments (2015-18), and science, technology, research, skills development, vocational training, and Hill Country heritage (2018).

Amvrosy, secular name Andrey (Stepanovich) Zertis-Kamensky (b. Oct. 28 [Oct. 17, O.S.], 1708, Nezhin, Russia [now Nizhyn, Ukraine] - d. [killed by citizens during plague riot] Sept. 27 [Sept. 16, O.S.], 1771, Moscow, Russia), Locum Tenens (1767-68) and metropolitan (1768-71) of Moscow. He was also bishop of Pereyaslavl (1753-61) and Sarsk and Podonsk (1761-64) and archbishop of Krutitsy (1764-68).

Amvrosy, secular name Andrey (Ivanovich) Podobedov (b. Dec. 1 [Nov. 20, O.S.], 1742, Stogovo, Vladimir province, Russia - d. June 2 [May 21, O.S.], 1818, Novgorod [now Veliky Novgorod], Russia), metropolitan of St. Petersburg (1799-1818). He was also bishop of Sevsk (1778-81) and Krutitsy (1781-85), archbishop of Kazan (1785-99), and metropolitan of Novgorod (1818).

Amvrosy, secular name Aleksey (Iosifovich) Klyucharov (b. March 29 [March 17, O.S.], 1820, Aleksandrov, Vladimir province, Russia - d. Sept. 16 [Sept. 3, O.S.], 1901, near Kharkov, Russia [now Kharkiv, Ukraine]), Locum Tenens of Moscow (1879, 1882). He was bishop of Mozhaysk (1878) and Dmitrov (1878-82) and bishop (1882-86) and archbishop (1886-1901) of Kharkov.

Amwano, Aloysius (Arabao Iyomago), byname Ali Amwano (b. June 21, 1955), finance minister of Nauru (2001-03). He was also minister of sports and youth affairs (1999) and education (2013) and speaker of parliament (2001, 2010).

Amyx, Jay S. (b. Sept. 27, 1923, Decatur, Texas - d. Jan. 24, 2014), mayor of Boise (1966-74).

Anadón (Mendieta), Lorenzo (b. June 10, 1885, Rosario del Tala, Entre Ríos, Argentina - d. Dec. 13, 1927, Buenos Aires, Argentina), finance minister of Argentina (1913-14). He was also minister to Chile (1906-11).

Anaja, Joshua (Umaru) (b. 1941? - d. June? 1985), administrator of Plateau (1978-79).

Anajatuba, José Maria Barreto, barão de (b. April 18, 1814, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Aug. 25, 1871), acting president of Maranhão (1859). He was made baron in 1867.

Anami, Korechika (b. Feb. 21, 1887, Oita prefecture, Japan - d. [suicide] Aug. 15, 1945, Tokyo, Japan), war minister of Japan (1945).

Anami, Koreshige (b. January 1941, Tokyo, Japan), Japanese diplomat; son of Korechika Anami. He was ambassador to China (2001-06).

Anand, Anita (Indira) (b. 1967, Kentville, N.S.), defence minister of Canada (2021-23). She has also been minister of public services and procurement (2019-21) and president of the Treasury Board (2023- ).

Anand Panyarachun (b. Aug. 9, 1932, Bangkok, Siam [now Thailand]), prime minister of Thailand (1991-92, 1992). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1967-75) and ambassador to Canada (1967-72), the United States (1972-75), and West Germany (1977-78).

Ananda Mahidol, also called Rama VIII (b. Sept. 20, 1925, Heidelberg [now in Baden-Württemberg], Germany - d. June 9, 1946, Bangkok, Thailand), king of Siam/Thailand (1935-46). He was the elder son of Prince Mahidol Adulyadej, Prince of Songkhla. He was only 10 years old and a schoolboy in Switzerland when he was proclaimed king on the abdication of his uncle, King Prajadhipok. He remained in Switzerland (except for a visit to Siam in 1938) until he returned on Dec. 5, 1945, having come of age in September. His effective reign was short-lived, however: early in the morning of June 9, 1946, he was found dead in his bed of a gunshot wound. He had gained great popularity and the news of his death stunned the nation. The case was never fully explained. At first it was announced that the king - a fancier of firearms - accidentally shot himself. A deliberate suicide was also suggested, but ultimately the death was ruled a murder and in 1954 a former royal secretary and two former royal pages were sentenced to death for implication in the killing.

Anani, Jawad (Ahmad al-) (b. June 28, 1943, Halhul [now in West Bank], Palestine), foreign minister of Jordan (1998). He was also minister of supply (1979-80), labour (1980-84), industry, trade, and tourism (1984), information (1993-95), and industry, trade, and supply (2016), deputy prime minister for development (1997-98), chief of the royal court (1998-99), deputy prime minister for economic affairs (2016-17), and minister of state for investment affairs (2016-17).

Ananiev, Georgi (Gervanov) (b. April 12, 1950, Kosacha, Bulgaria - d. Jan. 26, 2021), defense minister of Bulgaria (1997-99).

Ananiev, Kiril (Milanov) (b. July 2, 1955, Sofia, Bulgaria), finance minister of Bulgaria (2017, 2020-21). He was also health minister (2017-20).

Ananieva, Nora (Krachunova) (b. March 30, 1938, Lovech, Bulgaria - d. Nov. 20, 2021), a deputy premier of Bulgaria (1990).

Ananyan, Armenek (Artemovich) (b. 1896, Pogos-Kilisa, Erivan province, Russia [now Shamakhyan, part of Dilijan, Armenia] - d. Dec. 18, 1958, Yerevan, Armenian S.S.R.), chairman of the Central Executive Committees of the Armenian S.S.R. (1931-33) and of the Transcaucasian S.F.S.R. (1931-35). He was also executive secretary of the party committee of Leninakan city (1930-31) and deputy premier (1933-34) and people's commissar of agriculture (1933-34) and communal services (1937) of the Armenian S.S.R.

Anas, Azwar (b. Aug. 2, 1931, Padang, Netherlands East Indies [now in Sumatera Barat, Indonesia] - d. March 5, 2023, Jakarta, Indonesia), governor of Sumatera Barat (1977-87). He was also Indonesian minister of communications (1988-93) and coordinating minister for public welfare (1993-98).

Anastacio, Sabino (b. April 13, 1953, Koror, Palau), minister of state of Palau (1997-2000). He has also been speaker of the House of Delegates (2013- ).

Anastasia, Antônio Augusto Junho (b. May 9, 1961, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil), governor of Minas Gerais (2010-14). He was also acting labour minister of Brazil (1998).

Anastasiadis, Nikos (Chrysanthou), English Nicos Anastasiades (b. Sept. 27, 1946, Pera Pedi, Limassol district, Cyprus), president of Cyprus (2013-23). He was president of the Democratic Rally party (1997-2013).

Anastassy, secular name Aleksandr (Alekseyevich) Gribanovsky (b. Aug. 18 [Aug. 6, O.S.], 1873, Bratki village, Tambov province, Russia - d. May 22, 1965, New York City), metropolitan of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (1936-64). He was also Russian Orthodox bishop of Serpukhov (1906-14), Kholm (1914-15), and Kishinev (1915-16) and archbishop of Kishinev (1916-19).

Anaya (Vásquez), (Juan) Franklin, byname Panka Anaya (b. Nov. 29, 1945, Cochabamba, Bolivia - d. Jan. 28, 2011, Cochabamba), interior minister of Bolivia (1996-97). He was also minister of urban affairs (1986-89) and ambassador to Cuba (1994-96).

Anaya (Cortés), Ricardo (b. Feb. 25, 1979, Naucalpan, México, Mexico), Mexican presidential candidate (2018). He was president of the Chamber of Deputies (2013-14) and president of the National Action Party (2014-15, 2015-17).

Anaya, Toney (b. April 29, 1941, Moriarty, N.M.), governor of New Mexico (1983-87).

Anaya Arze, Ricardo (b. Feb. 6, 1907, Cochabamba, Bolivia - d. August 1997, Cochabamba), foreign minister of Bolivia (1978). He was also president of the Senate (1966-67), minister of mines and oil (1967-68), and ambassador to Mexico (1968-69).

Anbari, Abdul Amir al- (b. Oct. 10, 1934), Iraqi diplomat. He was ambassador to the United Kingdom (1985-87), the United States (1987-89), and the Vatican (2001-03) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1990-92).

Anchabadze, Givi (Alekseyevich) (b. 1933), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz A.S.S.R. (1989-90).

Anchieta, José de, Júnior (b. March 11, 1965, Jaguaribe, Ceará, Brazil - d. Dec. 6, 2018, Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil), governor of Roraima (2007-14).

Anchimaa-Toka, Khertek (Amyrbitovna) (b. Jan. 1, 1912 [official date], Kok-Sook borough, Bay-Taygin kozhuun [district], Tuva - d. Nov. 4, 2008), chairman of the Presidium of the Little Khural of Tuva (1940-44). In 1940 she married Salchak Toka. After Tuva entered the U.S.S.R., she was deputy chairwoman of the Tuva oblast executive committee (1944-61) and then of the Tuva A.S.S.R. Council of Ministers (1961-72).

Anchorena (García de Zúñiga), Tomás Severino de (b. Sept. 15, 1827, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Aug. 29, 1899, Buenos Aires), foreign minister (1892-93) and interior minister (1892-93) of Argentina.

Anciaux, Jean (Marie François) (b. Nov. 6, 1930, Paris, France - d. May 26, 2013), prefect of Réunion (1986-89). He was also prefect of the French départements of Landes (1979-81), Maine-et-Loire (1989-90), and Haute-Vienne (1995-96).

Ancillon, (Johann Peter) Friedrich, also called Jean Pierre Frédéric Ancillon (b. April 30, 1767, Berlin, Prussia [Germany] - d. April 19, 1837, Berlin), foreign minister of Prussia (1832-37).

Ancízar, Manuel (b. Dec. 25, 1812, Fontibón, New Granada [now in Colombia] - d. May 21, 1882, Bogotá, Colombia), foreign minister of New Granada/Colombia (1847, 1848, 1861-62, 1876). He was also minister to Venezuela (1846).

Anckarsvärd, Mikael (Cosswa) friherre (b. March 9, 1742, Högfors, Västmanland, Sweden - d. March 23, 1838, Karlslund, Örebro, Sweden), governor of Kalmar (1790-1810). He became friherre (baron) in 1805.

Ancona Albertos, Antonio (b. June 10, 1883, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico - d. 1954, Mexico City), governor of Yucatán (1920) and Quintana Roo (1926-27).

Ancora, Armando de Morais (b. Aug. 5, 1901, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. Sept. 26, 1964, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), federal interventor in Alagoas (1957).

Ancuta, Dimitrie (b. Oct. 3, 1937, Suceava, Romania), a deputy prime minister of Romania (1986-87).

Andaija, Andrew (d. [air crash] June 19, 1980), premier of Southern Highlands (1978-80).

Andall, Joseph, foreign minister of Grenada (2022- ).

Andara, José Ladislao (b. June 27, 1864, Coro, Falcón state, Venezuela - d. Sept. 1, 1922, Caracas, Venezuela), foreign minister of Venezuela (1912-13). He was also minister to Bolivia (1910), Peru (1910-11), Ecuador (1911), and Cuba (1911-12).

Andel, Marián (b. Sept. 10, 1950, Modra, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia]), a deputy prime minister of Slovakia (1993-94).

Andely, Rigobert Roger (b. June 7, 1953), finance minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (2002-05, 2021-22).

Anderkopp, Ado (b. Jan. 18, 1894, Massu parish, Lääne county, Russia [now in Estonia] - d. June 30, 1941, Tallinn, Estonian S.S.R.), war minister (1923-24) and interior and justice minister (1930-31, 1932-33) of Estonia.

Anders, William (d. 1873), mayor of Houston (1863-66).

Anders, William A(lison) (b. Oct. 17, 1933, Hong Kong - d. [plane crash] June 7, 2024, near San Juan Islands, Wash.), U.S. diplomat. A former astronaut, he was ambassador to Norway (1976-77).

Andersen, Alsing (Emanuel) (b. Feb. 5, 1893, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. Dec. 15, 1962, Copenhagen), defense minister (1935-40), finance minister (1942), and interior minister (1947) of Denmark and president of the Socialist International (1957-62).

Anders Andersen
Andersen, Anders (Ejnar) (b. Oct. 1, 1912, Voldby, Denmark - d. April 13, 2006, Voldby), finance minister of Denmark (1973-75). He was also minister of economy (1978-79, 1982-87).

Andersen, Dag Terje (b. May 27, 1957, Frogn, Akershus, Norway), Norwegian politician. He was minister of agriculture (1996-97), trade and industry (2006-08), and labour and social inclusion (2008-09) and president of the Storting (2009-13).

E.L. Andersen
Andersen, Elmer L(ee) (b. June 17, 1909, Chicago, Ill. - d. Nov. 15, 2004, Minneapolis, Minn.), governor of Minnesota (1961-63). A Republican, he served in the state Senate (1949-58) before being elected governor in 1960, in an era when Minnesota governors served two-year terms. Democrat Karl Rolvaag beat him in 1962 by just 91 votes (619,842 to 619,751) in the closest gubernatorial race ever in Minnesota. It took four months of recounts before Rolvaag was declared the winner. Andersen's term proved challenging as he often took positions at odds with the Republican Party and conservative constituents. When he pushed for a national park to encompass the lakes and rivers along the Canadian border, northern Minnesotans suspicious of federal intrusion were against the idea. Andersen - who called himself a liberal Republican - forged ahead anyway, and Voyageurs National Park was authorized in 1971. Though he never left the Republican Party, he spoke out when he wasn't happy where it was going. In 2004 he endorsed Democrat John Kerry for president because he said the war in Iraq was unjustified. He also criticized the George W. Bush administration for doing too little for such programs as early childhood education. He also served as a University of Minnesota regent in 1967-75.

Andersen, Hans G(eorg) (b. May 12, 1919, Winnipeg, Man. - d. April 23, 1994), Icelandic diplomat. He was ambassador to France and Belgium (1961-62), Sweden and Finland (1962-63), Israel and Italy (1962-69), Norway, Poland, and Czechoslovakia (1963-69), the United States (1976-86), Canada (1976-87), Mexico (1976-88), Cuba (1976-89), The Bahamas (1977-89), and Argentina and Brazil (1978-87) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1986-89).

Andersen, Knud Børge (b. Dec. 1, 1914, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. March 23, 1984, Copenhagen), foreign minister of Denmark (1971-73, 1975-78). He was also education minister (1964-68) and speaker of the Folketing (1978-81).

Andersen, Sigrídur Á(sthildur) (b. Nov. 21, 1971, Reykjavík, Iceland), justice minister of Iceland (2017-19).

Andersen, Valdemar Jens (b. March 21, 1919, Palmerston North, N.Z. - d. Nov. 14, 2004), resident commissioner of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands (1962-70).

Anderson, Andrew (b. c. 1796, New Jersey - d. April 15, 1867), mayor of Nashville (1856-57).

Anderson, Anne (b. July 1952, Clonmel, Ireland), Irish diplomat. She was ambassador to France (2005-09), Monaco (2007-09), and the United States (2013-17) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2009-13).

Anderson, Anton, mayor of Anchorage (1956-58).

Anderson, Benjamin (Joseph Knight) (b. Jan. 4, 1835, Baltimore, Md. - d. June 27, 1910, Monrovia, Liberia), treasury secretary (1863-64, 1870, 1877-78) and interior secretary (c. 1886) of Liberia. He is also known as an explorer.

Anderson, C(lyde) Elmer (b. March 16, 1912, Brainerd, Minn. - d. Jan. 22, 1998, Brainerd, Minn.), governor of Minnesota (1951-55). In 1938, at age 26, he was elected lieutenant governor under Harold Stassen, who was 31. The two formed the youngest ticket in state history. Reelected five times (1940, 1944, 1946, 1948, 1950), Anderson served a record 11 years in the lieutenant governor's post. The Republican succeeded Gov. Luther W. Youngdahl in 1951 when Youngdahl resigned to become a federal judge. Anderson won election in 1952, defeating Orville Freeman, who unseated him two years later.

