Bracks, Steve, byname of Stephen Phillip Bracks (b. Oct. 15, 1954, Ballarat, Victoria, Australia), premier of Victoria (1999-2007).
Bradley, Michael (John) (b. June 11, 1933, Northern Ireland - d. Feb. 22, 2010, Beckington, Somerset, England), governor of the Turks and Caicos Islands (1987-93).
Bradley, Tom, byname of Thomas J. Bradley (b. Dec. 29, 1917, Calvert, Texas - d. Sept. 29, 1998, Los Angeles, Calif.), U.S. politician. He won a City Council seat in Los Angeles in 1963 and ran for mayor six years later, losing a bitter election tinged with racist rhetoric to Sam Yorty; the scars of the 1965 Watts riots were still fresh. In 1973, Bradley ran again and this time beat Yorty with 56% of the vote, becoming the first black mayor of Los Angeles. In 1981, Bradley, running as a Democrat, lost the governor's race to Republican George Deukmejian by less than 1 percentage point. He lost a second bid for governor in 1986. The five-term mayor (1973-93) was credited with opening city government to minorities and women, expanding social services to the urban poor, and spurring economic growth. Under his administration, Los Angeles surpassed San Francisco as the West Coast's economic power in Pacific Rim trading, symbolized by the downtown skyline that grew during his administration. The successful 1984 Olympic Games stood out as his crowning achievement. The economic ruin and traffic gridlock many feared never materialized. The low point was in 1992, when riots broke out after four white LAPD officers were acquitted in the beating of black motorist Rodney King. Bradley appealed for calm, but some said his angry denunciation of the verdicts may have provoked violence. He would later describe the violence that left 55 people dead as "the most painful experience of my life." He governed quietly, by building coalitions instead of using the bully pulpit. Beginning in 1989, Bradley became embroiled in a political scandal involving his acceptance of a fee for serving as an adviser for a bank doing business with the city. At 75, he announced his retirement, avoiding an election he probably could not have won.
Bradshaw, Robert L(lewellyn) (b. Sept. 16, 1916, St. Paul's, St. Kitts - d. May 23, 1978, St. Kitts), West Indian politician. In 1940 he founded St. Kitts's trade and labour union and Labour Party. He became a member of the Legislative Council in 1946 and sat in the West Indies Federal Parliament as federal minister of finance (1958-62). When the federation dissolved, he returned to St. Kitts as minister without portfolio until 1966. After briefly serving as chief minister (1966-67), he became premier of St. Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla in 1967, when the three islands became an independent state in association with the U.K. He died in office. In 1998 he was posthumously awarded the Order of National Hero, giving him the title The Right Excellent Sir Robert Llewellyn Bradshaw, Knight Grand Commander of the Order of National Hero (K.G.N.H.).
Braga, Carlos Eduardo de Souza (b. Dec. 6, 1960, Belém, Pará, Brazil), governor of Amazonas (2003-10).
Braga, Ney Aminthas de Barros (b. July 25, 1917, Lapa, Paraná, Brazil - d. Oct. 16, 2000, Curitiba, Paraná), governor of Paraná (1961-65, 1979-82).
Braga, Wilson Leite (b. July 18, 1931, Conceição, Pernambuco, Brazil), governor of Paraíba (1983-86).
Bragança, Albertino (Homem dos Santos Sequeira) (b. March 9, 1944, São Tomé), foreign minister of São Tomé and Príncipe (1993-94).
Bragança (Neto), Raul (Vagner da Conceição) (b. 1946), prime minister of São Tomé and Príncipe (1996-99).
Braghis, Dumitru (Petru) (b. Dec. 28, 1957, Gratiesti, Moldavian S.S.R.), prime minister of Moldova (1999-2001).
Brahimi, (Janu) Abdelhamid, Arabic `Abd al-Hamid al-Ibrahimi (b. April 2, 1936, Constantine, Algeria), prime minister of Algeria (1984-88).
Brahimi, Lakhdar, Arabic al-Akhdar al-Ibrahimi (b. Jan. 1, 1934, Aziza, Medea wilaya, Algeria), foreign minister of Algeria (1991-93). He was Algerian ambassador to Egypt and The Sudan (1963-70) and to the United Kingdom (1971-79) and UN special representative for South Africa (1993-94), Haiti (1994-96), Afghanistan (1997-99, 2001-03), and Syria (2012-14) and special adviser to the secretary-general (2004-05).
Braillard Poccard, (Néstor) Pedro, governor of Corrientes (1997-99).
Bramble, Percival Austin (b. Jan. 24, 1931), chief minister of Montserrat (1970-78); son of William Henry Bramble.
Bramble, William Henry (b. Oct. 8, 1901 - d. Oct. 17, 1988), chief minister of Montserrat (1960-70).
Branch, John (b. Nov. 4, 1782, Halifax, N.C. - d. Jan. 3, 1863, Enfield, N.C.), governor of North Carolina (1817-20) and Florida (1844-45) and U.S. secretary of the Navy (1829-31).
Branco, Joaquim Rafael (b. Sept. 7, 1953, São Tomé), foreign minister (2000-01) and prime minister (2008-10) of São Tomé and Príncipe. He was also minister of education and culture (1982-84), economic affairs (1994-96), and infrastructure, public works, natural resources, and the environment (2002-03).
Brandenstein, Karl (Eduard Emil Franz Moritz Freiherr) von (b. 1875 - d. 1946), leading minister of state of Reuss Junior Line (1918-19) and co-minister of state of Reuss (1919-20).
Brandhof, Arend Evert Johannes van den (b. June 14, 1861, Wijk bij Duurstede, Utrecht, Netherlands - d. June 13, 1910, at sea near Curaçao), administrator of Bonaire (1890-1910); son of Nicolaas van den Brandhof.
Brandhof, Nicolaas van den (b. May 8, 1834, Elst, Utrecht, Netherlands - d. March 2, 1904, The Hague), governor of Curaçao (1882-90).
Brandt, David (Samuel), chief minister of Montserrat (1997-2001).
Brandt, Willy, original name Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (b. Dec. 18, 1913, Lübeck, Germany - d. Oct. 8, 1992, Unkel, near Bonn), chancellor of West Germany (1969-74). When the Nazis came to power, his activities as a young Social Democrat brought him into conflict with the Gestapo, and he had to flee the country to escape arrest. He went to Norway (where he assumed the name Willy Brandt), and when the Germans occupied Norway he escaped to Sweden, where he remained for the duration of World War II. After the war he returned to Germany as a Norwegian citizen. Pressed to return to politics, he applied to renew his German citizenship in 1947 and was elected to the federal parliament in 1949. Later he became governing mayor of West Berlin (1957-66). He became chairman of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) in 1964 and campaigned for the office of chancellor three times (1961, 1965, 1969). When the grand coalition of Christian Democrats and Social Democrats was formed in 1966, Brandt became foreign minister and vice-chancellor. In 1969 his party formed a coalition with the small Free Democratic Party. The year following his election as chancellor, he concentrated on foreign affairs and particularly sought to improve relations with East Germany, other Communist nations in eastern Europe, and the Soviet Union, formulating a policy known as Ostpolitik ("eastern policy"). Although fortified by a great SPD victory in 1972, he resigned in May 1974 after his close aide Günter Guillaume was unmasked as an East German spy. He remained SPD chairman until 1987 and was also head of the Socialist International from 1976 to 1992. He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1971 for his continuing work toward reconciliation between West Germany and the Soviet bloc.
Brankovic, Nedzad (b. Dec. 28, 1962, Visegrad [now in Republika Srpska], Bosnia and Herzegovina), prime minister of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2007-09).
Brannan, Charles F(ranklin) (b. Aug. 23, 1903, Denver, Colo. - d. July 2, 1992, Denver), U.S. secretary of agriculture (1948-53). In 1935 he became assistant regional attorney of the Resettlement Administration, and later regional attorney in the Department of Agriculture's office of the solicitor. From November 1941 to April 1944 he was regional director of the Farm Security Administration for Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana. He was named assistant secretary of agriculture in June 1944 and secretary of agriculture in June 1948. In 1949 Brannan put forward the "Brannan plan" for farm price supports to be based on a minimum farm purchasing power, which would be subsidized by government payments. This legislative proposal was not enacted by Congress, although Brannan and other administration leaders continued to press for it during 1950. He charged that failure to enact his plan was the cause of such occurrences as dumping millions of dollars of surplus agricultural products which had been purchased by the government. On Aug. 22, 1950, Brannan declared that the government had huge surpluses of dairy foods and dried eggs, in danger of spoiling if not given away. Under Pres. Harry S. Truman's defense mobilization plan announced Sept. 9, 1950, Brannan was given cognizance over food, farm equipment, and commercial fertilizer.
Branstad, Terry E(dward) (b. Nov. 17, 1946, Leland, Iowa), governor of Iowa (1983-99, 2011- ). A Republican, he served in the Iowa House of Representatives (1973-79) and was lieutenant governor (1979-83). Benefiting from opponents' weaknesses, he won the governor's race with 53% in 1982 because his opponent had legally avoided paying her state taxes, with 52% in 1986 when his opponent backed a $400 million bond issue to be paid back from a lottery, and with 61% in 1990 against a weak winner of a multi-candidate primary. In 1994, he had primary opposition from Fred Grandy, familiar to TV viewers as Gopher in The Love Boat, but to Iowans as a hard-working, close-to-home congressman from the 5th District. Grandy called for a tax cut and attacked Branstad for "a pattern of abuse and mismanagement." Branstad won by only 52%-48%. In the general, Branstad never had a secure lead in polls over Attorney General Bonnie Campbell, who attacked her own party's platform as too liberal; Grandy was openly hostile, saying of Branstad, "I'll hold my nose and vote for the guy." But in the fall, with crime an issue, Branstad attacked Campbell for her opposition to the death penalty. And the strong Iowa economy evidently worked for the incumbent. Branstad won 58%-42%, carrying all but four counties. Des Moines, the most vibrantly growing part of the state, which voted against Branstad in 1982 and 1986, voted for him this time. Branstad, who had the strength to win when Iowa seemed mostly Democratic, now had the opportunity to lead when it was trending Republican. Incidentally, Branstad endorsed Bob Dole for president in 1996 - the first time he publicly endorsed a presidential candidate. In March 1997 he said he would not seek a fifth term. After a 12-year pause, however, he did so and defeated incumbent Democrat Chet Culver 53%-43% in 2010.
Brantsen van de Zijp, Derk Willem Gerhard Johan Hendrik baron (b. March 26, 1801, Rotterdam, Netherlands - d. ...), acting governor of Gelderland (1846-47).
Brar, (Sardar) Harcharan Singh (b. Jan. 22, 1922, Sarai Naga village, Punjab, India - d. Sept. 6, 2009, Sarai Naga), governor of Orissa (1977) and Haryana (1977-79) and chief minister of Punjab (1995-96).
Brasey, Louis Antoine Marie (b. May 31, 1891 - d. 19...), resident-superior of Laos (1941-45).
Brash, Don(ald Thomas) (b. Sept. 24, 1940, Wanganui, New Zealand), New Zealand politician. He was governor of the Reserve Bank (1988-2002) before entering parliament. In October 2003 he toppled Bill English as leader of the National Party. He was never a strong performer in the House and, although his apolitical image might initially have seemed an asset, doubts emerged about his political instincts. To the surprise of many observers, and indeed Brash himself, his Orewa speech in late January 2004 on race relations and separatism resonated strongly with the public. And he showed he had a ruthless streak in demoting the party's spokeswomen for Maori affairs (Georgina Te Heuheu) and welfare (Katherine Rich). But his political awkwardness persisted, as in his unconvincing denial of accusations in 2004 that he told United States officials that the nuclear propulsion ban would be "gone by lunchtime." In the elections of September 2005, on the back of an aggressive tax-cut policy, National gained 39% of the party vote, not enough to have a realistic chance of forming a government but a huge improvement on its miserable 21% return in the 2002 election. Just before the election Brash was placed on the back foot over alleged meetings between himself and the secretive Exclusive Brethren sect. His clumsy efforts to explain what he had or had not known about Brethren campaign pamphlets reawakened doubts about his political judgment and credibility. His gaffes became all too regular, the final straw being his handling of emails which he claimed were stolen from his computer and which were used by Nicky Hager in his book The Hollow Men. He resigned as leader and as MP in November 2006. In April 2011 he became leader of the ACT New Zealand party, but he stepped down after a poor result (1 seat) in the November 2011 elections.
