Index Ar-As

Araba, Marc Hermanne G., Beninese diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2021- ).

N. al-Arabi
Arabi, Nabil al-, al-Arabi also spelled Elaraby (b. March 15, 1935, Egypt), foreign minister of Egypt (2011) and secretary-general of the Arab League (2011-16). He was ambassador to India (1981-83) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1991-99).

Arabi (al-Husayni) Pasha, (Ahmad) (b. April 1, 1841, near al-Zaqaziq, Egypt - d. Sept. 21, 1911, Cairo, Egypt), minister of war (1882) and prime minister in rebellion (1882) of Egypt.

Aracaty, João Carlos Augusto de Oeynhausen (Gravenburg), (visconde e) marquês de (b. Oct. 12, 1776, Lisbon, Portugal - d. May 28, 1838, Mozambique), foreign minister of Brazil (1827-29) and governor-general of Mozambique (1837-38). He was also governor of Ceará (1803-07), Mato Grosso (1807-18), and São Paulo (1819-21) and navy minister of Brazil (1828). He was given the title of visconde de Aracaty (Oct. 12, 1824) and marquês de Aracaty (Oct. 12, 1826) by Emperor Pedro I of Brazil. He renounced his condition as a Brazilian subject in 1831 in order to be able to take up Portuguese appointments.

Aracaty, José Pereira da Graça, barão de (b. March 14, 1812, Aracati, Ceará, Brazil - d. Jan. 29, 1889, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting president of Maranhão (1871, 1872, 1872-73, 1875). He was made baron in 1887.

Arafat, Yasir (Yasir also spelled Yasser), byname of `Abd ar-Rahman `Abd ar-Ra`uf al-Qudwa al-Husayni, also known as Abu Ammar ("the builder") (b. Aug. 4/24, 1929, Cairo, Egypt - d. Nov. 11, 2004, Clamart, Hauts-de-Seine, near Paris, France), president of the Palestinian Authority (1994-2004). While in Egypt he joined the Union of Palestinian Students, of which he was president in 1952-56. Commissioned into the Egyptian army, he served in the Suez campaign of 1956. He was a co-founder of Fatah (Jan. 1, 1965), which became the most powerful of the groups making up the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). Fatah launched guerrilla raids and terrorist attacks into Israel. But Israel emerged victorious in the Six-Day War of 1967, capturing the West Bank from Jordan and the Gaza Strip from Egypt, thus occupying all of Palestine. On Feb. 4, 1969, Arafat was elected chairman of the PLO executive committee. In the 1970s he increasingly turned towards political activity rather than confrontation with Israel. In November 1974 he became the first representative of a non-governmental organization to address a plenary session of the UN General Assembly. In 1982 he became the target of criticism from various Syrian-supported factions within the PLO and from the Syrians. The criticisms escalated after the Israeli invasion of Lebanon forced Arafat to abandon his Beirut headquarters at the end of August 1982 and set up a new base in Tunisia. In 1993 he recognized Israel's right to exist in exchange for gradual implementation of Palestinian self-rule in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. He was the co-recipient with Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin and foreign minister Shimon Peres of the 1994 Nobel Peace Prize. In July 1994 he returned to Palestine to become president of the Palestinian Authority, which governed the autonomous Palestinian areas; an election in 1996 confirmed him in that post. A Swiss forensic report in 2013 "moderately supported the proposition" that his death was the consequence of poisoning with radioactive polonium.

Aragão, Antonio Ferrão Moniz de (b. May 30, 1875, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil - d. Jan. 6, 1931, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Bahia (1916-20).

Aragão, Eugênio José Guilherme de (b. May 7, 1959, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), justice minister of Brazil (2016).

Arago, Emmanuel (François Victor) (b. Aug. 6, 1812, Paris, France - d. Nov. 26, 1896, Paris), interior minister of France (1871); son of François Arago. He was also minister to Prussia (1848) and ambassador to Switzerland (1880-94).

Arago, Étienne (Vincent) (b. Feb. 9, 1802, Estagel, Pyrénées-Orientales, France - d. March 6, 1892, Paris, France), mayor of Paris (1870); brother of François Arago.

Arago, (Dominique) François (Jean) (b. Feb. 26, 1786, Estagel [now in Pyrénées-Orientales département], France - d. Oct. 2, 1853, Paris, France), chairman of the Executive Power Commission of France (1848). A notable physicist, he was also minister of marine and colonies (1848) and war (1848) and president of the Municipal Commission of Paris (1848-50).

Aragonès (i Garcia), Pere (b. Nov. 16, 1982, Pineda de Mar, Catalonia, Spain), president of the Generalitat of Catalonia (2020- ). He was economy and finance minister and vice president in 2018-21.

Arai, Shogo (b. Jan. 18, 1945), governor of Nara (2007-23).

Arajs, Julijs (b. June 13, 1884, Marciena, Russia [now in Latvia] - d. Feb. 1, 1967, Asari, Latvian S.S.R.), justice minister (1924) and war minister (1924) of Latvia.

Arakcheyev, Graf Aleksey (Andreyevich) (b. Oct. 4 [Sept. 23, O.S.], 1769, Novgorod province, Russia - d. May 3 [April 21, O.S.], 1834, Gruzino, Novgorod province), Russian minister of land forces (1808-10). He was also responsible for supervising the Council of Ministers' management of domestic matters (1815-26).

Aram, (Gholam) Abbas (b. 1906, Yazd, Iran - d. Jan. 10, 1985, Tehran, Iran), foreign minister of Iran (1959-60, 1962-67). He was also ambassador to Japan (1958-59), Iraq (1960-62), the United Kingdom (1967-69), and China (1972-75).

Aramayo (Zeballos), Carlos Víctor (b. Oct. 7, 1889, Paris, France - d. April 14, 1981, Paris), finance minister (1934-35) and foreign minister (1935) of Bolivia. He was also minister to the United Kingdom (1926-34).

Aramayo Anze, Adolfo (b. Nov. 23, 1930, La Paz, Bolivia), finance minister of Bolivia (1980).

Aramburú (Olivera), Andrés Avelino de (b. 1771 - d. 18...), acting governor of Córdoba (1835).

Aramburú (Salinas), José Félix (b. Aug. 7, 1892, Chorrillos, Lima province, Peru - d. July 22, 1982, Lima, Peru), justice minister of Peru (1939). He was also ambassador to Colombia (1956-59).

Aramburu (Cilveti), Pedro Eugenio (b. May 21, 1903, Río Cuarto, Córdoba province, Argentina - d. May 31/June 1, 1970, Timote, Buenos Aires province), provisional president of Argentina (1955-58). A prominent general in the Argentine army, he was a leading critic of the regime of Pres. Juan Perón. Backed by a group of similarly disillusioned army officers, he helped launch a successful military coup on Sept. 21, 1955, that was later dubbed the "Liberating Revolution." Perón fled into exile, and a military junta replaced him. On November 13, Aramburu formally assumed the presidency of Argentina, but promised to only be a temporary "provisional" leader. Nevertheless, he quickly embarked on a very ambitious campaign of strict "de-Peronization" of Argentina. The former president and first lady were denounced and vilified by the state-controlled media, and their numerous portraits and monuments were all ordered to be destroyed. The Peronist party was banned, and members of the past administration were rounded up and imprisoned. After being in power for over 2 years Aramburu finally came through on his promise, and announced free elections would be held on Feb. 23, 1958. The president declared he would not run, and after Arturo Frondizi was elected, he formally resigned from the army. He ran unsuccessfully for president in 1963. He was abducted on May 29, 1970, and killed some days later, by a radical Peronist group, allegedly for his part in the execution of 27 Peronist leaders after an unsuccessful coup attempt in 1956.

Arana, César, finance minister of Nicaragua (1923).

Arana (y Andonaegui), Felipe (Benicio) (b. Aug. 23, 1786, Buenos Aires, Río de la Plata [now in Argentina] - d. July 11, 1865, Buenos Aires), foreign minister of Argentina (1835-52).

F.J. Arana
Arana (Castro), Francisco Javier (b. Dec. 5, 1905, Guatemala City - d. [assassinated] July 18, 1949, La Gloria bridge, Amatitlán municipality, Guatemala), member of the Revolutionary Government Junta of Guatemala (1944-45). He was also chief of the armed forces (1945-49).

Arana (Sánchez), Mariano (b. March 6, 1933, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. June 4, 2023), Uruguayan politician. He was mayor of Montevideo (1995-2005) and minister of housing, territorial planning, and environment (2005-08).

C.M. Arana
Arana Osorio, Carlos Manuel (b. July 17, 1918, Barberena, Santa Rosa department, Guatemala - d. Dec. 6, 2003, Guatemala City), president of Guatemala (1970-74). Before his presidency he commanded a military base in Zacapa in eastern Guatemala, leading a repressive campaign against rebel guerrillas, and served as ambassador to Nicaragua (1968-69). He ran for president with the ultraconservative National Liberation Movement and, once elected, expanded government efforts to bring armed rebels under control while also persecuting student radicals, workers' groups, and political opponents. A state of siege was declared, suspending civil liberties, during his first year in office. A document extending it indefinitely included the government's first official acknowledgment that the country was embroiled in a civil war. The decades-long struggle cost 200,000 lives before peace accords were reached in 1996.

Arana Sevilla, Mario (b. Dec. 24, 1954, Carazo, Nicaragua), finance minister of Nicaragua (2005-06). He was also minister of development, industry, and commerce (2002-05).

Arana Ysa, Eduardo (Melchor) (b. Oct. 18, 1965, Pueblo Libre, Lima province, Peru), justice minister of Peru (2023- ).

Arancibia Laso, Héctor (b. Feb. 20, 1883, Santiago, Chile - d. July 24, 1970, Santiago), interior minister of Chile (1921). He was also ambassador to Mexico (1947) and Italy (1947-49).

Aranda, Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea y Ximénez de Urrea, (X) conde de (b. Aug. 1, 1719, Siétamo, Huesca province, Spain - d. Jan. 9, 1798, Épila, Zaragoza province, Spain), acting first secretary of state of Spain (1792). He was also president of the Council of Castilla (1766-73). He succeeded as count in 1742.

Arandarenko, Georgy (Alekseyevich) (b. 1846, Koshelevka, Chernigov province, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. 1908), governor of Fergana oblast (1901-04).

Arandjelovic, Zoran (b. Oct. 10, 1948, Beli Potok, Knjazevac municipality, Serbia), a deputy prime minister of Serbia (1991-93). He was also president of the National Assembly (1993-94).

Araneta (y Soriano), Gregorio (b. April 19, 1869, Molo, Iloilo, Philippines - d. March 9, 1930, Manila, Philippines), justice secretary (1898-99, 1908-13) and finance secretary (1908-13) of the Philippines. He was also solicitor-general (1901-06) and attorney-general (1906-08).

Araneta (y Zaragoza), Salvador (b. Jan. 31, 1902, Manila, Philippines - d. Oct. 7, 1982, Manila), Philippine politician; son of Gregorio Araneta. He was secretary of economic coordination (1950) and agriculture and natural resources (1953-55).

Arangio-Ruiz, Vincenzo (b. May 7, 1884, Naples, Italy - d. Feb. 2, 1964, Rome, Italy), justice minister of Italy (1944). He was also minister of education (1944-45).

Arango (Olmos), Alicia (Victoria) (b. Oct. 1, 1958, Cartagena, Colombia), interior minister of Colombia (2020-21). She was also minister of labour (2018-20).

Arango (Mejía), Dionisio (b. April 8, 1851, Abejorral, Antioquia, New Granada [now Colombia] - d. Sept. 23, 1940, Medellín, Colombia), interior minister of Colombia (1906); brother-in-law of Rubén Ferrer Alfaro. He was also governor of Antioquia (1897-98, 1906-08) and Medellín (1908-09).

Arango (Ramos), Eliseo (b. April 16, 1900, Bagadó, Chocó, Colombia - d. Nov. 11, 1977, Bogotá, Colombia), foreign minister of Colombia (1949-50). He was also minister of education (1930, 1949) and justice (1950, 1960), permanent representative to the United Nations (1950-52), and ambassador to Switzerland (1967-71), the Dominican Republic (1972-74), and Venezuela (1973-74).

Arango (Velásquez), José Manuel (b. Oct. 19, 1874, Abejorral, Antioquia, Colombia - d. Aug. 31, 1928, Paris, France), war minister of Colombia (1911-14).

Arango (Palacio), Marcelino (b. 1851, Abejorral, Antioquia, New Granada [now Colombia] - d. Dec. 15, 1927, Manizales, Colombia), finance minister (1918) and interior minister (1918-19) of Colombia.

Arango Ferrer, Dionisio (b. Dec. 16, 1885, Abejorral, Antioquia, Colombia - d. Dec. 13, 1968, Medellín, Colombia), Colombian politician; son of Dionisio Arango; nephew of Rubén Ferrer Alfaro. He was governor of Antioquia (1948, 1952-53).

Arango Reyes, Samuel (b. May 3, 1911, Girón, Santander, Colombia - d. June 5, 1987, Bogotá, Colombia), justice minister of Colombia (1948, 1948-49). He was also governor of Santander (1946-47).

Arango Tavera, Alberto (b. March 30, 1902, Manizales, Colombia - d. July 15, 1951, Rochester, Minn.), war minister of Colombia (1943).

Arango Vélez, Carlos (b. Feb. 13, 1897, Bogotá, Colombia - d. Oct. 12, 1974, Bogotá), Colombian war minister (1931-32) and vice president (1946). He was also mayor of Bogotá (1935-36), a presidential candidate (1942), and ambassador to the Vatican (1944-50, 1957-60), Brazil (1954-55), and Mexico (1961-64).

Aranha, João Batista de Figueiredo Tenreiro (b. June 23, 1798, Belém, Pará, Brazil - d. Jan. 19, 1862, Belém), president of Amazonas (1852).

Aranha, Oswaldo (Euclydes de Souza) (b. Dec. 15, 1894, Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. Jan. 27, 1960, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting president of Rio Grande do Sul (1930), foreign minister of Brazil (1938-44), and president of the UN General Assembly (1947-48). He was also minister of justice and interior (1930-31), finance (1931-34, 1953-54), and agriculture (1954) and ambassador to the United States (1934-37).

Araníbar (y Llano), José (Nicolás de) (b. Dec. 23, 1835 - d. July 11, 1903), prime minister of Peru (1886). He was also minister of justice (1870-71) and finance and commerce (1876-77, 1886).

Araníbar (y Fernández Cornejo), Nicolás de (b. Sept. 10, 1767, Locumba [now in Tacna region], Peru - d. July 10, 1851, Lima, Peru), foreign and interior minister of Peru (1832). He was also president of the Constituent Congress (1823) and of the Supreme Court (1835-36, 1839-40, 1842-43, 1851).

Araníbar Guevara, Jaime (b. 1932 - d. 2001, Brazil), interior and justice minister of Bolivia (1979).

Araníbar Quiroga, Antonio (José) (b. Nov. 10, 1941, Cochabamba, Bolivia), foreign minister of Bolivia (1993-97). He was also a presidential candidate (1985, 1989, 1993) and minister of mining and hydrocarbons (2004).

Araníbar Quiroga, (Jorge) Ernesto (b. Jan. 24, 1951, Cochabamba, Bolivia - d. March 19, 2022), finance minister of Bolivia (1982-83); brother of Antonio Araníbar Quiroga. He was also minister of planning and coordination (1984) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2003-06).

Araos Salinas, Jorge (Humberto) (b. Sept. 26, 1904, San Bernardo, Chile - d. Aug. 8, 1993), interior minister of Chile (1954). He was also intendant of Magallanes province (1958-...).

Aráoz (Farajet), Julio César (b. Aug. 7, 1948, Capilla del Monte, Córdoba, Argentina), federal interventor in Tucumán (1991). He was also Argentine minister of health (1991-93) and secretary of planning for the prevention of drug abuse and the fight against drug trafficking (1996-98).

M. Aráoz
Aráoz (Fernández), Mercedes (Rosalba) (b. Aug. 5, 1961, Lima, Peru), economy and finance minister (2009-10) and prime minister (2017-18) of Peru. She was also minister of foreign trade and tourism (2006-09) and production (2009), second vice president (2016-18), and (sole) vice president (2018-20). In 2019 she was elected acting president by the Congress which had been controversially dissolved by Pres. Martín Vizcarra, but she resigned the next day. (She remained vice president until Congress accepted her resignation in May 2020.)

Arapcic, Tarik (b. Nov. 12, 1959, Bokavici [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), governor of Tuzla canton (1998-2001).

Arapu, Anatol (b. Nov. 27, 1962, Vasieni, Moldavian S.S.R.), finance minister of Moldova (1998-99, 2013-16). He was also ambassador to the Benelux countries (1997-98).

Arar, Ismail (Hakki) (b. 1921, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. March 20, 1993, Istanbul), justice minister of Turkey (1971). He was also minister of education (1971-72) and a minister of state (1972-73).

Arar, Sulayman (Atallah) (b. Oct. 8, 1934, Maan, Transjordan [now Jordan]), interior minister of Jordan (1976-80, 1980-82, 1984-85).

Araripe, Tristão de Alencar (b. Oct. 7, 1821, Icó, Ceará, Brazil - d. July 3, 1908, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Rio Grande do Sul (1876-77) and Pará (1885-86) and Brazilian minister of foreign affairs (1891), finance (1891), and interior (1891); son of Tristão Gonçalves de Alencar Araripe.

Araripe, Tristão de Alencar (b. Aug. 23, 1894, Conceição de Castelo, Espírito Santo, Brazil - d. Nov. 19, 1969, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Fernando de Noronha (1943-44); grandnephew of the above.

Araripe, Tristão Gonçalves de Alencar, original name Tristão Gonçalves Pereira de Alencar (b. Sept. 17, 1789, Crato, Ceará, Brazil - d. [assassinated] Oct. 31, 1824, Alto do Andrade, near Jaguaribara, Ceará), president of Ceará (1824).

Aras, Tevfik Rüstü, until Jan. 1, 1935, Tevfik Rüstü Bey (b. 1883, Çanakkale, Ottoman Empire [now in Turkey] - d. Jan. 5, 1972, Istanbul, Turkey), foreign minister of Turkey (1925-38). He was also ambassador to the United Kingdom (1939-42).

Arashi, Abdul Karim Abdullah al- (b. 1934, Sana, Yemen - d. June 10?, 2006, Saudi Arabia), chairman of the Presidential Council of Yemen (Sana) (1978). After the 1962 revolution, he became more politically prominent and participated in various military campaigns in defense of the revolution. He was speaker of the Constituent People's Assembly when he became temporary head of state following President Ahmad al-Ghashmi's assassination in 1978. Thereafter he became vice president in addition to his speaker's post. He was appointed finance minister twice and while holding this post established the state's first budget. He also was minister of local administration and in this capacity reformulated the local governance law. In 1988, he unanimously was elected president of the new Majlis al-Shura. Two years later, on the occasion of Yemeni reunification, he was elected a member of the Presidential Council. In 1997, he was appointed a consultant to the president.

Araud, Gérard (Roger) (b. Feb. 20, 1953, Marseille, France), French diplomat. He was ambassador to Israel (2003-06) and the United States (2014-19) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2009-14).

Araujo, Antonio Alves de (b. Nov. 6, 1803, Morretes, São Paulo [now in Paraná], Brazil - d. April 22, 1887, Palmeira, Paraná), acting president of Paraná (1883, 1885).

Araujo, Antonio Bricio de (b. 18..., Guimarães, Maranhão, Brazil - d. September 1941), acting president of Maranhão (1917-18). He was also mayor of São Luís (1922-27).

Araujo (Carrillo), Antonio Martín (b. Aug. 6, 1905, Trujillo, Venezuela - d. Aug. 19, 1983, Caracas, Venezuela), president of Trujillo (1945-47). He was also Venezuelan minister of communications (1947-48) and health and social assistance (1948-50) and ambassador to the United States (1951-52), the United Arab Republic (1959-64), and Canada (1964-69).

Araújo, Bernardo Sayão Carvalho de (b. June 18, 1901, Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro - d. [hit by a falling tree during the construction of the Belém-Brasília highway] Jan. 15, 1959, Açailândia, Maranhão, Brazil), acting governor of Goiás (1955).

E. Araújo

F. Araújo
Araújo, Ernesto (Henrique Fraga) (b. May 15, 1967, Porto Alegre, Brazil), foreign minister of Brazil (2019-21).

Araújo, Félix Valois de (b. Nov. 20, 1906, Pastos Bons, Maranhão, Brazil - d. Nov. 15, 1968, Maranhão), governor of Rio Branco (1946-47).

Araújo (Perdomo), Fernando (b. 1955), foreign minister of Colombia (2007-08). He was development minister in 1998-99. He was kidnapped by FARC rebels in Cartagena on Dec. 4, 2000. After six years as a hostage he escaped on Dec. 31, 2006, in the middle of a military attack on the guerrilla camp where he was held. He wandered beneath a burning tropical sun for five days before finding help. Less than two months later, he was named foreign minister after the resignation of María Consuelo Araújo (no relation).

Araújo, Fernando de, byname La Sama, or Lasama (b. Feb. 26, 1963, Manutasi, near Ainaro, Portuguese Timor [now Timor-Leste] - d. June 2, 2015, Dili, Timor-Leste), acting president of Timor-Leste (2008). He was a presidential candidate (2007, 2012), president of the National Parliament (2007-12), deputy prime minister (2012-15), coordinating minister of social affairs (2012-15), and minister of education (2015).

Araujo, Francisco Altino Correia de (b. Dec. 29, 1852, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. Jan. 8, 1915, Recife), president of Rio Grande do Norte (1884-85).

Araújo, Hélio Magalhães de (b. Sept. 1, 1927, Humaitá, Amazonas, Brazil - d. June 2010, Brasília, Brazil), governor of Rio Branco (1959-61).

Araujo, João Vieira de (b. July 28, 1844, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. May 31, 1922, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Alagoas (1874-75).

Araujo, Joaquim Aurélio Barreto Nabuco de (b. Aug. 19, 1849, Recife, Brazil - d. Jan. 17, 1910, Washington, D.C.), Brazilian diplomat; son of José Thomaz Nabuco de Araujo (1813-1878); nephew of Francisco Paes Barreto, visconde e marquês do Recife. Known as a leading campaigner for the abolition of slavery in Brazil (achieved 1888), he was ambassador to the United States (1905-10).

Araujo, Joaquim Correia de (b. 1843, Pernambuco province [now state], Brazil - d. Aug. 11, 1931), governor of Pernambuco (1896-99).

Araújo, Joaquim Machado de (b. May 12, 1894, Santa Luzia [now Luziânia], Goiás, Brazil - d. Jan. 15, 1976, Goiânia, Goiás), federal interventor in Goiás (1946-47).

Araújo, José Augusto de (b. 1930, Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, Brazil - d. April 7, 1971, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Acre (1963).

Araujo, José Bento de (b. April 7, 1846, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Sept. 29, 1918, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Santa Catarina (1877-78), Maranhão (1886-88), and Rio de Janeiro (1888-89).

Araújo, José Cortez Pereira de (b. Oct. 17, 1924, Currais Novos, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil - d. Feb. 21, 2004, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil), governor of Rio Grande do Norte (1971-75).

Araujo, José Feliciano Horta de (b. Aug. 25, 1835, Cocais or Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. Sept. 3?, 1908, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Paraná (1867-68).

Araújo, José Luiz de, Neto (b. April 16, 1915, Boa Vista, Amazonas [now in Roraima], Brazil), governor of Rio Branco (1953-55).

Araujo, José Peregrino de (b. Nov. 18, 1840, Santa Luzia do Sabugi [now Santa Luzia], Paraíba, Brazil - d. Oct. 5, 1913, Paraíba [now João Pessoa], Paraíba), president of Paraíba (1900-04).

Araujo, José Thomaz Nabuco de (b. July 2, 1785, São Salvador da Bahia [now Salvador], Brazil - d. March 18, 1850, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Paraíba (1831) and Espírito Santo (1836-38).

Araujo, José Thomaz Nabuco de (b. Aug. 14, 1813, São Salvador da Bahia [now Salvador], Brazil - d. March 19, 1878, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of São Paulo (1851-52) and justice minister of Brazil (1853-57, 1858-59, 1865-66); son of the above.