Anderson, Charles (b. June 1, 1814, Louisville, Ky. - d. Sept. 2, 1895, Paducah, Ky.), acting governor of Ohio (1865-66).

C.P. Anderson
Anderson, Clinton P(resba) (b. Oct. 23, 1895, Centerville, S.D. - d. Nov. 11, 1975, Albuquerque, N.M.), U.S. secretary of agriculture (1945-48).

Anderson, Dillon (b. July 14, 1906, McKinney, Texas - d. Jan. 28, 1974, Houston, Texas), U.S. national security advisor (1955-56).

Anderson, Donald D., acting U.S. commissioner of reclamation (1977).

Anderson, Eileen (Ruth), née Pulling (b. Oct. 18, 1928, Bell, Calif. - d. Nov. 3, 2021), mayor of Honolulu (1981-85).

Anderson, (Helen) Eugenie (Moore), née Moore (b. May 26, 1909, Adair, Iowa - d. March 31, 1997, Red Wing, Minn.), U.S. diplomat. The first woman to serve as a U.S. ambassador, she was ambassador to Denmark (1949-53) and minister to Bulgaria (1962-64).

F.H. Anderson
Anderson, Forrest H(oward) (b. Jan. 30, 1913, Helena, Mont. - d. [suicide] July 20, 1989, Helena, Mont.), governor of Montana (1969-73).

Anderson, George W(helan), Jr. (b. 1906, Brooklyn, N.Y. - d. March 20, 1992, McLean, Va.), U.S. chief of naval operations (1961-63). He was ambassador to Portugal in 1963-66.

Anderson, Harold David (b. Sept. 6, 1923, Adelaide, S.Aus. - d. June 17, 2020, Sydney, N.S.W.), Australian diplomat. He was ambassador to South Vietnam (1964-66), France (1973-78), and Belgium and Luxembourg (1983-87) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1978-82).

Anderson, Hugh J(ohnston) (b. May 10, 1801, Wiscasset, Mass. [now in Maine] - d. May 31, 1881, Portland, Maine), governor of Maine (1844-47).

Anderson, Sir John (b. Jan. 23, 1858, Gartly, Aberdeenshire, Scotland - d. March 24, 1918, Nuwara Eliya, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka]), governor of the Straits Settlements (1904-11) and Ceylon (1916-18).

Anderson, Sir John (1882-1958): see Waverley, John Anderson, Viscount.

Anderson, John (Duncan) (b. Nov. 14, 1956, Sydney, N.S.W.), leader of the National Party and deputy prime minister of Australia (1999-2005). He was also minister of primary industries and energy (1996-98) and transport and regional services (1998-2005).

Anderson, John, Jr. (b. May 8, 1917, near Olathe, Kan. - d. Sept. 15, 2014, Olathe), governor of Kansas (1961-65).

J.B. Anderson
Anderson, John B(ayard) (b. Feb. 15, 1922, Rockford, Ill. - d. Dec. 3, 2017, Washington, D.C.), U.S. presidential candidate (1980). Anderson started the long campaign as a respected but little-known ten-term Republican congressman from Illinois. A conservative at the start of his political career, he stood out from the pack by taking liberal positions unpopular with the conservative constituency other GOP hopefuls were trying to attract. But he gained support from young people, independents, Democrats, and moderate Republicans. Many Democrats crossed over to vote for Anderson in the "open" primaries, enabling him to finish a strong second in Vermont, Massachusetts, and Illinois. This encouraged Anderson to become an independent candidate for president, though he failed to win a single primary. He had no single issue to use as a rallying point. Patrick Lucey, a Democrat and former Wisconsin governor, became his vice-presidential running mate. Despite opposition from the Democrats, who feared he would take votes away from Carter, Anderson fought his way onto the ballot in all 50 states. The polls showed him at about 15% in early September and threatening to hurt Carter in the Midwest and Northeast. The League of Women Voters invited him to participate in the first presidential debate in Baltimore, Md., which Carter avoided because of his presence. Thereafter, his support began to decline as voters became convinced that he could not win. The campaign went heavily into debt and almost collapsed when he was not included in the second and final presidential debate in late October. On election day, he polled 5.5 million votes (6.5%), which qualified him to receive $4 million in federal funds. Reagan overwhelmed Carter, and the so-called "Anderson factor" proved to be of little consequence.

Anderson, John Edward (b. Aug. 25, 1879, Rockingham county, N.C. - d. Feb. 4, 1947), mayor of El Paso (1939-47).

Anderson, Sir Kenneth Arthur Noel (b. Dec. 25, 1891, Dhazwar, Madras, India - d. April 29, 1959, Gibraltar), governor of Gibraltar (1947-52); knighted 1943.

Anderson, Sir (David) Murray (b. April 11, 1874, Newton-by-Chester, Cheshire, England - d. Oct. 30, 1936, Sydney, N.S.W.), governor of Newfoundland (1932-35) and New South Wales (1936); knighted 1930.

R.B. Anderson
Anderson, Robert B(ernerd) (b. June 4, 1910, Burleson, Texas - d. Aug. 14, 1989, New York City), U.S. politician. He was elected to the Texas house of representatives in 1932 and was appointed to various state administrative positions. Although a Democrat, Anderson was a leading supporter of Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1952 and later turned Republican. President Eisenhower named him secretary of the navy in December 1952; then in 1954, deputy secretary of defense. He resigned the latter office in 1955. He was named secretary of the treasury May 29, 1957, to succeed George M. Humphrey. Upon his nomination, Anderson announced his intention to continue the fiscal policies of his predecessor "in the firm belief that [they] are basic to the continued security and strength of our nation both economically and militarily." Humphrey's key policies had been tight money and checks on federal spending; and these policies Anderson continued. Anderson opposed tax reductions to counteract the recession of 1957-58 but was obliged early in 1958 to recommend raising the permanent national debt ceiling temporarily to $280,000,000,000 and later to $283,000,000,000, with an extra $5,000,000,000 of temporary borrowing authority to be available until July 1959. He left office in 1961. In 1987 he pleaded guilty to charges of evading taxes by illegally operating an offshore bank and was sentenced to jail.

Anderson, Rocky, byname of Ross Carl Anderson (b. Sept. 9, 1951, Logan, Utah), mayor of Salt Lake City (2000-08). In 2012 he was presidential candidate of the Justice Party.

Anderson, Sigurd (b. Jan. 22, 1904, Arendal, Norway - d. Dec. 21, 1990, Webster, S.D.), governor of South Dakota (1951-55).

Anderson, Victor Emanuel (b. March 30, 1902, Lincoln, Neb. - d. Aug. 15, 1962, Lincoln), mayor of Lincoln (1950-53) and governor of Nebraska (1955-59).

W.R. Anderson
Anderson, Wendell R(ichard) (b. Feb. 1, 1933, St. Paul, Minn. - d. July 17, 2016, St. Paul), governor of Minnesota (1971-76). He was a member of the U.S. ice hockey team that won a silver medal at the 1956 Olympics and also was a U.S. senator (1976-78) and honorary consul-general for Sweden at Minneapolis (1989-2003).

Anderson, William A. (b. Oct. 19, 1873, Adams county, Wis. - d. Dec. 12, 1954), mayor of Minneapolis (1931-33).

Anderssen-Rysst, Torgeir (b. Aug. 9, 1888, Ålesund, Norway - d. Sept. 8, 1958, Reykjavík, Iceland), defense minister of Norway (1928-31). He was also ambassador to Iceland (1945-58).

Andersson, (Karl) Börje (b. June 26, 1930, Stora Tuna, Kopparberg [now Dalarna], Sweden - d. April 19, 1994), defense minister of Sweden (1982).

Andersson, (Johan) Elon (b. Jan. 25, 1891, Gävle, Gävleborg, Sweden - d. Sept. 28, 1954), governor of Gävleborg (1950-54).

Andersson, Erik Gustaf (b. July 8, 1895, Eskilstuna, Södermanland, Sweden - d. Nov. 24, 1958), governor of Södermanland (1958).

Andersson, Georg (Leander) (b. March 3, 1936, Älvsby, Norrbotten, Sweden), governor of Västerbotten (1995-2001). He was also Swedish minister of immigrant affairs (1986-89) and communications (1989-91).

Andersson, Gustaf (Henning) (b. Dec. 18, 1884, Rasjön, Gustafs socken, Kopparberg [now Dalarna], Sweden - d. Nov. 12, 1961), governor of Kopparberg (1944-51). He was also leader of the Liberal Party (1935-44) and minister of communications (1939-44) of Sweden.

Andersson, (Erik) Jörgen (b. Aug. 22, 1946, Halmstad, Halland, Sweden), interior minister of Sweden (1996-98). He was also minister of housing and energy (1994-96) and industry (1996).

Andersson, (Yngve) Lorentz (b. May 21, 1942, Byske, Västerbotten, Sweden), governor of Västerbotten (2001-07).

(E.)M. Andersson
Andersson, (Eva) Magdalena (b. Jan. 23, 1967, Vaksala, Uppsala, Sweden), finance minister (2014-21) and prime minister (2021-22) of Sweden. She became leader of the Social Democratic Workers' Party in 2021.

Andersson, (Winnie Ester) Magdalena (b. March 9, 1954, Hagfors, Värmland, Sweden), governor of Västerbotten (2012-20).

Sten Andersson
Andersson, Sten (Sture) (b. April 20, 1923, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Sept. 16, 2006, Stockholm), foreign minister of Sweden (1985-91). He was also minister of social affairs (1982-85).

Andersson, Sven Olof (Morgan) (b. April 5, 1910, Göteborg, Sweden - d. Sept. 21, 1987, Stockholm, Sweden), Swedish politician. Andersson entered politics early. He was president of the Göteborg district Social Democratic Youth Union (1929-32) and a member of its national committee (1934-40). He later served as general secretary of the Social Democratic Party (1945-48). He was a member of parliament (1940-44, 1948-76) and served as minister without portfolio (1948-51) and then minister of communications (1951-57). During the latter period he presided over a program of railroad reorganization, the launch of nationwide television, and an expansion of hydroelectric power. He then served as minister of defense (1957-73) and of foreign affairs (1973-76). A supporter of Sweden's traditional neutral stance, Andersson was strongly critical of the U.S. involvement in Vietnam. In 1987 he headed the commission that had been appointed by Prime Minister Olof Palme to investigate the violation of territorial waters by unidentified submarines; it concluded that the submarines belonged to the Soviet Union.

Andersson, (John) Thorsten (b. April 3, 1938, Södra Åby [now part of Trelleborg municipality], Malmöhus [now in Skåne], Sweden - d. July 21, 2011, Rammsjö, Båstad municipality, Skåne, Sweden), governor of Gotland (1992-98).

Andersson, Thure (Gunnar) (b. June 1, 1908, Ronneby, Blekinge, Sweden - d. April 10, 2002), governor of Blekinge (1961-73).

Andersson, Torsten (b. Dec. 9, 1909, Borås, Älvsborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden - d. March 11, 1978, Borås), governor of Gotland (1968-74).

Anderton, Jim, byname of James Patrick Anderton, original surname Byrne (b. Jan. 21, 1938, Auckland, N.Z. - d. Jan. 7, 2018, Christchurch, N.Z.), deputy prime minister of New Zealand (1999-2002). He was also minister for economic development and for industry and regional development (1999-2005), forestry (2004-08), and agriculture, biosecurity, and fisheries (2005-08). A member of the Labour Party until 1989, he was leader of the New Labour Party (1989-91), the Alliance Party (1991-94, 1995-2002), the Progressive Coalition (2002-04), and the Progressive Party (2004-11).

Anderwert, (Josef) Fridolin (b. Sept. 19, 1828, Frauenfeld, Thurgau, Switzerland - d. [suicide] Dec. 25, 1880, Bern, Switzerland), president of the government of Thurgau (1870-71, 1872-73, 1874-75) and justice and police minister of Switzerland (1876-80). He was also president of the National Council (1870).

Andino (Gómez), Mario Antonio (b. June 16, 1936, San Salvador, El Salvador - d. July 27, 2014, San Salvador), member of the Revolutionary Junta of El Salvador (1979-80).

Andino Salazar, José Roberto (b. July 10, 1948 - d. Jan. 7, 2011, Rome, Italy), Salvadoran diplomat. He was ambassador to Colombia and Barbados (1985-92), Spain and Morocco (1996-2000), and Italy (2005-11) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2000-02).

Andjaba, Martin (b. Dec. 17, 1957, Ontokolo, South West Africa [now Namibia]), Namibian politician. He was the government's chief of protocol (1990-96), permanent representative to the United Nations (1996-2006), ambassador to the United States (2010-18), Germany (2021- ), and the Vatican (2021- ), and minister of presidential affairs (2018-20) and education, arts, and culture (acting, 2019-20).

Andjelkovic, Sasa, byname of Stanoje Andjelkovic (b. Sept. 14, 1941, Zalogovac, Serbia - d. 1999), a deputy prime minister of Serbia (1993).

Andnor Bylund, Berit (Bylund added on marriage in 2006) (b. Nov. 20, 1954, Göteborg, Sweden), governor of Blekinge (2011-17). She was also Swedish minister of children and families (2002-04) and social affairs (2004-06).

Ando, Kisaburo (b. Feb. 11, 1879, Sasayama, Hyogo, Japan - d. May 10, 1954), home affairs minister of Japan (1943-44). He was also a minister of state (1942-43).

Ando, Rikichi (b. April 3, 1884, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan - d. [suicide] April 19, 1946, Shanghai, China), governor-general of Taiwan (1944-45).

Ando, Sadayoshi, in full (from 1907) Danshaku (Baron) Sadayoshi Ando (b. Sept. 21 [Aug. 19, lunar calendar], 1853, Iida, Shinano province [now in Nagano prefecture], Japan - d. Aug. 29, 1932), governor-general of Taiwan (1915-18).

Ando, Tadahiro (b. March 9, 1941 - d. April 30, 2010, Miyazaki, Japan), governor of Miyazaki (2003-06). Because of a scandal involving the rigging of a bid on a bridge project, he was subjected to a no-confidence vote on Dec. 1, 2006, and on December 4 became the second Japanese prefectural governor to resign after such a vote, following Gifu governor Saburo Hirano in 1976. Ando was arrested December 8. He was convicted in early 2010 for colluding with local contractors and was sentenced to 3½ years in prison and a 20-million-yen fine; he was appealing to the Supreme Court when he died.

Andonoski, Vasile (b. Dec. 24, 1961), Macedonian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2014-17).

Andor, László (b. June 3, 1966, Zalaegerszeg, Hungary), Hungarian politician. He was EU commissioner for employment, social affairs, and inclusion (2010-14).

Andov, Stojan (b. Nov. 30, 1935, Kavadarci, Yugoslavia [now in North Macedonia] - d. June 18, 2024), Macedonian politician. A member of the Federal Executive Council of Yugoslavia in the 1980s and ambassador to Iraq (1988-91), he was chairman of the Macedonian parliament (Sobranie) in 1991-96 and 2000-02. In 1995-96 he acted as president of Macedonia following an assassination attempt on Pres. Kiro Gligorov. In 1999 he was presidential candidate for the Liberal Democratic Party.

Andrada, Antônio Carlos Ribeiro de (b. Sept. 5, 1870, Barbacena, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. Jan. 1, 1946, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), finance minister of Brazil (1917-18) and president of Minas Gerais (1926-30); grandson of Martim Francisco Ribeiro de Andrada (1775-1844); nephew of José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva (1827-1886). He was also mayor of Belo Horizonte (1905-06) and president of the National Constituent Assembly (1933-34) and the Chamber of Deputies (1935-37).

Andrada, José Bonifácio Lafayette de (b. May 1, 1904, Barbacena, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. Feb. 18, 1986, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais), Brazilian politician; nephew of Antônio Carlos Ribeiro de Andrada. He was mayor of Barbacena (1931-34) and president of the Chamber of Deputies (1968-70).

Andrada, Martim Francisco Ribeiro de (b. April 19, 1775, Santos, Brazil - d. Feb. 23, 1844, Santos), finance minister of Brazil (1822-23, 1840-41); brother of José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva (1763-1838). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1831).