Brathwaite, Sir Nicholas (Alexander) (b. July 8, 1925, Carriacou), prime minister of Grenada (1983-84, 1990-95); knighted 1995.
Bratianu, Ion C(onstantin) (b. June 2, 1821, Pitesti, Walachia [now in Romania] - d. May 16, 1891, Florica, Romania), prime minister of Romania (1868, 1876-81, 1881-88). He took part in the revolution of 1848 and became one of the four secretaries of the provisional government. He was one of the leaders of the party that rejected the Russian protectorate and the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire, aspiring instead to make of Romania an independent democratic state. Having been proscribed for his activity in the revolutionary cause, Bratianu withdrew to Paris, where he continued to work for the union and autonomy of the principalities of Moldavia and Walachia. He returned home in 1856. With the principalities subsequently united as Romania under Prince Alexandru Ioan, Bratianu founded the Romanian Liberal Party with his brother Dimitrie and in 1866 figured prominently in the deposing of Alexandru and the election as prince of Romania of Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, later (1881) King Carol I. As minister of finance, Bratianu played an important role in designing the Romanian constitution of 1866. He was arrested following an abortive antidynastic coup in 1870 but was soon released. Aided by his longtime political ally C.A. Rosetti, Bratianu formed a Liberal government in 1876 and remained prime minister until 1888, except for a brief interval in 1881 when his brother took over the post. His autocratic, corrupt administration, which was redeemed somewhat by constitutional and land reforms and by his own personal character, was also marked by Romania's alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary (1883). He was compelled to resign in 1888 after a riotous outbreak in Bucharest, which was only suppressed after bloodshed.
Bratianu, Ion I(on) C(onstantin), byname Ionel Bratianu (b. Aug. 20, 1864, Florica, Romania - d. Nov. 24, 1927, Bucharest), interior minister (1907-08), prime minister (1909-11, 1914-18, 1918-19, 1922-26, 1927), and foreign minister (1927) of Romania; son of Ion C. Bratianu.
Bratianu, Vintila (Ion Constantin) (b. 1867 - d. Dec. 22, 1930, Ramnicu Valcea, Romania), finance minister (1922-26, 1927-28) and prime minister (1927-28) of Romania; son of Ion C. Bratianu; brother of Ion I.C. Bratianu.
Bratteli, Trygve (Martin) (b. Jan. 11, 1910, Nøtterøy, Norway - d. Nov. 20, 1984, Oslo), prime minister of Norway (1971-72, 1973-76). He joined the Labour Party and became editor (1934) of the party newspaper in Kirkenes. He was secretary (1934-40) and chairman (1945-46) of the party's youth section and edited its magazine. He remained in Norway after the German invasion (1940), joining the Resistance, but he was arrested in 1942 and spent the remainder of World War II in various concentration camps in Germany. After the war he became vice-chairman of the Labour Party (1945-65). He was elected to the Storting (parliament) in 1950 and under the premiership of Einar Gerhardsen served as finance minister (1951-55, 1956-60) and minister of transport and communications (1960-64). Bratteli succeeded as party leader in 1965, forming a minority government in March 1971. An advocate of Norwegian accession to the European Communities (EC), he resigned (October 1972) following the referendum by which EC membership was rejected. He returned to power a year later at the head of a coalition of the Labour and Socialist Alliance parties, but his defeat over the EC continued to cast a cloud over his political life, and eventually undermined his position. He resigned as chairman of the Labour Party (1975) and as prime minister (January 1976). He remained a member of parliament until 1981.
Bratusek, Alenka (b. March 31, 1970, Celje, Slovenia), prime minister of Slovenia (2013-14). In 2014 she was named a vice president of the European Commission but then withdrew her candidacy.
Braun, Wolfgang (b. July 27, 1939, Magdeburg, Germany), Regierungsbevollmächtigter of Magdeburg (1990).
Bravo, Leopoldo (b. March 15, 1919, San Juan, San Juan, Argentina - d. Aug. 4, 2006, San Juan, San Juan), governor of San Juan (1963-66, 1982, 1983-85). He was also Argentina's chargé d'affaires (1946-49) and ambassador (1953-55, 1973-81) to the Soviet Union.
Bravo Ahuja, Víctor (b. Feb. 20, 1918, Tuxtepec, Oaxaca, Mexico - d. Sept. 2, 1990, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico), governor of Oaxaca (1968-70). He was also Mexican minister of education (1970-76).
Brawand, Samuel (b. May 18, 1898, Grindelwald, Bern, Switzerland - d. July 11, 2001, Grindelwald), president of the government of Bern (1950-51, 1961-62). He began his political career as a municipal councillor of Grindelwald. Between 1933 and 1935, he was a member of the cantonal parliament representing the Social Democratic Party. He was a member of the National Council from 1935 until he was elected as a cantonal government minister in 1947. He headed the department for construction and railways for 15 years. In 1955-67, he was a member of the National Council again.
Brazauskas, Algirdas (Mykolas) (b. Sept. 22, 1932, Rokiskis, Lithuania - d. June 26, 2010, Vilnius, Lithuania), president (1992-98) and prime minister (2001-06) of Lithuania. He was first secretary of the Communist Party (1988-89) and of the Independent Communist Party (1989-90) of the Lithuanian S.S.R.
Brazza, Pierre (Paul François Camille) Savorgnan de, original name Pietro Paolo Savorgnan di Brazzà (b. Jan. 26, 1852, Castel Gandolfo, Papal State [now in Lazio, Italy] - d. Sept. 14, 1905, Dakar, Senegal), commissioner-general of French Congo (1886-97). He became a naturalized French citizen on Aug. 12, 1874, adopting the French spelling of his name.
Breathitt, Edward T(hompson, Jr.), byname Ned Breathitt (b. Nov. 26, 1924, Hopkinsville, Ky. - d. Oct. 14, 2003, Lexington, Ky.), governor of Kentucky (1963-67). He was elected to the Kentucky House in 1951, serving from 1952 to 1958. He worked for Democratic presidential nominee Adlai Stevenson in 1952 and was on the campaign staff that returned former vice president Alben Barkley to the U.S. Senate in 1954. Racial harmony was a theme of Breathitt's inaugural speech as governor on Dec. 10, 1963. But Congress was debating a civil rights bill at the time, and state lawmakers were unwilling to take the lead in enacting a state civil rights law. The Breathitt administration's bill was later killed in committee. Finally, in 1966, Kentucky became the first southern state to enact a civil rights law, which went farther than the federal law in prohibiting racial discrimination in hiring. "This is only a beginning," Breathitt said at the bill-signing ceremony. "Only in the human heart can justice win the final victory." Later governors appointed Breathitt to the Council on Higher Education and the governing boards of Morehead State University, Kentucky State University, and the University of Kentucky, where he spent seven more years as trustees chairman. He became the Southern Railway System's general counsel after leaving the governorship, moved to Washington, D.C., as a vice president in 1972 and was the company's top lobbyist for 20 years.
Breckinridge, John C(abell) (b. Jan. 21, 1821, near Lexington, Ky. - d. May 17, 1875, Lexington), U.S. vice president (1857-61). He began his political career in 1849 as a member of the Kentucky legislature. In 1851 he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. During this troubled antebellum period, he established his reputation as a faithful Democrat, and when his party nominated James Buchanan of Pennsylvania for president in 1856, Breckinridge was a natural choice to "balance the ticket" between North and South. Once in office, however, Buchanan and Breckinridge were unable to fend off the sectional conflict. Challenged by the newly formed Republican Party, which resisted extension of slavery into the territories, the Democrats broke apart at their national convention in the summer of 1860. The Northern wing nominated Stephen A. Douglas on a platform favouring popular sovereignty (local option), while the Southerners chose Breckinridge on a separate ticket demanding federal intervention in behalf of slave property in the territories. Defeated in the November election by Republican Abraham Lincoln, Breckinridge succeeded John J. Crittenden as U.S. senator from Kentucky in March 1861, but he resigned later that year. He never ceased working for accommodation and compromise, but after the firing on Ft. Sumter, S.C. (April 12), he maintained that the Union no longer existed. He was commissioned a brigadier general in the Confederate Army in November. After the Battle of Shiloh (April 6-7, 1862), in which he commanded the reserve, he was promoted to the rank of major general and thereafter took part in many campaigns. In the final months of the war, Breckinridge served as Confederate secretary of war.
Breen, Henry Heggart (b. 1805, Tabart, County Kerry, Ireland - d. Nov. 2, 1881), administrator of Saint Lucia (1857-62).
Bremer, Paul, in full Lewis Paul Bremer III (b. Sept. 30, 1941, Hartford, Conn.), head of the Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq (2003-04). He was also U.S. ambassador to the Netherlands (1983-86).
Brende, Børge (b. Sept. 25, 1965, Odda, Hordaland, Norway), foreign minister of Norway (2013- ).
Brenes Jarquín, Carlos Alberto (b. Dec. 2, 1884, Masaya, Nicaragua - d. Jan. 2, 1942, Managua, Nicaragua), acting president of Nicaragua (1936-37). He was also minister to the United States (1937).
Brennan, John (Owen) (b. Sept. 22, 1955, North Bergen, N.J.), director of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (2013- ).
Brennan, Peter J(oseph) (b. May 24, 1918, New York City - d. Oct. 2, 1996, Massapequa, Long Island, N.Y.), U.S. secretary of labor (1973-75). He served as a chief petty officer during World War II in a submarine in the Pacific, but when he returned to civilian life he quickly became more involved in union activities. In 1957, Brennan was elected president of the Building and Construction Trades Council of Greater New York, an umbrella organization of unions with 250,000 members at the time. He was also president of the council's New York State counterpart and served as vice president of the state AFL-CIO. Brennan rose to national prominence in 1970 when he organized 100,000 construction workers to rally for Pres. Richard Nixon's policies on the Vietnam War. A counterdemonstration by Vietnam War opponents led to a clash with the workers, and many antiwar protesters were beaten. Nixon thanked Brennan for the support by inviting him to the White House and presenting him with a white hard hat stamped with an American flag and the title "Commander in Chief." The links that Nixon formed with the rank and file of traditionally Democratic unions contributed to his landslide re-election in 1972. Nixon nominated Brennan as secretary of labor not long after the election, and Brennan held the post from Feb. 2, 1973, until Pres. Gerald Ford replaced him in 1975. During his tenure, he was credited with helping strengthen pension plan safeguards and worker safety enforcement. But he clashed with AFL-CIO President George Meany on minimum wage policy. Ford offered Brennan the post of ambassador to Ireland, but Brennan declined and returned to New York, where he resumed the presidency of the construction trades council.
Brentano (di Tremezzo), Heinrich von (b. June 20, 1904, Offenbach, Germany - d. Nov. 14, 1964, Darmstadt, West Germany), foreign minister of West Germany (1955-61).
Bresis, Vilnis Edvins (b. Jan. 30, 1938, Jelgava, Latvia), premier of the Latvian S.S.R. (1988-90).
Bressolles, Louis (Henri François Denis), acting governor of Ivory Coast (1938-39) and governor of Martinique (1940-41).
Brévié, (Joseph) Jules (b. March 12, 1880, Bagnères-de-Luchon, Haute-Garonne, France - d. March 12, 1964), commissioner (1921-22) and lieutenant governor (1922-29) of Niger, governor of Ivory Coast (1930), governor-general of French West Africa (1930-36) and French Indochina (1936-39), and French minister of colonies (1942-43).
Brewah, Luseni A(lfred) M(orlu) (b. 1925, Taiama, Sierra Leone), foreign minister of Sierra Leone (1968-69).
Brewer, Jan, byname of Janice Kay Brewer, née Drinkwine (b. Sept. 26, 1944, Hollywood, Calif.), governor of Arizona (2009- ).