Araujo, Manoel Alves de (b. March 1832 or 1836, Morretes, São Paulo [now in Paraná], Brazil - d. Dec. 11, 1908, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting president of Paraná (1865) and president of Pernambuco (1889). He was also Brazilian minister of agriculture and public works (1882).

M.C. Araújo
Araújo (Castro), María Consuelo (b. 1971, Valledupar, Colombia), foreign minister of Colombia (2006-07). Earlier she was culture minister (2002-06). She is the niece of Consuelo Araújo Noguera, another former culture minister (2000-01), who was kidnapped and murdered in September 2001. In 2007 she resigned as foreign minister, following the arrest of her brother, Sen. Álvaro Araújo Castro, for alleged connections to illegal right-wing paramilitary forces and the implications of her father (Álvaro Araújo Noguera, agriculture minister in 1976-77) and cousin (Hernando Molina Araújo, governor of Cesar department) in similar criminal activity.

Araújo, Otávio Correia de (b. Oct. 27, 1900, Cabaceiras, Paraíba, Brazil - d. May 24, 1993, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil), acting governor of Pernambuco (1947-48, 1958-59).

R.M. de Araújo
Araújo, Rui Maria de (b. May 21, 1964, Mape, Portuguese Timor [now Timor-Leste]), prime minister of Timor-Leste (2015-17). He was also health minister (2002-07).

Araújo, Teotônio Ferreira de (b. 1918, Campos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Sept. 11, 1978, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting governor of Rio de Janeiro (1966-67).

Araujo, Tiburcio Valeriano de (b. Aug. 11, 1832, Alagoas [now Marechal Deodoro], Alagoas, Brazil - d. Oct. 18, 1918, Maceió, Alagoas), governor of Alagoas (1889).

Araujo, Urbano Santos da Costa (b. Feb. 3, 1859, Guimarães, Maranhão, Brazil - d. May 7, 1922, on board the Minas Gerais en route from Maranhão to Rio de Janeiro), vice president (1914-18) and interior and justice minister (1918-19) of Brazil and president of Maranhão (1918-22); brother of Antonio Bricio de Araujo.

Araújo Gaviria, Alfonso (b. July 28, 1902, Bogotá, Colombia - d. Feb. 4, 1961, New York City), war minister (1933-34), interior minister (1939-40), and finance minister (1942-43) of Colombia. He was also minister of public works (1931-33) and education (1938-39), minister to Venezuela (1937-38), ambassador to Brazil (1944-46), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1957-61).

Araújo Grau, Alfredo (b. Dec. 25, 1911, Cartagena, Colombia - d. April 4, 2003), interior minister of Colombia (1977-78). He was also governor of Bolívar (1949-50), minister of labour (1950-52), mines and petroleum (1959-60), justice (1960, 1963-65), and communications (1962-63), president of the Senate (1960-61), and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1965-67).

Arauz (Galarza), Andrés (b. Feb. 6, 1985, Quito, Ecuador), Ecuadorian presidential candidate (2021). He was also coordinating minister of knowledge and human talent (2015-17).

Arauz Aguilar, Armando (b. Jan. 26, 1922, Nicoya, Costa Rica - d. May 11, 2002), second vice president (1982-86) and acting foreign minister (1983) of Costa Rica.

Arauz Castex, Manuel (Guillermo Luis) (b. Feb. 18, 1915, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. January 2001), foreign minister of Argentina (1975-76).

Aravantinos, Panagiotis (b. 1880 - d. 1930), interior minister (1924, 1926) and provisional foreign minister (1924) of Greece.

Aravena Carrasco, Jorge (b. Dec. 10, 1903, El Monte, Chile - d. March 27, 1983, Santiago, Chile), interior minister of Chile (1957). He was also minister of public health and social security (1955) and agriculture (1956-57) and president of the Banco del Estado (1955-56).

Aravicius, Petras (b. June 29, 1887, Avizieniai, Russia [now in Lithuania] - d. [executed] Aug. 25, 1942, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), interior minister of Lithuania (1929-31). He was also director of the Land Bank (1931-40).

Araxá, Domiciano Leite Ribeiro, visconde de (b. April 23, 1812, São João del Rei, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. June 12, 1881, Desengano [now Barão de Juparanã], Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of São Paulo (1848) and Rio de Janeiro (1865-66). He was also Brazilian minister of agriculture and public works (1864). He was made viscount in 1872.

Araya (Monge), Johnny (Francisco) (b. April 29, 1957, San José, Costa Rica), Costa Rican politician; brother of Rolando Araya; nephew of Luis Alberto Monge Álvarez. He has been mayor of San José (1991-2013, 2016- ) and a presidential candidate (2014).

Araya (Monge), Rolando (b. Aug. 20, 1947, Palmares, Costa Rica), Costa Rican politician; nephew of Luis Alberto Monge Álvarez. He was mayor of San José (1978-80), minister of public works and transport (1982-84), and a presidential candidate (2002, 2010, 2022).

Araya Desta (b. 1945, Senafe, Eritrea - d. May 28, 2021), Eritrean diplomat. He was ambassador to Sweden and other Nordic countries (2002-05) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2005-14).

Araya Stiglich, Raúl (Edgardo Felipe) (b. Sept. 23, 1901, Quillota, Chile - d. May 23, 1989, Santiago, Chile), acting defense minister of Chile (1955). He was also commander-in-chief of the army (1955-56) and intendant of Colchagua province (1964-66).

Arazov, Rejepbay (b. 1947), defense minister of Turkmenistan (2002-03). He was also minister of oil and gas industry and mineral resources (1998-2000), head of Balkan region (2000-01), chairman of the Mejlis (2001-02), and a deputy prime minister (2002-03).

Arbaiza (y Jugo), Juan Manuel (b. March 28, 1831, Cajabamba, Peru - d. Oct. 11, 1898, Lima, Peru), prime minister (1882) and foreign minister (1882) of Peru (insurrectionary government of Lizardo Montero).

Arbaud de Jouques, Bache Elzéar Alexandre, comte d' (b. 1720 - d. [in prison] Nov. 26, 1793, Aix-en-Provence, Bouches-du-Rhône, France), governor of Guadeloupe (1775-82).

Arbel, Moshe (b. Dec. 26, 1983, Petah Tikva, Israel), interior (and health) minister of Israel (2023- ).

Arbellot-Repaire, Yves (Robert Émile Louis) (b. Aug. 25, 1926 - d. July 30, 2016), administrator-superior of Wallis and Futuna (1975-76).

Arbenz (G.)
Arbenz (Guzmán), Jacobo (b. Sept. 14, 1913, Quetzaltenango, Guatemala - d. Jan. 27, 1971, Mexico City, Mexico), president of Guatemala (1951-54). As a young army colonel he joined a revolutionary junta that overthrew longtime dictator Jorge Ubico in 1944. The junta handed power soon after to a constitutionally elected government. Arbenz became defense minister under Pres. Juan José Arévalo in 1949 and in 1950 he was elected president with 65% of the vote. He deepened the land reform begun by the Arévalo government. Uncultivated portions of large plantations were expropriated and distributed to landless peasants. This mainly affected the powerful U.S.-based United Fruit Company, which convinced the U.S. government of a Communist threat in Guatemala. Arbenz, who also broadened Guatemala's relations with Communist countries and included known Communists in his administration, won the name in the U.S. of the "Red Colonel." Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, a fervent anti-Communist, launched a campaign to overthrow the Arbenz government. The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, working in Honduras and El Salvador, organized a counterrevolutionary army of exiles led by Col. Carlos Castillo Armas; additionally, psychological warfare misinformed and frightened the population. When the capital was threatened, the size of the invading force was overestimated, and little resistance was offered; Arbenz was forced to resign (June 27, 1954) and leave the country. Castillo, who soon became president, quickly reversed Arbenz' reforms, while Arbenz began a tortuous life as an exile, first living in Mexico, then in Switzerland, France, Czechoslovakia, and the Soviet Union; in 1957 he moved to Uruguay, in 1960 to Cuba, and in 1970 again to Mexico.

Arbenz Vilanova, (Juan) Jacobo (Antonio) (b. Nov. 13, 1946), Guatemalan politician; son of Jacobo Arbenz (Guzmán). He was a minor presidential candidate in 2003.

Arbnori, Pjetër (Filip) (b. Jan. 18, 1935, Durrës, Albania - d. July 7, 2006, Naples, Italy), chairman of the People's Assembly (1992-97) and acting president (1992) of Albania. During the Communist regime, he was sentenced to 25 years in prison in 1961 for creating a secret anti-Communist group that tried to topple the regime. Another 10 years were later added to the sentence, but he was released after 28 years in 1989, two years before the regime collapsed.

Arbo, Higinio (b. 1879, Quiindy, Paraguay - d. 1968), foreign minister of Paraguay (1932). He was also minister to Uruguay (1930-32) and Argentina (1937-39).

Arboleda Valencia, José Enrique (b. March 21, 1918, Popayán, Cauca, Colombia), interior minister of Colombia (1956-57).

Arbour, Louise (b. Feb. 10, 1947, Montreal, Que.), Canadian jurist. She served as chief prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda (1996-99), during which time she indicted Slobodan Milosevic, among others, for war crimes and crimes against humanity for his part in atrocities committed in Kosovo. Milosevic's indictment was the first of a serving head of state. Arbour became a justice of the Supreme Court of Canada on Sept. 15, 1999. She was nominated on Feb. 20, 2004, to be UN high commissioner for human rights and assumed the office on July 1. She stepped down after one four-year term that sparked both controversy and praise. She was critical of many governments, ranging from Zimbabwe to China and Russia. She condemned the use of secret U.S. detention centres for terror suspects and said the American-led "war on terror" was eroding the worldwide ban on torture. She drew fire for her criticism of Israel in the wake of its 34-day conflict with Hezbollah in Lebanon in the summer of 2006. She said Israel was no less culpable than Hezbollah when it came to the deaths of civilians, saying that in Israel's case "you may not have an intent but you have recklessness [in which] civilian casualties are foreseeable." She also said that war crimes charges might be warranted against Israel and Hezbollah, which prompted a stinging condemnation from Israel's UN ambassador for what he called a "misguided and deeply disturbing statement." In 2017-18 she was UN special representative for international migration.

Arboussier, Gabriel Marie d' (b. Jan. 14, 1908, Djenné, French Sudan [now Mali] - d. Dec. 21, 1976, Geneva, Switzerland), justice minister of Senegal (1960-62); son of Henri Joseph Marie d'Arboussier. He was also ambassador to France (1963-64) and West Germany (1968-72).

Arboussier, Henri Joseph Marie d' (b. April 24, 1875, Toulouse, France - d. Sept. 5, 1930), French resident commissioner of the New Hebrides (1921-23, 1925-29) and governor of New Caledonia (1923-25).

Arbulú Galliani, Guillermo (Víctor) (b. March 1, 1921, Trujillo, Peru - d. December 1997), prime minister and defense minister of Peru (1976-78). He was also ambassador to Chile (1978-79) and Spain (1979-80).

Arbulú Samamé, (José) Italo (b. April 20, 1907, Reque, Lambayeque, Peru - d. 1983), war minister of Peru (1965-67).

Arbuthnot, Sir Alexander John (b. Oct. 11, 1822, Farmhill, County Mayo, Ireland - d. June 10, 1907, London, England), acting governor of Madras (1872); knighted 1873.

S. Arbuzov
Arbuzov, Serhiy (Hennadiyovych) (b. March 24, 1976, Donetsk, Ukrainian S.S.R.), acting prime minister of Ukraine (2014). He was chairman of the National Bank of Ukraine in 2010-12 and first deputy prime minister in 2012-14.

Arbuzov, Valery (Petrovich) (b. Oct. 1, 1939), chairman of the Executive Committee (1990-91) and head of the administration (1991-97) of Kostroma oblast.

Arcaya (Rivero), Ignacio Luis (b. May 3, 1912, Coro, Falcón state, Venezuela - d. 1990), foreign minister of Venezuela (1959-60). He was president of the Chamber of Deputies in 1963.

Arce (y Ruiz de Mendoza), Aniceto (b. April 17, 1824, Tarija, Bolivia - d. Aug. 14, 1906, Tirispaya, Chuquisaca, Bolivia), vice president (1880-81) and president (1880 [acting], 1888-92) of Bolivia.

Arce, Aniceto, interior and justice minister of Bolivia (1925).

Arce (Arce), José (b. Oct. 15, 1881, Lobería, Buenos Aires province, Argentina - d. July 27/28, 1968, Buenos Aires), president of the UN General Assembly (1948). He was also Argentinian ambassador to China (1945-46) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1946-49).

L. Arce
Arce (Catacora), Luis (Alberto), byname Lucho Arce (b. Sept. 28, 1963, La Paz, Bolivia), finance minister (2006-17, 2019) and president (2020- ) of Bolivia.

Arce (y Fagoaga), Manuel José (b. Jan. 1, 1787, San Salvador, New Spain [now in El Salvador] - d. Sept. 14, 1847, San Salvador), Central American political leader. He was twice imprisoned (1811, 1814-19) for his role in the rebellion against Spanish rule. At the refusal of El Salvador in 1821 to follow the lead of Guatemala and submit to annexation by Mexico, Arce was named head of the army, and in two successful battles defeated the Guatemalan generals Nicolás Avos Padilla and Manuel de Arzú but was himself later defeated by the Mexican general Vicente Filísola and was forced into exile in the United States. In 1824 he returned to Guatemala, restored order in Nicaragua after a civil uprising, and was elected the first president of the Federal Republic of Central America (1825-29). In this role his popularity waned; he was accused of betraying the liberals and was deposed by Gen. Francisco Morazán, taking refuge in Mexico in 1829. He led abortive revolts in 1831 and 1833, aided by the conservatives, and in 1840, the federation having disintegrated, was an unsuccessful candidate for the presidency of El Salvador. He led another revolt in 1844, but was defeated by Gen. Francisco Malespín at Ocotepeque and again banished from the country. He returned shortly before his death.

Arce Bobadilla, (Pedro) Humberto (b. Jan. 31, 1888, Linares, Chile - d. March 12, 1946, Santiago, Chile), justice minister of Chile (1930-31).

Arce Carpio, Alfredo (b. March 19, 1941, La Paz, Bolivia - d. [apparently killed] Feb. 9?, 2001, La Paz), interior and justice minister of Bolivia (1973). He was also minister of state (1972-73).

Arce Gómez, Luis (b. 1937, Sucre, Bolivia - d. March 30, 2020, La Paz, Bolivia), interior and justice minister of Bolivia (1980-81). In 1989 he was extradited to the U.S. to face drug-trafficking charges. He served 20 years in a U.S. prison before being deported to Bolivia in 2009 to serve a 30-year sentence for a conviction in absentia of genocide and political assassinations.

Archer, Charles (b. Aug. 18, 1861, Perth, Scotland - d. Nov. 20, 1941), acting chief commissioner of Baluchistan (1909, 1912, 1914, 1915).

Archer, David D(aCosta), Jr., acting governor of the British Virgin Islands (2021, 2024). He became deputy governor in 2018.

Archer, Sir Geoffrey (Francis) (b. July 4, 1882, London, England - d. May 1, 1964, Cannes, France), commissioner (1914-19) and governor (1919-22) of British Somaliland, governor of Uganda (1922-24), and governor-general of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1925-26); knighted 1920; nephew of Sir Frederick Jackson.

Archer (Crespo de Figueiredo), José Luís (b. July 9, 1901, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Dec. 23, 1979, Lisbon), administrator of Tangier (1951-54).

Archibald, Sir Adams George (b. May 18, 1814, Truro, Nova Scotia - d. Dec. 14, 1892, Truro), lieutenant governor of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories (1870-72) and Nova Scotia (1873-83); knighted 1885.

Archibald, V(ivian) Inez (b. Feb. 1, 1945, West End, Tortola, British Virgin Islands), acting governor of the British Virgin Islands (2010, 2014). She was speaker of the Legislative Council in 2003-07 and deputy governor in 2008-16.

Archibong, Daniel (Patrick) (b. 1942? - d. [motor accident?] March 11, 1990), governor of Cross River (1984-86).

Archila, Aristóbulo (b. March 21, 1871, Floresta, Boyacá, Colombia - d. Dec. 2, 1937, Sogamoso, Boyacá), interior minister (1921), war minister (1921-22), and finance minister (1923-24) of Colombia.

Archinard, Louis (b. Feb. 11, 1850, Le Havre, Seine-Inférieure [now Seine-Maritime], France - d. May 8, 1932, Villiers-le-Bel, Seine-et-Oise [now in Val-d'Oise], France), commandant-superior of Haut-Sénégal/French Sudan (1888-91, 1892-93).

Archondo, Rafael, Bolivian diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (2011-12).

Arcioni, Mariano (Ezequiel) (b. April 2, 1970, Comodoro Rivadavia, Chubut, Argentina), governor of Chubut (2017-23).

Arcos (de Valdevez), Marcos de Noronha e Brito, (8º) conde dos (b. June 7, 1771, Lisbon, Portugal - d. April 6, 1828, Lisbon), viceroy (1806-08) and principal minister (1821-22) of Brazil; grandson of Marcos José de Noronha e Brito, conde dos Arcos. He was also governor of Pará (1803-06) and Bahia (1810-18).

Arcos (de Valdevez), Marcos José de Noronha e Brito, (6º) conde dos (baptized May 4, 1712, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Aug. 14, 1768, Lisbon), viceroy of Brazil (1755-60). He was also governor of Pernambuco (1746-49) and Goiás (1749-55).

Arcoverde, Dirceu Mendes (b. Sept. 7, 1925, Amarante, Piauí, Brazil - d. March 16, 1979, Brasília, Brazil), governor of Piauí (1975-78).

Arda, Haci Adil, before Jan. 1, 1935, Haci Adil Bey (b. 1869, Lofça, Ottoman Empire [now Lovech, Bulgaria] - d. Feb. 8, 1935, Istanbul, Turkey), interior minister of the Ottoman Empire (1912, 1913). He was also governor of Adrianople (1911-12, 1913-15) and speaker of parliament (1915-18).

Ardalan, Ali Gholi (b. Oct. 15, 1901, Tehran, Iran - d. Aug. 3, 1986), foreign minister of Iran (1955-58). He was also minister to Turkey (1946-48), permanent representative to the United Nations (1950-55), minister of industry and mines (1955), ambassador to the United States (1958-60), the Soviet Union (1961-63), and West Germany (1963-65), and minister of the imperial court (1978-79).

Ardanza (Garro), José Antonio (b. June 10, 1941, Elorrio [now in País Vasco/Euskadi], Spain - d. April 8, 2024, Gautegiz Arteaga, País Vasco), president of the government of País Vasco/Euskadi (1985-99).

Arden-Clarke, Sir Charles Noble Arden, original surname (until 1949) Clarke (b. July 25, 1898, India - d. Dec. 16, 1962, Syleham, Suffolk, England), resident commissioner of Bechuanaland (1937-42) and Basutoland (1942-46), governor of Sarawak (1946-49) and Gold Coast (1949-57), and governor-general of Ghana (1957); knighted 1946.

J. Ardern
Ardern, Dame Jacinda (Kate Laurell) (b. July 26, 1980, Hamilton, N.Z.), prime minister of New Zealand (2017-23); daughter of Ross Ardern. A member of the Labour Party since she was 17 years old, she was elected president of the International Union of Socialist Youth in 2007. She entered parliament as a list MP in 2008 and won a constituency in a by-election in Mount Albert (Auckland) in February 2017. She became Labour leader in August 2017, just seven weeks ahead of general elections. In an unusual move, her predecessor Andrew Little stepped aside when the party was struggling in the polls. The trend was reversed under the new leader, leading the local press to coin the term "Jacindamania." Labour campaigned heavily on trying to persuade young New Zealanders with policies on education subsidies, the environment, and housing. The election ended deadlocked, but maverick populist Winston Peters backed her to form a government, giving her the numbers to take office with his New Zealand First and the Greens. At 37 she became New Zealand's youngest head of government since 1856. In 2018 she took six weeks' leave as she was about to become only the second non-monarch national leader to give birth while in office (the first being Benazir Bhutto in 1990). In 2020 she won a landslide reelection, after a highly effective response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Labour became the first party to win an outright majority since New Zealand adopted proportional representation in the 1990s. She surprisingly resigned in 2023, saying she no longer had "enough in the tank" to lead the country. Later that year she was knighted.

R. Ardern
Ardern, (David) Ross (b. Feb. 28, 1954, Te Aroha, N.Z.), high commissioner of Niue (2014-18) and administrator of Tokelau (2018-22).

Ardila, Ramón María, finance minister (1854) and war and navy minister (1854) of New Granada.

Ardila Ballesteros, Carlos (b. Dec. 9, 1953, Bucaramanga, Colombia), Colombian politician. He was president of the Chamber of Representatives (1997-98).

Ardito Barletta Vallarino, Nicolás (b. Aug. 21, 1938, Las Tablas, Panama), president of Panama (1984-85). His father was mayor of Panama City. The younger Ardito Barletta was minister of planning and economic policy from 1973 to 1978, when he resigned as one of Gen. Omar Torrijos Herrera's trusted advisers to become World Bank vice-president for Latin America and the Caribbean. He was approached late in 1983 by friends in the Panamanian government about running for president. In February 1984 Ricardo de la Espriella unexpectedly resigned the office and was succeeded by the vice-president, Jorge Illueca, who did not enter the race. Ardito Barletta ran as the coalition candidate backed by the National Guard, and his candidacy had government support. On May 16, 1984, after ten days of challenges and accusations of fraud in the counting of more than 600,000 ballots cast, Ardito Barletta was declared winner by 1,713 votes. He defeated the 82-year-old Arnulfo Arias Madrid, who was president three times and was ousted from office by a military coup each time. The election was the country's first after 16 years of military rule; it had been agreed to during negotiations between the U.S. and Panama that led to the signing of the 1977 Panama Canal Treaty (Ardito Barletta was among the negotiators for Panama). In his Oct. 11, 1984, inaugural address, preceded by a demonstration of 1,200 protesters that was quelled by the National Guard, Ardito Barletta pledged to repair the economy, fight corruption, and unite Panama's political parties. Calmly, he urged the military to "go back to the barracks."

Ardouin, Alexis Beaubrun (b. Aug. 30, 1796, Petit-Trou-de-Nippes, Saint-Domingue [now Haiti] - d. Aug. 30, 1865, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), member of the Council of Secretaries of State of Haiti (during presidential vacancy 1845). He was minister of justice, education, and worship (1845-46) and minister-resident to France (1848, 1860-63).

Ardouin, (Charles Nicolas) Céligny (b. July 6, 1801 [or 1806?], Anse-à-Veau, Saint-Domingue [now Haiti] - d. [executed] Aug. 7, 1849, Croix-des-Bouquets, Haiti), member of the Council of Secretaries of State of Haiti (during presidential vacancy 1847); brother of Alexis Beaubrun Ardouin. He was minister of interior and agriculture (1846-47).

I. Ardzinba
Ardzinba, Inal (Batuvich) (b. July 26, 1990, Sukhumi, Abkhaz A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Abkhazia (2021-24).

V. Ardzinba
Ardzinba, Vladislav (Grigoryevich) (b. May 14, 1945, Yashyra, near Sukhumi, Abkhaz A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R. - d. March 4, 2010, Moscow, Russia), chairman of parliament (1990-94) and president (1994-2005) of Abkhazia. In 1987 he became director of the Abkhaz Institute of Language, Literature, and History. He was elected to the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet in 1989, and the next year he was elected chairman of Abkhazia's Supreme Soviet. When the U.S.S.R. broke apart in 1991, the increasingly nationalist policies of the Georgian government led to disagreements between the central government and its autonomous territories, which exploded into a civil war. In 1992 Ardzinba unilaterally declared Abkhazia's independence and actively recruited mercenaries from nearby Chechnya. In 1993 the Georgian army left Abkhazia and the breakaway republic expelled Georgian troops and some 250,000 ethnic Georgian residents, more than half of Abkhazia's population. In 1994, the Abkhazian parliament elected Ardzinba president, and he secured Abkhazia's de facto independence by establishing close ties with Pres. Boris Yeltsin of Russia. Ardzinba was reelected in 1999 but resigned in 2005 owing to deteriorating health.