Andrada, Martim Francisco Ribeiro de (b. June 10, 1825, Mussidan, Dordogne, France - d. March 2, 1886, São Paulo, Brazil), foreign minister of Brazil (1866); son of the above. He was also justice minister (1866-68) and president of the Chamber of Deputies (1882).

Andrade, Amancio João Pereira de (b. 180..., São Salvador da Bahia [now Salvador], Brazil - d. Dec. 2, 1851, São Salvador da Bahia), president of Sergipe (1849-51).

Andrade, Americo de Moura Marcondes de (b. 1840, Pindamonhangaba, São Paulo, Brazil - d. Feb. 22, 1908, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Rio Grande do Sul (1878-79) and Rio de Janeiro (1879-80).

Andrade, Antônio Paes de (b. May 18, 1927, Mombaça, Ceará, Brazil - d. June 17, 2015, Brasília, Brazil), Brazilian politician. He was president of the Chamber of Deputies (1989-91) and ambassador to Portugal (2003-07).

Andrade, Auro Soares de Moura (b. Sept. 19, 1915, Barretos, São Paulo, Brazil - d. May 30, 1982, São Paulo, Brazil), prime minister of Brazil (1962). He was also president of the Senate (1961-68) and ambassador to Spain (1968-69).

Andrade, Francisco de Carvalho Paes de (d. 1857), president of Pernambuco (1831-32); brother of Manoel de Carvalho Paes de Andrade.

I. Andrade
Andrade (Troconis), Ignacio (b. July 31, 1839, Mérida, Venezuela - d. Feb. 17, 1925, Macuto, Venezuela), president (1898-99), foreign minister (1914-17), and interior minister (1917-22) of Venezuela. He was also president of the states of Falcón (1883-85) and Miranda (1894-97), governor of the Distrito Federal (1892-93), minister of education (1893) and public works (1893-94), and minister to Cuba (1909-13).

Andrade, João Paulo Monteiro de (b. July 25, 1828, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. Aug. 27, 1884, aboard the Espírito Santo, en route from Maranhão to Ceará, Brazil), acting president of Maranhão (1881-82).

Andrade, João Walter de (b. July 24, 1919, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil - d. April 26, 2008, Aracaju), governor of Amazonas (1971-75).

Andrade, Joaquim José de Oliveira (b. Sept. 18, 1836, Goiana, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. Nov. 17, 1923, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Pernambuco (1888-89).

Andrade, Joaquim Manoel Gonçalves de (b. Nov. 7, 1807, Campanário, Madeira, Portugal - d. Feb. 7, 1879, São Paulo, Brazil), acting president of São Paulo (1875, 1878).

Andrade, José Baptista de (b. March 27, 1819, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Feb. 26, 1902, Lisbon), governor-general of Angola (1862-65, 1873-76).

Andrade, José Pereira dos Santos (b. April 9, 1842, Paranaguá, São Paulo [now in Paraná], Brazil - d. Feb. 15, 1900, Curitiba, Paraná), governor of Paraná (1896-1900).

Andrade (Díaz), Luis Ignacio (b. Feb. 9, 1894, Altamira, Huila, Colombia - d. Dec. 30, 1966, Neiva, Huila), interior minister of Colombia (1949-50, 1951-53). He was also president of the Senate (1939-41), minister of public works (1947-49), and ambassador to the Vatican (1950-51).

Andrade, Manoel de Carvalho Paes de (b. Dec. 21, 1774, Pernambuco captaincy [now state], Brazil - d. June 18, 1855, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of the Governing Junta (1823-24) and acting president (1834-35) of Pernambuco and head of the Confederation of the Equator (1824).

Andrade, Manoel Joaquim Gonçalves de (b. March 14, 1767, Campanário, Madeira, Portugal - d. May 26, 1847, São Paulo, Brazil), acting president of São Paulo (1828, 1829, 1830-31, 1831). He was bishop of São Paulo (1827-47).

M.P. de Andrade
Andrade, Mário (Coelho) Pinto de (b. Aug. 21, 1928, Golungo Alto, Angola - d. Aug. 26, 1990, London, England), African political figure. In 1948 he went to Portugal to study classical philology at the University of Lisbon. There, in 1951, he was one of the founders of the Centre of African Studies, together with Agostinho Neto, later independent Angola's first president, and Amílcar Cabral of Guinea-Bissau. As a student at the Sorbonne in Paris from 1954, Andrade wrote biting anticolonialist poetry and was an editor of the cultural review Présence Africaine (1955-58). Beginning in 1956 he worked with Neto to merge separate liberation groups into the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), and when Neto was arrested in 1960, Andrade was elected MPLA president. He relinquished the post after Neto escaped from detention in Portugal two years later. Although Andrade remained active in the MPLA until 1973, he split with Neto in 1974 to join Revolta Activa, a dissident group. He later exiled himself to Guinea-Bissau, where he served as coordinator-general of the National Council of Culture (1976-78) and as minister of information and culture (1978-80).

Andrade, Moacir Lopes de (b. Dec. 17, 1938, Penedo, Alagoas, Brazil), acting governor of Alagoas (1989-91).

Andrade, Ovidio João Paulo de (d. March 29, 1901, Itaverava, Minas Gerais, Brazil), president of Maranhão (1883-84).

Andrade Carmona, Alberto (Manuel) (b. Dec. 24, 1943, Lima, Peru - d. June 19, 2009, Washington, D.C.), Peruvian politician; great-grandson of Nicanor M. Cardona. He was mayor of Miraflores (1990-95) and Lima (1996-2002) and a minor presidential candidate (2000).

M. Andrade D.
Andrade Díaz, Manuel (b. Oct. 6, 1965), governor of Tabasco (2002-06).

Andrade Díaz-Durán, Fernando (Enrique José) (b. Sept. 23, 1937, Guatemala City, Guatemala), foreign minister of Guatemala (1983-86). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1986-88), a presidential candidate (1995), and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1996-2001) and Mexico (2012-15).

Andrade Labarca, Nectario (Emiro) (b. Dec. 27, 1917, Isla de San Carlos, Zulia, Venezuela - d. June 27, 2004, Maracaibo, Zulia), interior minister of Venezuela (1972-74). He was also minister of justice (1969-70) and labour (1970-72).

Andrade Manrique, Felio (b. Sept. 14, 1926, Tello, Huila, Colombia - d. Oct. 14, 2010, Bogotá, Colombia), justice minister of Colombia (1980-82). He was also governor of Huila (1958-60).

Andrade Serrano, Hernán Francisco (b. 1960, Neiva, Huila, Colombia), Colombian politician. He was president of the Senate (2008-09).

Andræ, Carl Christopher Georg (b. Oct. 14, 1812, Hjertebjerg, Møn island, Denmark - d. Feb. 2, 1893, Copenhagen, Denmark), finance minister (1854-58) and prime minister (1856-57) of Denmark. He was also speaker of the Folketing (1850-52).

Andrássy de Csíkszentkirály (et Krasznahorka), Gyula gróf (Hungarian), German Julius Graf Andrássy von Csíkszentkirály (und Krasznahorka) (b. March 3, 1823, Kassa, Hungary, Austrian Empire [now Kosice, Slovakia] - d. Feb. 18, 1890, Volosca, Istria, Austria-Hungary [now Volosko, part of Opatija, Croatia]), prime minister and defense minister of Hungary (1867-71) and foreign minister (1871-79) and acting finance minister (1871-72, 1876) of Austria-Hungary. He initially supported the policies of the moderate reformer István Széchenyi, but later switched to the more radical Lajos Kossuth. He entered the Hungarian Diet in 1847 and was prominent in the struggle for Hungarian independence (1848-49), after which he was condemned to death in absentia and lived in exile in Paris and London. Having become an advocate of a Hungarian compromise with Austria and having received an amnesty in 1857, he returned to Hungary and joined forces with the middle-of-the-road liberals. He became the first prime minister of Hungary under the Dual Monarchy formed in 1867. As foreign minister of Austria-Hungary, he secured, at the Congress of Berlin (1878), the right to occupy Bosnia-Herzegovina. Although unpopular, from his viewpoint this action was aimed at counterbalancing Russia's increased role in the Balkans. He then negotiated, with German chancellor Otto von Bismarck, the Dual Alliance of 1879, which remained the cornerstone of the foreign policies of both empires until 1918. Immediately afterwards he resigned, though remaining a member of Hungary's upper house.

Andrássy de Csíkszentkirály (et Krasznahorka), Gyula gróf (Hungarian), German Julius Graf Andrássy von Csíkszentkirály (und Krasznahorka) (b. June 30, 1860, Töketerebes, Hungary, Austrian Empire [now Trebisov, Slovakia] - d. June 11, 1929, Budapest, Hungary), interior minister of Hungary (1906-10) and foreign minister of Austria-Hungary (1918); son of the above. He entered the Hungarian parliament in 1885 and was Hungarian minister a latere (1894-95). He clashed violently with Prime Minister István Tisza, chiefly over relations with Austria. He assumed leadership of an anti-Tisza coalition, and after that bloc triumphed (1905) in national elections, Andrássy became minister of the interior. His proposals on child welfare and emigration were passed into law, though plans for military and suffrage reform were defeated. After 1910, as a spokesman for the opposition, Andrássy resumed his bitter feud with Tisza. Yet, when the European war started in 1914, he vigorously supported the war effort, wrote extensively on public issues, and pleaded passionately for the inclusion of Poland in the Habsburg realm. On Oct. 24, 1918, his long-standing ambition to become foreign minister was fulfilled, but about all that he did was to apply to the U.S. government for an armistice and a separate peace. On the passing of the monarchy, he warmly espoused the restoration of the Habsburg claimant to the throne of Hungary. At his death, he was hailed by legitimists as "the most loyal of the loyalists."

Andrault de Langeron, Alexandre Louis (b. Jan. 24, 1763, Paris, France - d. July 16 [July 4, O.S.], 1831, Odessa, Russia [now in Ukraine]), governor of Odessa (1815-20) and governor-general of Novorossiya (1815-22).

B. André
André, Bruno (b. Nov. 25, 1962, Pont-l'Abbé, Finistère, France), acting prefect of Mayotte (2014, 2016) and prefect of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (2023- ).

André, Charles (Claude Séraphin) (b. Jan. 3, 1920, Lyon, France - d. Aug. 5, 2002, Lyon), resident of Wallis and Futuna (1953-55).

André, Louis (Joseph Nicolas) (b. March 29, 1838, Nuits [now Nuits-Saint-Georges], Côte-d'Or, France - d. March 18, 1913, Dijon, France), war minister of France (1900-04).

André T.
André Tinoco, Arnoldo (b. 1961, San José, Costa Rica), foreign minister of Costa Rica (2022- ).

Andréa, Bernardo José de Souza Soares de (b. April 13, 1795, Lisbon, Portugal - d. April 28, 1844), governor of Macau (1833-37) and São Tomé and Príncipe (1839-43); brother of Francisco José de Souza Soares de Andréa, barão de Caçapava.

Andrea Marcazzolo, Tulio de (b. March 18, 1923), finance minister of Peru (1967-68).

Andreatta, Beniamino (b. Aug. 11, 1928, Trento [now in Trentino-Alto Adige], Italy - d. March 26, 2007, Bologna, Italy), treasury minister (1980-82), foreign minister (1993-94), and defense minister (1996-98) of Italy.

Andreazza, Mário David (b. Aug. 20, 1918, Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. April 19, 1988, São Paulo, Brazil), interior minister of Brazil (1979-85). He was also minister of transport (1967-74).

Andrei, Stefan (b. March 29, 1931, Livezi village, Podari municipality, Dolj county, Romania - d. Aug. 31, 2014, Snagov, Ilfov county, Romania), foreign minister of Romania (1978-85). He was also a deputy prime minister (1987-89).

Andrejcák, Imrich (b. July 12, 1941, Haniska, near Kosice, Slovakia - d. Sept. 5, 2018), defense minister of Czechoslovakia (1992) and Slovakia (1993-94).

Andrejevs, Georgs (b. Oct. 30, 1932, Tukums, Latvia - d. July 16, 2022), foreign minister of Latvia (1992-94). He was also ambassador to Canada (1995-98).

Andrén, Georg (b. Dec. 10, 1890, Örgryte, Göteborg och Bohus [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden - d. Sept. 1, 1969), governor of Uppsala (1952-57). He was also Swedish minister of ecclesiastical affairs (1944-45).

Andrén, (Bengt Erik) Georg (b. Feb. 27, 1960, Västerås, Västmanland, Sweden), governor of Värmland (2019- ); grandson of the above. He was also Swedish ambassador to Guatemala (2014-17).


Andreoli, Paride (b. Sept. 15, 1956), captain-regent of San Marino (1993-94, 1997). He was also minister of tourism and sport (2001-07) and labour (2003-06).

Andreolli, Tarcisio (b. Sept. 20, 1936, Brentonico [now in Trentino-Alto Adige], Italy), president of Trentino-Alto Adige (1992-93).

Andreotti, Giulio (b. Jan. 14, 1919, Rome, Italy - d. May 6, 2013, Rome), prime minister of Italy (1972-73, 1976-79, 1989-92). A Christian Democrat, he was a member of the Constituent Assembly elected in June 1946 and was given an appointment as undersecretary by Premier Alcide De Gasperi in 1947, a post he retained until 1953. He chose to be left out when Giuseppe Pella formed a centre-right government with the Liberal Party in 1953 but was interior minister (1954) in Amintore Fanfani's first government. He was later in charge of finances (1955-58), treasury (1958-59), defense (1959-66, 1974), and industry and commerce (1966-68). His first government, a Christian Democrat minority government, lasted from February to June 1972, followed by his second government (June 1972-July 1973), a coalition with the Liberals and Social Democrats. His third government (July 1976-March 1978) was a one-party minority government voted in only by virtue of the abstention of the Communist Party. That time he survived longer than most Italian premiers because there seemed no suitable alternative to his leadership. His fourth government lasted from March 1978 to March 1979 and his fifth from March to August 1979. After a period as foreign minister (1983-89), he presided over his sixth government, a five-party coalition, from July 1989 to April 1991 and his seventh, a coalition with the Socialists, Social Democrats, and Republicans, from April 1991 to July 1992. He then left the political stage. In 1993 he was accused of having close links to the Mafia. Indicted in 1995, he also went on trial for involvement in the 1979 murder of a muckraking journalist. He was acquitted of both charges in 1999. In 2002 a court reversed the acquittal and sentenced him to 24 years in prison for complicity in the slaying of the journalist, but in a third and final judgment he was again acquitted in 2003.

Andrés Rodríguez, Juan Antonio de (b. 1942, Teruel, Aragón, Spain), president of the Diputación General of Aragón (1982-83).

Andresen, Edmund (High) (b. 1949), justice minister of Solomon Islands (1998). He was also minister of commerce and primary industry (1989-90), agriculture and fisheries (1994-96), and police and national security (1996-97).

Andresen, Nigol (b. Oct. 2, 1899, Haljala, Russia [now in Estonia] - d. Feb. 24, 1985, Tartu, Estonian S.S.R.), acting chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian S.S.R. (1946-47). He was also foreign minister (1940) and people's commissar of education (1940-44).

Andreu, Concha, byname of Concepción Andreu Rodríguez (b. March 10, 1967, Calahorra, La Rioja, Spain), president of La Rioja (2019-23).

Andrew, A(bram) Piatt (b. Feb. 12, 1873, La Porte, Ind. - d. June 3, 1936, Gloucester, Mass.), director of the U.S. Mint (1909-10).

Andrew, Joe, byname of Joseph Jerald Andrew (b. 1960, Indianapolis, Ind.), national chairman of the U.S. Democratic Party (1999-2001).

Andrew, John A(lbion) (b. May 31, 1818, Windham, Mass. [now in Maine] - d. Oct. 30, 1867, Boston, Mass.), governor of Massachusetts (1861-66).

Andrew, (John) Neil (b. June 7, 1944, Waikerie, S.Aus.), speaker of the House of Representatives of Australia (1998-2004).

Andrew, Robin McCheyne (b. June 5, 1918 - d. Jan. 7, 2000, Devon, England), acting British political agent and consul in Muscat and Oman (1949).

Andrews, Charles (b. May 27, 1827 - d. Oct. 22, 1918), mayor of Syracuse (1861-62, 1868).