Brezhnev, Leonid (Ilich) (b. Dec. 19, 1906, Kamenskoye, Russia [now Dniprodzerzhinsk, Ukraine] - d. Nov. 10, 1982, Moscow), Soviet Communist Party leader (1964-82). He became a full member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) in 1931. By 1939 he had become secretary of the regional party committee of Dnepropetrovsk. During World War II he served as a political commissar in the Red Army. In 1950 he was sent to Moldavia as first secretary of the Moldavian Communist Party. In 1952 he became a member of the Central Committee of the CPSU and a candidate member of the Politburo, but he lost those posts after Stalin's death (March 1953). In 1955 he became first secretary of the Kazakhstan Communist Party, and in 1956 he was reelected to his posts on the CPSU Central Committee and the Politburo. A year later, Brezhnev was made a full member of the Politburo, and in 1960 he became chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (titular head of state). In July 1964 he resigned that post to become Nikita Khrushchev's assistant as second secretary of the Central Committee, by which time he was considered Khrushchev's heir apparent as party leader. Three months later, however, he helped lead the coalition that forced Khrushchev from power, and became (Oct. 15, 1964) first secretary of the CPSU (after 1966, general secretary). During the 1970s he attempted to normalize relations between West Germany and the Warsaw Pact and to ease tensions with the United States through the policy known as détente. He was elected chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet in June 1977, thus becoming the first person in Soviet history to hold both the leadership of the party and of the state. He retained his hold on power to the end despite his frail health and growing feebleness.
Briand, Aristide (b. March 28, 1862, Nantes, France - d. March 7, 1932, Paris, France), prime minister (1909-11, 1913, 1915-17, 1921-22, 1925-26, 1929) and foreign minister (1915-17, 1921-22, 1925-26, 1926-32) of France. In 1894 he succeeded in getting the sharply divided French trade unionists to adopt the general strike as a political tactic at a workers' congress at Nantes. After three unsuccessful attempts (1889, 1893, and 1898) to be elected to the Chamber of Deputies, Briand became secretary-general of the Socialist Party in 1901. In 1902 he finally won election as a deputy from the Loire département and remained a member of the chamber until his death. Briand's first great success in government came with his work on the commission that drafted a law of separation of church and state in 1905. This achievement led to his appointment as minister of public education and culture in March 1906, but his acceptance of a post in a bourgeois cabinet widened his break with Jean Jaurès and other Socialists. After serving another term as education minister in the first government of Georges Clemenceau (1906-09), he became premier for the first time. His successes were the Pact of Locarno (1925), in which he, Gustav Stresemann of Germany, and Austen Chamberlain of Britain sought to normalize relations between Germany and its former enemies; and the Kellogg-Briand Pact (Aug. 27, 1928), in which 60 nations agreed to outlaw war as an instrument of national policy. His efforts for international cooperation, the League of Nations, and world peace brought him the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1926, which he shared with Stresemann. In December 1930 Briand publicly, and boldly for the times, advocated a federal union of Europe. He finally retired in January 1932, after an unsuccessful campaign for the French presidency in 1931.
Briare, Bill, byname of William H. Briare (b. July 13, 1930, Long Beach, Calif. - d. Dec. 8, 2006), mayor of Las Vegas (1975-87).
Brick, Martin (b. March 18, 1939, Demmin [now in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern], Germany), Regierungsbevollmächtigter of Neubrandenburg (1990).
Brid (Lasso), Demetrio H(onorato) (b. Dec. 21, 1859, Panama City, Colombia [now in Panama] - d. May 27, 1917, Panama City), president of the Municipal Council of the District of Panama (1903). He was officially recognized as the "Primer Presidente del Estado de Facto" by a 1953 law.
Brière, Ernest (Albert) (b. Dec. 16, 1848, Lieurey, Eure, France - d. Nov. 26, 1904, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France), resident-superior of Tonkin (1889-91) and Annam (1891-97).
Brière de l'Isle, Louis (Alexandre Esprit Gaston) (b. June 4, 1827, Le François, Martinique - d. June 17, 1896, Saint-Leu-Taverny, Seine-et-Oise [now Saint-Leu-la-Forêt, Val-d'Oise], France), governor of Senegal (1876-80).
Brinegar, Claude S(tout), original name Claude Rawles Stout (b. Dec. 16, 1926, Rockport, Calif. - d. March 13, 2009, Palo Alto, Calif.), U.S. secretary of transportation (1973-75).
Brink, Jan van den, byname of Johannes Roelof Maria van den Brink (b. April 12, 1915, Laren, Noord-Holland, Netherlands - d. July 19, 2006, Hilversum, Noord-Holland), economic affairs minister of the Netherlands (1948-52).
Brisset, André (b. Aug. 8, 1808, Angers, France - d. ...), commandant-particular of Gabon (1844-46, 1847-48), commandant of Sainte-Marie de Madagascar (1850-51) and Nossi-Bé (1853-54), and acting commandant-superior of Mayotte (1853-54).
Brisson, (Eugène) Henri (b. July 31, 1835, Bourges, France - d. April 14, 1912, Paris, France), prime minister of France (1885-86, 1898). He was also justice (1885-86) and interior (1898) minister and chairman of the Chamber of Deputies (1881-85, 1894-98, 1906-12).
Brito, Gratuliano da Costa (b. Sept. 6, 1905, São João do Cariri, Paraíba, Brazil), governor of Paraíba (1932-34).
Brito, José (b. March 19, 1944, Dakar, Senegal), foreign minister of Cape Verde (2008-11). He was also ambassador to the United States, Canada, and Mexico (2001-06) and minister of economy, growth, and competitiveness (2006-08).
Brito (Checchi), Mariano (Romeo) (b. Jan. 24, 1930 - d. Jan. 31, 2014), defense minister of Uruguay (1990-93).
Britos, Oraldo (Norvel) (b. Aug. 24, 1933, Villa Mercedes, San Luis province, Argentina), labour minister of Argentina (2001).
Brittan of Spennithorne, Leon Brittan, Baron (b. Sept. 25, 1939, London), British politician. After two unsuccessful attempts to enter Parliament he became member for the Yorkshire constituency of Cleveland and Whitby in 1974. He was appointed minister of state at the Home Office when the Conservatives won power in 1979. Two years later he joined the cabinet as chief secretary to the Treasury. He was the youngest member of the cabinet formed after the June 1983 election. Appointed home secretary at the age of 43, he was the youngest to hold that office since Winston Churchill in 1910-11. He found himself somewhat uneasily poised between the reformist tradition of the old Conservative Party and the monetarists of the new right. In economics he was a convinced monetarist; as home secretary his instincts were for humane and rational reforms, which set him apart from the simplistic prejudices of some of the Tory right wing. Nevertheless, when the Commons debated (and rejected) restoration of capital punishment, favoured by Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher among other Conservatives, his equivocal stance disappointed abolitionists. In 1985 he was appointed secretary of state for trade and industry. After four months, however, he was forced to resign. He was engaged in a battle with Michael Heseltine, the defense secretary, over a small, ailing helicopter company, Westland PLC. The issue was trivial but was inflated into a row that at one point threatened Thatcher's government. Heseltine was forced to resign in January 1986 - followed later that month by Brittan's resignation. On Thatcher's nomination he was knighted (1989) and became a member (1989-99) and a vice president (1989-93, 1995-99) of the European Commission. In 2000 he was created a life peer.
Britto, Antônio, Filho (b. July 1, 1952, Santana do Livramento, Rio Grande do Sul), governor of Rio Grande do Sul (1995-99).
Briz Abularach, Jorge (b. Sept. 27, 1955, Guatemala City), foreign minister of Guatemala (2004-06).
Brizan, George (Ignatius) (b. Oct. 31, 1942, Windsor Forest, Grenada - d. Feb. 18, 2012, St. George's, Grenada), prime minister of Grenada (1995). He was minister of agriculture (1984-87, 1992-95), education and culture (1987-88), finance (1990-92), and trade and industry (1990-95).
Brizola, Leonel (de Moura) (b. Jan. 22, 1922, Carazinho, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. June 21, 2004, Rio de Janeiro), governor of Rio Grande do Sul (1959-63) and Rio de Janeiro (1983-87, 1991-94); brother-in-law of João Goulart. In 1947 he won a seat in the Rio Grande do Sul state legislature for the Brazilian Labor Party, which he had joined two years earlier. He rose quickly through the party ranks and in 1954 was elected to the federal congress. One year later he was elected mayor of Porto Alegre, the capital of Rio Grande do Sul. In 1958 he won the state's gubernatorial race and during his four-year tenure expropriated - without compensation - U.S.-owned utility companies. In 1962 he was again elected to the lower house Chamber of Deputies, this time for the state of Guanabara (now part of Rio de Janeiro). In 1964, the armed forces overthrew leftist president Goulart; he and Brizola went into exile. Brizola, one of Brazil's most skilled public speakers, was widely viewed as Goulart's successor in the presidential elections scheduled for 1965, and some observers said he was the real target of the coup, which ushered in a military dictatorship that lasted 21 years. Brizola organized the so-called "Groups of 11," armed cells designed to resist the dictatorship. After living in Uruguay, the U.S., and Portugal, he returned to Brazil in 1979, when Pres. João Figueiredo signed an amnesty law. He quickly returned to politics, founding the Democratic Labor Party and getting elected as governor of Rio de Janeiro in 1982 and 1990. He ran for president in 1989, but was narrowly edged out from the runoff by Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. Brizola took another stab at the presidency in 1994 and lost and in 1998 was Lula's running mate in an election won by Fernando Henrique Cardoso. He ran for mayor of Rio de Janeiro in 2000 but got just 9% of the vote.
Brizuela (Boillat) de Ávila, María Eugenia (de Ávila by marriage), byname Mayu Brizuela (b. Oct. 31, 1956, San Salvador, El Salvador), foreign minister of El Salvador (1999-2004).
Brizuela del Moral, Eduardo (Segundo) (b. Aug. 20, 1944, San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca, Catamarca, Argentina), governor of Catamarca (2003-11).
Broadbent, (John) Edward (b. March 21, 1936, Oshawa, Ontario), leader of Canada's New Democratic Party (1975-89). He was elected to parliament in 1968 where he served until he resigned in 1989. Under his leadership the NDP made modest gains as Canada's third party. From 1978 to 1982 he was also vice president of the Socialist International.
Broadley, Sir Herbert (b. Nov. 23, 1892 - d. June 2, 1983), acting director-general of the Food and Agriculture Organization (1956); knighted 1947. He entered the civil service in 1912 and served in the Military Department of the India Office from then until 1920. From 1920 he served in the Board of Trade but he resigned from the civil service in 1926. In 1939 he joined the Ministry of Food becoming a deputy secretary in 1941 and a second secretary in 1945. He was leader of the U.K. delegations to the international wheat conferences of 1947 and 1948. From 1948 to 1958 he was deputy director-general of the FAO, and he was also representative in Britain of UNICEF.
Brochard, Victor (Jean), resident of Wallis and Futuna (1909-11, 1912-14) and governor of Réunion (1919-20).
Brockdorff-Rantzau, Ulrich Graf von (count of) (b. May 29, 1869, Schleswig-Holstein, Prussia - d. Sept. 8, 1928, Berlin, Germany), foreign minister of Germany (1918-19). In 1894 he entered the diplomatic service and in 1909 he was appointed consul-general at Budapest. As German minister in Copenhagen (1912-18), he supported the Danish policy of neutrality during World War I and was able to maintain German-Danish trade. In the later stages of the war he was widely regarded as the coming leader of German foreign policy, but his services were not called upon until, after the collapse, he was appointed foreign minister in the revolutionary government in December 1918, a post in which he was confirmed when, after the meeting of the National Assembly at Weimar in February 1919, the first republican government emerged. At the Paris peace conference he argued in vain for better conditions of peace for Germany. Unable to dissuade his government from ratifying the Treaty of Versailles, he resigned his post as foreign minister in June 1919. In 1922 he became the first German ambassador to the Soviet Union, where he and Soviet statesman Georgy Chicherin worked to consolidate the German-Soviet rapprochement inaugurated by the Treaty of Rapallo. The German-Soviet Treaty of Berlin (April 1926) counterbalanced the Locarno Pact of 1925, which had seemed to link Germany too closely with the Western powers.