Aref (Khan), Mohammad (b. 1907 - d. 1984), defense minister of Afghanistan (1953-55). He was also ambassador to Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Hungary (1956-60), Yugoslavia and Bulgaria (1960-65), and the Soviet Union, Finland, and Romania (1965-73).

Aregbesola, (Ogbeni) Rauf (Adesoji) (b. May 25, 1957, Ikare [now in Ondo state], Nigeria), governor of Osun (2010-18) and interior minister of Nigeria (2019-23).

Areilza (y Martínez de Rodas), José María de, (from 1932) conde de Motrico (b. Aug. 3, 1909, Portugalete, Vizcaya province, País Vasco, Spain - d. Feb. 22, 1998, Madrid), foreign minister of Spain (1975-76). He was mayor of Bilbao in 1937-38. During the dictatorship of Gen. Francisco Franco, Areilza served as Spanish ambassador to Argentina (1947-50), the United States (1954-60), and France (1960-64). He was a close adviser to Don Juan, heir to the Spanish throne, but Franco favoured Don Juan's son, Juan Carlos, in reestablishing the monarchy. Don Juan abdicated in favour of his son in 1969 and Juan Carlos eventually became king upon Franco's death in 1975. Areilza became foreign minister and was credited with spreading Spain's new democratic image abroad. He retired from politics after being elected to Spain's prestigious Royal Language Academy in 1987.

Arellano Mac Leod, Daniel (Benito) (b. May 16, 1918, Iquique, Chile - d. Dec. 24, 2015), finance minister of Chile (1973). He was also minister of public works and transport (1973).


E. Arenales
Arena, Marie (b. Dec. 17, 1966, Mons, Belgium), minister-president of the French community of Belgium (2004-08). In 2008-09 she was federal minister of pensions and integration.

Arenales Catalán, Emilio (b. May 10, 1922, Guatemala City, Guatemala - d. April 17, 1969, Guatemala City), foreign minister of Guatemala (1966-69) and president of the UN General Assembly (1968-69); brother of Jorge Arenales Catalán. He was also permanent representative to the UN (1955-58).

Arenales Catalán, Jorge (Alejandro) (b. April 19, 1914, Guatemala City, Guatemala - d. Jan. 12, 1993, Guatemala City), interior minister (1970-72) and foreign minister (1972-74) of Guatemala. He was also minister of economy and labour (1954-56).

Arenas (de Mesa), Alberto (b. Oct. 5, 1965, Santiago, Chile), finance minister of Chile (2014-15). He was also director of budgets (2006-10).

Arenas (Villarreal), Alejandro (b. Feb. 26, 1842, Lima, Peru - d. Sept. 13, 1912, Lima), interior minister of Peru (1879); son of Antonio Arenas. He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1883, 1886-87).

Arenas (Merino), (Manuel) Antonio (b. July 13, 1808, Lima, Peru - d. Dec. 27, 1891, Lima), foreign minister (1858-59, 1885-86), prime minister (1868, 1876, 1885-86), and acting head of state (1885-86) of Peru. He was also minister of interior, police, and public works (1862-63, 1868) and justice, education, and worship (1876) and president of the Supreme Court (1876-77, 1885-86, 1889-91).

Arenas (Zuñiga), Germán (b. May 28, 1870, Lima, Peru - d. April 21, 1948, Lima), prime minister of Peru (1918-19, 1931-32); son of Alejandro Arenas. He was also minister of interior and police (1907-08, 1917-18, 1918-19), finance and commerce (1918), and development and public works (1931-32) and president of the Supreme Court (1943-44).

Arenas Bocanegra, (Francisco) Javier (b. Dec. 28, 1957, Sevilla, Spain), a deputy prime minister of Spain (2003-04). He was also minister of labour and social affairs (1996-99), public administration (2002-03), and the presidency (2003-04) and secretary-general of the Popular Party (1999-2003).

Arenas Bonilla, Roberto (b. Oct. 23, 1928, Purificación, Colombia - d. June 28, 2011, Bogotá, Colombia), interior minister of Colombia (1972-74). He was also ambassador to Belgium (1998-2003).

Arenas Osses, Pedro Manuel (b. Sept. 9, 1912, Guapotá, Santander, Colombia), justice minister of Colombia (1950, 1956). He was also minister of mines and petroleum (1954-56).

Arenas y Loayza, Carlos (b. Oct. 7, 1885, Lima, Peru - d. July 19, 1955, Lima), prime minister and minister of justice, education, and worship of Peru (1934-35); grandson of Antonio Arenas. He was also ambassador to Colombia (1941-45).

Arens, Moshe, originally Mose Arensas (b. Dec. 27, 1925, Kaunas, Lithuania - d. Jan. 7, 2019, Savyon, near Tel Aviv, Israel), Israeli politician. His family emigrated to the United States from Lithuania in 1939, and he eventually became a U.S. citizen. When the Arab-Israeli war broke out in 1948, he went to Israel, where he joined the Irgun, the right-wing Zionist guerrilla force led by Menachem Begin. He eventually entered the Knesset and became chairman of the committee on foreign affairs and defense. After serving (1981-83) as ambassador to the United States, he became (February 1983) defense minister under Begin, replacing Ariel Sharon, who was forced to resign. Like Sharon, Arens was regarded as a hardliner in Israel's relations with the Arab world. Following the formation of a national unity government by the Labour Party and the Likud bloc in 1984, Arens became a minister without portfolio. In 1988-90 he served as foreign minister, and in 1990-92 he was again defense minister. In a surprise comeback, seven years after retiring from politics, Arens challenged his protégé Benjamin Netanyahu in the 1999 Likud party primaries to determine its candidate for prime minister in the general election. Arens, portraying himself as the best person to bring a fragmented party together, won only 18% of the vote. He became defense minister the third time, but months later the Likud government lost the election. He then definitely left politics.

Areny Casal, Francesc (b. June 28, 1959), general syndic of Andorra (1997-2005).

Areosa, Danilo Duarte de Mattos (b. July 24, 1921, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil - d. Nov. 11?, 1983), governor of Amazonas (1967-71).

Arévalo (de León), (César) Bernardo (b. Oct. 7, 1958, Montevideo, Uruguay), president of Guatemala (2024- ); son of Juan José Arévalo. He was also ambassador to Spain (1995-96).

J.J. Arévalo
Arévalo (Bermejo), Juan José (b. Sept. 10, 1904, Taxisco, Guatemala - d. Oct. 6, 1990, Guatemala City, Guatemala), president of Guatemala (1945-51). He served in the Ministry of Education in 1936. Following the overthrow of the military dictatorship of Jorge Ubico, Arévalo was elected president in 1944 with 85% of the vote. He favoured what he called a "spiritual socialism," a sense of cooperation and concern for the common welfare. His government was characterized by its support for culture, its promotion of pluralistic democracy, the enactment of a labour and social security code, and encouragement of a free union movement. He began reforms in health care and education and promoted new industry and agriculture. In foreign policy he reopened the dispute over British Honduras and refused to recognize Anastasio Somoza's Nicaragua, Francisco Franco's Spain, and Rafael Trujillo's Dominican Republic. Although he enjoyed wide popularity, the traditional elite classes opposed him, and he had to deal with numerous revolts, particularly one in July 1949 following the assassination of Col. Francisco Javier Arana. In 1948 a bitter battle ensued with the United Fruit Company, which ignored the provisions of the labour code. Nevertheless he was able to survive and hand over power to an elected successor, Jacobo Arbenz. He was appointed ambassador at large in 1951. After Arbenz was overthrown in 1954, Arévalo lived in exile in Venezuela and later Mexico. In March 1963 he clandestinely entered Guatemala and planned to run for president; the prospect of his return to power triggered a military coup by Col. Enrique Peralta Azurdia and Arévalo went back to Mexico. In 1969 he was named ambassador to Chile, and he was ambassador to France in 1970-72.

F. Argaña
Argaña (Contreras), Félix (Carlos) (b. June 10, 1957, Asunción, Paraguay), Paraguayan vice presidential candidate (2000); son of Luis María Argaña.

Argaña (Benegas), Luis Andrés (Avelino) (b. Nov. 10, 1897, Asunción, Paraguay - d. Sept. 13, 1957), foreign minister of Paraguay (1940-44). He was also minister of justice, worship, and education (1937-38).

L.M. Argaña
Argaña (Ferraro), Luis María (del Corazón de Jesús Dionisio) (b. Oct. 9, 1932, Asunción, Paraguay - d. March 23, 1999, Asunción), Paraguayan politician. He first rose to prominence in the political hierarchy as a close collaborator of Gen. Alfredo Stroessner, whose brutal 35-year dictatorship ended in 1989. In 1967 he was one of the architects of Stroessner's tailor-made constitution. His steady rise through the ranks took him to the presidency of the Supreme Court (1983-88). Nicknamed "The Prince" because he was Stroessner's favourite underling, he was the principal candidate to succeed the general as president. But his chances were dashed when the dictator was overthrown and fled to exile in Brazil. Argaña instead served as foreign minister (1989-90) under Gen. Andrés Rodríguez before becoming a leading voice against government corruption. A convincing orator, he nevertheless lacked a popular touch as he did not speak the local Guaraní language, which meant he could not make contact with the country's poor. He was beaten by former army chief Lino Oviedo for the Colorado Party's presidential nomination in 1998. But Oviedo was disqualified from the presidential contest by a 10-year jail sentence for a 1996 coup attempt. Oviedo ally Raúl Cubas stepped in and won, and Argaña automatically became his deputy. He clashed with Cubas over the latter's decision to free Oviedo. Argaña stood by as Congress readied to put Cubas on trial on charges of violating the constitution by ordering Oviedo's freedom. The vice president seemed closer than ever to the top job when his long career was brought to a bloody halt by gunmen who shot him dead. He was riddled with 10 bullets when his jeep was attacked in the morning hours in a central district of the capital.

Argaña (Contreras), Nelson (Manuel Anastacio), defense minister of Paraguay (1999-2000); son of Luis María Argaña.

Argenlieu, Georges Thierry d': see Thierry d'Argenlieu, Georges.

Argenson, Marc René de Voyer de Paulmy, marquis d' (b. Nov. 4, 1652, Venice, Republic of Venice [now in Italy] - d. May 8, 1721, Paris, France), keeper of the seals of France (1718-20).

Argenson, René Louis de Voyer de Paulmy, marquis d' (b. Oct. 18, 1694, Paris, France - d. Jan. 26, 1757, Paris), foreign minister of France (1744-47); son of Marc René de Voyer de Paulmy, marquis d'Argenson.

Argesanu, Gheorghe (b. 1883, Caracal, Romania - d. [assassinated] Nov. 26, 1940, Jilava, Romania), defense minister (1938) and prime minister (1939) of Romania.

Argetoianu, Constantin (Ioan) (b. March 15 [March 3, O.S.], 1871, Craiova, Romania - d. Feb. 6, 1955, Sighet [now Sighetu Marmatiei], Romania), foreign minister (1928 [acting], 1931 [acting], 1940) and prime minister (1939) of Romania. He was also minister of justice (1918), finance (1920, 1931-32), interior (1920-21, 1931-32), agriculture (1927-28), and industry and commerce (1938) and president of the Senate (1939-40).

Argolo, Francisco de Paula (b. Jan. 28, 1847, São Francisco do Conde, Bahia, Brazil - d. Feb. 11, 1930, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), war minister of Brazil (1897, 1902-06).

Argout, Antoine (Maurice Apollinaire), comte d' (b. Aug. 28, 1782, Vasselin [now in Isère département], France - d. Jan. 10, 1858, Paris, France), interior minister (1832-34) and finance minister (1836) of France. He was also prefect of the départements of Basses-Pyrénées (1815-17) and Gard (1817-19), minister of marine and colonies (1830-31) and commerce and public works (1831-32), and governor of the Banque de France (1834-57).

Argout (de Neritiers), Robert, comte d' (b. 1724 - d. March 7, 1780, Cap-Français, Saint-Domingue [now Cap-Haïtien, Haiti]), governor of Martinique (1776-77) and governor-general of Saint-Domingue (1777-80).

Argue, Hazen (Robert) (b. Jan. 6, 1921, Moose Jaw, Sask. - d. Oct. 2, 1991, Regina, Sask.), Canadian politician; leader of the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (1960-61).

Arguedas Mendieta, Antonio (b. June 13, 1928, La Paz, Bolivia - d. Feb. 22, 2000, La Paz), interior and justice minister of Bolivia (1966-68). He was recruited by the U.S. CIA in 1965, and as minister contributed to the repression of the guerrillas led by Che Guevara, who was captured and killed in 1967. But in 1968 he smuggled a copy of Guevara's guerrilla diary to Cuba, embarrassing the Bolivian government, then fled the country, living in Chile and Cuba, but later returning. His political views seemed erratic, and he reportedly died when a bomb he was carrying exploded; police claimed he was behind a spate of bombings by a right-wing group.

Argüelles Argüelles, Manuel (b. Nov. 10, 1875, Madrid, Spain - d. Dec. 9, 1945, Madrid), finance minister of Spain (1921, 1930). He was also minister of development (1922) and national economy (1930).

Argüello, Jorge (Martín Arturo) (b. April 20, 1956, Buenos Aires, Argentina), Argentine diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2007-11) and ambassador to the United States (2012-13, 2020- ) and Portugal (2013-15).

Argüello (del Castillo y Guzmán), Juan (b. 1778, Granada [now in Nicaragua] - d. 1830, Guatemala), chief of Nicaragua (1826-27, 1828-29).

Argüello (Barreto), Leonardo (b. Aug. 29, 1875, León, Nicaragua - d. Dec. 15, 1947, Mexico City, Mexico), president of Nicaragua (1947). In 1925 he was named minister of education and it was at a reception in his honour that one of the more comic attempted coups in Latin American history took place, led by the somewhat inebriated Gabry Rivas. Argüello ran for president unsuccessfully in 1929, 1932, and 1936, and was foreign minister in 1931-36. In December 1936, after he opposed Gen. Anastasio Somoza García, who had taken the reins by forcing the resignation of Juan Bautista Sacasa, Argüello fled the country. However, in 1940 he became interior minister. And although he resigned to protest against Somoza's handling of protests in 1944, Somoza went on to pick him as presidential candidate to placate some of his liberal opponents. On Feb. 2, 1947, he was elected with Somoza's support, and he took office May 1. Somoza believed he could control the elderly Argüello from behind the scenes, but already in his inaugural address Argüello said: "I will not - you can be sure of that - be a mere figurehead president." He alienated Somoza, who remained head of the National Guard, by transferring a son of Somoza from the position of inspector general of the army to a job as garrison chief at León, and by granting autonomy to the University of Managua. Somoza accused him of plotting to remove him as head of the National Guard and ousted him after less than four weeks in office. Argüello took refuge in the Mexican embassy for six months and was finally permitted to enter Mexico on Nov. 30, 1947.

Argüello Arce, José (b. June 16, 1821, Granada, Nicaragua - d. Nov. 28, 1897, Granada), Nicaraguan politician. He was president of Congress (1870-72).

Argüello Gómez, Carlos (José) (b. July 27, 1946, San José, Costa Rica), justice minister of Nicaragua (1982-83). He was also ambassador to the Netherlands (1983-90, 1993-97, 2000-22) and the United Kingdom (2010-14).

Argüello Loucel, Arturo (b. Feb. 1, 1890, San Miguel, El Salvador - d. May 19, 1963), foreign minister of El Salvador (1945). He was also minister of interior, development, and agriculture (1922-23), minister to Belgium and the United Kingdom (1923-25), and president of the Supreme Court of Justice (1946-48).

Argüello Montiel, Alejandro (b. Jan. 14, 1907, Granada, Nicaragua - d. Nov. 2, 1997, Granada), Nicaraguan diplomat; nephew of Guillermo Argüello Vargas. He was minister to Costa Rica (1937-38), Peru and Chile (1941-44), and Guatemala (1945) and ambassador to Mexico (1945-46, 1959-65), Cuba (1955-59), and the Vatican (1968-72).

Argüello Poessy, Guillermo (del Carmen) (b. Feb. 16, 1941, Managua, Nicaragua - d. Nov. 15, 2014, Managua), Nicaraguan politician; nephew of Guillermo Argüello Vargas; half-brother of Alejandro Argüello Montiel. He was comptroller-general (2000-14).

G. Argüello V.
Argüello Vargas, Guillermo (b. May 16, 1888, Granada, Nicaragua - d. March 22, 1965, Managua, Nicaragua), finance minister of Nicaragua (1932, 1947); grandson of José Argüello Arce; husband of Angélica Balladares de Argüello.

Argüello Vargas, Mariano (b. May 20, 1890, Granada, Nicaragua - d. April 2, 1970, Miami, Fla.), foreign minister (1940-46) and vice president (1947) of Nicaragua; grandson of José Argüello Arce; cousin of Guillermo Argüello Vargas.


Argueta de Barillas, Marisol (b. April 6, 1968), foreign minister of El Salvador (2008-09).

Argunov, Murat (Olegovich) (b. Nov. 16, 1982, Kosh-Khabl, Karachay-Cherkess autonomous oblast, Stavropol kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Karachayevo-Cherkessia (2021- ).

Argwings-Kodhek, C(hiedo) M(ore) G(em), originally Clement Michael George Argwings-Kodhek (b. 1923, Gem, Siaya district, Nyanza province, Kenya - d. [car crash] Jan. 29, 1969, Nairobi, Kenya), foreign minister of Kenya (1968-69). The first African to practice law in Kenya, he defended Mau Mau members and was disbarred in 1957. He was also minister of natural resources (1966-68).

Argyll, George (John) Douglas Campbell, (8th and 1st) Duke of (b. April 30, 1823, Ardencaple Castle, Dunbartonshire, Scotland - d. April 24, 1900, Inveraray Castle, Argyll, Scotland), British politician. He was lord privy seal (1853-55, 1859-66, 1880-81), postmaster general (1855-58), and secretary of state for India (1868-74). Styled Marquess of Lorne from 1839, he succeeded as Duke of Argyll in the peerage of Scotland in 1847 and was created Duke of Argyll in the U.K. peerage in 1892.

Argyll, John (George Edward Henry) Douglas Sutherland Campbell, (9th and 2nd) Duke of (b. Aug. 6, 1845, London, England - d. May 2, 1914, Cowes, Isle of Wight, England), governor general of Canada (1878-83); son of George Douglas Campbell, Duke of Argyll; son-in-law of Victoria. Styled Marquess of Lorne from 1847, he succeeded as duke in 1900.

Argyropoulos, Periklis (Alexandrou) (b. April 3, 1881, Athens, Greece - d. 1966), foreign minister (1926, 1929) and interior minister (1929) of Greece. He was also minister of communications (1917, 1926) and marine (1928-29, 1930-32) and general administrator of the Aegean Islands (1941). He is not to be confused with Periklis (Iakovou) Argyropoulos (b. 1871 - d. 1953), who was Greek ambassador to Spain (1938-41).

Arias (Hurtado), Antenor (b. Aug. 3, 1849, Ica, Peru - d. Sept. 3, 1906, Lima, Peru), foreign minister of Peru (1889).

F. Arias
Arias (Cárdenas), Francisco (Javier) (b. Nov. 20, 1950, San Cristóbal, Táchira state, Venezuela), governor of Zulia (1995-2000, 2012-17) and Venezuelan presidential candidate (2000). He has also been permanent representative to the United Nations (2006-08) and ambassador to Mexico (2019- ).

Arias (Llamas), Inocencio (Félix) (b. April 20, 1940, Albox, Almería province, Spain), Spanish diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1997-2004).

Arias (Hurtado), José Viterbo (b. Sept. 4, 1839, Lima, Peru - d. Dec. 2, 1904, Lima), finance minister (1879) and justice and education minister (1879, 1902) of Peru.

Arias (Arias), Ricardo Alberto (b. Sept. 11, 1939, Panama City, Panama), foreign minister of Panama (1996-98); son of Ricardo Arias Espinosa. He was also ambassador to the United States (1994-96) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2004-09).

Arias (Guardia), Roberto Emilio, byname Tito Arias (b. Oct. 26, 1918 - d. Nov. 22, 1989, Panama City, Panama), Panamanian diplomat; son of Harmodio Arias Madrid; nephew of Arnulfo Arias Madrid. He was ambassador to the United Kingdom (1955-58, 1960-62). In 1955 he married British ballerina Dame Margot Fonteyn.

Arias, Tomás (b. 1804, Salta city, Río de la Plata [now Argentina] - d. 1863, Salta), governor of Salta (1852-54) and finance minister of Argentina (1860).

Arias Cañete, Miguel (b. Feb. 24, 1950, Madrid, Spain), Spanish politician. He was minister of agriculture, fisheries, and food (2000-04) and agriculture, food, and environment (2011-14) and EU commissioner for climate action and energy (2014-19).

Arias Carrizosa, José Manuel (b. Aug. 17, 1933, Charalá, Santander, Colombia - d. Jan. 19, 2019, Bogotá, Colombia), justice minister of Colombia (1987). He was also minister of communications (1978-80) and ambassador to Cuba (1980-81).

H. Arias C.
Arias Cerjack, Harmodio (b. March 1, 1956, Panama City, Panama - d. Feb. 6, 2014, Panama City), foreign minister of Panama (2003-04).

Arias Espinosa, Ricardo (Manuel) (b. April 5, 1912, Washington, D.C. - d. March 15, 1993, Panama City, Panama), second vice president (1952-55), foreign minister (1955), and president (1955-56) of Panama. He was also minister of agriculture, commerce, and industries (1949-51) and labour, health, and social welfare (1952-55) and ambassador to the United States (1964-68).

Arias Falla, Jennifer Kristin (b. Jan. 13, 1987, New York City), Colombian politician. She was president of the Chamber of Representatives (2021-22).

Arias González, Fernando (b. Feb. 27, 1952, Madrid, Spain), Spanish diplomat. He has been ambassador to Mauritania (1998-2000), Mali (1999-2000), Bulgaria (2004-09), Macedonia (2005-06), and the Netherlands (2014-18), permanent representative to the United Nations (2012-13), and director-general of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (2018- ).

A. Arias
Arias Madrid, Arnulfo (b. Aug. 15, 1901, Penonomé, Colombia [now in Coclé province, Panama] - d. Aug. 10, 1988, Miami, Fla.), president of Panama (1940-41, 1949-51, 1968); brother of Harmodio Arias Madrid. He became interested in politics during the late 1920s, participated in a revolution in 1931, and founded the party that brought his brother to the presidency in 1932. He served as minister of public works and agriculture (1935-36) and minister to France, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Denmark (1936-39). In 1940 he was elected president himself. He instituted his country's social security system, gave the vote to women, strengthened labour laws, forced foreign businessmen to transfer their companies to Panamanian ownership, and divested black West Indians in Panama of their citizenship. When he scrapped the constitution and extended his presidential term in office to six years, he was ousted in a military coup (probably supported by the United States, who were worried about his connections to the Axis powers and his opposition to U.S. requests for defense installations) and went into exile until 1945. Elected president again in 1948, the election results were thrown out and only recognized 18 months later. During his second term he again tried to revoke the constitution, dissolved the National Assembly and the Supreme Court, and was finally deposed by the police. Denied political rights from 1951 to 1960, he lost presidential elections in 1964 apparently due to fraud. Four years later, his victory was so overwhelming that it had to be recognized, but he served only 11 days before being deposed by the military. He narrowly lost the 1984 election in what many again claimed was fraud. In exile in Miami, he opposed the military regimes of Gen. Omar Torrijos and Gen. Manuel Noriega.