C.B. Andrews

Daniel Andrews
Andrews, Charles B(artlett) (b. Nov. 4, 1834, Sunderland, Mass. - d. Sept. 12, 1902, Litchfield, Conn.), governor of Connecticut (1879-81).

Andrews, Charles M(cLean) (b. Feb. 22, 1863, Wethersfield, Conn. - d. Sept. 9, 1943, New Haven, Conn.), president of the American Historical Association (1924-25).

Andrews, Daniel (Michael) (b. July 6, 1972, Williamstown, Vic.), premier of Victoria (2014-23).

David Andrews
Andrews, David, Irish Daithí Mac Aindriú (b. March 15, 1936, Dublin, Ireland), foreign minister (1992-93, 1997-2000), defense minister (1993-94, 1997), and marine minister (1993-94) of Ireland.

Andrews, Harry Thomson (b. Dec. 11, 1897, Cape Town, Cape Colony [now in South Africa] - d. April 29, 1985, Johannesburg, South Africa), South African diplomat. He was permanent representative to the League of Nations (1936-40) and the United Nations (1945-49), minister (1945-49) and ambassador (1949) to the United States, ambassador to France (1949-57), and minister to Switzerland (1954-56).

Andrews, John Day (b. Aug. 30, 1795, Spotsylvania county, Va. - d. Aug. 30, 1882), mayor of Houston (1841-43).

Andrews, Kevin (b. Nov. 9, 1955, Sale, Vic.), defence minister of Australia (2014-15). He was also minister of ageing (2001-03), employment and workplace relations (2003-07), immigration and citizenship (2007), and social services (2013-14).

Andrews, Major Andre (b. July 8, 1792, Cornwall, Conn. - d. Aug. 18, 1834), mayor of Buffalo (1833-34).

Andrews, T(homas) Coleman (b. Feb. 19, 1899, Richmond, Va. - d. Oct. 15, 1983, Richmond), commissioner of the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (1953-55). He was a minor presidential candidate (Independent States' Rights Party) in 1956.

Andreyev, Anany (Kononovich) (b. September 1901, Zhekhsogonsky nasleg [village], Yakutsk oblast [now in Sakha republic], Russia - d. 1944), chairman of the Central Executive Committee and of the Council of People's Commissars of the Yakut A.S.S.R. (1929-31). He was also people's commissar of communal services (1937-38).

Andreyev, Andrey (Andreyevich) (b. Oct. 30 [Oct. 18, O.S.], 1895, Kuznetsovo, Smolensk province [now oblast], Russia - d. Dec. 5, 1971, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), Soviet politician. He was people's commissar of workers' and peasants' inspection (1930-31), railways (1931-35), and agriculture (1943-46), chairman of the Soviet of the Union (1938-46), and a deputy premier (1946-53).

Andreyev, Andrey (Viktorovich) (b. June 15, 1953, Saratov, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. May 24, 2021), chairman of the government of Penza oblast (2011-12).

Andreyev, Pyotr (Ilich) (b. Oct. 11 [Sept. 28, O.S.], 1900, Andryushenki, Vyatka province [now in Mari El republic], Russia - d. [executed] May 11, 1938, Kazan, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Executive Committee (1937) and of the Executive Committee of Soviets (1937) of the Mari A.S.S.R.

Andreyeva, Zoya (Ananevna) (b. April 6 [March 25, O.S.], 1899, Oraushi, Kazan province [now in Chuvashia republic], Russia - d. Feb. 3, 1983, Cheboksary, Chuvash A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Central Executive Committee (1937-38) and of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1938-55) of the Chuvash A.S.S.R. She was also people's commissar of social security (1934-36).

Andriamahazo, Gilles (b. May 1919, Fort-Dauphin [now Tolanaro], Toliara province, Madagascar - d. Sept. 13, 1989, Antananarivo, Madagascar), president of Madagascar (1975). He was also military governor of Tananarive (1972) and minister of territorial development (1972-75).

N.H. Andriamanjato
Andriamanjato, Ny Hasina, foreign minister of Madagascar (2009-10); son of Richard Andriamanjato. He was also minister of posts and telecommunications (1994-2002, 2011-14), a presidential candidate (2006), a deputy prime minister (2009-10), and interim mayor of Antananarivo (2014-15).

Andriamanjato, Richard (Mahitsison) (b. July 31, 1930, Mahitsy, Madagascar - d. May 16, 2013, Paris, France), Malagasy politician. He was mayor of Antananarivo (1959-77), president of the National Assembly (1993-98), and a presidential candidate (1996).

Andriamiarisoa, Vero Henintsoa, Madagascar diplomat. She has been chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (2020- ).

Andrian, secular name Aleksandr (Gennadiyevich) Chetvergov (b. 1951 - d. Aug. 10, 2005, during a procession from Kirov to the settlement Velikoretskoye, Yuryansky rayon, Kirov oblast, Russia), metropolitan of Moscow and All Russia, head of the Russian Orthodox Old Believers Church (2004-05).

Andrianarivelo-Razafy, Zina (b. Oct. 30, 1951, Madagascar), Malagasy diplomat; cousin of Joseph Albert Blaise Rabetafika. He was ambassador to the United States (1999-2002) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2002-18).

Andrianarivo, (René) Tantely (Gabrio) (b. May 25, 1954, Ambositra, Madagascar - d. Aug. 31, 2023, France), prime minister of Madagascar (1998-2002). He was also deputy prime minister in charge of economy and finance (1997-98). He was placed under house arrest on May 27, 2002, and transferred to jail on October 20. He was accused of "usurpation of functions, diversion of public monies, harbouring wrongdoers, and attacking the interior safety of the state." On Dec. 24, 2003, he was sentenced to 12 years in jail with hard labour and ordered to pay 42 billion Malagasy francs in damages.

Andrianov, Yury (Mikhailovich) (b. Oct. 18, 1950, Andrianovka, Tambov oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Dec. 29, 2021), chairman of the government of Tula oblast (2012-18).



Andriantiana, (Jacques) Ulrich (b. June 7, 1977, Morondava, Madagascar), acting foreign minister of Madagascar (2013-14).

Andriantsitohaina, Naina (b. 1963, Toamasina, Madagascar), foreign minister of Madagascar (2019-20).

Andric, Filip (b. Oct. 20, 1960, Duvno [now Tomislavgrad, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), governor (1996) and premier (1996-98) of Herzeg-Bosnia.

Andric-Luzanski, Ivo (b. April 3, 1956, Zivinice, near Tuzla [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), president of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1999-2000, 2001). He was also vice president (2000-01).

Andriessen, Frans, byname of Franciscus Henricus Johannes Joseph Andriessen (b. April 2, 1929, Utrecht, Netherlands - d. March 22, 2019, Bilthoven, Netherlands), finance minister of the Netherlands (1977-80). He was also European commissioner for competition and relations with the European Parliament (1981-85), agriculture and fisheries (1985-89), and external relations and trade policy (1989-93) and a vice president of the European Commission (1985-93).

Andrieux, Louis (b. July 23, 1840, Trévoux, Ain, France - d. Aug. 27, 1931, Paris, France), prefect of police of Paris (1879-81). He was also French ambassador to Spain (1881-82).

Andriukaitis, Vytenis (Povilas) (b. Aug. 9, 1951, Kyusyur, Yakut A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. [now Sakha republic, Russia]), Lithuanian politician. He was a presidential candidate (1997, 2002), minister of health (2012-14), and EU commissioner for health and food safety (2014-19).

Andronnikov, Ivan (Malkhazovich) (b. 1798 - d. Oct. 1 [Sept. 19, O.S.], 1868), military governor of Tiflis (1849-55); great-grandson of Irakli II.

Andropov, Igor (Yuryevich) (b. Aug. 18, 1941, Pudozh, Karelo-Finnish S.S.R. [now Karelia, Russia] - d. June 13, 2006), Soviet diplomat; son of Yury Andropov. He was ambassador to Greece (1984-86).

Yury Andropov
Andropov, Yury (Vladimirovich) (b. June 15 [June 2, O.S.], 1914, Nagutskoye, Stavropol region, Russia - d. Feb. 9, 1984, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1982-84). He was an organizer for the Young Communist League (Komsomol) in the Yaroslavl region before being put in charge of the Komsomol in the Karelo-Finnish S.S.R. (1940-44). Inducted into the Communist Party in 1939, he used the Karelo-Finnish party organization to field guerrilla units behind German lines in World War II. In 1947 he was made second secretary of the Karelian party. In 1951 he was called to Moscow to serve on the staff of the party's Secretariat. He was attached to the diplomatic service in 1953, and as ambassador to Hungary (1954-57) played a major role in coordinating the Soviet invasion of that country in 1956. He became a member of the Central Committee in 1961 and joined the Secretariat a year later. In May 1967, he became head of the KGB, and a month later he was made a candidate member and in April 1973 a full member of the Politburo. His tenure as KGB chief was noted for its suppression of political dissidents; writer Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn was exiled and Andrey Sakharov banished to Gorky. As General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev's health declined, Andropov began to position himself for succession, resigning his KGB post in May 1982 and becoming one of the national party secretaries again. When Brezhnev died in November 1982, Andropov was chosen by the Central Committee to succeed him. In June 1983 he also became chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (head of state). But ill health overtook him, and after Aug. 18, 1983, he was never seen again in public. Having accomplished little, he died after 15 months in office.

Andros, Sir Edmund (b. Dec. 6, 1637, London, England - d. Feb. 24, 1714, London), English colonial administrator. He was the son of Amice Andros, a bailiff of Guernsey who held the title Seigneur of Sausmarez. When Amice died in 1674, Edmund inherited the post of bailiff and the Sausmarez title. That same year, he was sent to North America to become governor of New York and New Jersey. He was knighted in 1678. During Andros' first few years as governor, much time was spent reassessing and consolidating boundaries between the various New England colonies. Because the lands of the New World had not been efficiently surveyed and mapped, the boundaries, as defined in the original charters for the various colonies, tended to overlap. The colonists considered Andros both arrogant and arbitrary, and he was recalled in 1681. In 1686 King James II created the Dominion of New England, depriving the various colonies of any independent status and of any claims to earlier charters. Likewise all the colonial legislatures were dissolved and total power placed in the hands of Andros, who became governor of the dominion. He vigorously enforced the Navigation Acts, limited town meetings and the right of local taxation, forced landowners to take out new patents on their land, and - perhaps most egregious of all - imposed Episcopalian worship in that bastion of Puritan congregationalism, Boston's Old South Meetinghouse. In 1688 James II was overthrown, and when the news reached Boston in 1689, the colonists rose instantly and imprisoned Andros, while his governmental fabric throughout the provinces perished almost in a day. Returned to England, he was tried and immediately released. He later served as governor of Virginia (1692-98) and Maryland (1693-94) and lieutenant governor of Guernsey (1704-06).

Androsch, Hannes (b. April 18, 1938, Vienna, Germany [now in Austria]), finance minister (1970-81) and vice chancellor (1976-81) of Austria.

Androutsopoulos, Adamantios (b. 1919, Psari, Greece - d. Nov. 10, 2000), finance minister (1967-71), interior minister (1971-73), and prime minister (1973-74) of Greece.

Andrus, Cecil D(ale) (b. Aug. 25, 1931, Hood River, Ore. - d. Aug. 24, 2017, Boise, Idaho), governor of Idaho (1971-77, 1987-95) and U.S. secretary of the interior (1977-81).

Andueza (Acuña), José Guillermo (b. July 8, 1928, Carúpano, Sucre, Venezuela - d. April 25, 2022, Caracas, Venezuela), justice minister (1979-81) and interior minister (1996-98) of Venezuela. He was also prosecutor-general (1969-74) and minister of decentralization (1994-96) and the presidency (1998-99).

Andze Tsoungui, Gilbert (b. Aug. 7, 1930, Nkolondom, French Cameroons [now in Cameroon] - d. April 9, 2007, Brussels, Belgium), armed forces minister of Cameroon (1983-85). He was also minister of agriculture (1975-79, 1983), justice (1979-83), and territorial administration (1990-97) and a deputy prime minister (1992-97).

Anefal, Sebastian (L.) (b. Jan. 21, 1952, Gurur, Gilman municipality, Yap, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands [now in Federated States of Micronesia]), foreign secretary of the Federated States of Micronesia (2003-07) and governor of Yap (2007-15). He has also been secretary of resources and development (1995-98) and economic affairs (1998-2003) and ambassador to Fiji (2015- ).

Aneizi, Ali (b. 1904 - d. March 31, 1983, London, England), finance minister of Libya (1953-55). He was also governor of the National Bank (1955-61), ambassador to Lebanon (1961-63), and minister of petroleum (1963-64).

Anesoglyan, Gevorg (Saribekovich) (b. Nov. 20 [Nov. 8, O.S.], 1891, Aleksandropol, Erivan province, Russia [now Gyumri, Armenia] - d. [executed] 1938), chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Armenian S.S.R. (1936-37).

Anethan, Auguste (Joseph Marie), baron d' (b. Feb. 17, 1829, Dendermonde, Netherlands [now in Belgium] - d. June 11, 1906, Paris, France), Belgian diplomat; son of Jules Joseph, baron d'Anethan. He was minister to Portugal (1867-75), the Vatican (1875-80), the Netherlands (1881-94), and France (1894-1903).

Anethan, Jules Joseph, baron (from 1840) d' (b. April 23, 1803, Brussels, France [now in Belgium] - d. Oct. 8, 1888, Schaerbeek [now in Brussels-Capital region], Belgium), cabinet chief and foreign minister of Belgium (1870-71). He was also justice minister (1843-47), acting interior minister (1845), acting war minister (1846), and chairman of the Senate (1884-85).

Aney, Madhav Shrihari (b. Aug. 29, 1880, Wani, Central Provinces [now in Maharashtra], India - d. Jan. 26, 1968), governor of Bihar (1948-52). He was also Indian high commissioner to Ceylon (1943-47).

Áñez (Chávez), Jeanine (b. Aug. 13, 1967, Trinidad, Beni, Bolivia), interim president of Bolivia (2019-20). In 2022 she was sentenced to 10 years in prison for acting against the constitution in taking the presidency in 2019 following the ouster of Pres. Evo Morales.

Anga, Pierre (b. 1940 - d. [killed] July 4, 1988, near Owando, Congo [Brazzaville]), member of the Military Committee of the Congolese Labour Party (during presidential vacancy 1977). He led a rebellion with other members of his Kouyou tribe in 1987-88.

Angami, T(hepfulo) N(akhro) (b. November 1913, Jotsoma, Assam [now in Nagaland], India - d. ...), chief minister of Nagaland (1966-69).

Angammarre, Raoul (Eugène) (b. June 23, 1898, Saint-Quentin, Aisne, France - d. Jan. 1, 1991, Chambéry, Savoie, France), governor of New Caledonia (1951-54).

Angara, Edgardo (Javier) (b. Sept. 24, 1934, Baler, Aurora, Philippines - d. May 13, 2018, Tagaytay, Cavite, Philippines), Philippine politician. He was president of the University of the Philippines (1981-87), president of the Senate (1993-95), secretary of agriculture (1999-2001), and executive secretary (2001).

Angeja, Pedro Antônio de Noronha Albuquerque e Sousa, (2º) conde de Villa Verde, (1º) marquês de (b. June 13, 1661 - d. July 16, 1731, Lisbon, Portugal), viceroy of Portuguese India (1693-98) and Brazil (1714-18). He was made marquess in January 1714.

Ángel Mejía, Juan Guillermo (b. March 10, 1946, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia), Colombian politician. He was mayor of Pereira (1982-85) and president of the Senate (1994-95).

Angelarij, secular name Cvetko Krstevski (b. 1911 - d. [traffic accident] June 15, 1986), archbishop of Ohrid, head of the Macedonian Orthodox Church (1981-86).

Ángeles (Ramírez), Felipe (de Jesús) (b. June 13, 1869, Zacualtipán, Hidalgo, Mexico - d. [executed] Nov. 26, 1919, Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico), governor of Coahuila (1915) and Nuevo León (1915).