Brocklehurst, George James (b. Sept. 25, 1906, Christchurch, New Zealand - d. September? 1987, Auckland, New Zealand), high commissioner of the Cook Islands (1972-74).
Broek, Hans van den (b. Dec. 11, 1936, Paris), foreign minister of the Netherlands (1982-93). He was also a European commissioner (1993-99).
Broek, Samuel Bartholomeus van den (b. 17... - d. Oct. 11, 1817), commander of Aruba (1806-...) and Bonaire (1815-17).
Broek-Laman Trip, Nicoline (Hobbine) van den (b. July 19, 1937, Eindhoven), acting queen's commissioner of Gelderland (1990-91).
Brogli, Roland (b. June 11, 1951, Zeiningen, Aargau, Switzerland), Landammann of Aargau (2004-05, 2009-10, 2014- ).
Bronevich, Valentina (Tadeyevna) (b. Jan. 25, 1956), governor of Koryakia autonomous okrug (1996-2000).
Brons, Johannes Cornelis (b. Aug. 6, 1884, The Hague, Netherlands - d. May 12, 1964, The Hague), acting governor-general (1935-36, 1938-39) and governor-general (1944-48) of Dutch Guiana. He was also chairman of the Staten (parliament) in 1930-35.
Bronzetti, Denise (b. Dec. 12, 1972, San Marino, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2012-13).
Brooke, Sir Charles (Anthoni) Johnson, original name (until 1852) Charles Anthoni Johnson (b. June 3, 1829, Berrow Vicarage, near Burnham, Somerset, England - d. May 17, 1917, Cirencester, Gloucestershire, England), rajah of Sarawak (1868-1917); knighted 1888; nephew of Sir James Brooke.
Brooke, Sir Charles Vyner (de Windt) (b. Sept. 26, 1874, London - d. May 9, 1963, London), rajah of Sarawak (1917-46); knighted 1927; son of Sir Charles Johnson Brooke.
Brooke, Sir James (b. April 29, 1803, Benares [now Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh], India - d. June 11, 1868, Burrator House, near Sheepstor village, Devon, England), governor (1841-42) and rajah (1842-68) of Sarawak and governor of Labuan (1847-52); knighted 1848.
Brooke of Cumnor, Henry Brooke, Baron (b. April 9, 1903, Oxford, England - d. March 29, 1984, Mildenhall, Wiltshire, England), British politician. He entered Parliament in 1938 as a Conservative. He lost his seat in 1945 but was later adopted as candidate for Hampstead, returned to the House of Commons in 1950, and remained there until 1966, when he was made a life peer. Brooke's first ministerial appointment was in 1954, when he became financial secretary to the Treasury, and three years later he joined the cabinet as minister of housing and local government. There he was responsible for carrying through his predecessor's Rent Bill which was strongly criticized as being biased against tenants and in favour of landlords. In 1961 Brooke assumed the newly created post of chief secretary to the Treasury and a year later became home secretary (1962-64). A hardliner, he was a controversial figure who had to face strong opposition in Parliament, where his debating skills were not always effective. His decision to deport Chief Anthony Enahoro to face a treason charge in Nigeria, and his attitude on immigration made him the target of attack by liberals. Defeated in the 1966 general election, he later took an active role in the House of Lords. He was made a privy councillor in 1955 and a Companion of Honour in 1964.
Brooke-Popham, Sir (Henry) Robert (Moore) (b. Sept. 18, 1878, Mendlesham, Hartismere, Suffolk, England - d. Oct. 20, 1953, Wendover, Buckinghamshire, England), governor of Kenya (1937-39); knighted 1927. His original surname was Brooke, but he added Popham in 1904 by royal warrant in memory of an admired ancestor.
Brooks, Mary (Elizabeth Thomas Peavey), née Thomas (b. Nov. 1, 1907, Colby, Kan. - d. Feb. 11, 2002, Twin Falls, Idaho), director of the U.S. Mint (1969-77). In Washington, D.C., where her father was serving as a U.S. senator from Idaho, she met Illinois Sen. C. Wayland "Curly" Brooks (1897-1957), whom she married in 1945. After Brooks left the Senate in 1948, the couple moved to Chicago. She became an Illinois Republican National Committee woman and in 1960 was elected vice chairwoman of the National Committee. In 1963, she returned to Idaho where she was appointed to the state Senate. She returned to Washington in 1969 after she was chosen U.S. Mint director by Pres. Richard Nixon. She was responsible for the historic changing of the faces on the dollar to Eisenhower, the half-dollar to Kennedy, and the flip side of the quarter to the Bicentennial motif.
Brooks-Randolph, Angie (Elizabeth), née Brooks (b. Aug. 24, 1916, Virginia, Liberia - d. Sept. 9, 2007, Houston, Texas), president of the UN General Assembly (1969-70). She was also Liberia's permanent representative to the United Nations (1975-78).
Broqueville, Charles (Marie Pierre Albert), baron (from 1920, comte) de (b. Dec. 4, 1860, Postel, near Mol, Belgium - d. Sept. 5, 1940, Brussels, Belgium), prime minister (1911-18, 1932-34) and foreign minister (1917-18) of Belgium. He was also minister of war (1912, 1912-17) and was responsible for the Belgian mobilization on the eve of World War I in 1914. He headed the government in exile during the war. He resigned the premiership in December 1917 when it became known that, without informing his cabinet, he had taken part in a negotiation for a separate peace with Austria-Hungary. He subsequently held various ministerial appointments, including interior minister (1918-19), and finally was again prime minister at the head of a Catholic-Liberal coalition.
Brosio, Manlio (Giovanni) (b. July 10, 1897, Turin, Italy - d. March 14, 1980, Turin), secretary-general of NATO (1964-71). Brosio opposed fascism as a member of the Liberal Party, and after Benito Mussolini's fall in 1943 he joined the clandestine resistance to German occupation. During the postwar coalition governments of Ivanoe Bonomi and Alcide De Gasperi, he was secretary of the Liberal Party until becoming ambassador to Moscow (1947-51). He then served successively as ambassador to London (1952-55), Washington (1955-61), and Paris (1961-64). As NATO secretary-general he was profoundly concerned by France's decision to withdraw its forces from the organization and faced additional problems when the U.S.S.R. invaded Czechoslovakia. In 1972 he was elected senator for Turin.
Brossard de Corbigny, Jules (Marcel) (b. April 14, 1841, Orléans, France - d. Dec. 16, 1934, Meung-sur-Loire, Loiret, France), acting French representative in Cambodia (1870-71).
Brot, Jean-Jacques (b. Jan. 27, 1956, Paris, France), prefect of Mayotte (2002-05) and Guadeloupe (2006-07) and high commissioner of New Caledonia (2013-14). He was also prefect of the départements of Deux-Sèvres (2005-06), Eure-et-Loir (2007-10), Vendée (2010-11), and Finistère (2011-13).
Brouckère, Henri (Ghislain Joseph Marie) de (b. Jan. 25, 1801, Bruges, Belgium - d. Jan. 25, 1891, Brussels), cabinet chief and foreign minister of Belgium (1852-55).
Broulis, Pascal (b. April 3, 1965, Sainte-Croix, Vaud, Switzerland), president of the Council of State of Vaud (2006, 2007-12).
Brovko, Anatoly (Grigoryevich) (b. Aug. 22, 1966, Dnepropetrovsk oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.), head of the administration of Volgograd oblast (2010-12).
Brovtsev, Vadim (Vladimirovich) (b. July 26, 1969, Chelyabinsk-65 [now Ozersk], Chelyabinsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister (2009-12) and acting president (2011-12) of South Ossetia.
Browder, Earl (Russell) (b. May 20, 1891, Wichita, Kan. - d. June 27, 1973, Princeton, N.J.), U.S. politician. As a result of his opposition to the entrance of the U.S. into World War I, he was imprisoned in 1919-20. He became a member of the U.S. Communist Party in 1921, served as its general secretary from 1930 to 1944, and was the party's candidate for the U.S. presidency in 1936 and 1940. Under his leadership the party achieved a membership peak of 100,000 and enjoyed influence far beyond its numbers. In 1940 he was sentenced to prison for 4 years for passport irregularities but was released after serving 14 months. In 1944 he was removed from his position as party secretary for declaring that capitalism and socialism could peacefully coexist. He was expelled from the Communist Party in 1946 and three years later was named in "treason trials" in Budapest and Prague as originator of the heresy of "Browderism."
Brown, Aaron V(enable) (b. Aug. 15, 1795, Brunswick county, Va. - d. March 8, 1859, Washington, D.C.), governor of Tennessee (1845-47) and U.S. postmaster general (1857-59).
Brown, Arnold (b. Dec. 13, 1913, London, England - d. June 26, 2002, Toronto, Canada), general of the Salvation Army (1977-81).
Brown, Byron (William) (b. Sept. 24, 1958, New York City), mayor of Buffalo (2006- ).
Brown, Dean (Craig) (b. Aug. 5, 1943, Adelaide, South Australia), premier (1993-96) and deputy premier (2001-02) of South Australia.
Brown, Edmund G(erald), byname Pat Brown (b. April 21, 1905, San Francisco, Calif. - d. Feb. 16, 1996, Beverly Hills, Calif.), U.S. politician. As two-term governor of California (1959-67) he was credited with helping facilitate the rapid growth of the nation's most populous state by shepherding the expansion of its roads, public universities and water supply. He also instituted civil rights laws and consumer-protection measures. Brown retired from politics after losing a bid for a third term to Ronald Reagan. His son Edmund G., Jr., was also governor of California. Daughter Kathleen Brown was state treasurer and made her own unsuccessful run for governor in 1994.
Brown, Ethan A(llen) (b. July 4, 1776, Darien, Conn. - d. Feb. 24, 1852, Indianapolis, Ind.), governor of Ohio (1818-22). He was also U.S. chargé d'affaires in Brazil (1831-34).
Brown, Ewart (Frederick) (b. May 17, 1946, Bermuda), premier of Bermuda (2006-10).
Brown, (James) Gordon (b. Feb. 20, 1951, Glasgow, Scotland), British prime minister (2007-10). In 1974 he helped organize the campaign to elect Robin Cook to Parliament. By the time the two men entered the cabinet together 23 years later (with Cook as foreign secretary), they had become rivals. Their hostility dated from the ill-fated 1979 campaign for limited self-government for Scotland, when they fought on opposite sides - Brown supporting a "yes" vote in that year's referendum, and Cook opting for "no." (In 1998, after a successful vote on devolution, Brown campaigned against the extreme Scottish Nationalists.) Brown entered Parliament in 1983 for Dunfermline East, an industrial constituency near Glasgow. He became friends with Tony Blair, another new MP, and the two soon found themselves at the forefront of the campaign to modernize Labour's political philosophy, replacing the dream of state socialism with a more pragmatic, market-friendly strategy. Brown, two years older than Blair, was widely regarded as the senior half of the partnership and the one more likely eventually to become party leader. By the time leader John Smith died in 1994, however, Blair had overtaken Brown as the favoured candidate of party activists and the wider public. Brown reluctantly agreed to step aside and allow Blair to run as the "modernizer" candidate. After Blair won, he reappointed Brown shadow chancellor of the exchequer (a post that Smith had first given him two years earlier). Labour's landslide victory in the 1997 general election propelled Brown into the treasury, where he immediately made his mark by ceding the power to set interest rates to the Bank of England. Brown swiftly established himself as the cabinet's second most important member. When Blair announced his resignation in 2007, Brown emerged as the uncontested successor. After losing 91 seats in the 2010 general election, he quit as Labour leader.
Brown, Jerry, byname of Edmund G(erald) Brown, Jr. (b. April 7, 1938, San Francisco, Calif.), governor of California (1975-83, 2011- ); son of Edmund G. Brown. He was also California secretary of state (1971-75), mayor of Oakland (1999-2007), and California attorney general (2007-11).