H. Arias M.
Arias Madrid, Harmodio (b. July 3, 1886, Río Grande, Colombia [now in Coclé province, Panama] - d. Dec. 23, 1962, aboard plane en route from U.S. to Panama), president of Panama (1932-36). Prominent in Panama's political affairs since 1912, he represented his country in various posts. In 1920, he was named delegate to the first assembly of the League of Nations. That year also he was elected a member of the Court of Arbitration at The Hague. In 1921, he was named minister plenipotentiary to Argentina, and in 1931 he was briefly minister to the United States. In Washington, he attended Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt's press conferences, and later, when he became president, he started the practice in Panama, becoming the first Latin American president to hold press conferences. He was one of the leaders of the revolutionary movement in 1931 which overthrew the government of Florencio Harmodio Arosemena. Arias' movement Acción Communal had a primarily mestizo middle class following, and its mood was anti-oligarchy and anti-Yankee. Arias was the first Panamanian president to institute relief efforts for the isolated and impoverished countryside. He later established the University of Panama, which became the focal point for the political articulation of middle-class interests and nationalistic zeal. President Roosevelt's visit to Panama in the summer of 1934 prepared the way for opening negotiations on important matters. A Panamanian mission arrived in Washington in November, and discussions on a replacement for the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty continued through 1935. On March 2, 1936, the Hull-Alfaro Treaty was signed, which provided a new context for relations between the two countries, abrogating the 1903 treaty guarantee of the republic's independence and the concomitant right of intervention.

Arias Mendoza, (José) Rubén, interior minister of Paraguay (1998-99).

C. Arias
Arias Navarro, Carlos, marqués de Arias Navarro (b. Dec. 11, 1908, Madrid, Spain - d. Nov. 27, 1989, Madrid), prime minister of Spain (1974-76). He began his service with the Ministry of Justice in 1929. Closely allied with Gen. Francisco Franco, Arias was imprisoned by Republican forces at Málaga at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War (1936-39). He was freed when Franco's forces captured the city and became a public prosecutor with a reputation for toughness against his Republican adversaries. Later he served as governor of the province of León (1944-49), governor of Navarre (1949), director general of security (1957-65), and mayor of Madrid (1965-73). In June 1973 he was made minister of the interior, and he was appointed premier in December 1973 after the assassination of Premier Luis Carrero Blanco. Arias was the only civilian premier appointed by Franco. It was Arias who broke the news of Franco's death to the public in 1975. King Juan Carlos initially retained him as premier, but Arias opposed a complete break with the past and resigned at the king's wish in 1976. On the day after leaving office, he was created marqués de Arias Navarro.

Ó. Arias
Arias Sánchez, Óscar (Rafael de Jesús) (b. Sept. 13, 1941, Heredia, Costa Rica), president of Costa Rica (1986-90, 2006-10). In the early 1960s he joined the social-democratic National Liberation Party (PLN). He was financial adviser to Pres. José Figueres Ferrer in 1970-72 and minister of national planning and political economy in 1972-77. He was elected to congress in 1978 and elected secretary-general of the PLN in 1979, but resigned those posts in 1981 in order to organize the successful presidential campaign of Luis Alberto Monge Álvarez. In 1986 Arias himself won presidential elections. The campaign was dominated by the issue of Costa Rica's proclaimed neutrality in Central American affairs, a policy to which Arias was strongly committed. He was not a supporter of the Communist government in neighbouring Nicaragua, but his pledge to curb the activities of the anti-Sandinista contra forces in Costa Rica proved more appealing to the electorate than the virulently anti-Communist proclamations of his principal election rival, Rafael Ángel Calderón Fournier. Arias took measures to cope with Costa Rica's heavy foreign indebtedness and other economic problems, but his chief concern was the restoration of peace and political stability in strife-torn Central America. In February 1987 he proposed a regional peace plan for the Central American countries that called for ceasefires between government and rebel forces, an end of outside military aid, amnesty for political prisoners, and free elections in those countries. On Aug. 7, 1987, Arias and the presidents of El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua signed an accord based on his plan. In October of that year he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of his efforts. Elected to a second term in 2006, he brought Costa Rica into a Central American free trade agreement with the U.S.

Arias Schreiber, Diómedes (b. Oct. 9, 1888, Lima, Peru - d. April 11, 1959, Miraflores, Lima province, Peru), interior minister of Peru (1939); nephew of Germán Schreiber Waddington. He was also minister of justice and worship (1936, 1937-39), minister to Italy (1940-41), and ambassador to the Vatican (1941-45, 1954-56).

Arias-Schreiber Pezet, Max (b. Jan. 3, 1923, Lima, Peru - d. 2004), justice minister of Peru (1984); nephew of Diómedes Arias Schreiber; great-great-grandson of Juan Antonio Pezet.

J. Arias
Arias Stella, Javier (b. Aug. 2, 1924, Lima, Peru - d. Feb. 25, 2020, Lima), foreign minister of Peru (1980-83). A distinguished pathologist, he was also public health minister (1963-65, 1967-68) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1983-85).

Arib, Khadija (b. Oct. 10, 1960, Hedami, near Casablanca, Morocco), Dutch politician. She was chairman of the Second Chamber (2015-21).

Aribaud, Jean (Roch Albert) (b. Nov. 30, 1943, Carcassonne, Aude, France), high commissioner of French Polynesia (1997-2001). He was also prefect of the French départements of Lozère (1989-92), Yonne (1992-93), Seine-Saint-Denis (2001-02), Seine-Maritime (2002-04), and Nord (2004-06) and interior minister of Monaco (1993-97).

Ariburun, (Mehmet) Tekin (b. Oct. 16, 1903, Shtip, Ottoman Empire [now in North Macedonia] - d. Aug. 12, 1993, Ankara, Turkey), acting president of Turkey (1973). He was chairman of the Senate (1970-77).

Aridor, Yoram (b. Oct. 24, 1933, Tel Aviv, Palestine [now in Israel]), Israeli politician. He was minister of communications (1981) and finance (1981-83) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1990-92).

Arief, Teuku Nyak (b. 1899 - d. May 4, 1968, Takengon, Aceh, Indonesia), governor of Aceh (1945-46).

Ariès, Joseph (Hyacinthe Louis Jules) d' (b. Jan. 22, 1813, Tarbes, Hautes-Pyrénées, France - d. Dec. 6, 1878, Tillac, Gers, France), acting governor of Cochinchina (1860-61).

A.R. Arif
Arif, Abdul Rahman (Muhammad), or `Abd al-Rahman `Arif (b. 1916 [other sources say 1918], Baghdad, Iraq - d. Aug. 24, 2007, Amman, Jordan), president of Iraq (1966-68). In 1963 he was chosen by his younger brother, Pres. Abdul Salam Arif, as army chief of staff. Three years later, the brother died in a plane crash and army officers supported by Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser chose the elder Arif to become Iraq's new president. But in the early hours of July 17, 1968, as Arif slept, Defense Minister Hardan al-Tikriti reportedly entered the palace and phoned Arif to tell him he was no longer president. He was hustled onto a plane to London the next morning and made his way to Istanbul, where he spent 11 years before he was allowed to return. Ba`th Party leader Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr became president after the bloodless coup. Two of Arif's closest assistants betrayed him and conspired with the Ba`th Party in the coup. Afterward, one was named prime minister and the other defense minister. After Arif's return to Iraq in 1979, he kept a low profile, leaving the country only once, to perform the Muslim pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia in 1981, until the U.S.-led invasion of 2003, following which he settled in Jordan.

A.S. Arif
Arif, Abdul Salam (Muhammad), or `Abd al-Salam `Arif (b. March 21, 1921, Baghdad, Iraq - d. [helicopter crash] April 13, 1966, banks of the Shatt al-Arab, southern Iraq), president of Iraq (1963-66). He served in the Iraqi military and was a commander in the Arab-Israeli war of 1948. He was prominent in the revolution of July 1958, which overthrew the monarchy. The first president, Abdul Karim Kassem, appointed him deputy premier and minister of the interior, but he was soon relieved of his duties and sent as ambassador to West Germany. Returning to Baghdad, he was, in December 1958, convicted of attempting to murder General Kassem and condemned to death. Pardoned by Kassem and released in 1961, he became president following the coup (February 1963) of the Ba`th Socialists and Kassem's execution. In November 1963 Arif took advantage of a Ba`thist split to establish his military regime, effectively carrying out a counter-coup against the Ba`th party. He improved relations with Pres. Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, though he was less successful in other endeavours. The proposed unification of Iraq with Egypt was scuttled, the Kurdish rebellion continued, and an agreement with the Iraq Petroleum Company was abrogated due to nationalist pressure.

M.U. Arif
Arif, Mohammed Usman (b. April 5, 1923, Bikaner [now in Rajasthan], India - d. August 1995), governor of Uttar Pradesh (1985-90).

Arif Hikmet Pasha, Damad (b. 1872, Prizren, Ottoman Empire [now in Kosovo] - d. April 23, 1942, Beirut, Lebanon), justice minister of the Ottoman Empire (1912-13, 1919, 1920-21); son of Abdurrahman Nureddin Pasha; son-in-law of Abdülhamit II. He was also head of the Council of State (1912-13).

Ariffin, Rudy (b. Aug. 17, 1953, Banjarmasin, Kalimantan [now in Kalimantan Selatan], Indonesia), governor of Kalimantan Selatan (2005-15).

Arifi Pasha, Ahmed (b. 1830, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. Dec. 6, 1895, Constantinople), foreign minister (1874-75, 1877, 1882-84) and grand vizier (1879) of the Ottoman Empire; son of Mehmed Sekib Pasha. He was also ambassador to Austria-Hungary (1872-73, 1875-76) and France (1877-78) and head of the Council of State (1879-80, 1882, 1885-95).

Arifin, Syamsul (b. Sept. 25, 1952, Medan, Sumatera Utara, Indonesia - d. Oct. 17, 2023, Jakarta, Indonesia), governor of Sumatera Utara (2008-13).

Arifin, Zainul (b. 1909, Barus, Netherlands East Indies [now in Sumatera Utara, Indonesia] - d. March 2, 1963, Jakarta, Indonesia), a deputy prime minister of Indonesia (1953-55). He was also speaker of the People's Representative Council (1960-63).

Arikan, (Mustafa) Saffet (b. 1888, Erzincan, Ottoman Empire [now in Turkey] - d. Nov. 26, 1947, Istanbul, Turkey), defense minister of Turkey (1940-41). He was also education minister (1935-38) and ambassador to Germany (1942-44).

Arikan, Vural (Turgut) (b. 1929, Akköy, Aydin province, Turkey - d. Aug. 3, 1993), finance (and customs) minister of Turkey (1983-84).

Arike, Heiki (b. May 5, 1965, Tallinn, Estonian S.S.R. - d. Oct. 9, 2018), interior minister of Estonia (1993-94).

Arikpo, Okoi (b. Sept. 20, 1916, Ugep [now in Cross River state], Nigeria - d. 1995), foreign minister of Nigeria (1967-75). He was also minister of trade (1967).

Arinç, Bülent (b. May 25, 1948, Bursa, Turkey), a deputy prime minister of Turkey (2009-15). He was also speaker of the Grand National Assembly (2002-07).

Arion, Constantin C. (b. Sept. 25, 1856, Bucharest, Walachia [now in Romania] - d. June 27, 1923, Bucharest), foreign minister of Romania (1918). He was also minister of religion and public instruction (1900-01, 1910-12), interior (1912), and agriculture and domains (1913-14).

Aripov, Abdulla (Nigmatovich) (b. May 24, 1961, Tashkent, Uzbek S.S.R.), prime minister of Uzbekistan (2016- ). He was also deputy prime minister (2002-12, 2016).

Arismendi (Arismendi), José Loreto (b. April 10, 1898, Caracas, Venezuela - d. Dec. 20, 1979, Caracas), foreign minister of Venezuela (1956-58). He was also minister of education (1953-56).

Arista (Arbildo), José (Berley) (b. Aug. 18, 1959, Huambo, Amazonas, Peru), economy and finance minister of Peru (2020, 2024- ). He was also president of Amazonas region (2011-14) and minister of agriculture and irrigation (2018).

Aristarchis, Miltiadis (Stavrakiou), Turkish Aristarki Bey (b. 1809 - d. 1893), governor of Samos (1859-66).

Aristide, Jean-Bertrand (b. July 15, 1953, Port-Salut, southern Haiti), president of Haiti (1991, 1994-96, 2001-04). In the late 1970s, a time of increasing militancy against the brutal regime of Jean-Claude Duvalier, Aristide urged change and often found himself at odds with his superiors in the Roman Catholic Church. In 1986, the year Duvalier was driven from power, Aristide survived the first of many assassination attempts. In 1990, when a notorious Duvalierist announced his candidacy for president, progressive-centre forces united to urge Aristide to run for the office. He was elected in Haiti's first free democratic election on Dec. 16, 1990, with an overwhelming 67% of the vote. Aristide's campaign motto, "Lavalas" (Creole for "flood"), became the name for a diverse coalition of parties that symbolized hope for the Haitian people (80% of whom earned less than $150 a year). In his seven months as president in 1991, Aristide proposed raising the minimum wage, initiated a literacy campaign, dismantled the repressive system of rural section chiefs, and oversaw a drastic reduction in human rights violations. A coup on Sept. 30, 1991, led by the military and financed by members of Haiti's small elite, declared that such reforms would not be tolerated. After three years of exile, a U.S. invasion allowed him to return and resume his presidency on Oct. 15, 1994. The economy was in shambles, infrastructure almost nonexistent, and more than 4,000 people had been killed. Barred constitutionally from immediate reelection, he stepped down in 1996. The old Lavalas coalition fractured, and in November 1996 he launched a new political party, Fanmi Lavalas (Lavalas Family). In 2000 he was again elected president, although there were charges of fraud. A major rebellion in 2004 forced him to resign and go into exile again (Central African Republic, Jamaica, South Africa). He returned to Haiti on March 18, 2011.

Aristov, Averky (Borisovich) (b. Nov. 4 [Oct. 22, O.S.], 1903, Krasny Yar, Astrakhan province, Russia - d. July 11, 1973, Vienna, Austria), Soviet politician. He was first secretary of the party committees of Krasnoyarsk city and kray (1944-50), Chelyabinsk oblast (1950-52), and Khabarovsk kray (1954-55), chairman of the Executive Committee of Khabarovsk kray (1953-54), and ambassador to Poland (1961-71) and Austria (1971-73).

Aristov, Boris (Ivanovich) (b. Sept. 13, 1925, Kostroma, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Nov. 26, 2018), Soviet politician. He was first secretary of the party committee of Leningrad city (1971-78), ambassador to Poland (1978-83) and Finland (1988-92), and minister of external trade (1985-88).

Arita, Hachiro (b. September 1884, Sado island, Niigata prefecture, Japan - d. March 4, 1965, Tokyo, Japan), foreign minister of Japan (1936-37, 1938-39, 1940). He was also minister to Austria (1930-32) and ambassador to Belgium (1934-36) and China (1936).

Arita, Kiichi (b. April 30, 1901, Hikami [now part of Tamba], Hyogo prefecture, Japan - d. Feb. 9, 1986), Japanese politician. He was minister of education (1966) and director-general of the Science and Technology Agency (1966), the Defense Agency (1968-70), and the Economic Planning Agency (1972).

Ariyoshi, George R(yoichi) (b. March 12, 1926, Honolulu, Hawaii), governor of Hawaii (1974-86). He was the first Asian-American to be elected governor of a U.S. state.

Ariza (Matos), Juan (Esteban) (b. Nov. 24, 1820, Santo Domingo, Santo Domingo [now Dominican Republic] - d. April 27, 1882, La Vega, Dominican Republic), member of the Superior Governing Junta of the Dominican Republic (1876).

Arízaga Toral, Enrique (Nicolás Andrés) (b. Nov. 30, 1903, Cuenca, Ecuador - d. April 30, 1985), treasury minister of Ecuador (1945-47). He was also governor of Azuay (1945).

Arízaga Vega, Rafael (Antonio) (b. Nov. 7, 1920, Cuenca, Ecuador - d. December 2008, Guayaquil, Ecuador), foreign minister of Ecuador (1955-56); nephew of Enrique Arízaga Toral. He was also ambassador to Chile (1953-55), Peru (1956-57), and Mexico (1970-72).

Arkan, byname of Zeljko Raznatovic (b. April 17, 1952, Brezice, Slovenia - d. Jan. 15, 2000, Belgrade, Serbia), Serb paramilitary leader. A notorious paramilitary who struck fear into hearts across the Balkans, he was also a convicted bank robber and a former politician believed to have once had close ties to Slobodan Milosevic's ruling circle. He was the founder and president (1993-2000) of the Party of Serbian Unity. He was indicted in 1997 by the Hague-based International Criminal Tribunal for former Yugoslavia for crimes against humanity, including alleged atrocities in Croatia in 1991 and in the 1992-95 Bosnian war. He denied the charges. He was also wanted by the international police body Interpol for a series of bank robberies across western Europe. He was slain by assassins in a Belgrade hotel lobby who fired at least 38 bullets at close range.

Arkhipov, Ivan (Vasilyevich) (b. May 1 [April 18, O.S.], 1907, Kaluga, Russia - d. Feb. 28, 1998, Moscow, Russia), Soviet politician. He was first secretary of the party committee of Krivoy Rog city (1938), a deputy premier (1974-80), and a first deputy premier (1980-86).

Arkhipov, Nikolay (Vasilyevich) (b. 1894, Rugozero, Olonets province [now in Karelia republic], Russia - d. [executed] Jan. 14, 1938, Petrozavodsk, Karelian A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Karelian A.S.S.R. (1935-37). He was also people's commissar of interior (1923-24) and agriculture (1924-29).

Arkhipov, Vasily (Mikhailovich) (b. March 26, 1908, Omsk, Russia - d. Aug. 14, 1943, near Smolensk, Russian S.F.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Mari A.S.S.R. (1938-39).

Arkhurst, Frederick S(iegfried) (b. Oct. 13, 1920, Sekondi, Gold Coast [now in Ghana]), Ghanaian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1965-67).

Arkley, David B(allantine) (b. Oct. 10, 1966), acting governor of Bermuda (2012). He was deputy governor in 2009-13.

Arlekar, Rajendra (Vishwanath) (b. April 23, 1954, Panaji, Goa, Portuguese India [now in India]), governor of Himachal Pradesh (2021-23) and Bihar (2023- ).

Arlooktoo, Goo (Mosa) (b. Nov. 28, 1963, Lake Harbour, Baffin island, N.W.T. - d. April 30, 2002, Iqaluit, Nunavut), acting premier of the Northwest Territories (1998). He won the seat of Baffin South in the Northwest Territories legislature in October 1995. He served as justice minister and deputy premier in 1995-99 and acted briefly as premier when Don Morin resigned in the midst of a conflict-of-interest scandal. In 1999 he sought a spot in the legislature of the new territory of Nunavut, but failed to win a seat in his home riding in the first Nunavut election.

Arlotta, Enrico (b. Sept. 11, 1851, Portici, Two Sicilies [now in Italy] - d. Nov. 14, 1933, Naples, Italy), finance minister of Italy (1909-10). He was also minister without portfolio (1916, 1917) and minister of maritime and rail transport (1916-17).

Armacost, Michael H(ayden) (b. April 15, 1937, Cleveland, Ohio), acting U.S. secretary of state (1989). He was also ambassador to the Philippines (1982-84) and Japan (1989-93) and president of the Brookings Institution (1995-2002).

Armah, Kwesi (b. Sept. 21, 1929, Gold Coast [now Ghana] - d. Nov. 24, 2006), Ghanaian politician. He was high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1961-65) and minister of trade (1965-66).

Armanini (Mingo), Carlos (Conrado Segundo) (b. Nov. 5, 1918, Tilcara, Jujuy, Argentina - d. July 29, 2015, Buenos Aires, Argentina), federal interventor in Mendoza (1962). He was also commander-in-chief of the Argentine air force (1962-66).

Armansperg, Joseph Ludwig Graf von (b. Feb. 28, 1787, Kötzting [now Bad Kötzting], Bavaria [Germany] - d. April 3, 1853, Munich, Bavaria), interior minister (1826-28), finance minister (1826-31), and foreign minister (1828-31) of Bavaria and chairman of the Council of Regency (1833-35) and chief secretary and president of the Ministerial Council (1835-37) of Greece.

Armas, José de, foreign and interior minister of Peru (1829).

Armasu, Octavian (b. July 29, 1969, Kishinev, Moldavian S.S.R. [now Chisinau, Moldova]), finance minister of Moldova (2016-18). He has also been governor of the National Bank (2018- ).

Armendáriz (Demaría), Alejandro (b. June 5, 1923, Saladillo, Buenos Aires province, Argentina - d. Aug. 7, 2005, Saladillo), governor of Buenos Aires (1983-87).

Armengol (Socias), Francina, byname of Francesca Lluch Armengol Socias (b. Aug. 11, 1971, Inca, Mallorca, Spain), president of the Council of Mallorca (2007-11) and president of the government of Baleares (2015-23). In 2023 she became president of the Congress of Deputies of Spain.

Armfelt, Alexander greve (b. April 18, 1794, Riga, Russia [now in Latvia] - d. Jan. 8, 1876, St. Petersburg, Russia), Russian secretary of state for Finland (1841-76); son of Gustaf Mauritz greve Armfelt; brother of Gustaf Magnus greve Armfelt.

Armfelt, Carl Gustaf friherre (b. July 14, 1724 - d. Jan. 5, 1792, Malmö, Sweden), governor of Nyland och Tavastehus (1787-88).

Armfelt, Gustaf Magnus greve (b. April 2, 1792, Stockholm, Sweden - d. July 8, 1856, Åminne, near Salo, Finland), governor of Vasa (1830-32) and Nyland (1832-47); son of Gustaf Mauritz greve Armfelt.

Armfelt, Gustaf Mauritz greve (b. April 1, 1757, Sankt Mårtens [now Marttila], Finland - d. Aug. 19, 1814, Tsarskoye Selo [now Pushkin, part of St. Petersburg], Russia), governor of Stockholm city (1792) and Russian acting governor-general of Finland (1812-13); son of Magnus Wilhelm friherre Armfelt. He was also Swedish minister to Sicily (1792-94) and Austria (1802-04). He was made a count (greve/kreivi) in the Finnish nobility in 1812.

Armfelt, Magnus Wilhelm friherre (b. July 25, 1725 - d. May 14, 1795, Åminne, near Salo, Finland), governor of Åbo och Björneborg (1781-90); brother of Carl Gustaf friherre Armfelt.

Armijos (Hidalgo), Ana Lucía (b. Oct. 13, 1949, Quito, Ecuador), interior minister (1998-99) and finance minister (1999) of Ecuador. She was also general manager of the Central Bank (1992-93), president of the Monetary Board (1993-96), and ambassador to Spain (1999-2000).

Armitage, Sir Cecil Hamilton (b. Oct. 8, 1869, Yorkshire, England - d. March 10, 1933), governor of Gambia (1921-27); knighted 1926. He was also chief commissioner of the Northern Territories of Gold Coast (1910-20).

Armitage, Sir Robert (Perceval) (b. Dec. 21, 1906, Madras [now Chennai], India - d. June 7, 1990, Amesbury, Wiltshire, England), governor of Cyprus (1954-55) and Nyasaland (1956-61); knighted 1954.

Armò, Giacomo (b. Sept. 29, 1830, Palermo, Two Sicilies [now in Sicilia, Italy] - d. June 9, 1909, Palermo), justice minister of Italy (1893).

Armour, Jenner (Bourne Maude) (b. Nov. 15, 1932, Portsmouth, Dominica - d. July 25, 2001), acting president of Dominica (1979-80). He was also attorney general (1990-95).

Armouti, Muhammad Nazzal al- (b. July 16, 1924, Amman, Transjordan [now Jordan] - d. Aug. 19, 2015), interior minister of Jordan (1964-65). He was also ambassador to Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia (1965-67) and Kuwait (1967-71).

Armstrong, Arthur Leopold (b. 1888, England - d. Nov. 11, 1973, New Zealand), British consul in Tonga (1937-43).

Armstrong, John, Jr. (b. Nov. 25, 1758, Carlisle, Pennsylvania - d. April 1, 1843, Red Hook, N.Y.), U.S. secretary of war (1813-14). He was also minister to France (1804-10).

Armstrong, Samuel T(urell) (b. April 29, 1784, Dorchester, Mass. - d. March 26, 1850, Boston, Mass.), acting governor of Massachusetts (1835-36). He was also mayor of Boston (1836).