Angelescu, Constantin (b. June 10, 1869, Craiova, Romania - d. Sept. 14, 1948, Bucharest, Romania), prime minister of Romania (1933-34). He was also minister of public works (1914-16) and education (1918-19, 1922-26, 1927-28, 1933-37) and minister to the United States (1918).

Angelescu, Paul (b. Oct. 10, 1872, Iasi, Romania - d. Feb. 4, 1949, Bucharest, Romania), war minister of Romania (1927-28, 1934-37).

Angeli, Pierluigi (b. March 14, 1938, Dro, Trento province, Italy), president of Trentino-Alto Adige autonomous region (1984-87) and of Trento autonomous province (1985-89).

Angeli, Pierre (Louis) (b. Aug. 7, 1921, Sant'Andréa-di-Cotone, Corse [now in Haute-Corse], France - d. Jan. 5, 2008, Fontainebleau, Seine-et-Marne, France), governor (1969-73) and high commissioner (1986-87) of French Polynesia.

Angelim, Eduardo Francisco Nogueira dito (b. July 6, 1814, Aracati, Ceará, Brazil - d. July 11, 1882, Barcarena, Pará, Brazil), president (cabano) of Pará (1835-36).

Angelin, Ângelo (b. Jan. 21, 1935, Capivari, São Paulo, Brazil - d. July 3, 2017, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil), governor of Rondônia (1985-87).

Angelis, Odysseas (b. Feb. 3, 1912, Chalcis, Greece - d. March 22, 1987, Athens, Greece), Greek politician. He was commissioned in 1934 and served during World War II in Albania (1940-41) and the Middle East (1943-45). In the postwar period he was involved in the anti-Communist campaign in Greece. A member of the military junta headed by Col. Georgios Papadopoulos, which ruled Greece during the period 1967-74, he was chief of army general staff (1967-68) and commander in chief, Hellenic Armed Forces (1969-73), before serving as vice-president of Greece for a short period during 1973. Following the return to civilian rule, Angelis was sentenced in 1975 to 20 years in prison for high treason and insurrection. Although he became eligible to apply for parole in 1986, he refused to do so, maintaining his innocence of the charge. Angelis was found hanged in his cell at Koryllados Prison, and his death was ruled to be a suicide.

Angell, James B(urrill) (b. Jan. 7, 1829, Scituate, R.I. - d. April 1, 1916), president of the American Historical Association (1892).

Angelov, Anyu (Zapryanov) (b. Dec. 22, 1942, Haskovo, Bulgaria), defense minister of Bulgaria (2010-13).

Angelovska, Nina (b. July 13, 1988, Skopje, Macedonia [now North Macedonia]), finance minister of North Macedonia (2019-20).

Angeloz, Eduardo (César) (b. Oct. 18, 1931, Rio Tercero, Córdoba province, Argentina - d. Aug. 23, 2017, Córdoba, Argentina), Argentine politician. The governor of Córdoba (1983-95) was the presidential candidate of the Radical Civic Union (UCR) but lost the May 14, 1989, election to Peronist candidate Carlos Menem.

Anger, Erling (b. April 17, 1909, Kristiansund, Romsdals amt [now Møre og Romsdal fylke], Norway - d. April 22, 1999), governor of Møre og Romsdal (1958-65) and Hedmark (1966-79).

Angeren, Johannes Regnerus Maria van (b. May 9, 1894, Utrecht, Netherlands - d. March 19, 1959, The Hague, Netherlands), justice minister of the Netherlands (1942-44).

Angers, Sir Auguste Réal (b. Oct. 4, 1837, Québec, Lower Canada [now Que.] - d. April 14, 1919, Westmount, Que.), lieutenant governor of Quebec (1887-92); knighted 1913. He was also Canadian minister of agriculture (1892-95).

Angier, Nedon L., mayor of Atlanta (1877-78).

Angjeli, Anastas (Mihal) (b. May 6, 1956, Sarandë, Albania), finance minister of Albania (1991, 1998-2002). He was also minister of labour and social affairs (1998) and economy (2003-05).

Anglès, Jules (Jean-Baptiste) (b. July 28, 1778, Grenoble, France - d. Jan. 16, 1828, Cornillon, Loire, France), prefect of police of Paris (1815-21). He was also French minister of police (1814).

Anglesey, Henry William Paget, (1st) Marquess of, original surname Bayly (b. May 17, 1768, London, England - d. April 29, 1854, London), lord lieutenant of Ireland (1828-29, 1830-33). His father changed the family name to Paget in 1770; he succeeded him as (10th) Baron Paget and (3rd) Earl of Uxbridge in 1812 and was created Marquess of Anglesey in 1815.

Angot des Rotours, Jean Julien, baron (b. June 2, 1773, Les Rotours, Orne, France - d. March 28, 1844, Paris, France), governor of Guadeloupe (1826-30).

Angoulvant, Gabriel (Louis) (b. Feb. 8, 1872, Longjumeau, Seine-et-Oise [now in Yvelines], France - d. Oct. 15, 1932, Paris, France), acting governor of French Somaliland (1900), governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1905-06), French India (1906-07), and Ivory Coast (1908-16), governor-general of French Equatorial Africa (1917-20), and acting governor-general of French West Africa (1918-19).

Anguiano Moreno, Mario (b. Aug. 15, 1962, Tinajas, Colima municipality, Colima, Mexico), governor of Colima (2009-15). He was also mayor of Colima (2006-09).

Anguilé, André Gustave (b. March 3, 1920, Libreville, Gabon - d. May 23, 1999, Paris, France), foreign minister of Gabon (1960-61).


N. Angula
Anguita González, Julio (b. Nov. 21, 1941, Fuengirola, near Málaga, Andalusia, Spain - d. May 16, 2020, Córdoba, Spain), general secretary of the Spanish Communist Party (1988-98). He was also mayor of Córdoba (1979-86).

Angula, Helmut (Kangulohi) (b. Nov. 11, 1945, Ontananga, Oshikoto region, South West Africa [now Namibia]), finance minister of Namibia (1995-96). He was also minister of fisheries and marine resources (1991-95), agriculture, water, and rural development (1996-2005), and works and transport (2008-10).

Angula, Nahas (Gideon) (b. Aug. 22, 1943, Onyaanya, Oshikoto region, South West Africa [now Namibia]), prime minister (2005-12) and defense minister (2012-15) of Namibia. He was minister of education, culture, and sport in 1990-95 and of higher education in 1995-2005.

Angulo (y Lemos), Diego Euclides de (b. Nov. 12, 1841, Popayán, New Granada [now Colombia] - d. Feb. 14, 1917, near Bogotá, Colombia), war minister (1905-06, 1909) and interior minister (1906-08) of Colombia.

Angulo (Bustillo), Felipe (b. April 24, 1854, San Juan Nepomuceno, Bolívar, New Granada [now Colombia] - d. March 23, 1912, Bogotá, Colombia), finance minister (1884-85), war minister (1885-86, 1886-87, 1888), and acting foreign minister (1887) of Colombia. He was also minister to the United Kingdom (1888-94).

Angulo, Manuel, finance minister of Peru (1869-70).

Angulo (Hernández), Mauro (b. Nov. 12, 1889, La Magdalena Tlaltelulco, Chiautempan municipality, Tlaxcala, Mexico - d. [assassinated] Feb. 17, 1948, Mexico City, Mexico), provisional governor (1933) and interim governor (1944-45) of Tlaxcala.

Angulo (Gallardo), Melquíades (b. July 26, 1889, San José de Porras [now La Porreña] hacienda, Allende municipality, Chihuahua, Mexico - d. 1966, Mexico City, Mexico), provisional governor of Chihuahua (1920). He was also Mexican minister of communications and public works (1939-40).

P. Angulo
Angulo (Arana), Pedro (Miguel) (b. Feb. 5, 1960, Lima, Peru), prime minister of Peru (2022).

Angulo (y Ortiz de Traspeña), Santiago (de) (b. Dec. 30, 1823, Madrid, Spain - d. Jan. 25, 1900, Madrid), finance minister of Spain (1871-72). He was also mayor of Madrid (1893-94).

Angulo Gómez, Guillermo (b. July 19, 1934, Ibagué, Tolima, Colombia), Colombian politician. He was president of the Senate (1967-68) and minister of education (1980-81).

Anibelli, Antonio (b. Oct. 14, 1911, São Paulo, Brazil - d. Aug. 15, 1997, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil), acting governor of Paraná (1955).

Anichkov, Nikolay (Miliyevich) (b. Feb. 26 [Feb. 14, O.S.], 1844, Tambov, Russia - d. June 23 [June 10, O.S.], 1916, Petrograd [now St. Petersburg], Russia), acting education minister of Russia (1898).



Anictomatis, John (Christopher) (b. Dec. 28, 1945, Piraeus, Greece), administrator of the Northern Territory, Australia (2000-03).

Aniebo, Augustine (b. March 23, 1950), administrator of Borno (1997-98) and Kogi (1998-99).

Anifah (bin Haji) Aman, Tan Sri (b. Nov. 16, 1953, Keningau, British North Borneo [now Sabah, Malaysia]), foreign minister of Malaysia (2009-18) and chairman of Labuan Corporation (2023- ); brother of Datuk Musa Aman. He was awarded the titles Datuk in 1998, Datuk Seri in 2009, and Tan Sri in 2023.

Anin, Patrick Dankwa (b. July 27, 1928, Bekwai, Amansie East district, Ashanti region, Gold Coast [now Ghana] - d. Oct. 24, 1999, Accra, Ghana), foreign minister of Ghana (1968-69, 1969). He was also communications minister (1967-68) and president of The Gambia Court of Appeal (1993-94).

Aninat Ureta, Eduardo (b. Feb. 25, 1948, Santiago, Chile), finance minister of Chile (1994-99). He was also ambassador to Mexico (2005-06).

Anio, Pama (d. July 3, 2000, Lae, Morobe, Papua New Guinea), premier of Morobe (1978-80).

Aniyar de Castro, Lolita, byname of Lola Rebeca Aniyar Sananes de Castro (b. May 8, 1937, Caracas, Venezuela - d. Dec. 7, 2015, Maracaibo, Venezuela), governor of Zulia (1993-95).

Anjaiah, Tanguturi (b. 1919 - d. October 1986), chief minister of Andhra Pradesh (1980-82).

A. dos Anjos


Anjos, Assunção (Afonso de Sousa) dos (b. Feb. 13, 1946, Luanda, Angola - d. Dec. 12, 2022, Madrid, Spain), foreign minister of Angola (2008-10). He was also ambassador to Spain (1993-99), France (2000-02), and Portugal (2002-08).

Anjos, Carlos Gustavo dos (b. Sept. 1, 1956, São Tomé), foreign minister of São Tomé and Príncipe (2006-07). He has also been ambassador to Belgium (2008-12) and Mozambique and Namibia (2018- ).

Ankarcrona, Theodor, original surname Christophers (b. Feb. 15, 1687, Karlskrona, Blekinge, Sweden - d. Nov. 2, 1750, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Stockholm (1743-50). He was ennobled under the name Ankarcrona in 1717.

Ankourao, Kalla, also spelled Hankouraou (b. Jan. 1, 1946, Dakoro, Niger), foreign minister of Niger (2018-20). He was also minister of public health (1995-96) and equipment (2011-12).

Ankrah, Joseph (Arthur) (b. Aug. 18, 1915, Accra, Gold Coast [now Ghana] - d. Nov. 25, 1992), chairman of the National Liberation Council (1966-69) and foreign minister (1966-67) of Ghana.

Ankvab, Aleksandr (Zolotinskovich) (b. Dec. 26, 1952, Sukhumi, Abkhaz A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R.), interior minister (1992-93), prime minister (2005-10, 2020- ), vice president (2010-11), and president (2011-14) of Abkhazia.

Anna (Ivanovna) (b. Feb. 7 [Jan. 28, O.S.], 1693, Moscow, Russia - d. Oct. 28 [Oct. 17, O.S.], 1740, St. Petersburg, Russia), empress of Russia (1730-40); daughter of Ivan V; niece of Pyotr I and Vasily Saltykov; wife of Friedrich Wilhelm.

Annadif, Mahamat Saleh, also called Annadif Khatir Mahamat Saleh (b. Dec. 25, 1956, Arada, Chad), foreign minister of Chad (1997-2003, 2022-24). He was also permanent representative of the African Union to the European Union (2006-10), secretary-general of the presidency (2010-12), AU special representative for Somalia (2012-14), and UN special representative for Mali (2016-21) and West Africa and the Sahel (2021-23).

Annadurai, C(onjeevaram) N(atarajan) (b. Sept. 15, 1909, Kanchipuram [now in Tamil Nadu], India - d. Feb. 3, 1969, Madras [now Chennai], India), chief minister of Madras (1967-69). He was the founder (in 1949) and general secretary of Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK, or Dravidian Progressive Forum, the populist Tamil-language party descended from the old Justice Party of southern India). The party originally advocated the secession of Madras, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, and Mysore from the Indian union to form an independent state of Dravidanad; in its social outlook it was egalitarian, championing the interests of the low-caste Hindus against the social and political domination of the Brahmins. In 1957 Annadurai was elected to the Madras state assembly as the leader of a group of 15 DMK members, and five years later the party increased its representation to 50; Annadurai himself lost his seat, but was elected to the Rajya Sabha (Indian upper house). He was imprisoned for 10 weeks in 1962 for his part in an agitation against rising prices, and again for six months in 1963-64 in connection with an agitation against the introduction of Hindi as the official language of the union. The DMK abandoned its secessionist policy in 1963, replacing it by a demand for the formation of a "Dravidian Union" of the four southern states within the Indian union. As a journalist he had founded the weekly Dravidanadu in 1942, and edited the Tamil weekly Kanchi until 1967 when the DMK unexpectedly came to power in the Madras legislature and he became chief minister. In January 1969, only weeks before his death, he renamed the state Tamil Nadu. His funeral was attended by almost three million people.

Annageldiyev, Dadebay, Turkmen Dädebaý Annageldiýew, a deputy prime minister of Turkmenistan (1996-97). He was also minister of building materials industry (1996-97).

Annagurbanov, Khojamyrat, Turkmen Hojamyrat Annagurbanow (b. 1959, Geokcha, Turkmen S.S.R. [now part of Ashgabat, Turkmenistan]), interior minister of Turkmenistan (2007).

Annaliyev, Abdy (Annaliyevich) (b. Feb. 20, 1920, Bakhardak, Russia [now in Turkmenistan] - d. 2007), chairman of the Council of Ministers and foreign minister of the Turkmen S.S.R. (1960-63). He was also first secretary of the party committee of Nebit-Dag city (1954-57).

Annamamedov, Baymurad (Ilmuradovich), Turkmen Baýmyrat (Ilmyradowiç) Annamämmedow (b. 1984, Anau, Turkmen S.S.R. [now in Akhal velayat, Turkmenistan]), a deputy prime minister of Turkmenistan (2023- ). He was also minister of industry and construction production (2021-23).

Annameredov, Bayram (Kurbandurdiyevich), Turkmen Baýram (Gurbandurdyýewiç) Annameredow (b. 1967, Ashkhabad, Turkmen S.S.R. [now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan]), a deputy prime minister of Turkmenistan (2017-18). He was also minister of railways (2012-17).

Annan, Kofi (Atta) (b. April 8, 1938, Kumasi, Gold Coast [now Ghana] - d. Aug. 18, 2018, Bern, Switzerland), secretary-general of the United Nations (1997-2006). Annan, whose father was elected governor of Ashanti province and a hereditary paramount chief of the Fante people, began working for the UN in 1962, first in Geneva at the World Health Organization. He remained with the UN ever since, except for a stint as director of tourism in Ghana (1974-76). His first high-profile task was negotiating the release of Western hostages in Iraq in 1990. In 1990-92 he was assistant secretary-general for program planning, budget, and finance. On March 1, 1993, he became assistant secretary-general for peacekeeping operations, and in February 1994 he was elevated to undersecretary-general. From November 1995 to March 1996 he served as special representative to the secretary-general for the former Yugoslavia, overseeing the transition of peacekeeping operations from UN forces to NATO forces. U.S. negativism toward the UN was exacerbated by the independent style of Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali, and in 1996, although Boutros-Ghali had widespread support on the Security Council for a second term, the U.S. vetoed his reelection and successfully lobbied for the election instead of Annan, who thus became the first person from sub-Saharan Africa to serve as secretary-general, and the first to rise through the ranks of the organization. He improved relations with the U.S. and streamlined the UN bureaucracy. Calm, approachable, and affable, with his wide range of experience and his gentle manner, he gained wide popularity. One of his priorities was the fight against AIDS. He was appointed to a second term in 2001. That same year he was the co-recipient, with the UN itself, of the Nobel Peace Prize.