Brown, Jesse (b. March 27, 1944, Detroit, Mich. - d. Aug. 15, 2002, Warrenton, Va.), U.S. veterans affairs secretary (1993-97). In 1963 he enlisted in the Marines and two years later he was seriously wounded while on patrol in Da Nang, Vietnam. That injury left his right arm partially paralyzed and became the motivating factor for his life's work. In 1967 he returned to Chicago to work for Disabled American Veterans, a 1.4 million-member advocacy group for vets with service-connected disabilities. He moved to DAV headquarters in 1973. In 1988 he became its executive director. He became a familiar figure on Capitol Hill, pushing Congress to support legislation ensuring that veterans receive their entitled health care services and benefits programs. He was appointed veterans affairs secretary by Pres. Bill Clinton in January 1993 - an ideal choice for Clinton, who was distrusted by many in the military because of his efforts to avoid the draft during the Vietnam War and other issues. In Brown, one of four blacks in the original Clinton cabinet, veterans groups knew they had a man who would stand up for their interests. Brown opposed proposals to reduce some veterans' benefits as a way to help cut the federal budget deficit. The savings "would be used to pay for the out-of-control expenses of Medicaid and Medicare programs," he wrote in November 1992. "Can you imagine cutting the compensation of a 100% disabled veteran to pay for free medical care under Medicaid for persons who have made no contributions to their country's service?" He also accused pharmaceutical companies of "gouging" the VA on drug purchases. "It's a moral outrage that drug companies are lining their pockets with money Congress intended for direct medical care to America's disabled veterans," he wrote.
Brown, John C(alvin) (b. Jan. 6, 1827, Giles county, Tenn. - d. Aug. 17, 1889, Red Boiling Springs, Tenn.), governor of Tennessee (1871-75); brother of Neill S. Brown.
Brown, Lynne (b. Sept. 26, 1961, Cape Town, South Africa), premier of Western Cape (2008-09).
Brown, Neill S(mith) (b. April 18, 1810, Giles county, Tenn. - d. Jan. 30, 1886, Nashville, Tenn.), governor of Tennessee (1847-49). He was also U.S. minister to Russia (1850-53).
Brown, Ron(ald Harmon) (b. Aug. 1, 1941, Washington, D.C. - d. April 3, 1996, near Dubrovnik, Croatia), U.S. secretary of commerce (1993-96). In 1971 Brown was elected district leader of the Democratic Party in Mount Vernon, N.Y. In 1972 the Urban League sent him to Washington as its spokesman, and by 1978 he held the position of vice president of the Urban League's Washington operations. The following year he became deputy manager of the presidential campaign of Sen. Edward Kennedy (Dem., Mass.). In 1980 Brown was named chief counsel to the Senate Judiciary Committee. In 1982 he became deputy chairman of the Democratic National Committee (DNC). For three months in 1988 Brown worked in Rev. Jesse Jackson's presidential campaign, serving as its manager at the Democratic national convention. Five months after the convention Paul G. Kirk, Jr., announced that he would not seek a second term as DNC chairman. Brown decided to run, and in the final week of January 1989 he had gained enough significant endorsements to persuade his opponents to withdraw from the race, and on February 10 he was elected by acclamation and became the first African-American to head one of the two major political parties. He tried to dispel the perception that he would fuel an image of liberalism that many in the party wanted to combat. His skill at mediating among political factions is widely credited with uniting Democrats behind Bill Clinton in 1992. A prominent member of Clinton's cabinet, he wielded heavy influence in international trade but was criticized for alleged misdealings in his personal finances. Traveling widely, he secured trading partners in emerging nations. He was on such a trip when he was killed in a plane crash along with a score of U.S. corporate executives.
Brown, Tony, byname of James Anthony Brown (b. Jan. 5, 1950, Isle of Man), chief minister of the Isle of Man (2006-11). He was speaker of the House of Keys in 2001-06.
Brown, Walter Xavier (b. Nov. 9, 1931, Portage, Wis. - d. July 23, 1998), archbishop of the Old Catholic Church of America (1963-97).
Brown, Willie (Lewis, Jr.) (b. March 20, 1934, Mineola, Texas), mayor of San Francisco (1996-2004).
Browne, Gaston (Alphonso) (b. Feb. 9, 1967, Potters, Antigua), prime minister and finance minister of Antigua and Barbuda (2014- ).
Browne, Harry (b. June 17, 1933, New York City - d. March 1, 2006, Franklin, Tenn.), U.S. Libertarian Party presidential candidate (1996, 2000).
Browne, Mike, byname of Michael Rayfield Cornelius Browne (b. Sept. 28, 1948, Layou, Saint Vincent), foreign minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (2005).
Browne, Sir Thomas (Robert) Gore (b. July 3, 1807, Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, England - d. April 17, 1887, London), governor of Saint Helena (1851-55), New Zealand (1855-61), Tasmania (1861-68), and Bermuda (1870-71); knighted 1869.
Brownlee, J(ohn) E(dward) (b. Aug. 27, 1883, Port Ryerse, Ont. - d. July 15, 1961, Calgary, Alta.), premier of Alberta (1925-34). After working as general counsel to the United Farmers Party in Alberta, he was appointed the province's attorney general (1921) and shortly thereafter was elected to the legislature in a by-election. He remained in his cabinet post until 1924, then succeeded to the office of premier of Alberta in 1925. During his administration he acquired provincial control of Alberta's resources and sold the local railways to the federal systems. He resigned from office in 1934.
Brownlee, Les, byname of Romie Leslie Brownlee (b. July 11, 1939, Pampa, Texas), acting U.S. secretary of the Army (2003-04).
Browse, Sir Norman (Leslie) (b. Dec. 1, 1931), president of the States of Alderney (2002-11); knighted 1994.
Bruat, Armand Joseph (b. May 26, 1796, Colmar, France - d. Nov. 19, 1855, aboard Le Montebello), governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1843-47) and of Martinique (1848-51).
Brucan, Silviu, original name Saul Bruckner (b. Jan. 18, 1916, Bucharest, Romania - d. Sept. 14, 2006, Bucharest), member of the Council of the National Salvation Front of Romania (1989). He was previously ambassador to the United States (1955) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1959-62).
Bruce (of Melbourne), Stanley Melbourne Bruce, (1st) Viscount (b. April 15, 1883, Melbourne - d. Aug. 25, 1967, London), prime minister of Australia (1923-29). After serving in the British army during World War I, he entered the Australian Parliament as a Nationalist in a by-election in 1918 and was his country's representative to the League of Nations in 1921. After serving as federal treasurer from 1921 to 1923, he became prime minister upon the resignation of William Morris Hughes, forming a coalition of the National and Country parties. He was also minister of external affairs and at times took the portfolios of health, trade and customs, and the territories. During his administration, Bruce strove to develop the Australian economy, especially by integrating it with that of Great Britain. He fostered research in public health and applied science. His government was returned with a comfortable majority in 1925 but in 1929 it was defeated, and he himself lost his seat. In 1931 he regained his seat and served as minister without portfolio. As Australia's minister to England in 1932 and Australian high commissioner from 1933 to 1945, he successfully lobbied for the lowering of interest rates for Australia during the Great Depression. As the Australian representative to the British war cabinet from 1942 to 1945, he opposed British prime minister Winston Churchill in arguing for lenient postwar treatment of Germany. In 1947 he became chairman of Britain's Finance Corporation for Industry, which contributed to postwar recovery in Britain. In 1947-51 he was also chairman of the World Food Council. Awarded a viscountcy in 1947, he was the first Australian to be so honoured. There were no children from his marriage, and the viscountcy lapsed.
Brucker, Wilber M(arion) (b. June 23, 1894, Saginaw, Mich. - d. Dec. 28, 1968, Grosse Pointe Farms, Mich.), governor of Michigan (1931-33) and U.S. secretary of the Army (1955-61). He served with the U.S. National Guard in the Mexican expedition of 1916 and was an infantry officer with the American expeditionary forces in World War I, receiving the silver star. From 1923 to 1927 he was prosecuting attorney for Saginaw county and from 1927 to 1928 assistant attorney general of Michigan; in 1928 he became attorney general of the state, serving until 1930. A Republican, he was elected governor of Michigan in 1930 but was defeated for reelection in 1932. He was a candidate for U.S. senator from Michigan in 1936. In April 1954, Brucker was nominated general counsel of the federal Department of Defense. When Robert T. Stevens resigned as secretary of the army, Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower on June 22, 1955, nominated Brucker to succeed him in that office. In 1957 he was in charge of the deployment of federal troops ordered by Eisenhower to halt obstruction of school integration in Little Rock, Ark. Brucker opposed moves, including those of the Eisenhower administration, to reduce the size of the army while he was in office. In June 1958 he expressed disagreement with the administration's proposal to cut army personnel to 870,000, but said he would bow to the "decision of ... superiors." Congress voted to fix army manpower at 900,000. In late August he held conferences with Gen. Chiang Kai-shek at Taipei, Taiwan, on defense against Red China's threatened invasion of Quemoy and other Nationalist-held islands in Formosa Strait.
Brückner, Helmuth (b. May 7, 1896, Peilau, Prussia, Germany [now Pilawa, Poland] - d. [in Soviet captivity] Jan. 12, 1951?, Siberia), Oberpräsident of Niederschlesien and Oberschlesien (1933-34).
Brue, Joseph Louis Michel (b. March 16, 1782 - d. 18...), commandant and administrator of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1828-39).
Brue, Paul Claude Nicolas (b. June 11, 1808, Berlin, Germany - d. ...), commandant-particular of Gabon (1861-63).
Brugger, Ernst (b. March 10, 1914, Bellinzona, Ticino, Switzerland - d. June 21, 1998, Grüningen, Zürich, Switzerland), Swiss politician. He served on Zürich's state government with the centrist Radical Party before being elected in 1969 to the country's ruling seven-member coalition cabinet, the Federal Council. As economy minister (1970-78) he concluded a free trade agreement between Switzerland and the European Economic Community. He was president in 1974 (the Swiss presidency rotates each year among the seven cabinet members). Brugger, also a major in the Swiss army, retired from the Swiss government in 1978.
Bruijne, Matty de, byname of Matthijs de Bruijne (b. Oct. 2, 1932, Vlaardingen, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands - d. May 29, 1991, Arnhem, Gelderland), queen's commissioner of Gelderland (1983-91).
Brulys, Nicolas (Jean) Ernault (de Rignac) des (b. Aug. 7, 1757, Brive-la-Gaillarde [now in Corrèze département], France - d. [suicide] Sept. 25, 1809, Saint-Denis, Île Bonaparte [now Réunion]), governor of Île Bonaparte (1806-09).
Brum (Rodríguez), Baltasar (de) (b. June 18, 1883, Salto, Uruguay - d. March 31, 1933, Montevideo), Uruguayan politician. Brum's first major posts were as minister of public education (1913-15) and minister of foreign affairs (1914-15, 1916-19). He served on the commission that revised the Uruguayan constitution (April-June 1917) and was the first president of the country under the new constitution (1919-23). He became director of the prominent publication El Día (1923-29; "The Day") and was president of the National Council of Administration (1929-31). He was responsible for instituting free and compulsory primary education, for founding public libraries, and for distributing free food to the unemployed and destitute, in addition to enhancing his country's prestige in the field of foreign relations. After the suspension of the Uruguayan constitution and assumption of dictatorial powers by Pres. Gabriel Terra, Brum remained so firmly dedicated to democracy that he shot himself rather than surrender to police whom Terra had sent to arrest all Council members and all congressmen who were opposing him.
Brumby, John (Mansfield) (b. April 21, 1953, Melbourne, Victoria), premier of Victoria (2007-10).
Brundage, Avery (b. Sept. 28, 1887, Detroit, Mich., U.S. - d. May 8, 1975, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, West Germany), president of the International Olympic Committee (1952-72).