Arn, Edward F(erdinand) (b. May 19, 1906, Kansas City, Kan. - d. Jan. 22, 1998, Wichita, Kan.), governor of Kansas (1951-55). He volunteered for the Navy in 1943, and served two years aboard an aircraft carrier that saw action at Iwo Jima. He was elected attorney general of Kansas in 1946 and reelected in 1948, but he then resigned to accept appointment to the state Supreme Court. He sat on the bench just a little more than a year before resigning to run for the Republican nomination for governor in 1950. Following his two terms as governor, he left politics, except for a Senate race in 1962, where he lost to Sen. James B. Pearson in the Republican primary. He later served as chairman of a commission that recommended unification of the state courts under the Supreme Court's administration. Voters approved a constitutional amendment in 1972.

Árnadóttir, Ragna (b. Aug. 30, 1966, Reykjavík, Iceland), justice minister of Iceland (2009-10). She was also minister of church affairs (2009) and human rights (2009-10).

Arnalds, Ragnar (b. July 8, 1938, Reykjavík, Iceland - d. Sept. 15, 2022), finance minister of Iceland (1980-83). He was also minister of education and transport (1978-79).

Arnall, Ellis (Gibbs) (b. March 20, 1907, Newman, Ga. - d. Dec. 13, 1992, Atlanta, Ga.), governor of Georgia (1943-47).

Árnason, Einar (b. Nov. 27, 1875, Hamrar, Iceland - d. Nov. 14, 1947), finance minister of Iceland (1929-31).

Árnason, Tómas (b. July 21, 1923, Hánefsstadir, Iceland - d. Dec. 24, 2014, Reykjavík, Iceland), finance minister of Iceland (1978-79). He was also minister of commerce (1980-83) and joint governor of the Central Bank (1985-93).

Arnaud, Georges Victor Maurice (b. Jan. 27, 1919 - d. Dec. 16, 1971), administrator-superior of the Comoros (1956-59).

Arnaud, Robert, known as a writer under the name Robert Randau (b. Feb. 16, 1873, Mustapha, Algiers, Algeria - d. Aug. 4, 1950, Algiers), acting lieutenant governor of Upper Volta (1927-28).

Arnaudo, Bernabé (José Ángel) (b. 1930), governor of La Rioja (1991-95).

Arneberg, Ulrik Frederik Christian (b. June 15, 1829, Vanse, Lister og Mandal amt [now in Agder fylke], Norway - d. Oct. 30, 1911, Moss, Smaalenenes amt [now Østfold fylke], Norway), governor of Bratsberg amt (1881-89) and Smaalenenes amt (1891-1905) and justice minister of Norway (1890-91).

Arnell, Lars (b. Jan. 13, 1781, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Sept. 6, 1856, Åbo [now Turku], Finland), governor of Jämtland (1817-18) and Halland (1818-23).

Arnett, Edward John (b. 1876, London, England - d. May 10, 1940), senior resident of British Cameroons (1925-26, 1929-31).

Arney, Sir George Alfred (b. 1810, Salisbury, England - d. April 7, 1883, Torquay, England), acting governor of New Zealand (1873); knighted 1862. He was chief justice (1858-75).

Arnez Camacho, (José) Antonio (d. January 2019), defense minister (1980) and interior and justice minister (1980) of Bolivia. He was also minister of aviation (1984-85).

Arnholm, Maria (Elisabet Wallgren) (b. March 16, 1958, Partille, Göteborg och Bohus [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden), governor of Kronoberg (2020- ).

Arnim(-Suckow), Harry Graf von (b. Oct. 3, 1824, Moitzelfitz, Prussia [now Myslowice, Poland] - d. May 19, 1881, Nice, France), German diplomat; nephew of Heinrich Alexander Freiherr von Arnim. He was minister (1871-72) and ambassador (1872-74) to France. He was made Graf (count) in 1870.

Arnim(-Suckow), Heinrich Alexander Freiherr von (b. Feb. 13, 1798, Berlin, Prussia [Germany] - d. Jan. 5, 1861, Düsseldorf, Prussia [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany]), foreign minister of Prussia (1848). He was also chargé d'affaires in the Two Sicilies (1827-28) and Hesse-Darmstadt (1829-34) and minister to Belgium (1840-46) and France (1846-48). He was made Freiherr (baron) in 1841.

Arnim-Boitzenburg, (Dietlof Friedrich) Adolf Graf von (b. Dec. 12, 1832, Boitzenburg, Prussia [now part of Boitzenburger Land, Brandenburg, Germany] - d. Dec. 15, 1887, Berlin, Germany), president of the Reichstag of Germany (1880-81); son of Adolf Heinrich Graf von Arnim-Boitzenburg.

Arnim-Boitzenburg, Adolf Heinrich Graf von (b. April 10, 1803, Berlin, Prussia [Germany] - d. Jan. 8, 1868, Boitzenburg, Prussia [now part of Boitzenburger Land, Brandenburg, Germany]), Oberpräsident of Posen (1840-42) and interior minister (1842-45), prime minister (1848), and foreign minister (1848) of Prussia; cousin of Heinrich Alexander Freiherr von Arnim.

Arnim-Heinrichsdorff, Heinrich Friedrich Graf von (b. Sept. 23, 1791, Berlin, Prussia [Germany] - d. April 28, 1859, Berlin), foreign minister of Prussia (1849). He was also minister to Belgium (1831-41), France (1841-45), and Austria (1845-48, 1851-58). He was made Graf (count) in 1841.


J. Arnold
Arnison, Peter (Maurice) (b. 1940, Lismore, New South Wales, Australia), governor of Queensland (1997-2003).

Arnold(-Arnold), Anton (b. Aug. 12, 1921 - d. March 12, 2011), Landammann of Uri (1976-78).

Arnold, Benedict (b. Dec. 31 [Dec. 21, O.S.], 1615, Ilchester, Somerset, England - d. June 29 [June 19, O.S.], 1678, Newport, Rhode Island), president of Providence Plantations (1657-60, 1662-63) and governor of Rhode Island (1663-66, 1669-72, 1677-78). He was the great-great-grandfather of famous Revolutionary War general and traitor Benedict Arnold (1741-1801).

Arnold, Josef (b. Sept. 13, 1950), Landammann of Uri (2004-06).

K. Arnold

L. Arnold
Arnold, Karl (b. March 21, 1901, Herrlishöfen [now part of Warthausen], near Biberach, Württemberg [now in Baden-Württemberg], Germany - d. June 29, 1958, Düsseldorf, Nordrhein-Westfalen, West Germany), minister-president of Nordrhein-Westfalen (1947-56). He was president of the German Bundesrat in 1949-50 and as such acting head of state of West Germany before the election of the first president in 1949.

Arnold, Lemuel H(astings) (b. Jan. 29, 1792, St. Johnsbury, Vt. - d. June 27, 1852, Kingston, R.I.), governor of Rhode Island (1831-33).

Arnold, Lynn (Maurice Ferguson) (b. Jan. 27, 1949), premier of South Australia (1992-93).

Arnold, Wilberforce (John James) (b. April 22, 1867, Belfast, Ireland [now in Northern Ireland] - d. Jan. 29, 1925, Saint Helena), acting governor of Saint Helena (1911-12, 1924-25).

Arnold, Sir William (Henry) (b. Aug. 5, 1903 - d. July 21, 1973), bailiff of Guernsey (1959-73); knighted 1963.

Arnold-Forster, Hugh Oakeley (b. Aug. 19, 1855, Dawlish, Devon, England - d. March 12, 1909, London, England), British secretary of state for war (1903-05).

Arnórsson, Einar (b. Feb. 24, 1880, Minna-Mosfell, Iceland - d. March 29, 1955, Reykjavík, Iceland), minister of Iceland (1915-17). He was also rector of the University of Iceland (1918-19, 1929-30) and minister of justice and education (1942-44).

Arnous, Hussein (b. 1953, Idlib, Syria), prime minister of Syria (2020- ). He was also governor of Deir ez-Zor (2009-11) and Quneitra (2011) and minister of public works and housing (2013-18) and water resources (2018-20).

Arnth-Jensen, Niels Ejlert (b. Sept. 27, 1883, Gerlev, near Slagelse, Denmark - d. Feb. 26, 1966, Slagelse), interior minister of Denmark (1947).

Arntzen, Karelius August (b. Nov. 10, 1802, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. May 25, 1875, Christiania [now Oslo], Norway), governor of Søndre Trondhjems amt (1840-57) and Christiania stift (1857-74).

Arocha (Vargas), Arnaldo (Horacio) (b. Sept. 10, 1936, Charallave, Miranda, Venezuela - d. Feb. 8, 2022, Charallave), governor of Miranda (1971-74, 1989-95).

Aroi, (Nangindeit Temanimon) Kenas (b. April 17, 1942 - d. Jan. 22, 1991), finance minister (1978, 1979-86, 1986) and president (1989) of Nauru. He was also speaker of parliament (1971-76), minister of island development, industry, and civil aviation (1976-78, 1989) and justice (1978-79), and minister assisting the president (1978).

Aronshtam, Grigory (Naumovich) (b. 1893 - d. [executed] March 19, 1938), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Turkmen S.S.R. (1928-30). He was also executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of Votyak autonomous oblast (1924-26).

Aronson, J(ohn) Hugo (b. Sept. 1, 1891, Gällstad, Älvsborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden - d. Feb. 25, 1978, Columbia Falls, Mont.), governor of Montana (1953-61).

Aronsson, (Sune) Harald (b. Sept. 23, 1913, Asker, Örebro, Sweden - d. Sept. 24, 1981), governor of Örebro (1971-80).

Arosemena (Quinzada), Alcibíades (b. Nov. 20, 1883, Los Santos, Colombia [now in Panama] - d. April 8, 1958, Panama City), president of Panama (1951-52). He joined the army of Liberals when the civil war of 1900 began and served until 1903 when Panama won its independence. He was one of the founders with Arnulfo Arias Madrid of the National Revolutionary Party. He was serving as municipal treasurer of Panama City when Arias was removed as president in 1941. The organization then changed its name to the Authentic National Revolutionary Party (PRA). Arias ran for president on the PRA ticket in 1948 with Arosemena as his candidate for first vice president. At first another party was called the winner of the election, but the electoral jury, after a recount, on Nov. 24, 1949, declared the PRA slate to have been elected. Arosemena became finance minister in the cabinet, serving until March 1951, when he broke with Arias over financial policies. Arias then appointed him minister to Spain but Arosemena refused the appointment. On May 9, 1951, Arias was impeached, and when the impeachment was sustained on May 25, Arosemena was sworn in to complete Arias' unfilled term to Oct. 1, 1952. After completing the term he was appointed ambassador to France. He was married to the sister of Juan Demóstenes Arosemena.

Arosemena (Guillén), Florencio Harmodio (b. Sept. 17, 1872, Panama City - d. Aug. 30, 1945), president of Panama (1928-31). He did engineering work in various parts of Latin America and in Panama he built the Government Palace, the National Theatre, the City Hall, and other public buildings, and played a prominent part in railroad construction. In May 1928 he was nominated for president of Panama on the first ballot at the convention of the Liberal Party at Aguadulce, receiving the vote of 69 of the 70 delegates. Previously he had taken no part in politics other than membership in the Panama municipal council, although he had always been identified with the Liberal Party and had represented Panama at the Chicago Highway Congress of 1926. In the election of Aug. 5, 1928, he defeated Jorge E. Boyd, candidate of the Union Coalition party. He pursued a policy of reducing the expenses of the country, which met with approval in some quarters, but with opposition in others, particularly through his cutting down of government salaries. In November 1929 the salary cuts were restored, but the next year the government faced a deficit. He was active in the promotion of public works, especially highway construction. On Jan. 2, 1931, he was overthrown in a revolution which began at 2 AM with the killing of ten persons. Arosemena was surprised in his palace by a group of armed men and made prisoner with the members of his cabinet. He at first refused to resign, but later agreed to and was permitted to go with his family to a hotel in the Canal Zone. After the coup a manifesto was issued by 50 prominent citizens promising to give the country "a just election law." Promulgation of new election laws had been one of the matters under dispute during the Arosemena regime.

Arosemena (Barreati), Juan Demóstenes (b. June 24, 1879, Panama City - d. Dec. 16, 1939, Penonomé, Coclé province, Panama), president of Panama (1936-39); brother of Florencio Harmodio Arosemena. He served as governor of Colón and then as foreign minister for seven years. As foreign minister he headed the Panama delegation to the Pan-American Conference at Montevideo in 1933. He also was one of the leaders in a movement in Panama for a new treaty with the U.S. to replace the one of 1903 under which the Panama Canal had been started. In 1936 he was elected president as the coalition candidate of the National Revolutionary, National Liberal, and Conservative parties. In 1939 he won for Panama a position of "joint responsibility" with the U.S. in maintaining the safety of the Panama Canal when the U.S. finally ratified a new treaty (signed in 1936), which provided for consultation with the government of Panama before the U.S. could send troops into the country. Arosemena gave assurances that there would be no weakening of the defenses of the canal. In September 1939 he was host at a gathering of 21 ministers of American republics at Panama City to discuss the effects of the European war on the Western Hemisphere. After the adoption of the Declaration of Panama, Arosemena was selected to send formal notification to Britain, France, and Germany of the establishment of a neutral sea safety zone around the Americas. Arosemena set the keynote for the conference with a vigorous denunciation of totalitarianism in government and suggested "America for Humanity" as a motto of the gathering. He died in office.

Arosemena (de) Alba, Pablo (José del Rosario) (b. Sept. 24, 1836, Panama City, Colombia [now in Panama] - d. Aug. 19, 1920, Panama City), president of Panamá state (1875 and [acting] 1885) and first vice president and acting president of Panama (1910-12). He was also Colombian minister of finance (1878) and foreign affairs and interior (1878-79) and minister to Peru and Chile (1879-80).

Arosemena Arias, Carlos (Alberto) (b. June 14, 1928, Panama City, Panama - d. July 18, 2006), Panamanian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1992-94).

Arosemena Garland, Geraldo (Manuel) (b. Jan. 6, 1903, Lima, Peru - d. June 23, 1987, Lima), justice minister of Peru (1961-62).

O. Arosemena
Arosemena Gómez, Otto (b. July 19, 1925, Guayaquil, Ecuador - d. April 20, 1984, Salinas, Ecuador), president of Ecuador (1966-68); cousin of Carlos Julio Arosemena Monroy. His political career began when he was elected a deputy from Guayas province in 1954. By 1955 he was president of the Chamber of Deputies and in 1960 he was elected a senator. After a junta was forced out in March 1966, Arosemena organized his own party, the Coalition of Democratic Institutions. Like many of Ecuador's parties, his faction was a bit to the right of centre, yet in his pronouncements he often adopted a leftist posture. It was a tiny party, and in elections for the 79-member Constituent Assembly in the fall of 1966 it won only three seats. But the major centrist parties - the Conservatives and the Social Christians - found themselves three seats short of a combined majority. A deal was struck, and in return for his three seats Arosemena was elected interim president on Nov. 16, 1966, amid violent demonstrations, chiefly by left-wing students who had supported the Liberal candidate, university lecturer Raúl Clemente Huerta. As president, Arosemena criticized U.S. development aid as inadequate and demanded preferential treatment by the U.S. for Latin-American products. In October 1967, when U.S. Ambassador Wymberley Coerr criticized Ecuador's foreign policy in a speech, Arosemena declared Coerr persona non grata and gave him 48 hours to leave the country. A fiery politician, he served three months in prison for shooting a fellow lawmaker in the leg during a parliamentary debate, and returned to his seat after serving his sentence. His term was due to expire in August 1984 and he did not seek reelection.

Arosemena M.
Arosemena Monroy, Carlos Julio (b. Aug. 24, 1919, Guayaquil, Ecuador - d. March 5, 2004, Guayaquil), president of Ecuador (1961-63); son of Carlos Julio Arosemena Tola. He was chairman of the Chamber of Deputies in 1952 and defense minister in 1952-53. He became vice president in 1960 and acceded to the presidency upon the ouster of Pres. José María Velasco Ibarra. He continued an unpopular economic austerity program implemented by Velasco Ibarra and restored a favourable trade balance. Although he was criticized for his leftist leanings, real opposition to him arose from his immoderate drinking. After two unsuccessful attempts to impeach him, he was overthrown by a military junta and sent into exile in Panama. He later was a deputy in the National Constituent Assembly (1966-67) and in the National Chamber of Representatives (1979-84) and led the Nationalist Revolutionary Party. In 1981 he was arrested on charges of shooting and wounding two Conservative deputies during a heated debate in 1980; he was sentenced to 30 days' correctional detention.

Arosemena T.
Arosemena Tola, Carlos Julio (b. April 12, 1888, Guayaquil, Ecuador - d. Feb. 20, 1952, Guayaquil), president of Ecuador (1947-48). He was the first president of the executive committee of the Anti-Tuberculosis League of Ecuador and director of the Committee on Roads and Waterways. He took office as president to complete the term of Pres. José María Velasco Ibarra after the latter had been forced to resign in a bloodless revolt led by Col. Carlos Mancheno Cajas. He appointed an independent cabinet and held the fairest election in the history of Ecuador, resulting in the election of Pres. Galo Plaza Lasso.

Arouna, Idrissa (b. Nov. 9, 1926), interior minister (1974-75) and defense minister (1976-77) of Niger. He was also minister of public service and labour (1974-75) and education (1975-78) and ambassador to China (1978-82) and West Germany (1982-87).

Arouna, Mama (b. 1925, Parakou, Dahomey [now Benin] - d. Aug. 19, 1974), interior minister (1959-63, 1970-72), defense minister (1962-63), and security minister (1970-72) of Dahomey.

Arouna, Mounkeila (b. 1938, Niamey, Niger - d. Dec. 16, 2019, Paris, France), Nigerien politician. He was minister of mines (1976-81) and hydrology (1976-80), ambassador to France (1981-83) and the United Kingdom (1982-83), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1983-85).

Arpaillange, Pierre (b. March 13, 1924, Carlux, Dordogne, France - d. Jan. 11, 2017, Cannet, Alpes-Maritimes, France), justice minister of France (1988-90). He was also first president of the Court of Accounts (1990-93).

Arraes de Alencar, Miguel (b. Dec. 15, 1916, Araripe, Ceará, Brazil - d. Aug. 13, 2005, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil), governor of Pernambuco (1963-64, 1987-90, 1995-99). He was also mayor of Recife (1960-62) and was chairman of the Brazilian Socialist Party from 1993 to his death.

Arrate (Mac Niven), Jorge (Félix) (b. May 1, 1941, Santiago, Chile), Chilean presidential candidate (2009). He was also minister of mining (acting, 1972), education (1992-94), and labour and social security (1994-98) and ambassador to Argentina (2000-03).

Arrázola (Ahumada), Enrique J(osé) (b. Feb. 4, 1879, Calamar, Bolívar, Colombia - d. March 28, 1929, Bogotá, Colombia), interior minister of Colombia (1928-29). He was also governor of Bolívar (1926-28).

Arrazola García, Lorenzo (b. Aug. 10, 1797, Checa, Guadalajara province, Spain - d. Feb. 23, 1873, Madrid, Spain), prime minister of Spain (1864). He was also justice minister (1838-40, 1846, 1847-49, 1849-51, 1864-65, 1866-67) and foreign minister (1864, 1865, 1866, 1867-68).

J. Arreaza
Arreaza (Montserrat), Jorge (Alberto) (b. June 6, 1973, Caracas, Venezuela), executive vice-president (2013-16) and foreign minister (2017-21) of Venezuela; son-in-law of Hugo Chávez. He was also minister of science and technology (2011-13, 2016-17), higher education (2016-17), ecological mining development (2017), and industry and national production (2021), vice president for social development and revolution of the missions (2016-17), and executive secretary of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (2024- ).

Arreaza Arreaza, Aurelio (b. July 11, 1904, Aragua de Barcelona, Anzoátegui, Venezuela - d. Aug. 3, 1978, Caracas, Venezuela), finance minister of Venezuela (1948-53). He was also president of the Central Bank (1953-58).

Arreaza Arreaza, Francisco, byname Frank Arreaza (b. March 13, 1935, Aragua de Barcelona, Anzoátegui, Venezuela), governor of Anzoátegui (1972-74).

Arredondo (Garza), Eliseo (b. May 4, 1870, Villa Nava, Coahuila, Mexico - d. Oct. 18, 1923, Mexico City, Mexico), interior minister of Mexico (1914). He was also ambassador-designate to the United States (1915-16) and minister to Spain (1917-20).

Arredondo (Mendoza), Francisco (Alfredo) (b. Dec. 5, 1949, Guatemala City, Guatemala), Guatemalan politician. He was a minor presidential candidate (2003, 2023) and minister of public health and social assistance (2012).

Arrese (y Lardízabal), Joaquín (José) de (b. 1782, Idiazábal, Guipúzcoa, Spain - d. 18...), finance minister of Peru (1832-33, 1835).

Arria (Salicetti), Diego (Enrique) (b. Oct. 8, 1938), Venezuelan politician. He was governor of the Distrito Federal (1974-77), minister of information and tourism (1977-78), a minor presidential candidate (1978), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1991-93).

Arriaga, Alejandro Alfaro (b. July 17, 1907, Naranjito, Santa Bárbara, Honduras - d. Nov. 7, 1976, Tegucigalpa, Honduras), acting foreign minister of Honduras (1956-57).

Arriaga Rivera, Agustín (b. Aug. 20, 1925, Morelia, Mexico - d. June 18, 2006, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Michoacán (1962-68).

Arriagada Saldías, Enrique (b. Feb. 1, 1904, Temuco, Chile - d. ...), justice minister of Chile (1945-46). He was also minister of lands and colonization (1942-43).

Arrieta (Ondarza), Lorenzo (b. 1840?, Lima, Peru - d. Oct. 23, 1907, Lima), interior minister of Peru (1896-97).

Arrieta Rossi, Reyes (b. April 5, 1872, San Salvador, El Salvador - d. 19...), foreign minister of El Salvador (1923-27, 1931, 1944-45). He was also minister to Costa Rica (1909-10) and Honduras (1921) and treasury minister (1922).

Arrighi, Pedro José (b. June 30, 1915, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. 1986), acting foreign minister of Argentina (1976). He was also minister of education (1975-76).

Arrindell, Sir Clement (Athelston) (b. April 19, 1931, Basseterre, Saint Kitts - d. March 27, 2011), governor (1981-83) and governor-general (1983-95) of Saint Kitts and Nevis; knighted 1982.

Arriola (Ramírez), Julio (César) (b. July 20, 1965), foreign minister of Paraguay (2022-23). He was also chargé d'affaires in Costa Rica (2005-09), ambassador to Canada (2015-17), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2017-22).

Arrocha Ruíz, Melitón Alejandro (b. Sept. 15, 1968, Panama), Panamanian politician. He was minister of trade and industry (2014-15) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2018-19).

Arron, Henck (Alphonsus Eugène) (b. April 25, 1936, Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana [now Suriname] - d. Dec. 4, 2000, Alphen aan den Rijn, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands), prime minister (1973-80), finance minister (1973-77), foreign minister (1975-80), and vice president (1988-90) of Suriname. He was elected to the Staten (Suriname legislature) in 1963 as a member of the Suriname National Party, and he became the party's chairman in 1970. Arron formed the National Party Alliance, a coalition of parties that were composed mainly of Creoles (Surinamese of African descent) and that favoured independence from the Netherlands. Arron's coalition won the elections of 1973, and he became prime minister. Arron led independence talks and shocked some in this South American country in 1974 when he predicted Suriname would gain independence within a year - and it did. Suriname was underdeveloped, and its people divided along racial lines; thousands of them fled the country in the months before independence, fearful of racial violence under the new regime. Arron was reelected in 1977, but his efforts to stem economic decline were unsuccessful, and a high unemployment rate was a major cause of his ouster in February 1980, when a coup was staged by discontented junior army officers. Elections in 1987 ended military rule, and under a new constitution Arron became vice president and chairman of the Council of Ministers in 1988, only to have his government again deposed in 1990. A year later, a coalition including his party won elections, but by that time Arron's health was deteriorating and he retired from politics, though remaining party chairman until 1993. Just one week before his death, he was given Suriname's highest honour at a ceremony celebrating the 25th anniversary of independence.