Annaorazov, Jumaniyaz (Amanyazovich) (b. 1970, Kipchak village, Turkmen S.S.R. [now in Akhal velayat, Turkmenistan]), economy and finance minister of Turkmenistan (2005). He was also head of the central bank (2005-06) and a deputy prime minister (2005-06).

Anne (b. Feb. 16, 1665 [Feb. 6, 1664, O.S.], St. James Palace, London, England - d. Aug. 12 [Aug. 1, O.S.], 1714, Kensington Palace, London), queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1702-07) and of Great Britain and Ireland (1707-14).

Annenkov, Nikolay (Nikolayevich) (b. Dec. 17 [Dec. 6, O.S.], 1799, Sergachsky district, Nizhny Novgorod province, Russia - d. Dec. 6 [Nov. 24, O.S.], 1865, St. Petersburg, Russia), acting governor-general of Novorossiya and Bessarabia (1854-55) and military governor of Kiev and governor-general of Podolia and Volyn (1863-65); son-in-law of Ivan Bukharin. He was also Russian state comptroller (1855-62).

Annerstedt, (Per Samuel) Ludvig (b. Aug. 7, 1836, Karlskrona, Blekinge, Sweden - d. Nov. 20, 1904, Stockholm, Sweden), justice minister of Sweden (1896-1901).

Annet, Armand (Léon) (b. June 5, 1888, Paris, France - d. April 25, 1973, Paris), governor of French Somaliland (1935-37) and Dahomey (1938-40) and governor-general of Madagascar (1941-42).

Annus, Lembit (Elmarovich) (b. Sept. 17, 1941, Kohtla-Järve, Estonian S.S.R. - d. July 4, 2018), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Estonian S.S.R. (CPSU Platform) (1990-91).

Annuss, Janis (b. Feb. 2, 1883, Libava, Courland, Russia [now Liepaja, Latvia] - d. 1964), finance minister of Latvia (1931, 1933-34).

Año, Eduardo (Manahan) (b. Oct. 26, 1961, San Mateo, Rizal, Philippines), interior secretary of the Philippines (2018-22). He has also been chief of staff of the armed forces (2016-17) and national security advisor (2023- ).

Anokhin, Vasily (Nikolayevich) (b. May 24, 1983, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Smolensk oblast (2023- ).

Anoshin, Ivan (Semyonovich) (b. Nov. 17, 1904, Shepelevka, Saratov province, Russia - d. Sept. 1, 1991, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party committees of the Volga German A.S.S.R. (1938-39) and the Bashkir A.S.S.R. (1939-42).

Anoul, Victor Prosper Ernest (b. Jan. 15, 1794, Brussels, Austrian Netherlands [now Belgium] - d. Sept. 6, 1862, Brussels), war minister of Belgium (1851-55).

Anouparb Vongnorkeo (b. Dec. 28, 1973, Viengxay, Houaphan province, Laos), Laotian diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2020- ).

Ansari, Ali Gholi Khan, Moshaver-ol-Mamalek (b. 1869 - d. 1940), foreign minister of Iran (1915-16, 1918, 1919, 1926-28). He was also minister to the Ottoman Empire (1920), Russia/the Soviet Union (1920-26, 1928-31), and the United Kingdom (1931-33).

Ansari, (Mohammad) Hamid (b. April 1, 1937, Calcutta [now Kolkata], India), vice president of India (2007-17). He was also ambassador to the United Arab Emirates (1976-79), Afghanistan (1989-90), Iran (1990-92), and Saudi Arabia (1995-99), high commissioner to Australia (1985-89), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1993-95).

Ansari, Shaukatullah Shah (b. June 16, 1908, Mirzapur, United Provinces [now in Uttar Pradesh], India - d. Dec. 29, 1972), governor of Orissa (1968-71). He was also Indian ambassador to Sudan (1960-66).

Ansary, Hushang (b. 1928), economy minister (1969-77) and finance minister (1974-77) of Iran. He was also information minister (1966-67) and ambassador to the United States (1967-69). He lives in the U.S. since 1979 and became a citizen in 1986.

Ansberg, Aleksander, Russian Aleksandr (Yanovich) Ansberg (b. Nov. 27, 1909, Gatchina [now in Leningrad oblast], Russia - d. Feb. 20, 1975, Tallinn, Estonian S.S.R.), acting chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian S.S.R. (1970). He was also a deputy premier (1950-52), chairman of the Executive Committee of Tallinn oblast (1952-53), and culture minister (1953-63).

Ansel, Martin F(rederick) (b. Dec. 12, 1850, Charleston, S.C. - d. Aug. 23, 1945, Greenville, S.C.), governor of South Carolina (1907-11).

Ansell, Graham (Keith) (b. March 2, 1931, Lower Hutt, N.Z.), administrator of Tokelau (1990-92). He was also New Zealand high commissioner to Fiji (1973-76), Nauru (1974-76), and Australia (1985-89) and ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg (1977-81) and Japan (1983-84).

Anselmi, Laurent (b. Feb. 14, 1962, Monaco), foreign minister of Monaco (2019-22). He was also secretary of justice (2017-19).

Ansharullah, Mahyeldi (b. Dec. 25, 1966, Bukittinggi, Indonesia), governor of Sumatera Barat (2021- ). He was also mayor of Padang (2014-21).

Ansi, Saud ibn Salim al- (b. Dec. 23, 1949, Salalah, Muscat and Oman [now Oman]), Omani diplomat. He was ambassador to Djibouti (1980-82) and Kuwait (1982-84) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1984-87).

Ansip, Andrus (b. Oct. 1, 1956, Tartu, Estonian S.S.R.), prime minister of Estonia (2005-14). He was also mayor of Tartu (1998-2004), minister of economic affairs and communications (2004-05), and EU commissioner for the Digital Single Market and a vice president of the European Commission (2014-19).

Anslinger, Harry J(acob) (b. May 20, 1892, Altoona, Pa. - d. Nov. 14, 1975, Holidaysburg, Pa.), commissioner of the U.S. Bureau of Narcotics (1930-62).

Anson, Sir Archibald Edward Harbord (b. April 16, 1826, London, England - d. Feb. 26, 1925), lieutenant governor of Penang (1867-83) and acting governor of Straits Settlements (1877, 1879-80); knighted 1882.

Ansquer, Vincent (Félix Jean-Marie) (b. Jan. 11, 1925, Treize-Septiers, Vendée, France - d. June 1, 1987, Paris, France), president of the Regional Council of Pays de la Loire (1974) and French minister of commerce and craft industry (1974-76) and of quality of life (1976-77).

Antadze, Merab (b. Aug. 4, 1952, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), acting foreign minister of Georgia (2003). He was deputy foreign minister (1998-2006, 2007) and ambassador to Ukraine (2007-09) and Moldova (2014-19).

Antal, István (b. Feb. 18, 1896, Kenderes, Hungary - d. Sept. 5, 1974, Budapest, Hungary), justice minister of Hungary (1944). He was also a minister without portfolio (1942-44) and acting minister of worship and education (1944).

Antall, József (b. April 8, 1932, Budapest, Hungary - d. Dec. 12, 1993, Budapest), prime minister of Hungary (1990-93). He was serving as chairman of a revolutionary committee at the Eötvös Gymnasium at the outbreak of the Hungarian revolution of 1956, when the Communist regime was overthrown but reinstated seven days later by a Soviet invasion. He was briefly taken into police custody and was banned from teaching and publishing until 1963. Later, when political pluralism was sanctioned by the ruling reform Communists, Antall was a founding member (1988) of the centre-right Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF), was elected its chairman in 1989, and showed his skill as a negotiator in the roundtable talks that led to multiparty elections in March 1990. He became prime minister following his party's victory in those elections. He moved the MDF away from its more populist roots towards a more conservative, Christian Democratic profile. His government began the transition to a market economy, sought foreign investment and Western alliances. He died in office.

Antanovich, Ivan (Ivanavich) (b. April 3, 1937, Domashi village, Poland [now in Brest voblast, Belarus]), foreign minister of Belarus (1997-98).

Antas, Francisco Xavier da Silva Pereira, (1º) barão, (1º) visconde e (1º) conde das (b. March 14, 1793, Valença, Portugal - d. May 20, 1852, Lisbon), governor-general of Portuguese India (1842-43).

Antelo Arauz, Germán, interior and justice minister of Bolivia (1930).

Anthonioz, Pierre (Amédée Joseph Émile Jean) (b. Jan. 7, 1913, Geneva, Switzerland - d. May 5, 1996), French resident commissioner of the New Hebrides (1949-58) and high commissioner of Mauritania (1959-60). He was also ambassador to Mauritania (1960-62), Ghana (1968-72), and Sri Lanka (1975-78).

D. Anthony
Anthony, Doug, byname of John Douglas Anthony (b. Dec. 31, 1929, Murwillumbah, N.S.W. - d. Dec. 20, 2020, Murwillumbah), Australian politician. He was an MP from 1957 to 1983 and was leader (1971-84) of the National Country Party (from 1982 National Party). He held several ministerial portfolios - interior (1964-67), primary industry (1967-71), trade and industry (1971-72), overseas trade (1975-77), national resources (1975-77), trade and resources (1977-83) - and was deputy prime minister (1971-72, 1975-83), in which role he acted formally as prime minister for approximately 25 periods ranging from days to months, and informally on many more.

Anthony, George T(obey) (b. June 9, 1824, Mayfield, N.Y. - d. Aug. 5, 1896, Leavenworth, Kan.), governor of Kansas (1877-79).

Anthony, Henry B(owen) (b. April 1, 1815, Coventry, R.I. - d. Sept. 2, 1884, Providence, R.I.), governor of Rhode Island (1849-51).

K. Anthony
Anthony, Kenny (Davis) (b. Jan. 8, 1951, St. Lucia), prime minister of St. Lucia (1997-2006, 2011-16). In August 1979, he took up an appointment as special advisor in the St. Lucia Ministry of Education and Culture, before becoming minister of education (1980-81). In March 1995 he was seconded to the Caribbean Community Secretariat, where he served as general counsel until his resignation to contest the election for the position of political leader of the St. Lucia Labour Party at the party's convention in April 1996. On April 21 he was elected to that position. His party won the parliamentary election of May 23, 1997, in which he was elected from Vieux Fort South, and he became prime minister the following day. He recognized China and dropped relations with Taiwan. His government was reelected in 2001 but defeated in 2006, when he narrowly held his own seat. The following (United Workers Party) government promptly reestablished ties with Taiwan. In 2011 he again won elections, pledging to undertake a review of the island's foreign relations, which was believed to mean a switch to renewed ties with China, but this did not happen; in fact, an embassy was opened in Taiwan in 2015. His party lost the 2016 election and he then resigned as political leader.

Anticevic-Marinovic, Ingrid (b. Oct. 4, 1957, Zadar, Croatia), justice minister of Croatia (2001-03).

Antich i Oliver, Francesc (b. Nov. 28, 1958, Caracas, Venezuela), president of the government of Baleares (1999-2003, 2007-11).

Antoci, Constantin (Grigore) (b. Feb. 28, 1949, Mihailovca, Moldavian S.S.R.), interior minister of Moldova (1992-97).

Antoine, Denis G(odwin), Grenadian diplomat. He was ambassador to the United States (1996-2009) and China (2016-19) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2013-16).

J.L. Antoine
Antoine, James L. (b. 1949, Fort Simpson, N.W.T.), premier of the Northwest Territories (1998-2000).

Antoine, Marcel (b. Feb. 8, 1900, Port-au-Prince, Haiti - d. ...), Haitian diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in Chile (1957-59), ambassador to Panama (1959-62), Venezuela (1962-64), and Argentina (1964-67), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1967-71).

Antoine y Zayas, Juan (Bautista de la Cruz) (b. Dec. 16, 1805, Alicante, Spain - d. 1876, Alicante), foreign minister of Spain (1840). He was also minister to Mexico (1849-52, 1855-56).

Anton II, original name T`eimuraz (b. Jan. 8, 1762, Telavi, Georgia - d. Dec. 2, 1827, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia), catholicos-patriarch of Iberia (1788-1811); son of Irakli II.

Anton, Henry (b. 1824, Aberdeen, Scotland - d. Aug. 1, 1871, at sea en route from Gambia to Britain), acting administrator of Gambia (1870-71).

Antón de Luzuriaga, Claudio (b. Oct. 30, 1792, Soto en Cameros, Spain - d. June 23, 1874, San Sebastián, Spain), foreign minister of Spain (1854-55). He was also justice minister (1843, 1856) and president of the Supreme Court (1855-56).

C. Antonescu
Antonescu, (George) Crin (Laurentiu) (b. Sept. 21, 1959, Tulcea, Romania), president of the Senate (2012-14) and acting president (2012) of Romania. He was also minister of youth and sports (1997-2000), leader of the National Liberal Party (2009-14), and a presidential candidate (2009).

I. Antonescu
Antonescu, Ion (b. June 15, 1882, Pitesti, Romania - d. June 1, 1946, Jilava, Romania), prime minister of Romania (1940-44). He fought with the Romanian armies in World War I and served as military attaché in his country's embassies in London and Paris after the war, later rising to chief of the army's general staff (1933-34) and minister of war (1937-38). He was dismissed in 1938 as a sympathizer of the Iron Guard fascist group and later imprisoned for "prohibited political activity." German demands on Romania early in World War II led to serious internal disorders; the country lost Bessarabia to the U.S.S.R. in June 1940 and northern Transylvania to Hungary in August. King Carol II was compelled to offer the premiership to Antonescu on September 4, just three days after releasing him from prison. Antonescu promptly forced Carol's abdication, established a totalitarian dictatorship, and openly embraced the Axis powers. He also was minister of war (1940-41, 1941-42). His "National Legionary State" briefly brought the Iron Guard to power, but he suppressed the organization in early 1941. On June 22, 1941, he joined Germany in invading the Soviet Union. Initially popular, his support eroded as losses mounted on the Russian front. In August 1944, during the Soviet counterattack which penetrated Romania, Antonescu was arrested by King Mihai I, and in September he and other Romanians accused of active collaboration with the Nazis were turned over to Soviet military authorities. On May 17, 1946, after a ten-day trial in a Romanian people's court, he and 12 of his associates were convicted on charges of war crimes and sentenced to death. Both the supreme court and the king refused his appeal for clemency, and he was executed by firing squad.

Antonescu, Mihai (b. 1907 - d. [executed] June 13, 1946), foreign minister of Romania (1941-44).

Antonescu, Victor (b. Sept. 3, 1871, Antonesti municipality, Teleorman county, Romania - d. Aug. 22, 1946, Bucharest), finance minister (1935-36) and foreign minister (1936-37) of Romania.

Antonetti, Raphaël (Valentin Marius) (b. Dec. 2, 1872, Marseille, France - d. April 7, 1938, Paris, France), administrator of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1906-08), acting governor of Dahomey (1909-10, 1911) and Senegal (1914-16), acting lieutenant governor of Haut-Sénégal-Niger (1916-17), governor of Ivory Coast (1918-24), and governor-general of French Equatorial Africa (1924-34).

Antonic, Vasilije (b. April 12, 1860, Rudnik, Serbia - d. 1929, Belgrade, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia]), foreign minister of Serbia (1902-03, 1905-06). He was also minister to Montenegro (1901-02) and armed forces minister (1902, 1905-06).

António, Daniel (b. 1949, Mozambique), Mozambican diplomat. He was ambassador to Cuba and Nicaragua (1983-86), Ethiopia and Egypt (1986-94), and Japan and South Korea (2004-09) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2009-11).

Antonio, Hospice, finance and economy minister of Benin (1984-87).