Brundtland, Gro Harlem, née Harlem (b. April 20, 1939, Oslo), prime minister of Norway (1981, 1986-89, 1990-96). In September 1974, she was invited to become environment minister in the Labour government. In October 1979 she left that job to become deputy chairman of Labour's parliamentary group and chairman of the important Foreign Affairs Committee of the Storting (parliament). She made history in February 1981 when she became Norway's first woman prime minister and the first woman to lead its largest political party. Her first spell in office was brief. She replaced Odvar Nordli, forced to retire by ill health, at a time when Labour was split on many issues, its fortunes fading, and parliamentary elections only seven months away. Under her firm leadership, party unity improved, but there was too much ground to be made up in the opinion polls, and in the September 1981 elections Labour lost office. She started her second stint as prime minister in May 1986, following the resignation of the Conservative-led minority coalition. Again she faced serious problems on taking office. The collapse of world petroleum prices had removed the main support of Norway's prosperity, with disastrous consequences for both government revenues and the balance of trade. She warned that austerity was "an inadequate term for the vast economic restructuring" that the country needed. Labour, she added, would have to discard the program of expansion on which it had campaigned half a year earlier, before the oil price slide. The cabinet she appointed was radical in only two respects - it contained a record number of women (8 out of 18), and its members had an average age of only 46.5 years. She resigned as leader of the Labour Party in 1992 and as prime minister in 1996. In 1998-2003 she was director-general of the World Health Organization.
Brunet, Auguste (Charles Désiré Emmanuel) (b. Jan. 4, 1878, Saint-Benoît, Réunion - d. Oct. 6, 1957, Toulon, France), acting governor of Dahomey (1908), governor of New Caledonia (1913-14), lieutenant governor of Haut-Sénégal-Niger (1918-19), and acting governor-general of French West Africa (1919) and of Madagascar (1923-24).
Brunet, Emile (Lucien) (b. June 8, 1863, Brussels, Belgium - d. May 10, 1945), chairman of the Chamber of Representatives of Belgium (1919-28).
Brunet-Millet, Joseph Henri (b. Sept. 25, 1821, Paris - d. ...), commandant-particular of Gabon (1866-67) and commandant of the French Settlements in Oceania (1877).
Brunhart, Hans (b. March 28, 1945, Balzers, Liechtenstein), head of government, foreign minister, and finance minister of Liechtenstein (1978-93).
Brüning, Heinrich (Aloysius Maria Elisabeth) (b. Nov. 26, 1885, Münster [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen], Germany - d. March 30, 1970, Norwich, Vt., U.S.), chancellor of Germany (1930-32). He was a member of the (Catholic) Centre Party and from 1924 represented Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland) in the Reichstag (lower house). He came to be known as a financial and economic expert, and in 1929 he became the leader of his party in the Reichstag. Upon the fall of the coalition government of the Social Democrat Hermann Müller, Brüning was called on to form a new, more conservative ministry on March 28, 1930, without a Reichstag majority. His policies, formed in response to the Great Depression, involved increased taxation, reduced government expenditure, and high tariffs on foreign agricultural products. His austerity measures prevented any renewal of inflation, but they also paralyzed the economy and resulted in skyrocketing unemployment and a drastic fall in German workers' standard of living. On July 16, 1930, after the Reichstag rejected a major part of his plans, he began governing by presidential emergency decree, using Article 48 of the Weimar Constitution as a basis for this step. On July 18 he dissolved the Reichstag, which returned after new elections in September 1930 with Nazi representation greatly increased. To accommodate this shift to the right, he enacted a more nationalistic foreign policy. In October 1931, he took over the foreign ministry while retaining the chancellorship. He helped Pres. Paul von Hindenburg win reelection in the spring of 1932, but on May 30 of that year Brüning resigned when his project to partition several bankrupt East Elbian estates was considered Bolshevism by Hindenburg, himself an eastern landowner. Brüning left Germany in 1934 and ultimately ended up in the United States.
Brunon, Pierre (Mathieu) (b. Feb. 23, 1922, Cusset, Allier, France), prefect of Guadeloupe (1969-73).
Brunot, Richard (Edmond Maurice Édouard) (b. April 9, 1883, Saint-Ciers-du-Taillon, Charente-Inférieure [now Charente-Maritime], France - d. June 22, 1958, Aix-les-Bains, Savoie, France), acting governor of Ivory Coast (1924-25), lieutenant-governor of Chad (1933-34) and Mauritania (1934-35), governor-delegate of Oubangui-Chari (1935-36), commissioner of French Cameroons (1938-40), and governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1941). He was appointed (Sept. 7, 1931) but not installed as governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.
Brunschwig Graf, Martine (b. March 16, 1950, Fribourg, Switzerland), president of the Council of State of Genève (1998-99, 2004-05).
Bruslé, Prosper Benony (b. Feb. 14, 1802, Brest, France - d. ...), interim commandant of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1849-50).
Bruton, John (Gerard), Irish Seán de Briotún (b. May 18, 1947, Dublin, Ireland), prime minister of Ireland (1994-97). He joined the centrist political party Fine Gael in 1965, and he was elected to the Dáil (parliament) in 1969 for Meath. He was a parliamentary secretary in the government of Liam Cosgrave (1973-77) and was made finance minister under Garret FitzGerald in 1981. His budget proposal to impose a value-added tax on children's shoes led to the fall of the government in 1982. He also served as minister for industry and energy (1982-83), as minister for industry, trade, commerce, and tourism (1983-86), and again as minister for finance (1986-87). A controversial budget submitted by Bruton in 1987 was an important factor in the fall of the FitzGerald government. In 1990 Bruton was named to succeed FitzGerald as leader of the Fine Gael. He returned his party to power in December 1994 by forming a coalition government with the Labour Party and the Democratic Left Party, after the collapse of Albert Reynolds' Fianna Fáil-Labour government. He pledged himself to the continuation of the Anglo-Irish peace process as pursued by his predecessor. He left office after the 1997 elections, when a Fianna Fáil-Progressive Democrats government was formed. In 2004 he became ambassador of the European Union to the United States.
Brutus, Duly, foreign minister of Haiti (2014- ).
Brutus, Edner (b. 1911, Jérémie, Haiti - d. Nov. 6, 1980, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), foreign minister of Haiti (1974-78).
Brutus, (César Jean-Baptiste) Thimoléon (b. March 23, 1886, Port-au-Prince, Haiti - d. July 12, 1971, Port-au-Prince), foreign minister of Haiti (1948-49).
Bryan, Charles Wayland (b. Feb. 10, 1867, Salem, Ill. - d. March 4, 1945, Lincoln, Neb.), mayor of Lincoln (1915-17, 1935-37), governor of Nebraska (1923-25, 1931-35), and U.S. vice presidential candidate (1924); brother of William Jennings Bryan.
Bryan, William Jennings (b. March 19, 1860, Salem, Ill. - d. July 26, 1925, Dayton, Tenn.), U.S. presidential candidate (1896, 1900, 1908). From Lincoln, Neb., the Democrat was elected to the U.S. Congress in 1890. Renowned as a gifted debater, he came to be considered the national leader of the Free Silver Movement (bimetallism) as opposed to the "hard money" policy of the Eastern bankers and industrialists, who favoured the gold standard. Defeated for the U.S. Senate in 1894, the climax of Bryan's career was undoubtedly the 1896 presidential campaign. At the Democratic convention in Chicago, his famous "Cross of Gold" speech (July 8) won him the nomination at the age of 36. His panacea for the depressed economy after the Panic of 1893 was an "easy money" policy based on the unlimited coinage of silver at a ratio to gold of 16 to 1. In the ensuing campaign, he travelled more than 18,000 miles and attracted a large and enthusiastic following, but the well-financed Republican machine won 271 electoral votes for William McKinley, to Bryan's 176. Bryan lost to McKinley again in 1900 and to William Howard Taft in 1908. In recognition of his role in securing the Democratic nomination for Woodrow Wilson in 1912, Bryan was appointed secretary of state the following year. An avowed pacifist, Bryan resigned over Wilson's second note to Germany (June 8, 1915) protesting the sinking of the Lusitania. Nonetheless, he urged loyal support of the war when it was finally declared. A firm believer in a literal interpretation of the Bible, Bryan went to Dayton, Tenn., to assist in the prosecution of a schoolteacher accused of teaching Darwinism (July 1925). Soon after the trial, Bryan fell ill and died.
Bryant, (Cecil) Farris (b. July 26, 1914, Ocala, Fla. - d. March 1, 2002, Jacksonville, Fla.), governor of Florida (1961-65). In 1946 he won his first term in the Florida legislature as a representative from Marion County and went on to serve five terms in the legislature, including one term in 1953 as speaker of the House. Elected governor in 1960, he urged expansion of the higher education system so Florida residents could win high-tech jobs beginning to locate in the Orlando-Cape Canaveral area around the burgeoning space program. With a rapidly growing population and the emergence of Florida as a major state for tourism, Bryant also concentrated on expansion of the state highway system. Although elected on a conservative segregation platform, his administration witnessed the rapid desegregation of Florida's public schools and the integration of public accommodations. In 1966, he was appointed by Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson as director of the Office of Emergency Planning and a member of the National Security Council. In 1967, Johnson named Bryant chairman of the U.S. Advisory Commission on Intergovernment Relations. Bryant was defeated in 1970 by Lawton Chiles in a Democratic runoff for the U.S. Senate.
Bryant, (Charles) Gyude (b. Jan. 17, 1949, Monrovia, Liberia - d. March 16, 2014, Monrovia), chairman of the National Transitional Government of Liberia (2003-06). He was briefly arrested in December 2007 after he failed to appear in court to face corruption charges. In April 2009 he was acquitted in one corruption case, and other charges were dropped in September 2010.
Bryce, Dame Quentin (Alice Louise), née Strachan (b. Dec. 23, 1942, Longreach, Queensland), governor of Queensland (2003-08) and governor-general of Australia (2008-14); knighted 2014.
Buarque, Cristovam (Ricardo Cavalcanti) (b. Feb. 20, 1944, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil), governor of the Distrito Federal (1995-99) and education minister of Brazil (2003-04).
Bucaram (Elmhalim), Asaad, Asaad also spelled Assad (b. 1916 - d. Nov. 5, 1981, Guayaquil, Ecuador), Ecuadorian politician. He was twice elected mayor of Guayaquil in the 1960s and later prefect of Guayas province. In 1970 he was deported to Panama. He returned in January 1972. In 1978 an electoral law laid down that presidential candidates must be of Ecuadorian parentage, thus excluding Bucaram, who was of Lebanese parentage but had been widely favoured to win the election. Jaime Roldós Aguilera then stood in for him as candidate of the Concentration of Popular Forces. Roldós won, but differences arose between the two, and Bucaram then obstructed Roldós in Congress, forming an alliance with the Conservative Party to pass a series of controversial bills, many of which were, however, vetoed by Roldós. Bucaram sprinkled his speeches with such rough language that political opponents called him a "churl" and "the sewer that talks." His followers responded that he was "a churl with a noble heart."
Bucaram Ortiz, Abdalá (Jaime)1 (b. Feb. 20, 1952, Guayaquil, Ecuador), president of Ecuador (1996-97); nephew of Asaad Bucaram. In 1982 he founded the leftist Ecuadorian Roldosist Party, and two years later he was elected mayor of Guayaquil, Ecuador's largest city. In 1985 he said that the military was good only for marching in parades, which resulted in a warrant for his arrest. To escape the slander charges, he fled to Panama, where he was arrested for cocaine possession but was not convicted. He claimed that rivals had planted the drugs on him. In 1987 he was allowed to return to Ecuador, but another two-year exile from criminal charges came in 1988 when he was accused of misappropriating public funds while serving as Guayaquil's mayor. He unsuccessfully ran for the presidency in 1988 and 1992, but won a surprisingly large number of votes. Campaigning in 1996 under the name El Loco ("The Madman"), he traveled with a rock band, often singing "Jailhouse Rock," a song associated with Elvis Presley, before his speeches. He criticized the "oligarchy," which he defined as wealthy businesses and banks, and campaigned for social welfare programs and the construction of new housing. In a country where 67% of the people were poor, it was a popular platform. In the May 19 election, Bucaram and Jaime Nebot of the Social Christian Party qualified for a runoff. Nebot, who was supported by businesses and banks, was favoured to win, but Bucaram's promise of change galvanized much of the electorate, and he won the July 7 runoff with 54.5% of the votes. But after six months in office, parliament deposed him for "mental incapacity" on Feb. 6, 1997; two days later, he again fled to Panama, which granted him political asylum. The government of Pres. Fabián Alarcón filed lawsuits against Bucaram for alleged mishandling and illegal appropriation of public funds. The Supreme Court cleared him of the charges on March 31, 2005, and he returned from his exile on April 2.