Arrowsmith, Sir Edwin (Porter) (b. May 23, 1909 - d. July 10, 1992), commissioner of the Turks and Caicos Islands (1940-46), administrator of Dominica (1946-52), resident commissioner of Basutoland (1952-56), and governor of the Falkland Islands (1957-64); knighted 1959.

Arroyo-Bernas, Evangelina Lourdes, née Arroyo, byname Luli Arroyo-Bernas (b. June 5, 1971), Philippine diplomat; daughter of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. She has been ambassador to Austria (2023- ).

Arroyo Díez, Miguel (b. July 9, 1871, Pasto, Colombia - d. Sept. 13, 1935, Paris, France), finance minister (1921-22) and acting foreign minister (1921) of Colombia. He was also governor of Cauca (1914-16), minister to Ecuador (1916-18), president of the Senate (1920), and minister of education (1923-24).

Arroyo Torres, Ledo (b. Feb. 4, 1894, Colonia, Uruguay - d. June 18, 1975, Montevideo, Uruguay), finance minister (1947-49, 1956-57) and defense minister (1952-54) of Uruguay. He was also president of the Senate (1955-59).

Arruda, Djacir Cavalcânti de (b. June 27, 1929, Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil), governor of Rio Branco (1961).

Arruda, João Ponce de (b. July 27, 1904, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil - d. May 17, 1979, Cuiabá), governor of Mato Grosso (1956-61). He was also mayor of Cuiabá (1933-34).

Arruda, José Roberto (b. Jan. 5, 1954, Itajubá, Minas Gerais, Brazil), governor of Distrito Federal (2007-10).

Arsa Sarasin (b. May 26, 1936, Bangkok, Siam [now Thailand]), foreign minister of Thailand (1991-92, 1992); son of Pote Sarasin. He was ambassador to Belgium (1977-80) and the United States (1986-88).

Arsache, Apostol (b. 1789, Hotahova, Ottoman Empire [now Hotovë, Albania] - d. December 1869, Bucharest, Romania), foreign minister (1862) and acting prime minister and acting interior minister (1862) of Romania.

Arsala, Hedayat Amin (b. Jan. 12, 1942, Kabul, Afghanistan), foreign minister (1993-94), finance minister and vice chairman of the Interim Administration (2001-02), and vice president (2002-04) of Afghanistan. He was also finance minister in the rebel government of 1989-91, and commerce minister in 2004-06.

Arsanukayev, Daud (Gaziyevich) (b. 1890, Eztkhey, Terek oblast, Russia - d. 19...), chairman of the Executive Committee of the Chechen autonomous oblast (1926-30).

Arsebük, Ali Haydar, until Jan. 1, 1935, Ali Haydar Efendi (b. 1852, Batum, Ottoman Empire [now Batumi, Georgia] - d. Sept. 14, 1935, Istanbul, Turkey), justice minister of the Ottoman Empire (1918-19).


Arsenis, Gerasimos (Dionisiou) (b. May 30, 1931, Argostoli, Cephalonia island, Greece - d. April 19, 2016, Athens, Greece), economy minister (1982-85), finance minister (1984-85), defense minister (1993-96), and education minister (1996-2000) of Greece. He was also governor of the Bank of Greece (1981-84).

Arsenishvili, Giorgi (Longinozis dze), byname Gia Arsenishvili (b. Jan. 5, 1942, Khirsa village, Sighnakhi region, eastern Georgia - d. Nov. 17, 2010), minister of state of Georgia (2000-01). He was also governor of Kakheti region (1995-2000) and ambassador to Austria (2001-04).

Arseniy I, secular name Aleksey (Vasilyevich) Mogilyansky (b. March 28 [March 17, O.S.], 1704, Reshetilovka, Poltava province, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. June 19 [June 8, O.S.], 1770, Kiev, Russia [now in Ukraine]), metropolitan of Kiev (1757-70). He was also archbishop of Pereyaslavl (1744-52).

Arseniy II, secular name Fyodor (Pavlovich) Moskvin (b. 1797, Voronye village, Kostroma province, Russia - d. May 10 [April 28, O.S.], 1876, St. Petersburg, Russia), metropolitan of Kiev (1860-76). He was also bishop of Tambov (1832-41) and archbishop of Podolia (1841-48) and Warsaw (1848-60).

Arsenyev, Nikolay (Ivanovich) (b. Nov. 14 [Nov. 3, O.S.], 1760, Moscow, Russia - d. Feb. 14 [Feb. 2, O.S.], 1830), governor of Courland (1800-08).

Arsenyev, Sergey (Vasilyevich) (b. April 1, 1854 - d. Aug. 29, 1922, Moscow, Russia), Russian diplomat; grandson of Knyaz Yury Dolgoruky. He was minister-resident to Oldenburg, Hamburg, and Lübeck (1900-10) and minister to Montenegro (1910-12) and Norway (1912-14).

Arshba, Daur (Dzhumkovich) (b. March 28, 1962, Tkuarchal [Tkvarcheli], Abkhaz A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R.), acting prime minister of Abkhazia (2018). He was head of the administration of the president (2016-18) and first deputy prime minister (2018-20).

Arshba, Garry (Anatolyevich) (b. June 19, 1969, Tkuarchal [Tkvarcheli], Abkhaz A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R.), interior minister of Abkhazia (2017-19).

Arshenevsky, Ilya (Yakovlevich) (b. 1755, Smolensk province, Russia - d. 1820), Russian official; son of Yakov Arshenevsky; brother of Nikolay Arshenevsky and Pyotr Arshenevsky. He was president of the Collegium of Manufacturing (1800-01).

Arshenevsky, Nikolay (Yakovlevich) (b. 1743 - d. 1802), governor of Smolensk (1786-90) and Astrakhan (1797-98); son of Yakov Arshenevsky.

Arshenevsky, Pyotr (Yakovlevich) (b. Dec. 2 [Nov. 21, O.S.], 1748, Riga, Russia [now in Latvia] - d. Oct. 19 [Oct. 7, O.S.], 1811, Popovo, Smolensk province, Russia), governor of Irkutsk (1798) and Moscow (1798-1803); son of Yakov Arshenevsky; brother of Nikolay Arshenevsky.

Arshenevsky, Yakov (Stepanovich) (d. 1771, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia), governor of Riga (1761-62) and Nizhny Novgorod (1764-70).

Arsic, Vesna (b. Feb. 7, 1955, Gnjilane, Kosovo, Serbia), acting finance minister of Serbia (2006).

Arslan, (Emir) Majid (b. 1904 - d. Sept. 18, 1983, Beirut, Lebanon), defense minister of Lebanon (1943-45, 1946-51, 1952, 1954-56, 1957-58, 1960-61, 1961-64, 1968, 1969-70, 1972-73). He was also minister of agriculture (1937-38, 1943-45, 1948-49, 1956-57, 1958, 1975-76), health (1943-45, 1946, 1948, 1952, 1956-57, 1974-75, 1975-76), posts (1946-48, 1957-58), and justice (1968). His family represented the right wing of the country's Druze community in opposition to the dominant leftist Jumblatt clan.

Arslan, (Emir) Talal (Majid) (b. June 12, 1963, Choueifat, Lebanon), Lebanese politician; son of Majid Arslan. He has been minister of tourism (1990-92), expatriates (1996-98), displaced persons (2004-05, 2016-19), and youth and sports (2008-09) and minister of state (2000-04, 2011).

Arslanián, León (Carlos) (b. 1941), justice minister of Argentina (1991-92).

Årstad, Søren Tobias (b. June 2, 1861, Stavanger, Norway - d. Jan. 11, 1928), finance minister of Norway (1900-01). He was also mayor of Stavanger (1891-92) and minister of justice and police (1902-03).

Arsyad, Rosihan (b. July 29, 1949, Bengkulu, Indonesia), governor of Sumatera Selatan (1998-2003).

Artacho, Isabelo (b. Nov. 19, 1859, Vigan, Ilocos Sur, Philippines - d. April 13, 1909, Manila, Philippines), interior secretary of the Philippine Republic (1897). He was also governor of Pangasinan (1906-08).

Artalejo Campos, Adolfo (b. May 20, 1905, Madrid, Spain - d. Nov. 26, 1965, Madrid), governor-general of Ifni (1963-65) and Spanish Sahara (1965).

Artamonov, Anatoly (Dmitriyevich) (b. May 5, 1952), governor of Kaluga oblast (2000-20).

I. Artamonov
Artamonov, Igor (Georgiyevich) (b. March 14, 1967, Budyonnovsk, Stavropol kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), head of the administration of Lipetsk oblast (2018- ).

Artano, Stéphane (b. March 9, 1973), president of the General Council (2006-07) and Territorial Council (2007-17) of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.

Arteaga García, Luis (b. 1871, Santiago, Chile - d. April 23, 1940, Santiago, Chile), foreign minister of Chile (1938). He was also governor of Arica (1906-20).

Arteaga Ramírez, Luis (b. 1826 - d. Nov. 19, 1896, Santiago, Chile), war and marine minister of Chile (1892).

Arteaga Serrano (de Fernández de Córdova), (Lupe) Rosalía (b. Dec. 5, 1956, Cuenca, Azuay province, Ecuador), Ecuadorian politician. She was education minister in 1994. In 1996 she became vice president under Pres. Abdalá Bucaram. When Bucaram was deposed by Congress in 1997, she was briefly acting president. A member of the centre-left Authentic Independent Republic Movement, she was a fierce critic of Interim Pres. Fabián Alarcón, and she resigned as vice president in March 1998 to run for president. She won 5% of the vote. In 2004-07 she was secretary-general of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization.

Artem, Fedor (Andriyovych), pseudonym of Fedor (Andriyovych) Serheyev, Russian Fyodor (Andreyevich) Sergeyev/Artyom (b. March 19 [March 7, O.S.], 1883, Glebovo, Kursk province, Russia - d. [train crash] July 24, 1921), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Donets Kryvyi Rih Soviet Republic (1918). He was also people's secretary of commerce and industry of the Ukrainian People's Republic (1917-18), people's commissar of Soviet propaganda and deputy premier of the Ukrainian S.S.R. (1919-20), chairman of the Executive Committee of Donetsk province (1920), and executive secretary of the party committee of Moscow province (1920).

Arthit Ourairat, also spelled Urairat (b. May 9, 1938), foreign minister of Thailand (1990-91). He was also speaker of the House of Representatives (1992) and minister of public health (1993-95) and science, technology, and environment (1999-2001).

Arthuis, Jean (b. Oct. 7, 1944, Saint-Martin-du-Bois, Maine-et-Loire, France), economy and finance minister of France (1995-97). He was also minister of economic development and plan (1995).

Arthur, Sir Basil (Malcolm), (5th) Baronet (b. Sept. 18, 1928, Timaru, N.Z. - d. May 1, 1985, Wellington, N.Z.), New Zealand politician. He was minister of transport (1972-75) and speaker of the House of Representatives (1984-85). He succeeded as baronet in 1949.

C.A. Arthur
Arthur, Chester A(lan) (b. Oct. 5, 1829, North Fairfield, Vt. - d. Nov. 18, 1886, New York City), president of the United States (1881-85). He joined the Republican Party in the 1850s. As a delegate to the Republican National Convention of 1880, Arthur worked for the renomination of Ulysses S. Grant for a third term as president. With the triumph of James A. Garfield, Arthur was offered the vice presidency as a conciliatory gesture. His nomination was coldly received by the public, and the impression was widespread that he was too partisan. Acceding to the presidency on Sept. 19, 1881, on the assassination of Garfield, Arthur is said to have been deeply wounded by public apprehension over the prospect of an administration in the hands of so confirmed an adherent of the spoils system. He did replace six of the seven members of Garfield's cabinet with his own appointees, but his appointments were generally unexceptionable, and he displayed an unexpected independence by his veto (1882) of an $18,000,000 rivers and harbours bill that contained ample funds for projects that could be used for political patronage. He particularly confounded his critics and dismayed his friends by his support of the Pendleton Act (1883), which created a federal civil-service system (with appointments and promotions based on merit) applying to a limited number of specified offices. He and his secretary of the navy, William E. Chandler, recommended the appropriations that initiated the rebuilding of the U.S. Navy toward the strength it later achieved at the time of the war with Spain. In 1884 Arthur, who was secretly suffering from an incurable kidney ailment, allowed his name to be presented for the Republican presidential nomination but was defeated by James G. Blaine.

Arthur, Sir Geoffrey (George) (b. March 19, 1920 - d. May 15, 1984), political resident in the Persian Gulf (1970-71); knighted 1971. He was also British ambassador to Kuwait (1967-68).

Arthur, Harold J(ohn) (b. Feb. 9, 1904, Whitehall, N.Y. - d. July 19, 1971, Plattsburgh, N.Y.), governor of Vermont (1950-51).

Arthur, John Andrew (b. 1875, Fryerstown, Victoria [now in Australia] - d. Dec. 9, 1914), foreign minister of Australia (1914).

O. Arthur
Arthur, Owen (Seymour) (b. Oct. 17, 1949, Barbados - d. July 27, 2020, Bridgetown, Barbados), prime minister of Barbados (1994-2008). He worked for the Barbadian Ministry of Finance and Planning (1981-83, 1985-86) and was appointed to the Senate in 1983. In 1984 he was elected to the House of Assembly from St. Peter constituency. He succeeded Henry Forde as leader of the Barbados Labour Party (BLP) in 1993 and led it to a landslide victory in September 1994, at a time of economic difficulties. He won further elections in 1999 (amid a strong economy, the unemployment rate having been cut from 22% to 11%) and 2003. As prime minister he also held the portfolios of defense and security (1994-2003), finance (1994-2008), and civil service (2003-08). In 2005 he announced plans for replacing the queen with an elected president, but without following through. He was defeated by the Democratic Labour Party in 2008, when voters decided it was time for a change. He then handed over leadership of the BLP to Mia Mottley, but in 2010 he returned, after bitter infighting, to the helm, from where he led the party to a second straight loss in 2013. He stepped down again and in 2014 left the party entirely, remaining in parliament as an independent until 2018.

Arthur, Sir (Oswald) Raynor (b. Dec. 16, 1905, Poona [now Pune], India - d. [following riding accident] Dec. 4, 1973), governor of the Falkland Islands (1954-57) and the Bahamas (1957-60); knighted 1957.

Arthur (Frederick Patrick Albert) of Connaught, Prince (b. Jan. 13, 1883, Windsor, Berkshire, England - d. Sept. 12, 1938, London, England), governor-general of South Africa (1920-23); grandson of Victoria.

Artigas (Arnal), José Gervasio (b. June 19, 1764, Montevideo, Viceroyalty of Peru [now in Uruguay] - d. Sept. 23, 1850, Ibiray, near Asunción, Paraguay), Uruguayan leader. An army officer in the Spanish forces, in 1810 he offered his services to the Buenos Aires junta that was leading an independence movement against Spain; he became the most important local patriot leader in the wars of independence. After winning a brilliant victory at Las Piedras in 1811, by the end of 1812 he controlled most of Uruguay outside of Montevideo, which he besieged for a time. However, Portuguese forces were called in from Brazil by the Spaniards, and Artigas led a dramatic withdrawal of about 16,000 people from the region into Argentine territory. In June 1814 the Argentines wrested Montevideo from the Spanish, but by that time Artigas was resisting the centralizing pretensions of Buenos Aires, and the struggle became a civil war. For a time Artigas ruled over about 900,000 sq km of what is now Uruguay and central Argentina. His hold was finally broken by another Portuguese invasion in 1816, which he resisted for three years while Buenos Aires refused to support him. From 1820 he lived in exile in Paraguay; the independence of his native Uruguay was finally achieved in 1828, but he declined the invitation to return.

Artola (del Pozo), Armando (b. March 25, 1890, Recuay, Áncash, Peru - d. Oct. 13, 1963, Lima, Peru), justice and labour minister (1947-48, 1949) and war minister (1948) of Peru. He was also minister of labour and indigenous affairs (1949-54).

Artola Azcárate, Armando (Rómulo) (b. May 15, 1919, Moquegua, Peru - d. Sept. 8, 1990, Lima, Peru), interior minister of Peru (1968-71); son of Armando Artola.

Artsimovich, Mikhail (Viktorovich) (b. June 19 [June 7, O.S.], 1859, Kaluga, Russia - d. May 20, 1933, Runtort estate, near Ludza, Latvia), governor of Suwalki (1902-04), Piotrków (1904-05), Tula (1905-07), and Vitebsk (1911-15); son of Viktor Artsimovich; grandson of Mikhail Zhemchuzhnikov.

Artsimovich, Viktor (Antonovich) (b. May 1 [April 19, O.S.], 1820, Bialystok, Russia [now in Poland] - d. March 14 [March 2, O.S.], 1893, St. Petersburg, Russia), governor of Tobolsk (1854-58) and Kaluga (1858-62); son-in-law of Mikhail Zhemchuzhnikov.

Artucio Rodríguez, Alejandro (b. Aug. 22, 1934, Uruguay), Uruguayan diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2005-06).

Artukovic, Andrija (b. Nov. 29, 1899, Klobuk, Ottoman Empire [now in Bosnia and Herzegovina] - d. Jan. 16, 1988, Zagreb, Croatia), interior minister (1941-42, 1943) and justice and education minister (1942-43) of Croatia. After living in decades in the United States, he was extradited to Yugoslavia in 1986, convicted of war crimes, and sentenced to death; he won a stay of execution and died of illness in a prison hospital.

Artunkal, Ali Riza (b. 1881, Plovdiv, Bulgaria - d. Dec. 12, 1959, Istanbul, Turkey), defense minister of Turkey (1941-46). He was also general commander of gendarmerie (1940-41).

Artus, (Mustafa) Amil (b. 1911, Bursa, Ottoman Empire [now in Turkey] - d. June 8, 1989, Istanbul, Turkey), justice minister of Turkey (1960-61).

Artyakov, Vladimir (Vladimirovich) (b. July 30, 1959), governor of Samara oblast (2007-12).

Artykov, Murad (Redzhepovich), Turkmen Myrat (Rejepowiç) Artykow (b. 1971, Keshi, Turkmen S.S.R. [now in Akhal velayat, Turkmenistan]), a deputy prime minister of Turkmenistan (2014-15). He was also minister of industry and energy (2012) and energy (2012-14, 2019-20).

Artyukhov, Dmitry (Andreyevich) (b. Feb. 17, 1988), governor of Yamalo-Nenets autonomous okrug (2018- ).

Arumäe, Urmas (b. Jan. 1, 1957, Tootsi, Pärnu county, Estonian S.S.R.), justice minister of Estonia (1994).

Arundell, Sir Robert (Duncan Harris) (b. July 22, 1904, Lifton, Devon, England - d. March 24, 1989), governor of the Windward Islands (1948-53) and Barbados (1953-59); knighted 1950.

Arushanov, Pasha (Astsaturovich) (b. June 29, 1916, Baku, Russia [now in Azerbaijan] - d. 2004), chairman of the Executive Committee of Nagorno-Karabakh autonomous oblast (1953-54).

Arushanyan, Shmavon (Minasovich) (b. Jan. 2, 1903, Minkend, Yelizavetpol province, Russia [now in Azerbaijan] - d. January 1982, Yerevan, Armenian S.S.R.), chairman of the Council of Ministers (1949-50) and chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1954-63) of the Armenian S.S.R. He was also people's commissar of agriculture (1937-38), first secretary of the party committees of Leninakan city (1939-46) and Yerevan city (1953-54), and minister of automobile transport (1950-53) and automobile transport and highways (1953).

Arutangai, Selwyn, Vanuatu diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (2000-01).

Arutyunov, Grigory (Artemyevich) (b. Nov. 7 [Oct. 25, O.S.], 1900, Telavi, Tiflis province, Russia [now in Georgia] - d. Nov. 9, 1957, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Armenian S.S.R. (1937-53). He was also first secretary of the party committee of Tbilisi city (1934-37).

Araik Arutyunyan

Artur Arutyunyan

G. Arutyunyan
Arutyunyan, Araik (Vladimirovich), Armenian Arayik (Vladimiri) Harutyunyan (b. Dec. 14, 1973, Stepanakert, Nagorno-Karabakh autonomous oblast, Azerbaijan S.S.R.), prime minister (2007-17), minister of state (2017-18), and president (2020-23) of Nagorno-Karabakh/Artsakh.

Arutyunyan, Artur (Ivanovich), Armenian Artur (Ivani) Harutyunyan (b. Jan. 20, 1979, Stepanakert, Nagorno-Karabakh autonomous oblast, Azerbaijan S.S.R.), minister of state of Artsakh (2023- ).

Arutyunyan, Gagik (Garushevich), Armenian Gagik (Garushi) Harutyunyan (b. March 23, 1948, Gekhashen village, Kotayk region, Armenian S.S.R.), prime minister (1991-92) and vice president (1991-95) of Armenia. He was also chairman of the Constitutional Court (1996-2018).

K. Arutyunyan
Arutyunyan, Khosrov (Melikovich), Armenian Khosrov (Meliki) Harutyunyan (b. May 30, 1948, Yerevan, Armenian S.S.R.), prime minister of Armenia (1992-93). He was also chairman of the National Assembly (1998-99) and minister of territorial administration (1999-2000).

Arutyunyan, Nagush (Khachaturovich), Armenian Nagush (Khachaturi) Harutyunyan (b. Nov. 23, 1912 - d. Jan. 19, 1993), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Armenian S.S.R. (1963-75). He was also rector of Yerevan State University (1961-63).

Arutyunyan, Suren (Gurgenovich) (b. Sept. 5, 1939, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R. - d. March 1, 2019), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Armenian S.S.R. (1988-90). He was also Armenian ambassador to Belarus (1999-2006).

Arutyunyan, Vagarshak (Varnazovich), Armenian Vagharshak (Varnazi) Harutyunyan (b. April 28, 1956, Akhalkalaki, Georgian S.S.R.), defense minister of Armenia (1999-2000, 2020-21). He was also ambassador to Russia (2022-24).

Arvelo Torrealba, (Luis) Alberto (b. Sept. 4, 1905, Barinas, Barinas, Venezuela - d. March 28, 1971, Caracas, Venezuela), president of Barinas (1941-45). A popular poet, he was also Venezuelan ambassador to Bolivia (1951-52) and Italy (1953-55) and agriculture minister (1952-53).

Arveschoug, Nils Weyer (b. Jan. 2, 1807, Skouger [now Skoger, part of Drammen, Viken fylke], Norway - d. March 29, 1894, Molde, Romsdals amt [now Møre og Romsdal fylke], Norway), governor of Nordlands amt (1848-53) and Romsdals amt (1853-93).

Arvidsson, (Maj) Lillemor (b. May 1, 1943, Skara, Skaraborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden - d. April 23, 2012), governor of Gotland (1998-2004). She was also chairman of the Swedish Municipal Workers' Union (1988-95).

Arya, Satyadev Narayan (b. July 1, 1939, Gandhi Tola, near Rajgir, Patna district [now in Nalanda district], Bihar, India), governor of Haryana (2018-21) and Tripura (2021-23).

Aryal, Krishna Raj (b. December 1928, Kathmandu, Nepal), foreign minister of Nepal (1975-79). He was also minister of education (1973-75) and public works, transport, and tourism (1986) and ambassador to France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Israel (1980-84).

Aryn, Yerlan (Mukhtaruly) (b. Sept. 23, 1961, Alma-Ata, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Almaty, Kazakhstan]), head of Pavlodar oblast (2012-13).

Arystanbekova, Akmaral (Khaidarovna) (b. May 12, 1948, Alma-Ata, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Almaty, Kazakhstan]), foreign minister of the Kazakh S.S.R. (1989-91). She was also Kazakhstan's permanent representative to the United Nations (1992-99) and ambassador to Cuba (1996-99) and France (1999-2003).

Arze Murillo, José Antonio (b. 1924 - d. 2000), interior and justice minister of Bolivia (1962-64). He was also minister of peasant affairs (1964).

Arze Quiroga, Eduardo (b. Jan. 6, 1907, Cochabamba, Bolivia - d. Aug. 1, 1989, La Paz, Bolivia), foreign minister of Bolivia (1960-62). He was also chargé d'affaires at the Vatican (1941-42), permanent representative to the United Nations (1952-54), and ambassador to Colombia (1957-59), Argentina (1962-64), and Brazil (1985-86).