J.P. Antonio

T. António
Antonio, Joseph Philippe (b. July 22, 1939, Saint-Marc, Haiti), foreign minister of Haiti (2001-04).

António, Tete (b. Jan. 22, 1955, Bembe, Uíge, Angola), foreign minister of Angola (2020- ).

Antonioli Vásquez, Augusto (Alejandro) (b. 1930, Lima, Peru), justice minister of Peru (1990-91). He was also minister of education (1991-92) and labour and social promotion (1992-95) and ambassador to the Vatican (1995-97).

Antonione, Roberto (b. June 15, 1953, Novara, Italy), president of Friuli-Venezia Giulia (1998-2001).

Antoniy II, secular name Aleksey (Pavlovich) Khrapovitsky (b. 1863, Vatagino, Novgorod province, Russia - d. Aug. 10, 1936, Sremski Karlovci, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia]), metropolitan of Kiev (1918-24). He was also bishop of Cheboksary (1897-99), Chistopol (1899-1900), Ufa (1900-02), and Volyn (1902-06), archbishop of Volyn (1906-14) and Kharkov (1914-17), and metropolitan of Kharkov (1917-18) and of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (1921-36).

Antonov, Aleksey (Konstantinovich) (b. June 8 [May 26, O.S.], 1912, Grodno, Russia [now in Belarus] - d. July 9, 2010, Moscow, Russia), Soviet politician. He was minister of electro-technical industry (1965-80) and a deputy premier (1980-88).

Antonov, Mikhail (Vyacheslavovich) (b. Oct. 13, 1966, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the government of Perm kray (2011-12).

Antonov, Sergey (Fyodorovich) (b. Sept. 25, 1911, Pokrovskoye, Tobolsk province, Russia - d. Dec. 28, 1987, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), Soviet politician. He was minister of meat and dairy industry (1954-57, 1965-84) and ambassador to Afghanistan (1960-65).

Antonov-Ovseyenko, Vladimir (Aleksandrovich) (b. March 21 [March 9, O.S.], 1883, Chernigov, Russia [now Chernihiv, Ukraine] - d. [executed] Feb. 8, 1938, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), Soviet politician. A leader in the storming of the Winter Palace during the October Revolution in 1917, he was people's commissar of defense of the Ukrainian S.S.R. (1919), Soviet ambassador to Czechoslovakia (1924-28), Lithuania (1928-30), and Poland (1930-34), and people's commissar of justice of the Russian S.F.S.R. (1937).

Antonovich, Platon (Aleksandrovich) (b. Nov. 25 [Nov. 13, O.S.], 1811, Krolevets, Chernigov province, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. Dec. 20 [Dec. 8, O.S.], 1883, Kerch, Russia [now in Ukraine]), governor of Bessarabia (1863-67). He was also mayor of Odessa (1861-63).

Antonsson, Johannes (Mikael) (b. Nov. 20, 1921, Frillesås, Halland, Sweden - d. Aug. 24, 1995), president of the Nordic Council (1974) and governor of Halland (1979-86). He was also Swedish minister of local government (1976-78).

Antony I, secular name Grigory (Antonovich) Rafalsky (b. March 2 [Feb. 19, O.S.], 1789, Nuyno, Volyn province, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. Nov. 28 [Nov. 16, O.S.], 1848, St. Petersburg, Russia), metropolitan of St. Petersburg (1843-48). He was also bishop (1834-40) and archbishop (1840-43) of Warsaw.

Antony II, secular name Aleksandr (Vasilyevich) Vadkovsky (b. Aug. 15 [Aug. 3, O.S.], 1846, Tsarevka village, Tambov province, Russia - d. Nov. 15 [Nov. 2, O.S.], 1912, St. Petersburg, Russia), metropolitan of St. Petersburg (1899-1912). He was also bishop (1887-92) and archbishop (1892-99) of Vyborg.

Antony, A(rakkaparambil) K(urian) (b. Dec. 28, 1940, Cherthala, Kerala, India), chief minister of Kerala (1977-78, 1995-96, 2001-04) and defense minister of India (2006-14). He was also minister of civil supplies (1993-94).

Antos, István (b. June 25, 1908, Nagyszombat, Hungary [now Trnava, Slovakia] - d. Jan. 5, 1960, Budapest, Hungary), finance minister of Hungary (1957-60).


Antosenko, Oleg (Dmitriyevich) (b. Feb. 9, 1959, Kuybyshev, Russian S.F.S.R. [now Samara, Russia]), acting plenipotentiary of the president in Dalnevostochny federal district (2007).

Antrobus, Sir Charles (James) (b. May 14, 1933, Old Montrose, Saint Vincent - d. June 3, 2002, Toronto, Ontario, Canada), governor-general of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1996-2002); knighted 1996.

Antti, (Hans) Johan (b. Oct. 10, 1962, Stockholm, Sweden), acting governor of Norrbotten (2018).

Antulay, A(bdul) R(ehman) (b. Feb. 9, 1929, Ambet village, Kolaba district [now Raigad district, Maharashtra], India - d. Dec. 2, 2014, Mumbai, India), chief minister of Maharashtra (1980-82). He was also Indian minister of health and family welfare (1995-96), water resources (1996), and minority affairs (2006-09).

E.A. Antunes
Antunes, Ernesto Augusto de Melo (b. Oct. 2, 1933, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Aug. 10, 1999, Sintra, Portugal), Portuguese politician. He was an ideological leader of the Armed Forces Movement that engineered the "Revolution of the Flowers," the overthrow of Marcelo Caetano's right-wing dictatorship in Portugal in a near-bloodless coup on April 25, 1974, and the return to a democratic government, in which he held several posts, notably deputy prime minister and twice foreign minister (1975, 1975-76). He sat on the Council of the Revolution, the body set up to oversee the return to democracy, until it was dissolved as no longer necessary in 1982.

Antunes, Fernando (b. Feb. 2, 1887, Porto Alegre, Brazil - d. Aug. 21, 1950, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), justice and interior minister of Brazil (1943).

Antunes, João do Canto e Castro Silva (b. May 19, 1862, Lisbon, Portugal - d. March 14, 1934, Lisbon), prime minister (1918) and president (1918-19) of Portugal. He was also navy minister (1918) and acting foreign minister (1918).

Antúnez (González), Carlos (b. Dec. 30, 1847, Santiago, Chile - d. Oct. 27, 1897, Santiago), Chilean politician. He was minister of war and navy (1884-86), interior (1886-87, 1896-97), and foreign affairs, worship, and colonization (1896), president of the Senate (1887), and minister to France (1887-91).

Antunovic, Zdenko (b. Aug. 8, 1960, Bugojno, Bosnia and Herzegovina), premier of Central Bosnia (2001-03).

Antunovic, Zeljka (b. Sept. 15, 1955, Virovitica, Croatia), defense minister of Croatia (2002-03). She was also a deputy prime minister (2000-03).

Anua, Vladimir (Ivanovich) (b. Jan. 2, 1957, Tamysh, Abkhaz A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R.), defense minister of Abkhazia (2020- ).

Anundsen, Anders (b. Nov. 17, 1975, Stavern, Vestfold, Norway), justice minister of Norway (2013-16).

Anusauskas, Arvydas (b. Sept. 29, 1963, Vilnius, Lithuanian S.S.R.), defense minister of Lithuania (2020-24).

Anusic, Ivan (b. Oct. 13, 1973, Osijek, Croatia), defense minister and a deputy prime minister of Croatia (2023- ). He was also prefect of Osijek-Baranja (2017-23).

Anutin Charnvirakul (b. Sept. 13, 1966, Bangkok, Thailand), interior minister of Thailand (2023- ); son of Chavarat Charnvirakul. He has also been a deputy prime minister (2019- ) and minister of public health (2019-23).

Anvelt, Andres (b. Sept. 30, 1969, Tallinn, Estonian S.S.R.), justice minister (2014-15) and interior minister (2016-18) of Estonia; grandson of Jaan Anvelt. He was also minister of agriculture (2014).

Anvelt, Jaan (b. April 18, 1884, Oorgu village, Võisiku parish, Viljandi county, Russia [now in Estonia] - d. [in prison] Dec. 11, 1937, U.S.S.R.), chairman of the Council of the Estonian Workers' Commune (1918-19).

Anwar, Jusuf (b. Jan. 2, 1941, Tasikmalaya, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Barat, Indonesia] - d. May 15, 2015, Jakarta, Indonesia), finance minister of Indonesia (2004-05). He was also ambassador to Japan (2006-10).

Anwar I.
Anwar (bin Datuk) Ibrahim (Abdul Rahman), Datuk Seri (b. Aug. 10, 1947, Cherok Tok Kun, Penang, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), prime minister of Malaysia (2022- ). As a charismatic student leader, he spent 22 months in jail for leading a demonstration by impoverished farmers. He co-founded the Malaysian Muslim Youth Movement and battled for a wider role for Islam in running the nation. As his politics moderated, he rose to power on the coattails of his longtime mentor, Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad. He joined Mahathir's ruling party in 1982 and rose quickly to become minister of culture, youth, and sports (1983-84), agriculture (1984-86), education (1986-91), and finance (1991-98). In 1993, he engineered a groundswell of support within his party to secure his position as deputy prime minister and deputy president of the ruling United Malays National Organization (UMNO). Mahathir personally groomed Anwar to take over for him when he retired. But as Malaysia's economy slid into recession in 1998, Anwar's standing fell as he differed with Mahathir on the course of recovery. The rift between Mahathir and Anwar surfaced openly in June during the annual UMNO convention, where party leaders suspected he was behind a campaign for political reform. After that campaign was put down by Mahathir, Anwar tried to mend fences with the prime minister, but it was too late. Mahathir sacked him on September 2, accusing him of corruption and sodomy and deeming him morally unfit to take over the country. He was jailed 18 days later. His wife, Azizah Ismail, became the leader of his political reform movement, launching the National Justice Party. Anwar, who had earlier distanced himself from Islamic fundamentalists, aligned himself with them soon after he was fired. Convicted of corruption in April 1999 and of sodomy in August 2000, he was released in 2004 after the sodomy conviction was overturned. The corruption conviction was, however, upheld, so that he could not return to electoral politics before 2008. In that year he was again charged with sodomy in what he said was a political conspiracy to keep him from entering parliament. He nevertheless did so in a by-election. He was acquitted in 2012, but an appeals court overturned this in 2014 and the conviction - and five-year prison sentence - was finally upheld by the highest court in 2015. In 2016 he reunited with Mahathir against Prime Minister Najib Razak; in 2018 Mahathir became prime minister again and immediately procured a pardon bringing Anwar's release. Azizah became deputy prime minister, and Anwar himself the designated successor of Mahathir (although this succession did not come to pass when the government collapsed in 2020). Finally after elections in 2022, which resulted in a hung parliament, the veteran opposition leader became prime minister, also taking the finance portfolio. He received the titles Dato' Seri (October 1990), Dato' (July 16, 1991), Datuk Seri (Aug. 15, 1991), Dato' Seri Utama (July 18, 1994), Datuk Seri Panglima (Sept. 16, 1994), and Dato' Seri DiRaja (Dec. 3, 1995).

Anwar-ul-Haq, Chaudhry, prime minister of Azad Kashmir (2023- ).

Anwari, Sayed Hussain (b. 1956?, Parwan province, Afghanistan - d. July 5, 2016, India), Afghan politician. He was minister of social affairs (1993-96) and agriculture (2001-04) and governor of Kabul (2004-05) and Herat (2005-09).

Anyaoku, Emeka, in full Chief Eleazar Chukwuemeka Anyaoku (b. Jan. 18, 1933, Obosi [now in Anambra state], Nigeria), foreign minister of Nigeria (1983) and secretary-general of The Commonwealth (1990-2000). He was also president of the World Wide Fund for Nature (2002-09).

Anza (Bezerra), Juan Bautista de (b. July 7?, 1736, Cuquiárachi or Presidio de Fronteras, Sonora [near present Douglas, Ariz.] - d. Dec. 19, 1788, Arizpe, Sonora), governor of New Mexico (1777-88).

Anzaldo, Sebastian (A.), byname Subby Anzaldo (b. Aug. 3, 1933 - d. Aug. 7, 2019), acting mayor of Omaha (1994-95).

Anze Matienzo, Eduardo (b. Oct. 14, 1902, Cochabamba, Bolivia - d. 1979, Argentina), foreign minister of Bolivia (1941-42) and UN high commissioner for Eritrea (1951-52). He was also minister to Peru (1940-41).

Anziani, Armand (b. November 1904, Marseille, France - d. May 6, 1960, Murcia, Spain), governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1949-50).

Anzilotti, Dionisio (b. Feb. 20, 1867, Pescia, Tuscany, Italy - d. Aug. 23, 1950, Pescia), president of the Permanent Court of International Justice (1928-30).

Anzilotti, Enrico (b. Feb. 8, 1898 - d. Dec. 17, 1983), administrator of Somalia (1955-58); son of Dionisio Anzilotti.

Anzola Anzola, Eligio (b. July 10, 1908, Cerritos Blancos, Iribarren municipality, Lara, Venezuela - d. April 23, 2001, Barquisimeto, Lara), interior minister of Venezuela (1948). He was also governor of Lara (1945-48, 1959-63) and ambassador to Argentina (1964-66), West Germany (1966-68), and Spain (1967-68).

Anzueto Vielman, Gustavo (b. 1929? - d. ...), Guatemalan politician. He was minister of communications (1974-77) and a presidential candidate (1982).

Anzuluni (Isiloketshi), Floribert (b. Jan. 5, 1983, Kinshasa, Zaire [now Congo (Kinshasa)]), Congo (Kinshasa) politician; son of Anzuluni Bembe Isilonyonyi. He was a minor presidential candidate in 2023.

Anzuluni Bembe Isilonyonyi, (Célestin) (b. Feb. 25, 1943, Mukera, Kivu, Belgian Congo [now in Sud-Kivu, Congo (Kinshasa)]), Zairian politician. He was president of the National Assembly (1988-92).

Ao, (P.) Shilu (b. Dec. 24, 1916, Longjang village, Assam [now in Mokokchung district, Nagaland], India - d. Sept. 19, 1988, Mokokchung, Nagaland), chief minister of Nagaland (1963-66).

Aoki, Kazuo (b. Nov. 28, 1889, Nagano prefecture, Japan - d. June 25, 1982), finance minister of Japan (1939-40). He was also minister of Greater East Asia (1942-44).

M. Aoki
Aoki, Mikio (b. June 8, 1934, Taisha, Shimane prefecture, Japan - d. June 11, 2023, Kawasaki, Japan), acting prime minister of Japan (2000). A longtime member of the Liberal-Democratic Party (LDP), he was elected as a member of the Shimane prefectural assembly in 1967. After five terms in the assembly, in 1976 he turned his interests to national politics and ran successfully for a seat in the House of Representatives. In 1986 he was elected to the House of Councillors (the upper house). In 1998 he became secretary-general for the LDP's upper house members. He boosted his reputation by winning cooperation from the Buddhist-backed New Komeito Party in passing a number of key bills, including one to legally recognize Japan's national flag and anthem, during the session of parliament which ended in August 1999. The New Komeito was then the second-biggest opposition party, and the LDP-Liberal coalition lacked a majority in the upper house, making support from the New Komeito critical. In October 1999 Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi appointed him chief cabinet secretary. When on April 2, 2000, Obuchi suffered a major stroke, and fell into a deep coma, Aoki was promptly appointed acting prime minister, but controversy soon arose when he and the rest of the cabinet tried to hide the news of the prime minister's condition from the public, fearing the "political vacuum" that could occur if Obuchi was forced to resign. On April 5 Aoki and the cabinet admitted defeat, and agreed to step down. Yoshiro Mori was then elected by the LDP to become prime minister.

Aoki, Shuzo, in full (from 1884) Shishaku (Viscount) Shuzo Aoki (b. March 3 [Jan. 15, lunar calendar], 1844, Choshu domain, Nagato province [now in Yamaguchi prefecture], Japan - d. Feb. 16, 1914, Tokyo, Japan), foreign minister of Japan (1889-91, 1898-1900). He was also minister to Germany (1874-85, 1892-97) and the United Kingdom (1894-95) and ambassador to the United States (1906-08).