1 According to researcher Eduardo Estrada, Bucaram says his name is Abdala, without accent; in practice, however, it is always written Abdalá.
Buchanan, James (b. April 23, 1791, near Mercersburg, Pa. - d. June 1, 1868, near Lancaster, Pa.), president of the United States (1857-61). As a Federalist, Buchanan served in the Pennsylvania legislature (1814-16) and in the U.S. House of Representatives (1821-31). When his party disintegrated in the 1820s, Buchanan associated himself with the emerging Democratic Party. He served as U.S. minister to St. Petersburg (1831-33), U.S. senator (1834-45), and secretary of state (1845-49) in the cabinet of Pres. James K. Polk. Failing to receive the presidential nomination in 1848, Buchanan retired from public service until 1853, when he was appointed minister to Great Britain. He was nominated for president in 1856 and was elected over Republican John C. Frémont and Millard Fillmore, the American (Know-Nothing) Party candidate. Although well endowed with legal knowledge and experience in government, Buchanan lacked the soundness of judgment and moral courage to deal effectively with the slavery crisis. His strategy for the preservation of the Union consisted in the prevention of Northern antislavery agitation and the enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act (1850). His position was weakened by a split within the Democratic Party, which opened the way for the election of the Republican Abraham Lincoln as president in 1860. By February 1861 seven Southern states had seceded from the Union. Buchanan denounced secession but admitted that he could find no means to stop it. The president refused to surrender any of the federal forts that he could hold, however, and he ordered reinforcements (January 1861) sent to Fort Sumter at Charleston, S.C. Upon leaving office (March 4), Buchanan retired to his home near Lancaster, where he actively supported the Union cause until his death.
Buchanan, John M(acLennan) (b. April 22, 1931, Sydney, N.S., Canada), premier of Nova Scotia (1978-90).
Buchanan, Pat(rick Joseph) (b. Nov. 2, 1938, Washington, D.C.), U.S. political figure. He was candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in 1992 and 1996 and presidential candidate of the Reform Party in 2000.
Büchel, Markus (b. May 14, 1959 - d. July 9, 2013, Ruggell, Liechtenstein), head of government of Liechtenstein (1993). He lost the confidence of his own Progressive Citizens' Party (FBP) soon after taking office. He is not to be confused with another Markus Büchel (b. Jan. 14, 1953; no personal relation), who was speaker of the FBP group in the Landtag in 2003-09.
Buckhorn, Bob, byname of Robert Francis Buckhorn, Jr. (b. July 29, 1958, Evanston, Ill.), mayor of Tampa (2011- ).
Buckley-Mathew, Sir George, until 1835 George Byam Mathew, 1835-65 George Benvenuto Mathew (b. 1807 - d. Oct. 22, 1879, London), governor of the Bahamas (1844-49); knighted May 1879. He was also British minister to Colombia (1865-66), Argentina (1866-67), and Brazil (1867-79).
Buckovski, Vlado (b. Dec. 2, 1962, Skopje), defense minister (2001, 2002-04) and prime minister (2004-06) of Macedonia. In December 2008 he was sentenced to 3½ years in jail after he was found guilty of abuse of power while serving as defense minister during an armed conflict in 2001.
Budak, Mile (b. Aug. 30, 1889, Sveti Rok village, Lovinac municipality, Lika region, central Croatia - d. [executed] June 7, 1945, Zagreb, Croatia), foreign minister of Croatia (1943).
Budargin, Oleg (Mikhailovich) (b. Nov. 16, 1960), governor of Taymyr autonomous okrug (2003-06).
Buddhadasa, A(ththintha) M(arakalage), chief minister of Uva (2001-04).
Budimir, Zivko (b. Nov. 20, 1962), president of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2011- ).
Budisa, Drazen (b. July 25, 1948, Drnis, near Split, Croatia), Croatian politician. A student leader during the "Croatian Spring" of 1971, he later spent four years in prison in communist Yugoslavia. He was minister without portfolio in Croatia from August 1991 to February 1992 and was presidential candidate twice, in 1992 and 2000. In 2000 he was the candidate of the two major parties in the ruling coalition - the Croatian Social Liberal Party (HSLS) and the Social Democratic Party of Croatia (SDP). He was chairman of the HSLS in 1990-96 and 1997-2001; he stepped down after the government's decision to fully cooperate with the international war crimes court in The Hague in 2001. But months later he decided to return to politics sharply criticizing the government and demanding more power for his party. On Feb. 2, 2002, he was again elected HSLS leader, and on March 21 he became first deputy prime minister, but his party was out of government again in July. He was replaced as party leader in December 2003.
Buffett, David (b. May 27, 1827, Pitcairn Island - d. Aug. 7, 1924, Norfolk Island), chief magistrate of Norfolk Island (1871); brother of John Buffett, Robert Pitcairn Buffett, and Thomas Buffett.
Buffett, David Ernest (b. Oct. 17, 1942, Sydney, Australia), chief minister (1979-86, 2006-07, 2010-13) and president of the Legislative Assembly (1989-92) of Norfolk Island; great-grandson of David Buffett; great-grandnephew of John Buffett, Robert Pitcairn Buffett, and Thomas Buffett. He has been a member of the Legislative Assembly from its inception in 1979 except in 2007-10.
Buffett, Henry Seymour (b. May 7, 1847, Pitcairn Island - d. May 1, 1931, Norfolk Island), chief magistrate of Norfolk Island (1888); son of John Buffett; nephew of David Buffett, Robert Pitcairn Buffett, and Thomas Buffett.
Buffett, John (b. July 21, 1826, Pitcairn Island - d. June 23, 1906, Norfolk Island), chief magistrate of Norfolk Island (1867-70, 1881-82); brother of David Buffett, Robert Pitcairn Buffett, and Thomas Buffett.
Buffett, Robert Pitcairn (b. March 26, 1830, Pitcairn Island - buried Jan. 23, 1916, Pitcairn Island), chief magistrate of Pitcairn Island (1868); brother of David Buffett, John Buffett, and Thomas Buffett.
Buffett, Thomas (b. Jan. 3, 1825, Pitcairn Island - d. Oct. 18, 1900, Norfolk Island), chief magistrate of Norfolk Island (1860-61); brother of David Buffett, John Buffett, and Robert Pitcairn Buffett.
Buffi, Giuseppe (b. Sept. 26, 1938, Locarno, Ticino, Switzerland - d. July 20, 2000, Chioggia, Veneto, Italy), president of the Council of State of Ticino (1989-90, 1993-94, 1997-98, 2000).
Bufi, Ylli (Sokrat) (b. May 25, 1948, Tiranë, Albania), prime minister of Albania (1991). He was minister of the foodstuff industry in 1990-91 and of food and light industry in 1991.
Bugdayev, Ilya (Erdniyevich) (b. 1938), chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Kalmykia (1992-93).
Bugeaud, Thomas Robert, marquis de la Piconnerie, duc (duke) d'Isly (b. Oct. 15, 1784, Limoges, France - d. June 10, 1849, Paris), governor-general of Algeria (1841-47). He joined Napoléon's imperial guard in 1804, with which he took part in the Austerlitz campaign of the following year. He later distinguished himself during the Peninsular War. At the First Restoration (1814) he was made a colonel, but his troops forced him to side with Napoléon during the Hundred Days (1815). For fifteen years after the fall of Napoléon he was not re-employed, but the July Revolution of 1830 allowed him to resume his military career. Sent to Algeria for a short period in 1836, Bugeaud defeated Abd-el-Kader, emir of Mascara and hero of the Arab resistance, at Sikkah (July 6). Critical of the traditional cumbersome French military tactics used in Algeria, Bugeaud successfully developed techniques more suited to conditions of irregular warfare. In 1841, when he returned to Algeria as governor-general, his new tactics won early successes over the Algerians. In 1843 he was made a marshal of France. After crushing Abd-el-Kader's Moroccan allies at the Battle of Isly (Aug. 14, 1844), Bugeaud received his ducal title. He returned to Algeria for short periods in 1845 and 1847 but resigned as governor-general in September 1847 in protest over the government's neglect of his plans for military colonization. When revolution broke out in Paris in 1848, Bugeaud commanded Louis-Philippe's troops in the city but failed to save the monarchy. He was asked, but eventually refused, to be a candidate for the presidency in opposition to Louis-Napoléon. Under the Second Republic he published many antisocialist pamphlets and accepted command of the Army of the Alps.
Buggia, Jean-Jacques (Nicolas) (b. Jan. 1, 1925), governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1967-71).
Bughici, Simion (b. Dec. 25, 1914, Iasi, Romania - d. Feb. 1, 1997, Bucharest, Romania), foreign minister of Romania (1952-55). He was ambassador to the Soviet Union in 1949-52.
Bugli, Pietro (b. Oct. 21, 1954), captain-regent of San Marino (1996).
Bugti, Sardar (Mohammad) Akbar Khan, also called Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti (b. July 12, 1927, Barkhan, Baluchistan, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Aug. 26, 2006, Kohlu district, Balochistan, Pakistan), governor (1973-74) and chief minister (1989-90) of Balochistan. He was the hereditary ruler of the Bugti tribe and an articulate spokesman for the Baloch cause for decades. The Baloch rebellion has been running off-and-on for decades, but Bugti was not always an anti-establishment figure. He was appointed governor of Balochistan in 1973, but resigned after a few months after disagreeing with federal government policies. In 1989, he was elected the province's chief minister; little more than a year later he again resigned. On other occasions he was elected as lawmaker. Hostilities escalated again in December 2005 when militants fired rockets that landed about 300 yards from Pres. Pervez Musharraf while he was visiting the town of Kohlu. The government then launched an offensive against the Bugti and Marri tribes, and Bugti was killed by security forces in a 2006 operation.
Buha, Aleksa (b. Nov. 21, 1940, Gacko, Herzegovina, Yugoslavia [now in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina]), Bosnian politician. He was foreign minister of the Republika Srpska in 1992-98. He was picked as chairman of the Serb Democratic Party (SDS) when Radovan Karadzic was forced from office in July 1996. He was a loyal Karadzic supporter whose constant theme in speeches and writing was the impossibility of coexistence among Bosnia's Serbs, Croats, and Muslims.
Buhagiar, Francesco (b. Sept. 7, 1876, Qrendi, Malta - d. June 27, 1934), prime minister of Malta (1923-24). After Malta was granted self-government Buhagiar was returned to the Legislative Assembly in the elections of 1921 and 1924 in the interests of the Unione Popolare Maltese (UPM). On Oct. 13, 1922, he was appointed minister of justice in succession to Alfredo Caruana Gatto and exactly a year later he succeeded Sen. Joseph Howard as prime minister. The UPM coalition with the Labour Party came to an end on Jan. 2, 1924, but Buhagiar led a minority government until Parliament was dissolved in April. After the June 1924 elections, the UPM returned only 10 members to the Legislative Assembly but Buhagiar was still asked to form a government. He led a minority government until Sept. 22, 1924, when he resigned his seat and was appointed a judge of the Superior Courts. A gentleman and a democrat, Buhagiar was highly respected by all, even his political opponents. His career on the bench was a distinguished one, earning him a reputation as an eminent practical man and an accomplished jurist.