Arzhakov, Stepan (Maksimovich) (b. Nov. 10, 1899, Vilyuysk, Yakutsk oblast [now in Sakha republic], Russia - d. [executed] March 5, 1942), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1924, 1937-38) and acting executive secretary of the Communist Party committee (1926) of the Yakut A.S.S.R. He was also people's commissar of interior (1923-24), trade and industry (1924-26), supply (1930-32), and agriculture (1932-37).

Arzilli, Giuseppe (b. Feb. 20, 1941, San Marino - d. Nov. 19, 2023), captain-regent of San Marino (1986-87, 1999-2000, 2004-05). He was also ambassador to Switzerland (2008-14).

Arzú (García-Granados), Roberto (b. May 15, 1970, Guatemala City, Guatemala), Guatemalan politician; son of Álvaro Arzú Irigoyen. He was a minor presidential candidate in 2019.

Arzú Escobar, Álvaro (b. Feb. 27, 1985), Guatemalan politician; son of Álvaro Arzú Irigoyen and Patricia Escobar de Arzú; half-brother of Roberto Arzú. He was president of Congress (2018-20).

Arzú I.
Arzú Irigoyen, Álvaro (Enrique) (b. March 14, 1946, Guatemala City, Guatemala - d. April 27, 2018, Guatemala City), president of Guatemala (1996-2000). He served as mayor of Guatemala City in 1986-90, made an unsuccessful run for the presidency in 1990, and became foreign minister on Jan. 14, 1991. He left that post on Sept. 23, 1991, however, to become secretary-general of the conservative National Advancement Party (PAN). Running again for president in 1995, he won the runoff on Jan. 7, 1996, over his rival Alfonso Portillo Cabrera, the surrogate candidate of former military dictator Gen. Efraín Ríos Montt. Backed by a slick election campaign which neutralized his bland image, Arzú won voters to his side with promises to stamp out endemic corruption and fight discrimination against the majority indigenous population. Critics described him as an arrogant bully who hates to be contradicted. In a widely reported incident as mayor of Guatemala City, Arzú once punched a trade unionist during an argument over work conditions. Arzú's victory was seen as a vote in favour of stability in Guatemala, which was crawling towards democracy as it emerged from decades of military rule. His PAN held the majority of seats in the legislature, and his victory created an unusually strong government in Guatemala, where lameduck presidents in the past had to buy votes to pass legislation. Arzú moved swiftly to push ahead with peace talks with Marxist guerrillas to end a brutal 35-year civil war. In March 1996 the government and the leftist Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity agreed to a temporary ceasefire. On December 4 they signed a permanent ceasefire in Oslo, and on December 29, in Guatemala City, they signed the Accord for a Firm and Lasting Peace, which thus ended the conflict. In 2003 he was again elected mayor of Guatemala City (taking office 2004); he died in the post.

Arzumanyan, Alexander, Russian Aleksandr (Robertovich) Arzumanyan (b. Dec. 24, 1959, Yerevan, Armenian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Armenia (1996-98). He has also been chargé d'affaires in the United States (1992-93), permanent representative to the United Nations (1992-96), and ambassador to Denmark (2017-23), Sweden (2019-23), and Poland (2023- ).

Arzumanyan, Grigory (Agafonovich) (b. April 22, 1919, Kavart, Armenia - d. Nov. 28, 1976, Yerevan, Armenian S.S.R.), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Armenian S.S.R. (1972-76).

Asadov, Ali (Hidayat oglu) (b. Nov. 30, 1956, Nakhichevan, Azerbaijan S.S.R.), prime minister of Azerbaijan (2019- ).

Asamoah, Obed (Yao) (b. Feb. 6, 1936, Likpe Bala, Volta region, Gold Coast [now Ghana]), foreign minister of Ghana (1982-97). He was also attorney general (1993-2001).

Asano, Shiro (b. Feb. 8, 1948, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan), governor of Miyagi (1993-2005).

Asatkin-Vladimirsky, Aleksandr (Nikolayevich) (b. Oct. 15 [Oct. 3, O.S.], 1885, Voznesensky, Kostroma province, Russia - d. [executed] Sept. 2, 1937), executive secretary of the Communist Party of the Belorussian S.S.R. (1924). He was also executive secretary of the party committee of Vladimir province (1924-27) and chairman of the Executive Committee of Dalnevostochny kray (1930-31).

Asbeck, Willem Dirk Hendrik baron van (b. July 30, 1858, Noordwijk-Binnen, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands - d. May 17, 1935, The Hague, Netherlands), governor-general of Dutch Guiana (1911-16); brother-in-law of Aarnoud Jan Anne Aleid baron van Heemstra. He was also Dutch minister to Mexico (1922-27) and Spain (1927-31).

Åsbrink, Erik (b. Feb. 1, 1947, Stockholm, Sweden), finance minister of Sweden (1996-99).

Ascásubi (y Matheu), Manuel de (b. Dec. 30, 1804, Quito, Ecuador - d. Dec. 23, 1876, Quito), vice president (1847-51), acting president (1849-50, 1869), and foreign minister (1875) of Ecuador.

Asch van Wijck, Jonkheer Hubert Alexander Maurits van (b. Sept. 24, 1815, Utrecht, Netherlands - d. Feb. 2, 1868, Assen, Netherlands), king's commissioner of Drenthe (1866-68); son of Jonkheer Hubert Matthijs Adriaan Jan van Asch van Wijck.

Asch van Wijck, Jonkheer Hubert Matthijs Adriaan Jan van (b. Oct. 14, 1774, Utrecht, Netherlands - d. July 16, 1843, Woudenberg, Netherlands), Dutch politician. He was mayor of Utrecht (1827-39) and chairman of the Second Chamber (1831-32).

Asch van Wijck, Jonkheer Titus (Anthony Jacob) van (b. Aug. 29, 1849, Utrecht, Netherlands - d. Sept. 9, 1902, The Hague, Netherlands), governor-general of Suriname (1891-96); nephew of Jonkheer Hubert Alexander Maurits van Asch van Wijck. He was also mayor of Amersfoort (1883-91, 1900-01) and Dutch minister of colonies (1901-02).

Asche, (Keith John) Austin (b. Nov. 28, 1925, Melbourne, Vic.), administrator of the Northern Territory (1993-97).

Aschling, Carl Fredrik (b. July 18, 1751, Stockholm, Sweden - d. July 5, 1820, Härnösand, Västernorrland, Sweden), governor of Gotland (1812-17) and Västernorrland (1817-20).

Asda Jayanama (b. Sept. 17, 1941, Bangkok, Thailand), Thai diplomat. He was ambassador to Vietnam (1984-86), Singapore (1986-90), and New Zealand (1990-93) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1996-2001).

Aseh Che Mat, Tan Sri (b. Oct. 22, 1951, Negeri Sembilan, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), president of Putrajaya Corporation (2012-15).

Asensio Cabanillas, Carlos (b. Nov. 14, 1896, Madrid, Spain - d. April 28, 1970, Madrid), Spanish high commissioner of Morocco (1940-41) and army minister of Spain (1942-45). He was also chief of the General Staff (1941-42) and captain-general of the Balearic Islands (1945-48).

Asensio Wunderlich, Julio (b. Nov. 5, 1911, Guatemala City, Guatemala - d. Jan. 4, 1986), Guatemalan diplomat. He was ambassador to the United States (1970-76) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1976-78).

Asfura (Zablah), Nasry (Juan), byname Tito Asfura (b. June 8, 1958, Tegucigalpa, Honduras), Honduran politician. He was mayor of Tegucigalpa (2014-22) and a presidential candidate (2021).

Ásgeirsson, Ásgeir (b. May 13, 1894, Kóranesi, Iceland - d. Sept. 15, 1972, Reykjavík, Iceland), president of Iceland (1952-68); brother-in-law of Tryggvi Thórhallsson. After a heated campaign, the former president of the Althing (1930-31), finance minister (1931-34), and prime minister (1932-34) won the 1952 presidential election. He sat in office for four terms, and was always reelected unopposed. In 1968 he announced that he would not seek reelection.


Ásgrímsson, Halldór (b. Sept. 8, 1947, Vopnafirdi, Iceland - d. May 18, 2015, Reykjavík, Iceland), foreign minister (1995-2004) and prime minister (2004-06) of Iceland. He was also minister of fisheries (1983-91), Nordic cooperation (1985-87, 1995-99), and justice and ecclesiastical affairs (1988-89).

Asha, Rafik (b. Dec. 16, 1910, Damascus, Ottoman Empire [now in Syria] - d. ...), Syrian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1948-51 [acting], 1953-58 [acting], 1964-65) and ambassador to Romania (1961) and the Soviet Union (1961-62).

Ashawi, Muhammad Eid (b. 1929?), interior minister (1965-66, 1966-68) and foreign minister (1968-69) of Syria. He was imprisoned after the 1970 coup and was only released on Jan. 2, 1995.

Ashburner, Lionel Robert (b. 1827 - d. Jan. 26, 1907), acting governor of Bombay (1880).

J. Ashcroft
Ashcroft, John (David) (b. May 9, 1942, Chicago, Ill.), governor of Missouri (1985-93) and U.S. attorney general (2001-05). He was appointed Missouri state auditor in 1973, was elected state attorney general in 1976 and reelected in 1980, and in 1984 he won the first of two terms as governor. He was known for fiscally and socially conservative policies, including restrictions on abortions. Elected to the U.S. Senate in 1994, he was defeated in 2000 by Mel Carnahan, a deceased candidate whose name remained on the ballot. Nominated by President-elect George W. Bush as attorney general, he faced intense questioning in the Senate, particularly on his attitudes toward blacks and homosexuals and on his ability as a fundamentalist Christian to uphold U.S. law, but he was confirmed by a vote of 58-42. He was at the centre of policy changes adopted by the Department of Justice following the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. He pressed for passage of the so-called USA PATRIOT Act, which expanded the government's power to detain noncitizens, conduct surveillance and search, and investigate persons suspected of involvement in criminal activity. Some 1,200 people were jailed after the attacks, including immigration violators whose cases were heard in secret, a number of people held as material witnesses, and two U.S. nationals classified as "enemy combatants" and thus denied the legal rights of citizens. He approved giving agents of the FBI permission to monitor people in public areas without evidence that a crime had been committed. His plan for a Terrorism Information and Prevention System (TIPS), whereby workers with access to citizens' homes would be enlisted to report suspicious activity, was widely denounced and had to be substantially modified.

Ashcroft (of Chichester in the County of West Sussex), Michael (Anthony) Ashcroft, Baron (b. March 4, 1946, Chichester, England), Belizean diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1998-2000). A billionaire with dual Belize and U.K. nationality, he was also treasurer of the British Conservative Party (1998-2001) and was created a life peer in 2000.

Ashdown (of Norton-sub-Hamdon in the County of Somerset), Paddy Ashdown, Baron, original name Jeremy John Durham Ashdown (b. Feb. 27, 1941, New Delhi, India - d. Dec. 22, 2018), British politician. At 18, he joined the Marines, subsequently becoming a commando with the Special Boat Squadron. He served in the Far East during the 1960s and in Northern Ireland in the early 1970s. He was recruited by the Foreign Office in 1971 and worked there for four years, first on the Far East desk in London and then at the UN in Geneva as first secretary. In 1976 he abandoned that career and returned to England to pursue a political career as a Liberal. In 1983 he won the West Country constituency of Yeovil from the Conservatives. In 1988 the Liberals and the Social Democratic Party merged and on July 28 he was elected leader of the new party. At the 1992 election, the Liberal Democrats won 18% of the votes, but just 20 of the 651 seats in parliament thanks to Britain's first-past-the-post electoral system. By-election successes and a defection by a disillusioned Conservative raised the figure to 26, with Ashdown adding to his reputation as a foreign affairs expert with trips to Bosnia at the height of the fighting there. When Tony Blair became Labour leader in 1994 and set about moving his party rapidly to the political centre ground the Liberals traditionally occupied, Ashdown responded by abandoning the Liberal claim to be "equidistant" between the Conservatives and Labour, making it clear that if Blair needed him to sustain him in government, he was ready to help. In the 1997 general election, the Liberal Democrats won 46 seats. He stepped down as party leader in 1999, was knighted in 2000 and created a life peer in 2001. In 2002-06 he was international high representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Ashe, John W(illiam) (b. Aug. 20, 1954, St. John's, Antigua [now Antigua and Barbuda] - d. [weightlifting accident] June 22, 2016, Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.), president of the UN General Assembly (2013-14). He was permanent representative of Antigua and Barbuda to the UN (2004-14) and president of the UNICEF Executive Board (2012).

Ashe, Samuel (b. March 24, 1725, near Beaufort, North Carolina - d. Feb. 3, 1813, "Rocky Point" plantation, N.C.), president of the Council of Safety (1776) and governor (1795-98) of North Carolina.

Asheberg, Baron Nikolay (Fyodorovich) (b. 1789 - d. Dec. 28 [Dec. 16, O.S.], 1852), governor of Kaspiyskaya oblast (1841-42).

Asheeke, Hinyangerwa (Pius) (b. Nov. 30, 1952), Namibian diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires at the United Nations and in the United States (1990-91) and ambassador to Germany (1996-2003) and Austria (1997-2003).

Ashida, Hitoshi (b. Nov. 15, 1887, Kyoto, Japan - d. June 20, 1959, Tokyo, Japan), foreign minister and deputy prime minister (1947-48) and prime minister (1948) of Japan. He was a member of the lower house of the Diet from 1932 to 1940 and previously had been in the Japanese diplomatic service in various European posts. In 1933-40 he was president of the Japan Times, Tokyo's English newspaper. He helped organize the Japanese Liberal Party after World War II and was minister of welfare in the cabinet of Kijuro Shidehara in 1945-46. His own government lasted only a few months before being overthrown amidst charges of bribery.

Ashimov, Bayken (Ashimovich) (b. Aug. 10, 1917, Shabakbay village, Russia [now in Severo-Kazakhstan oblast, Kazakhstan] - d. Feb. 5, 2010, Almaty, Kazakhstan), chairman of the Council of Ministers (1970-84) and chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1984-85) of the Kazakh S.S.R. He was also chairman of the Executive Committee of Karaganda oblast (1961-62, 1964-68) and first secretary of the party committees of Karaganda (1963-64, rural) and Taldy-Kurgan (1968-70) oblasti.

Ashimov, Nurgali (Sadvakasovich) (b. Oct. 10, 1959, Chimkent, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Shymkent, Kazakhstan]), head of Zapadno-Kazakhstan oblast (2003-07) and Yuzhno-Kazakhstan oblast (2007-09). He was also mayor of Kostanay (1999-2000) and Kazakh minister of environmental protection (2009-12).

Ashirmukhammedov, Geldimukhammet (b. 1957, Kuruzhdey village, Turkmen S.S.R. [now in Balkan velayat, Turkmenistan]), interior minister of Turkmenistan (2004). He was also minister of national security (2004-07).

Ashirov, Kurbannazar (Amanmuradovich), Turkmen Gurbannazar Asyrow (b. 1974, Ashkhabad, Turkmen S.S.R. [now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan]), a deputy prime minister of Turkmenistan (2007-08).


Ashiru, Olugbenga (Ayodeji) (b. Aug. 27, 1948, Ijebu-Ode [now in Ogun state], Nigeria - d. Nov. 29, 2014, South Africa), foreign minister of Nigeria (2011-13). He was ambassador to North Korea (1991-99) and high commissioner to South Africa (2005-09).

Ashkenazi, Gabi, byname of Gavriel Ashkenazi (b. Feb. 25, 1954, Moshav Hagor, Israel), foreign minister of Israel (2020-21). He was also chief of staff of the Israel Defense Forces (2007-11).


Ashlapov, Nikolay (Ivanovich) (b. Jan. 23, 1962, Suchkovo, Krasnoyarsk kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), acting head of the administration of Krasnoyarsk kray (2002). He was also acting mayor of Achinsk (1998-99).

Ashley, Francis Noel (b. Dec. 11, 1884, Surrey, England - d. May 28, 1976, Surrey), resident commissioner of the British Solomon Islands (1929-39).

Ashley, James M(itchell) (b. Nov. 14, 1824, Allegheny county, Pa. - d. Sept. 16, 1896, Alma, Mich.), governor of Montana (1869-70).

Ashraf, Raja Pervez (b. Dec. 26, 1950, Sanghar, Sindh, Pakistan), prime minister of Pakistan (2012-13). He was also minister of water and power (2008-11) and speaker of the National Assembly (2022-24).

Ashraff, M(uhammed) H(ussain) M(uhammed) (b. Oct. 23, 1948, Sammanthurai village, Amparai district, Eastern province, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. Sept. 16, 2000, Aranayake area, Kegalle district, Sabaragamuwa province, Sri Lanka), Sri Lankan politician. He formed the National Unity Alliance (NUA) coalition representing all communities in Sri Lanka, and led its main constituent, the Sri Lanka Muslim Congress (SLMC), which he founded on Sept. 21, 1981, to represent the country's Muslim minority. In 1994 the SLMC played a constructive "queenmaker" role to install the Chandrika Kumaratunga government in a hung parliament. Ashraff became minister for ports, shipping, and rehabilitation. Later he lost shipping in a reshuffle. In 2000 Ashraff pulled back support of the government after a report in the Daily News quoted D.M. Jayaratne, the general secretary of the People's Alliance, as saying that the NUA was not a partner of the ruling coalition. He was killed along with 14 others when a Sri Lankan air force helicopter crashed into a hilly area in Aranayake, 65 km to the east of the capital Colombo, and exploded. The Mi-17 helicopter was flying between Colombo and Ampara, 210 km to the east, where he was to attend election meetings. Police ruled out the possibility that the helicopter had been shot down by Tamil rebels, saying the probable cause was a technical failure. Just before he boarded the helicopter, he wrote the statement withdrawing his party's legislative support of the government.

Ashtal, Abdullah Saleh al- (b. Oct. 5, 1940, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia - d. Aug. 26, 2004, New York City), Yemeni diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations from Yemen (Aden) (1973-90) and Yemen (1990-2002).

Ashton of Upholland, Catherine (Margaret) Ashton, Baroness, byname Cathy Ashton (b. March 20, 1956, Upholland, Lancashire, England), British politician; lord president of the council (2007-08). She was made a life peer in 1999. In 2008-09 she was European Union trade commissioner and in 2009-14 the EU's first high representative for foreign affairs and security policy, a post created by the Lisbon Treaty to replace the previous high representative for common foreign and security policy as well as the foreign affairs commissioner.

Ashurov, Nigmat (b. 1904, Makhram, Fergana oblast, Russia [now in Tajikistan] - d. 1973, Dushanbe, Tadzhik S.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of Gorno-Badakhshan autonomous oblast (1949-50). He was also chairman of the Supreme Soviet (1938-...) and minister of meat and dairy industry (1950-53) and public utilities (1953-...) of the Tadzhik S.S.R. and first secretary of the party committee of Kurgan-Tyube oblast (1945-47).

Ashurov, Urumbay (Ashurovich) (b. 1903, Fergana, Russia [now in Uzbekistan] - d. [executed] 1938, Stalinabad, Tadzhik S.S.R. [now Dushanbe, Tajikistan]), first secretary of the Communist Party (1937) and chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1937) of the Tadzhik S.S.R. He was also people's commissar of finance of the Uzbek S.S.R. (1929).

Ashwell, William Joseph (b. Oct. 5, 1930 - d. 1995), New Zealand representative in Niue (1974-77).

Asif, Khawaja (Muhammad) (b. Aug. 9, 1949, Sialkot, Pakistan), defense minister (2013-17, 2022-23, 2024- ) and foreign minister (2017-18) of Pakistan. He was also chairman of the Privatization Commission (1997-99) and minister for petroleum and natural resources and sports (2008) and water and power (2013-17).

Asika, Ukpabi (b. June 28, 1936, Barkin Ladi [now in Plateau state], Nigeria - d. Sept. 13, 2004, Abuja, Nigeria), administrator of East Central state, Nigeria (1968-75).

Asil, Naji al- (b. 1895, Mosul, Ottoman Empire [now in Iraq] - d. Feb. 16, 1963, Baghdad, Iraq), foreign minister of Iraq (1936-37).

Asiltürk, Oguzhan (b. 1935, Hekimhan, Malatya, Turkey - d. Oct. 1, 2021, Ankara, Turkey), interior minister of Turkey (1974, 1975-77). He was also minister of industry and technology (1977-78).


Asim, Mohamed (b. 1960), foreign minister of Maldives (2016-18). He was also high commissioner to Sri Lanka (2004-07, with non-resident accreditation to Pakistan and Bangladesh), the United Kingdom (2007-08), and Bangladesh (2015-16).

Asim Pasha, Mehmed (b. 1821 - d. March 1886, Trebizond, Ottoman Empire [now Trabzon, Turkey]), foreign minister of the Ottoman Empire (1880-82, 1882, 1884-85). He was also chairman of the Court of Accounts (1868-69), governor of Adrianople (1869-71, 1876-77), Bosnia (1871-72), Kastamonu (1873), and Trebizond (1873-74, 1886), minister of justice (1877, 1882-84) and waqfs (1882), and head of the Council of State (1878).

Asjes, Ivar (Onno Odwin) (b. Sept. 16, 1970, Rotterdam, Netherlands), prime minister of Curaçao (2013-15).

Ask, (Eva Carin) Beatrice (b. April 20, 1956, Sveg, Jämtland, Sweden), justice minister of Sweden (2006-14) and governor of Södermanland (2020- ). She was also minister of schools (1991-94).

Askari, Jaafar (Pasha ibn Mustafa ibn Abdul Rahman) al-, Arabic Ja`far Basha ibn Mustafa ibn `Abd al-Rahman al-`Askari (b. 1887, Baghdad, Ottoman Empire [now in Iraq] - d. Oct. 30, 1936, near Baghdad, Iraq), prime minister (1923-24, 1926-28), foreign minister (1926-28, 1931-32), and defense minister (1920-22, 1930, 1931-32, 1935-36) of Iraq. A Baghdadi officer in the Ottoman army from 1909, he was wounded and captured in February 1916 by the Dorset Yeomanry at Agagiya when he led an attempt to invade Egypt during World War I; he was taken to Cairo by the British. He subsequently converted to the Allied cause. As Lawrence of Arabia wrote, "one day he read in an Arabic newspaper of Suez of the revolt and of the execution by Turks of prominent Arab nationalists - his friends - and realized that he had been on the wrong side." He then organized an Arab army for Hussein ibn Ali, the emir of Mecca, who had declared independence from Ottoman rule. He commanded it in operations against the Turks in the Hejaz and Syria. After the war he served as military governor of Aleppo district in Syria, a state headed by Hussein's son Faysal. The French forced Faysal out in 1920, but with British support he became king of a new Iraqi state in 1921; Askari became Iraq's first defense minister, and as such he is considered the "father of the Iraqi army." Thereafter he served as prime minister twice, as foreign minister, and in other posts, and was a supporter of pan-Arabism, an idea that suffered a setback when in 1936 Bakr Sidqi overthrew the Iraqi government and ordered the execution of Askari, who was defense minister at the time. While driving in his car about 25 km north of Baghdad he was held up by six army officers, who fired thirty bullets into him.

Askarov, Murad (Erkebayevich) (b. March 7, 1974), Uzbek diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2009-13) and ambassador to Malaysia (2014-18).

Asker, Axel (b. Jan. 20, 1848, Jönköping, Sweden - d. June 4, 1924, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Västerbotten (acting, 1900-02) and Halland (1902-16); son of Gustaf Ferdinand Asker.

Asker, Gustaf Ferdinand (b. June 18, 1812, Jönköping, Sweden - d. July 14, 1897, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Gävleborg (1861-83). He was also speaker of the Second Chamber of the Riksdag (1873-75).

Askerov, Ismail (Nasrulla ogly) (b. 1914, Ordubad, Erivan province, Russia [now in Armenia]), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Nakhichevan A.S.S.R. (1952-55).

Askerov, Mamed (Gasan ogly) (b. Dec. 25, 1918 - d. July 27, 1988), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Nakhichevan A.S.S.R. (1959-64). He was also minister of agriculture of the Azerbaijan S.S.R. (1977-85).