Aoki, Tadashi (b. December 1898, Tokyo, Japan - d. April 12, 1966), Japanese politician. He was director-general of the Autonomy Agency (1958, 1959).

Aoshima, Yukio (b. July 17, 1932, Tokyo, Japan - d. Dec. 20, 2006, Tokyo), governor of Tokyo (1995-99). He became a member of the House of Councillors, the upper house of the Diet, in 1968 and was reelected five times, serving 24 years. He ran as an independent in the 1995 Tokyo gubernatorial election and won, beating Nobuo Ishihara, who was backed by almost all the major non-Communist parties. As he promised in his election campaign, he canceled the hosting of the World City Expo in Tokyo's Odaiba waterfront district that was planned for 1996, disrupting several large construction projects. He unsuccessfully ran in the upper house election in 2004.

Aouad, Mohamed (b. Jan. 13, 1922, Salé, Morocco - d. Feb. 22, 2007), defense minister of Morocco (1958-60). He was also ambassador to Spain (1957-58), Algeria (1962-64), and Tunisia (1964-67) and minister of posts and telegraphs (1958, 1959-60).

Aoun, Michel (Naïm), Arabic Mishal Na`im al-`Awn (b. Feb. 18, 1935 [or Sept. 30, 1933], Haret Hreïk, Lebanon), president of Lebanon (2016-22). In September 1988, when parliament could not meet to elect a successor, Pres. Amin Gemayel appointed Aoun, the commander-in-chief of the army, to lead a transitional military government that consisted of six officers. Aoun was to serve as the Christian prime minister, and Salim Hoss was to be his Muslim counterpart. The arrangement fractured, so that Aoun controlled Christian East Beirut and Hoss led Muslim West Beirut. The transitional government was completely unsuccessful, and the country fell nearly into anarchy. Aoun believed his country's problems resulted from the intrusion of foreign invaders rather than from internal differences. In March 1989 he declared a "war of liberation" against Syria. He believed that only after the Syrian military presence was eliminated from Lebanon could the country's other problems be solved. His Muslim counterparts were working closely with Syria, however, which led to an increasingly violent deadlock. Meeting in al-Ta´if, Saudi Arabia, with the support of the Arab League, 62 Lebanese legislators created a new national charter for governing Lebanon. The arrangement called for Syria to redeploy its 40,000 troops into the Bekaa region over the next two years as a first stage toward possible eventual withdrawal from the country. The accord also redistributed political power between Muslims and Christians in the parliament, neutralizing the Christian dominance mandated by Lebanon's 1943 constitution. Aoun rejected the accord. When parliament elected René Moawad president in November, Aoun denounced the election and remained in the presidential palace in Baabda. He surrendered only on Oct. 13, 1990, and went to the French embassy where he was given political asylum. He lived in exile in France from Aug. 30, 1991, but returned to Beirut on May 7, 2005, after the departure of the last Syrian troops on April 26. Despite his long opposition to Syria's influence, he formed a surprise political alliance with its staunch ally, Hezbollah, in 2006. After a standoff lasting over two years during which no president could be elected, he received the endorsement of Western-backed Saad Hariri in 2016 and was elected to the post.

Aoussou, Koffi (Séraphin) (b. Oct. 7, 1924, Yamoussoukro, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire] - d. April 4, 2009, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire), Ivorian politician. He was ambassador to Italy (1961-65) and Belgium (1964-69), president of Air Afrique (1973-85), and minister of public works and transport (1986-90).

Apakan, Ertugrul (b. 1947, Bornova, Izmir province, Turkey), Turkish diplomat. He was ambassador to North Cyprus (1996-2000) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2009-12).

Apang, Gegong (b. Jan. 10, 1947, Karko village, Upper Siang district, Assam [now in Arunachal Pradesh], India), chief minister of Arunachal Pradesh (1980-99, 2003-07).

Apaydin, (Aziz) Zekai, before 1935 Zekai Bey (b. 1884, Graveska, Ottoman Empire [now in Bosnia and Herzegovina] - d. April 29, 1947, Istanbul, Turkey), defense minister of Turkey (1930-35). He was also minister of agriculture (1924) and public works (1930) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1924-25) and the Soviet Union (1925-27, 1935-39).

Apedo-Amah, Georges (Amakué Dohué) (b. Aug. 21, 1914, Aného, Togo - d. 1992), finance minister (1956-58) and foreign minister (1963-67) of Togo. He was also ambassador to Nigeria (1973-80) and president of the National Assembly (1980-85).

Apel, Erich (b. Oct. 3, 1917, Judenbach, Saxe-Meiningen [now part of Föritztal, Thüringen], Germany - d. [suicide] Dec. 3, 1965, East Berlin), East German politician. He was minister of heavy engineering (1955-58) and a deputy premier and chairman of the Planning Commission (1963-65).

H. Apel
Apel, Hans (Eberhard) (b. Feb. 25, 1932, Hamburg, Germany - d. Sept. 6, 2011, Hamburg), finance minister (1974-78) and defense minister (1978-82) of West Germany.

Apfel, Kenneth S(tephen) (b. Oct. 12, 1948, Worcester, Mass.), commissioner of the U.S. Social Security Administration (1997-2001).

Apin, Ivan (Andreyevich), Latvian Janis Apins (b. 1877, Vets-Brezhe, Livonia province, Russia [now in Latvia] - d. [executed] March 20, 1938), chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Turkestan S.F.R. (1919-20).

Apithy, (Joseph) Sourou Migan (Marcellin) (b. April 8, 1913, Porto-Novo, Dahomey [now Benin] - d. Dec. 3, 1989, Paris, France), prime minister (1957-59) and president (1964-65) of Dahomey. He was also mayor of Porto-Novo (1956-61), finance minister (1960, 1963-64), vice president (1960-63), and ambassador to France, the United Kingdom, and Switzerland (1963).

Aplogan, Dominique (b. April 25, 1913, Abomey, Dahomey [now Benin] - d. Nov. 3, 1989), defense minister of Dahomey (1967). He was also minister of posts and telecommunications (1963, 1967) and public works and transport (1967).

Aplogan-Djibodé, François (b. Oct. 4, 1916, Allada, Dahomey [now Benin] - d. April 8, 1983, Paris, France), finance minister of Dahomey (1960, 1964-65). He was also minister of economic affairs and planning (1964-65).

Apodaca, Jerry, byname of Raymond S. Apodaca (b. Oct. 3, 1934, Las Cruces, N.M. - d. April 26, 2023, Santa Fe, N.M.), governor of New Mexico (1975-79).

Aponte (Silvero), (José) Alfredo (b. March 19, 1874, Yhacanguazú village, Paraguay - d. 19...), member of the Triumvirate of Paraguay (1912).

Aponte (Mendible), Daniel (Alejandro) (b. Aug. 10, 1988, Caracas, Venezuela), chief of government of Distrito Capital (2016-17).

Apostol, Danylo (Pavlovych) (b. Dec. 14 [Dec. 4, O.S.], 1654 - d. Jan. 28 [Jan. 17, O.S.], 1734, Sorochyntsi, Ukraine), hetman of Ukraine (1727-34).

Apostol, Gheorghe (b. May 16, 1913, Tudor Vladimirescu, Galati judet, Romania - d. Aug. 21, 2010), first secretary of the Romanian Workers' Party (1954-55). He was also president of the Grand National Assembly (1948, 1950-51, 1952), a deputy premier (1952-54), agriculture minister (1953-54), first deputy premier (1961-67), and ambassador to Argentina (1977-83), Uruguay (1978-83), and Brazil (1983-88).

Apostol, John C., mayor of Annapolis (1973-81).

Apostolidis, Andreas (b. 1898, Volos, Greece - d. 1970), finance minister (1938-41, 1955-56) and deputy prime minister (1956-57) of Greece. He was also minister of agriculture (1952-53, 1956-57) and coordination (1955-56).

Apostolski, Vanco (b. 1925 - d. Sept. 8, 2008), president of the Presidency of Macedonia (1985-86).

Appelbom, Anders (b. Jan. 7, 1614 - d. Oct. 13, 1686), governor of Härnösand (1653-54).

Appelius, Jean Henry (b. April 30, 1767, Middelburg, Netherlands - d. April 12, 1828, The Hague, Netherlands), finance minister of Holland/the Netherlands (1809-10, 1824-28). He was also acting minister of justice and police (1809).

Appelman, Gustaf Gabriel friherre (b. May 16, 1656, Pudagla, Sweden [now in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany] - d. Nov. 24, 1721, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Kopparberg (1716-19). He was made friherre (baron) in 1719.

Appiah, Joe, byname of Joseph Emmanuel Appiah (b. Nov. 16, 1918, Kumasi, Gold Coast [now Ghana] - d. July 8, 1990, Accra, Ghana), Ghanaian politician; son-in-law of Sir Stafford Cripps. He was appointed permanent representative to the United Nations in 1978 but did not take up the post.

Apraksin, Graf Fyodor (Matveyevich) (b. Dec. 7 [Nov. 27, O.S.], 1661 - d. Nov. 21 [Nov. 10, O.S.], 1728, Moscow, Russia), governor-general of Azov (1710-19) and governor of Reval (1719-28); brother of Graf Pyotr (Matveyevich) Apraksin; brother-in-law of Fyodor III. He was also president of the Admiralty Collegium (1718-28).

Apraksin, Graf Pyotr (Ivanovich) (b. 1784 - d. Jan. 1, 1853 [Dec. 20, 1852, O.S.]), governor of Vladimir (1821-27) and Tver (1831); great-great-grandnephew of Graf Fyodor Apraksin.

Apraksin, Graf Pyotr (Matveyevich) (b. July 4 [June 24, O.S.], 1659 - d. June 9 [May 29, O.S.], 1728), governor of Astrakhan (1705-08) and Kazan (1708-13), president of the Russian Collegium of Justice (1722-26), and governor-general of St. Petersburg (1724-25). He was made Graf (count) in 1710.

Apraksin, Graf Pyotr (Nikolayevich) (b. Jan. 3, 1876, Nervi, Italy - d. Feb. 3, 1962, Brussels, Belgium), governor of Tavrida (1911-13); grandson of Graf Pyotr (Ivanovich) Apraksin.

Apresyan, Derenik (Zakharovich) (b. 1899, Tatlu, Erivan province, Russia [now Tatli, Azerbaijan] - d. [executed] Feb. 22, 1939), acting executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of Votyak autonomous oblast (1923-24). He was also people's commissar of interior of the Uzbek S.S.R. (1937-38).

Apró, Antal (b. Feb. 8, 1913, Szeged, Hungary - d. Dec. 9, 1994, Budapest, Hungary), a deputy premier (1953-56, 1957-58, 1961-71) and first deputy premier (1958-61) of Hungary. He was also minister of building materials industry (1952-53), construction (1956), and industry (1956-57) and president of the National Assembly (1971-84).

Apryatkin, Semyon (Semyonovich) (b. 1911, Baku, Russia [now in Azerbaijan] - d. Feb. 12, 1977, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Chechen-Ingush A.S.S.R. (1966-75).

Apsitis, Hermanis (b. Nov. 19, 1893, Naukseni, Russia [now in Latvia] - d. [executed] Jan. 19, 1942, U.S.S.R.), justice minister of Latvia (1934-40). He was also minister of welfare (1937).

Apsitis, Romans (b. Feb. 13, 1939, Riga, Latvia - d. Feb. 17?, 2022), justice minister of Latvia (1994-95). He was also ombudsman (2007-11).

Aqlan, Talal (Abdul Karim), acting prime minister of Yemen (2016). He was also minister of civil service and insurance (2016-19).

B. Aquino
Aquino, Benigno (Simeon, Jr.), byname Ninoy Aquino (b. Nov. 27, 1932, Concepcion, Tarlac province, Philippines - d. Aug. 21, 1983, Manila, Philippines), Philippine politician. He embarked on his political career in 1955 when he was elected mayor of Concepcion, becoming at age 22 the youngest mayor in the archipelago. In 1959, he was elected vice governor of Tarlac province, and he succeeded to the governorship two years later; again he was the youngest such official in the country. In 1963, he was elected governor in his own right. In 1966 he became secretary-general of the Liberal Party, and the prime foe of Pres. Ferdinand E. Marcos, who a year earlier had quit the ranks of the Liberal Party to be elected president as leader of the Nationalist Party. In November 1967 Aquino won one of eight at-large Senate seats with the highest vote of any candidate; the other seven seats all went to Nationalist members or allies. In 1968 he became national leader of the Liberal Party and he was widely viewed as a likely presidential candidate in the 1973 elections. But in September 1971, Marcos charged Aquino with being a Communist, and when Marcos declared martial law on Sept. 23, 1972, Aquino was immediately jailed on charges of murder and subversion. He was sentenced to death in November 1977. In May 1980, his death sentence commuted, he was allowed to travel to the U.S. to undergo heart surgery. He remained in the U.S. until 1983, when he decided to return, hoping to rally the opposition. Having been warned at least three times about assassination plots against him, he donned a bulletproof vest, but while disembarking from the plane in Manila escorted by three security guards, he was shot in the back of the head. The alleged assassin, Rolando Galman, was instantly slain on the heavily guarded tarmac.

B. Aquino III
Aquino, Benigno, III, in full Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino, byname Noynoy Aquino (b. Feb. 8, 1960, Manila, Philippines - d. June 24, 2021, Quezon City, Philippines), president of the Philippines (2010-16); son of Benigno Aquino and Corazon Aquino. In one of the military coup attempts against his mother's administration, in 1987, he was shot five times, one bullet remaining lodged in his neck for the rest of his life; three of his bodyguards were killed. After several years as a lawmaker in the House of Representatives and Senate, he parlayed his name recognition and a wave of pro-democracy, anti-corruption sentiment to election as president, running on the slogan, "No corruption, no poverty." He easily beat a discredited predecessor, Joseph Estrada, who had been impeached on graft charges. Aquino's administration was credited with stabilizing the economy at annual growth rates around 6%. A reproductive rights law made contraception readily available to the poor. He also succeeded in getting the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, a large insurgent group, to renounce violence after decades of armed conflict (2013). In international affairs, his presidency is perhaps best remembered for its firm stance on Philippine territorial rights in the South China Sea, opposing China's claim to virtually the entire sea. The Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague ruled in favour of the Philippines in July 2016, after he had left office. However, he was heavily criticized for a sluggish reaction to Typhoon Haiyan, which killed thousands of Filipinos in 2013, and his popularity took a hit from a botched attempt to capture Muslim rebels in 2015 that left 44 police officers dead.

C. Aquino
Aquino, (Maria) Corazon (Cojuangco), née Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco, byname Cory Aquino (b. Jan. 25, 1933, Manila, Philippines - d. Aug. 1, 2009, Makati, Philippines), president of the Philippines (1986-92). In 1954 she married Benigno Aquino, who was then a promising young politician. Corazon remained in the background during her husband's subsequent career, rearing their five children while he concentrated on being elected mayor, governor, and senator. But her role began to change in 1972, when Pres. Ferdinand E. Marcos declared martial law and imprisoned Benigno. She accompanied him into exile in 1980. After Benigno was assassinated upon returning to the Philippines in August 1983, she became the symbol of moral opposition to the Marcos regime. When Marcos unexpectedly called presidential elections for February 1986, she became the unified opposition's presidential candidate. Although Marcos was officially declared the winner, independent observers charged the regime with widespread fraud. High officials in the military soon publicly renounced Marcos' continued rule and proclaimed Aquino the rightful president. On Feb. 25, 1986, both Aquino and Marcos were inaugurated as president by their respective supporters, but faced with the desertion of his allies, Marcos fled the country the same day. As president, Aquino moved quickly to end the repression of the Marcos years; a new constitution was ratified by a landslide popular vote in February 1987. However, there was no change in the social and economic conditions, and her popularity declined as mass poverty persisted. She faced continuing problems from Communist insurgents and from sections of the military, who mounted unsuccessful coup attempts in 1986, 1987, and 1990.

Aquiraz, Gonçalo Baptista Vieira, barão de (b. May 17, 1819, São Matheus [now Jucás], Ceará, Brazil - d. March 10, 1896, Fortaleza, Ceará), acting president of Ceará (1868). He was made baron in 1871.