Askew, Reubin (O'Donovan) (b. Sept. 11, 1928, Muskogee, Ala. - d. March 13, 2014, Tallahassee, Fla.), governor of Florida (1971-79).

Askwith, Arthur Vivian (b. Nov. 16, 1893 - d. April 25, 1971), chief commissioner of Delhi (1940-45).

Aslanov, Armais (Amirovich) (b. 1923 - d. 1992), chairman of the Executive Committee of Nagorno-Karabakh autonomous oblast (1974-88).

Asllani, Fuad (b. Sept. 15, 1897, Beirut, Ottoman Empire [now in Lebanon] - d. May 27, 1981, Elbasan, Albania), foreign minister of Albania (1935-36). He was also chargé d'affaires (1933-35) and minister (1935) to the United Kingdom.

Aslonov, Kadriddin (Aslonovich) (b. May 29, 1947, Garm oblast, Tadzhik S.S.R. - d. [killed?] November 1992), acting president of Tajikistan (1991). He was also chairman of the Executive Committee of Kurgan-Tyube oblast (1992).


T. Aso
Aslov, Sirojiddin (Mukhriddinovich) (b. Feb. 17, 1964, Kangurt village, Tadzhik S.S.R. [now in Khatlon province, Tajikistan]), foreign minister of Tajikistan (2013- ). He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2005-13) and ambassador to Cuba (2011-13).

Asnaj, Abdullah (Abdul Majid) al-, also spelled Asnag (b. 1933, Aden province, British India [now in Yemen]), foreign minister of Yemen (Sana) (1971, 1974, 1975-79). He was also minister of economy (1971-74) and communications (1974-75) and a deputy prime minister (1974-75). He was arrested in March 1981, but reports of his execution in April 1981 were apparently mistaken; he later lived in exile in Saudi Arabia.

Aso, Taro (b. Sept. 20, 1940, Iizuka, Fukuoka, Japan), home affairs minister (2003-05), foreign minister (2005-07), prime minister (2008-09), and deputy prime minister and finance minister (2012-21) of Japan; grandson of Shigeru Yoshida; son-in-law of Zenko Suzuki.

Aso, Wataru (b. May 15, 1939, Tobata [now part of Kitakyushu], Fukuoka, Japan), governor of Fukuoka (1995-2011).

Aspaker, Elisabeth Vik (b. Oct. 16, 1962, Harstad, Troms, Norway), governor of Troms (2017-19, 2024- ), Finnmark (2019, 2024- ), and Troms og Finnmark (2020-23). She was also Norwegian minister of fisheries and coastal affairs (2013), food and fisheries (2014-15), and European affairs (2015-16).

Asparukhova, Nadya (Mihailova), formerly (until early 1980s) Naide (Mehmedova) Ferhadova (b. 1942, Pomen, Ruse, Bulgaria), a deputy premier of Bulgaria (1989-90).

Aspe (Armella), Pedro (Carlos) (b. July 7, 1950, Mexico City, Mexico), finance minister of Mexico (1988-94). He was also minister of programming and budget (1987-88).

Aspiazu Seminario, Fernando (Alfredo) (b. Jan. 10, 1935, Quito, Ecuador), finance minister of Ecuador (1979-80); brother of Jaime Aspiazu Seminario.

Aspiazu Seminario, Jaime (b. Dec. 8, 1930, Guayaquil, Ecuador - d. 1997), finance minister of Ecuador (1970). He was a presidential candidate in 1984.

Aspíllaga (Barrera), Ántero (b. 1849, Pisco, Ica, Peru - d. Dec. 8, 1927, Lima, Peru), finance minister of Peru (1887-89). He was also mayor of Lima (1895-97), president of the Senate (1902-04, 1909-11), and a presidential candidate (1919).

L. Aspin
Aspin, Les(lie, Jr.) (b. July 21, 1938, Milwaukee, Wis. - d. May 21, 1995, Washington, D.C.), U.S. defense secretary (1993-94). He worked on the staff of Sen. William Proxmire and managed his successful campaign in 1964. As an Army officer in 1966-68, he served as one of Defense Secretary Robert McNamara's "whiz kids" at the Pentagon. He then returned to Wisconsin and in 1970 was elected to the House of Representatives as a Democrat, campaigning against U.S. involvement in Vietnam. Serving on the House Armed Services Committee, he became known for his close scrutiny of military programs. As chairman of the Armed Services Committee (1985-92), he supported the development of the multi-warhead MX missile and U.S. funding for the Nicaraguan contra rebels. Although temporarily removed from his committee chair by his Democratic colleagues in 1987, Aspin weathered the crisis and resumed the post. As Pres. Bill Clinton's embattled defense secretary for 11 months, he gained a reputation for indecisiveness. While attempting to implement Clinton's campaign promise to allow homosexuals to serve openly in the military, Aspin developed the "don't ask, don't tell" compromise policy which did not satisfy any of the concerned parties. He broadened the combat role of women and was widely praised for his initiative to restructure the U.S. military in a post-Cold War climate, but he failed to reinforce U.S. troops in Somalia just weeks before 18 U.S. soldiers were killed by forces of leading warlord Muhammad Farah Aydid. Aspin's inaction led to his resignation in December 1993; observers assumed the president had asked him to step down. He continued to serve as secretary until February 1994; in May 1994 he was chosen as chairman of the president's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board.

N. Aspin
Aspin, Norman (b. Nov. 9, 1922, Darwen, Lancashire, England - d. July 25, 2011, Dacre, Cumbria, England), commissioner of the British Indian Ocean Territory (1976). He was British high commissioner to Malta in 1976-79.

Aspinall, Owen Stuart (b. Sept. 21, 1927, Grand Junction, Colo. - d. Feb. 7, 1997), governor of American Samoa (1967-69).

Asplund, (Johan) Gustaf (b. Jan. 12, 1826, Härnösand, Sweden - d. Dec. 19, 1882), governor of Jämtland (1866-82).

Aspremont Lynden, Charles (Albert Ferdinand Gobert), comte d' (b. Oct. 31, 1888, Brussels, Belgium - d. June 21, 1967, Natoye [now part of Hamois], Namur, Belgium), Belgian politician; son-in-law of Paul de Favereau. He was agriculture minister (1939-40) and a minister without portfolio (in exile, 1940-44).

Aspremont Lynden, Guillaume (Bernard Ferdinand Charles), comte d' (b. Oct. 14, 1815 - d. Sept. 6, 1889), foreign minister (1871-78) and acting war minister (1872) of Belgium.

Aspremont Lynden, Harold (René Charles Marie Gobert), comte d' (b. Jan. 17, 1914, Brussels, Belgium - d. April 1, 1967, Natoye [now part of Hamois], Namur, Belgium), Belgian politician; son of Charles, comte d'Aspremont Lynden. He was minister of African affairs (1960-61).

Asquith, H.H.: see Oxford and Asquith, H.H. Asquith, Earl of.

Asrat Wolde (b. 1931 - d. [struck by car] March 1, 2016, Harare, Zimbabwe), Ethiopian diplomat. He was ambassador to the Soviet Union (1986-90?) and Zimbabwe (1990?-91).

Asribekov, Yervand (Mikhailovich) (b. May 24, 1898, Nukha, Yelizavetpol province, Russia [now Shaki, Azerbaijan] - d. [executed] 1937), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of Abkhazia (1924-25). He was also executive secretary of the party committee of Tiflis city (1925-30) and first secretary of the party committees of Vladivostok city (1936) and Perm city (1937).

Assaat (gelar Datuk Mudo) (b. Sept. 18, 1904, Banuhampu, Bukittinggi, Netherlands East Indies [now in Sumatera Barat, Indonesia] - d. June 16, 1976, Jakarta, Indonesia), acting president of the Republic of Indonesia (1949-50). He was also home affairs minister (1950-51).

B. Assad
Assad, Bashar (Hafez Ali) al-, Arabic Bashshar Hafiz `Ali al-Asad (b. Sept. 11, 1965, Damascus, Syria), president of Syria (2000- ); son of Hafez al-Assad. The eye doctor was summoned home from additional medical training in England in February 1994 following the death of his brother Basil in a car crash. He resumed his military career commanding an armoured division, and he distinguished himself by removing old and incompetent officers from positions of authority. By 1999 he had advanced in rank to colonel, while also being head of the Syrian Computer Society. When Hafez al-Assad died in 2000, Bashar was immediately selected to succeed him by the People's Assembly, which altered the constitution by lowering the minimum age from 40 to 34 years of age. He was confirmed in a referendum with 97.3% of the vote. Unlike his iron-fisted father, the younger Assad displayed a relaxed and friendly personality. He helped introduce the first Internet service to Syria, over the objections of state security forces, and his ascension was marked by a general relaxation of press censorship and greater freedom of speech. He seemed determined to place Syria on the path of modernization and avoided promoting a cult of personality for himself. He pursued the firm foreign policies of his father, refusing any peace settlement with Israel that does not return the Golan Heights to Syria. Nothing was done to promote greater democracy or modify the one-party state. He won another presidential referendum in 2007, with 97.6% of the vote. His image rapidly changed for the worse when the 2011 Arab Spring movement reached Syria. He cracked down on demonstrators and the situation escalated into a civil war, which was also joined by Islamist radicals. Syria became a free-for-all for other powers intervening to their various ends, Russia and Iran supporting Assad, while the U.S. and other Western powers focused on fighting the "Islamic State" extremists who also extended their "caliphate" to parts of Iraq; this allowed Assad to concentrate his fire on the "moderate" rebels. By 2018 he had essentially prevailed, being in control of most of the country, while rebels still held Idlib province and Turkey occupied the Afrin area. His apparent use of chemical weapons and general ruthlessness in the war, which also created a massive refugee crisis in Europe, left his reputation as devastated as his country.

H. Assad
Assad, Hafez (Ali Sulayman) al-, Arabic in full Abu Sulayman Hafiz `Ali Sulayman al-Asad (b. Oct. 6, 1930, Qardaha, Latakia province, Syria - d. June 10, 2000, Damascus, Syria), prime minister (1970-71) and president (1971-2000) of Syria. He joined the Syrian wing of the Ba`th Party in 1946 as a student activist. During Syria's short-lived union with Egypt (1958-61), Assad served as a military officer in Egypt and with other officers formed an underground military committee which led a Ba`thist revolution in Syria in 1963, whereupon he became commander of the air force. In 1966 he was one of the leaders of a coup that overthrew the moderate leadership of the party, and he became defense minister. The loss of the Golan Heights to Israel in the Six-Day War (June 1967) dealt a blow to him, but he nevertheless became the most powerful figure in the country. In November 1970 he seized control, arresting his last major rival - Salah Jadid, chief of staff of the armed forces - and other members of the government. In 1971 he was elected president. He set about building up the military with Soviet aid. Dissenters were eliminated by arrest, torture, and execution, and a rebellion by the Muslim Brotherhood in the city of Hamah in 1982 was violently quelled at a cost of some 20,000 lives. A new alliance with Egypt culminated in a surprise attack on Israel in October 1973; the Syrians penetrated deep into the Golan before being pushed back by Israeli troops. In 1976, he dispatched several divisions to Lebanon and secured their permanent presence there as part of a peacekeeping force sponsored by the Arab League. Because of a long-standing hostility toward the Iraqi wing of the Ba`th Party, he supported Iran in its war against Iraq (1980-88) and he readily joined the U.S.-led alliance against Iraq in the 1991 Gulf War.

Assaf, Ibrahim (ibn Abdul Aziz ibn Abdullah) al- (b. Jan. 28, 1949, al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia), finance minister (1996-2016) and foreign minister (2018-19) of Saudi Arabia. He was also minister of economy (1996-2003).

Assagaff, Said (b. Nov. 29, 1953, Ambon, Maluku, Indonesia), governor of Maluku (2014-19).


Assalé, Charles (b. Nov. 4, 1911, Mefo, near Ebolowa, South province, Cameroon - d. Dec. 10, 1999, Yaoundé, Cameroon), finance minister of French Cameroons (1958-60) and prime minister of Cameroon (1960-61) and of East Cameroon (1961-65).

Assali, Sabri al- (b. 1903, Damascus, Ottoman Empire [now in Syria] - d. April 13, 1976, Damascus), prime minister of Syria (1954, 1955, 1956-58). He was also minister of interior (1945, 1946, 1948-49, 1955), justice (1945-46), and education (1945-46) and a vice president of the United Arab Republic (1958).

Assam, Mervyn (b. Feb. 1, 1938), foreign minister of Trinidad and Tobago (2000-01). He was also high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1987-90) and minister of trade and industry and consumer affairs (1995-2000).

Assar, Nassir (b. Feb. 26, 1926, Tehran, Iran - d. Oct. 4, 2015, Bethesda, Md.), secretary-general of CENTO (1972-75).

Asscher, Lodewijk (Frans) (b. Sept. 27, 1974, Amsterdam, Netherlands), deputy prime minister of the Netherlands (2012-17). He was also acting mayor of Amsterdam (2010), minister of social affairs and employment (2012-17), and leader of the Labour Party (2016-21).

Asselborn, Jean (b. April 27, 1949, Steinfort, Luxembourg), deputy prime minister (2004-13) and foreign minister (2004-23) of Luxembourg.

Asselin, Martial (b. Feb. 3, 1924, La Malbaie, Que. - d. Jan. 25, 2013, Québec, Que.), lieutenant governor of Quebec (1990-96).

Assemekang, Charles (b. June 16, 1926, Souanke, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)] - d. Dec. 8, 1999, Bondy, Seine-Saint-Denis, France), foreign minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (1969-70). He was also president of the Supreme Court (1970-96).

Asser, Sir (Joseph) John (b. Aug. 31, 1867 - d. Feb. 4, 1949), governor of Bermuda (1922-27); knighted 1917.

Assier de Pompignan, (Charles André) Maurice (b. Nov. 30, 1889 - d. Aug. 30, 1952), acting lieutenant governor of Chad (1929, 1929) and governor of Gabon (1942-43) and Dahomey (1943-46).

Assis, Antero Cicero de (b. Aug. 30, 1835, Cachoeira, Bahia, Brazil - d. October 1883, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Goiás (1871-78).

Assogba, Janvier (Codjo) (b. c. 1939, Ouidah, Dahomey [now Benin]), finance minister of Dahomey (1973-74). He was also minister of civil service and labour (1968, 1972-73, 1974-75). He led a coup attempt in January 1975 and was sentenced to death in March, but was amnestied in 1984.

Assogba, Oké (b. Feb. 3, 1903, Adjohon, Dahomey [now Benin] - d. Aug. 25, 1980), foreign minister of Dahomey (1960-62). He was also minister of education, youth, and sports (1957-60), defense (1960), and civil service (1962-63) and vice premier (1959-60).

Assomo, Joseph Beti (b. Aug. 17, 1959, Ayos, French Cameroons [now in Cameroon]), defense minister of Cameroon (2015- ). He was also prefect of Dja-et-Lobo (1998-2005) and Mfoundi (2005-10) départements and governor of Extrême-Nord (2010-12) and Littoral (2012-15) regions.

Assoumani, Azali (b. Jan. 1, 1959, Mitsoudjé, Grande Comore, Comoros), head of state (1999-2002) and president (2002-06, 2016- ) of the Comoros. He received military training in France and Morocco and had risen to the rank of chief of staff by 1998. In 1999, at a time when the country's territorial integrity was threatened by a serious crisis of separatism, Colonel Assoumani overthrew the interim president Tadjidine Ben Said Massonde in a bloodless coup. "I have seized power," he declared, "to save the Comoros from falling into chaos and anarchy." He dissolved all elected institutions and suspended the constitution. The blunt-talking Assoumani pledged himself to reinstate democratic institutions once a new constitution was drawn up and agreed upon by all three islands. He subscribed to an accord put forth by the Organization of African Unity (OAU), which encouraged more autonomy for the islands, but also an end to secession. It was not agreed to by the island rebels, and, hence, Assoumani's dominance remained unchallenged. However, his coup was strongly denounced by the OAU, France, and South Africa, which responded with an economic boycott. Nor was the military regime recognized by any government, with a corresponding decline in foreign aid; living standards deteriorated further. Soldiers under Capt. Abderemane Abdallah, former president Ahmed Abdallah's son, failed to overthrow Assoumani in March 2000. An OAU-brokered agreement was thereupon cemented that granted the islands greater autonomy. Under the constitution adopted in 2001, power rotated every five years between the three main islands as a means of balancing politics in the coup-prone country. He became the first president under this system and accordingly had to step down in 2006. In 2016 it was Grande Comore's turn again and he was narrowly reelected. In 2018 he won a referendum (boycotted by the opposition) that dropped the rotation arrangement and allowed him to run for another consecutive term. In 2023-24 he was chairman of the African Union.

Assoweh, Ali Farah (b. July 3, 1965, Djibouti, French Somaliland [now Djibouti]), finance minister (2005-11) and justice minister (2011-16) of Djibouti.

Assu, Luiz Gonzaga de Brito Guerra, barão de (b. Sept. 27, 1818, Capela de Campo Grande [now Campo Grande], Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil - d. June 6, 1896, Caraúbas, Rio Grande do Norte), acting president of Rio Grande do Norte (1868). He was made baron in 1888.

Assumani Busanya Lukili, (André), commissioner of Shaba (1975-77). He was also minister of rural development of Zaire (1977-79).

Assumpção, Luiz Carlos de (b. Nov. 1, 1833, São Paulo, Brazil - d. Nov. 20, 1912, Tietê, São Paulo, Brazil), acting president of São Paulo (1884).

Assunção, Alexandre Zacarias de (b. Dec. 19, 1899, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Aug. 11, 1981, Rio de Janeiro), federal interventor (1945) and governor (1951-56) of Pará.

Astacio, Julio Ernesto (b. 1932, San Salvador, El Salvador), vice president of El Salvador (1977-79).

Astafyev, Mikhail (Ivanovich) (b. 1821, Kaluga province, Russia - d. June 21 [June 9, O.S.], 1884, Orenburg, Russia), governor of Erivan (1860-69) and Orenburg (1878-84).

Astaykin, Ivan (Pavlovich) (b. Feb. 7 [Jan. 25, O.S.], 1917, Simkino, Penza province, Russia - d. Jan. 30, 1986, Saransk, Mordovian A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Council of Ministers (1954-71) and chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1971-78) of the Mordovian A.S.S.R.

Astete (Rodríguez), (Esther) Elizabeth (b. 1952?), foreign minister of Peru (2020-21). She was also ambassador to Switzerland (2005-08), Mexico (2011-13), and Ecuador (2013-16).

Astier de la Vigerie, Emmanuel (Raoul Maurice) d' (b. Jan. 6, 1900, Paris, France - d. June 22, 1969, Paris), Free French commissioner of the interior (1943-44).

Astigueta (Cáceres), José Manuel (b. Dec. 24, 1918, Buenos Aires, Argentina), defense minister of Argentina (1962-63); son of José Manuel Astigueta (Posse). He was also ambassador to the Soviet Union (1969-73).

Astigueta (Posse), José Manuel (b. Oct. 17, 1882, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. July 30, 1960, Buenos Aires), Argentine politician; son of José Mariano Astigueta (Heredia). He was minister of justice and education (1945-46).

Astigueta (Campos), José Mariano (b. April 2, 1922, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. July 20, 2003, Buenos Aires), Argentine politician; cousin of José Manuel Astigueta (Cáceres); grandson of José Mariano Astigueta (Heredia). He was minister of education and justice (1963) and secretary for culture and education (1967-69).

Astigueta (Heredia), José Mariano (b. Nov. 20, 1850, Salta province, Argentina - d. Sept. 18, 1897, Buenos Aires, Argentina), Argentine politician. He was minister of justice and education (1890).

Astorga (Gadea de Jenkins), Nora (b. 1948, Managua, Nicaragua - d. Feb. 14, 1988, Managua), Nicaraguan guerrilla. She was secretly active with the Sandinista National Liberation Front since 1969 and earned her reputation as a "Mata Hari" when on March 8, 1978, International Women's Day, she lured the deputy commander of Pres. Anastasio Somoza's National Guard, Gen. Reynaldo Pérez Vega, an alleged torturer and womanizer, to her room. When the general was stripped of his sidearms, three of her compañeros burst out of hiding, supposedly to kidnap, question, and then exchange him for prisoners; however, when he resisted, they killed him. He was later found wrapped in a Sandinista flag with a slit throat. Astorga later described the incident by saying, "I never felt guilty... It was something you had to do for revolutionary justice. He had killed so many. He was a monster." She escaped to a Sandinista training camp, became commander of a military squad, and caught the popular imagination as pictures of her wearing fatigues and carrying an AK-47 assault rifle appeared. After the Sandinistas took power in July 1979, she was appointed chief special prosecutor for the trials of some 7,500 members of Somoza's National Guard. In 1984 the U.S. refused to accept her appointment as ambassador to Washington because of her involvement in the death of General Pérez Vega, who had been a CIA "asset." She served as deputy foreign minister from 1984 until becoming Nicaragua's chief delegate to the United Nations in March 1986. In the latter post she was instrumental in winning Security Council support for the World Court decision calling U.S. aid to the contras illegal. She returned to Nicaragua because of illness in January 1988.

Astori (Saragosa), Danilo (Ángel) (b. April 23, 1940, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. Nov. 10, 2023, Montevideo), economy and finance minister (2005-08, 2015-20) and vice president (2010-15) of Uruguay.

Astrauskas, Vytautas (b. Sept. 30, 1930, Siauliai, Lithuania - d. Aug. 7, 2017), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Lithuanian S.S.R. (1987-90).

Astrawinata, (Achmad) (b. Dec. 28, 1917 - d. Sept. 25, 1980), justice minister of Indonesia (1963-66).

Åström, (Carl) Sverker (b. Dec. 30, 1915, Uppsala, Sweden - d. June 26, 2012, Stockholm, Sweden), Swedish diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1964-70) and ambassador to France (1978-82).

Astudillo (Chávez), Walter (Enrique) (b. 1961, San Jacinto, Peru), defense minister of Peru (2024- ).

Astudillo Flores, Héctor (Antonio) (b. July 3, 1958, Chilpancingo, Guerrero, Mexico), governor of Guerrero (2015-21). He was also mayor of Chilpancingo (1996-99, 2009-12).

Asturias (Rosales), Miguel Ángel (b. Oct. 19, 1899, Guatemala City, Guatemala - d. June 9, 1974, Madrid, Spain), Guatemalan diplomat. Better known as the author who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1967, he was ambassador to El Salvador (1953-54) and France (1966-70).

Asturias (Amado), Rodrigo, also known as Gaspar Ilom (b. Oct. 30, 1939, Guatemala City - d. June 15, 2005, Guatemala City), Guatemalan rebel leader and politician; son of Miguel Ángel Asturias. In the 1980s, as leader of the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity (URNG), he helped unite four leftist guerrilla groups to fight a string of brutal military-led dictatorships. The rebel leader lived many years in exile in Mexico and used the nom de guerre Gaspar Ilom after an Indian peasant hero in his father's novel Men of Maize. (He once sent a message from the field on a small piece of paper which was then rolled up, stuffed into a cigarette emptied of its tobacco, and smuggled via Mexico to the novelist in exile in Spain. It read simply: "The Men of Maize have turned into fighters," and was signed Gaspar Ilom.) The war ended with peace agreements signed by the government and the guerrillas in 1996; the URNG turned into a political party. But despite his almost legendary status, the leader credited with bringing Guatemala's Maya Indians into the civil war failed to unite the left in peacetime. When he ran as URNG candidate for president in elections in 2003, he won less than 3% of the vote.

Astwood, Cynthia (Anita Louise), née Simmons (b. 1946, Salt Cay island, Turks and Caicos Islands), chief secretary (1986-2005) and acting governor (2002) of the Turks and Caicos Islands.

Asunción Hernández, Antoni (b. July 12, 1951, Manises, Valencia province, Spain - d. March 5, 2016, Valencia, Spain), interior minister of Spain (1993-94).

Aswin, Aspar (b. April 13, 1940, Samarinda, Netherlands East Indies [now in Kalimantan Timur, Indonesia] - d. Dec. 19, 2007, Pontianak, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia), governor of Kalimantan Barat (1993-2003).