Buhari, Muhammadu (b. Dec. 17, 1942, Dumurkol, Katsina state, Nigeria), president of Nigeria (1983-85). He was a Fulani from Daura in the northern state of Kaduna. He joined the Nigerian Army in 1962 and was commissioned in 1963. By 1975 he was a lieutenant colonel and was one of the movers in the coup that ousted Gen. Yakubu Gowon, head of the military government from 1966 to 1975. Buhari served as military governor of the former North Eastern state (at Maiduguri) in 1975-76 and briefly of Borno state (1976) before he was appointed federal commissioner for petroleum resources by Lieut.Gen. Olusegun Obasanjo, who succeeded Brig. Murtala Mohammed after the latter's assassination. When this office joined the Nigerian National Oil Corporation to form the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation in 1977, Buhari became chairman. At the same time, he was moved to the job of military secretary (Army) at Supreme Military Headquarters - the seat of the government. In 1979 he returned to full military duties and in 1980 was appointed general officer commanding, 4th Division; later he became general officer commanding, 1st Mechanized Division at Jos, Plateau state, where he remained until December 1983. On the last day of 1983 the Nigerian Army once more took power, ousting the civilian government elected less than four months earlier, and Major General Buhari emerged as the new head of state. During his New Year's broadcast as head of state, he listed the many failings of former president Alhaji Shehu Shagari's regime - corruption, immorality and impropriety, forgery, fraud, embezzlement, and other crimes - and thereby set high standards for himself and his new government. In 1985 he was deposed by Ibrahim Babangida. In 2003, 2007, and 2011 he was an unsuccessful presidential candidate.
Bühl, Herbert (b. Aug. 7, 1956, Schaffhausen, Switzerland), president of the government of Schaffhausen (2002).
Buhl, Vilhelm (b. Oct. 16, 1881, Fredericia, Denmark - d. Dec. 18, 1954, Copenhagen), prime minister of Denmark (1942, 1945). He was employed in the Copenhagen Tax Department and in 1924 became its director. In 1937, five years after he was first elected to parliament as a Social Democrat, he was made finance minister under Thorvald Stauning in Denmark's first Social Democratic government and carried through important tax reforms. He was a member of the coalition government formed in 1940 during the German occupation. A determined opponent of Denmark's forced adherence to the renewed Anti-Comintern Pact in 1941, Buhl became prime minister on Stauning's death in May 1942. Buhl's opposition to cooperation with Nazi Germany resulted in his dismissal by the Germans in November 1942. Buhl again became prime minister of the first postwar government (1945). In the minority Social Democratic government of Hans Hedtoft, he served as minister of economic coordination (1947-50) and concurrently as minister of justice from March to September 1950.
Buhot-Launay, Émile (b. June 12, 1881 - d. May 1, 1970), governor of French Guiana (1927-28), acting lieutenant governor (1929-30) and acting commandant (1938) of Chad, acting lieutenant governor of Middle Congo (1932), and acting governor-delegate of Oubangui-Chari (1936).
Buiskool, Johannes A(te) E(ildert) (b. Sept. 15, 1899, Koedijk, Noord-Holland, Netherlands - d. Oct. 30, 1960, Gorssel, Gelderland, Netherlands), prime minister of Suriname (1951-52).
Buitrago (Sandoval y Benavent), Pablo (Sánchez de) (b. Jan. 25, 1807, León [now in Nicaragua] - d. July 22, 1882, Santa Tecla, El Salvador), director of Nicaragua (1841-43).
Bukejlovic, Pero (b. Aug. 9, 1946, Busletic village, near Doboj [now in Republika Srpska], Bosnia and Herzegovina), prime minister of the Republika Srpska (2005-06).
Bukhari, Nasuhi (Salim) al- (d. 1961), prime minister (1939) and acting president (1939) of Syria.
Bukharin, Nikolay Ivanovich (b. Oct. 9 [Sept. 27, Old Style], 1888, Moscow, Russia - d. March 14, 1938, Moscow), prominent leader of the Communist International (Comintern). In 1906 he joined the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party and in 1908 became a member of the Moscow committee of the party's Bolshevik wing. He was arrested and deported to Onega (a region near the White Sea) in 1911 but escaped to western Europe, where he met the Bolshevik leader Lenin in Kraków (1912) and worked with him on the party's newspaper Pravda. In October 1916 he went to New York, where he edited a Leninist newspaper, Novy Mir. After the February Revolution of 1917, he returned to Russia. He was elected to his party's central committee in August, and, after the Bolsheviks seized power, he became editor of Pravda. In March 1919 he became a member of the Comintern's executive committee. After Lenin's death in 1924, Bukharin became a full member of the Politburo. In 1926 he succeeded Grigory Zinovyev as chairman of the Comintern's executive committee. In 1928 Stalin denounced Bukharin for opposing enforced collectivization. Bukharin lost his Comintern post in April 1929 and was expelled from the Politburo in November. He recanted his views and was partially reinstated in the party. He was made editor of Izvestiya, the official government newspaper, in 1934 and participated in writing the 1936 Soviet constitution. But in January 1937 he was secretly arrested and was expelled from the Communist Party for being a "Trotskyite." In March 1938 he was a defendant in the last public purge trial, falsely accused of counterrevolutionary activities and of espionage, found guilty, and executed. He was posthumously reinstated as a party member in 1988.
Bukoshi, Bujar (b. May 13, 1947, Suva Reka, Kosovo, Serbia), prime minister of the self-declared Republic of Kosovo (1991-2000). In 1993-99 he lived in exile in Bonn, Germany.
Bulajic, Zarko (b. July 22, 1922, Vilusi, Yugoslavia [now in Montenegro] - d. Jan. 1, 2009, Belgrade, Serbia), chairman of the Executive Council of Montenegro (1969-74).
Bulatovic, Momir (b. Sept. 21, 1956, Belgrade, Serbia), secretary of the League of Communists (1989-91) and president (1990-98) of Montenegro and prime minister of Yugoslavia (1998-2000).
Bulatovic, Pavle (b. Dec. 13, 1948, Gornji Rovci, northern Montenegro - d. Feb. 7, 2000, Belgrade, Serbia), Yugoslav politician. He was defense minister from 1993, and prior to that, interior minister of Montenegro (1991-92) and Yugoslav interior minister (1992-93). He was shot through the window of a restaurant while he was dining in Belgrade's borough of Banjica.
Bulatsev, Aslanbek (Soltanovich) (b. 1963), prime minister of South Ossetia (2008-09).
Bulavin, Vladimir (Ivanovich) (b. Feb. 11, 1953, Lipetsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), plenipotentiary of the president in Severo-Zapadny federal district (2013- ).
Bulganin, Nikolay (Aleksandrovich) (b. June 11 [May 30, O.S.], 1895, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia - d. Feb. 24, 1975, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), premier of the Soviet Union (1955-58). In 1917 he joined the Bolshevik party. In 1918-22 he held a leading post in the Cheka (secret police). He was made chairman of the Moscow Soviet in 1931 and was mayor of Moscow in 1931-37. He then became premier of the Russian S.F.S.R. (1937-38), chairman of the Soviet Union's state bank (1938-41), deputy premier of the Soviet Union (1938-41), and a full member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (1939). After serving in Iosif Stalin's elite war cabinet, the State Defense Committee (1944), he resumed the post of deputy premier of the Soviet Union (1947-49), succeeded Stalin as minister of the armed forces (1947-49), with the rank of marshal of the Soviet Union, and became a full member of the Politburo of the Central Committee (1948). After Stalin's death (March 5, 1953), he became deputy premier and defense minister in the government of Georgy Malenkov. But during the power struggle between Malenkov and Nikita Khrushchev, Bulganin supported Khrushchev. Khrushchev won, and Bulganin on Feb. 8, 1955, replaced Malenkov as chairman of the Council of Ministers (premier). He came to be closely identified with Khrushchev, but he joined an "antiparty group" trying to oust Khrushchev in June 1957. Although the group failed and its leaders were expelled from the Central Committee and its Presidium (July 1957), Bulganin remained premier until March 27, 1958, and a member of the Presidium until Sept. 5, 1958; only at the end of 1958 was he formally associated with the "antiparty" group. He was then given an obscure party position, and in 1961 he lost his membership on the Central Committee.
Bulkeley, John Duncan (b. Aug. 19, 1911, New York City - d. April 6, 1996, Silver Spring, Md.), commander of the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base (1963-66).
Bullard, Sir Julian (Leonard) (b. March 8, 1928, Athens, Greece - d. May 25, 2006, Oxford, England), British political agent in the Trucial States (1968-70); knighted 1982. He was also ambassador to West Germany (1984-88).
Bulnes (Prieto), Manuel (b. Dec. 25, 1799, Concepción, Chile - d. Oct. 18, 1866, Santiago), president of Chile (1841-51). His military victory against the Bolivian-Peruvian Confederation in 1839 assured his election to the presidency. He reduced the size of the military and solidified its loyalty to the central government in the face of provincial uprisings. As a southerner, he was able to defuse regional resentment of the dominant Santiago area. Although Bulnes staffed his two administrations mainly with Conservatives, he conciliated his opponents by including some Liberals. Social and political stability made Chile a haven for many intellectual refugees from other dictatorships. The new interest in learning produced a generation of young intellectuals who openly opposed the oligarchical domination that Bulnes represented. Faced with growing discontent, Bulnes named his successor, Manuel Montt, and had him duly elected; he was obliged, however, to resort to military action to quell a brief but bitter civil war before Montt's tenure was secured.
Bulovas, Virgilijus (Vladislovas) (b. Nov. 6, 1939, Kaunas, Lithuania), interior minister of Lithuania (1996, 2003-04). He was also ambassador to Kazakhstan (1997-2001).
Bülow, Bernhard (Heinrich Martin Karl) Fürst von, formerly (Sept. 22, 1899-Sept. 6, 1905) Bernhard Graf von Bülow (b. May 3, 1849, Klein-Flottbek, near Altona, Germany - d. Oct. 28, 1929, Rome), chancellor of Germany and prime minister of Prussia (1900-09). He entered the German foreign service in 1874. He held a number of diplomatic posts, becoming German ambassador in Rome in 1893. His real rise to power occurred in June 1897, when Emperor Wilhelm II appointed him state secretary for the Foreign Department. He quickly became a more potent force than the chancellor, Chlodwig Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, and after three years he succeeded to the chancellorship. He was expected to satisfy the widespread desire for an aggressive foreign policy while preventing the impetuous emperor from making a fool of himself. In his foreign policy, he employed what he understood as Bismarckian Realpolitik to advance Wilhelm II's policy of a "place in the sun" for the Reich among world powers. As state secretary, he scored some gains in the Pacific, acquiring Kiaochow, China; the Caroline Islands; and Samoa (1897-1900). He actively promoted building the Baghdad Railway to make Germany a power in the Middle East. In domestic affairs he relied on the support of the Conservatives and Centrists and, at times, the National Liberals. Though he did not repress the Social Democrats, he made sure that they gained no real political power. Wilhelm II's indiscreet remarks printed in The Daily Telegraph of London in 1908 led to Bülow's resignation in 1909. Bülow admitted that he had not read the proof of the article that the newspaper had submitted to him before publication; Wilhelm believed Bülow had approved the article so that the emperor would be humiliated.
Bulundwe (Kitongo Penga Mali), Édouard (b. Nov. 29, 1932), president of Katanga Oriental (1963-65), governor of Équateur (1969) and Orientale (19...-70), and interior minister of Congo (Kinshasa)/Zaire (1970-72).
Bumçi, Aldo (Tonin) (b. June 11, 1974, Tiranë, Albania), justice minister (2005-07) and foreign minister (2013) of Albania.
Bundhun, (Abdool) Raouf (b. Jan. 14, 1937, Amaury, Rivière du Rempart district, northern Mauritius), vice president (2002-03, 2003-07) and acting president (2003) of Mauritius.
Bundu, Abass (Chernor) (b. June 3, 1948, Gbinti, Port Loko district, Sierra Leone), executive secretary of the Economic Community of West African States (1989-93) and foreign minister of Sierra Leone (1994-95). He was also agriculture minister (1982-85) and a presidential candidate (1996; 2.9% of the vote).
Bunge, Nikolay Khristianovich (b. Nov. 23 [Nov. 11, O.S.], 1823, Kiev, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. June 15 [June 3, O.S.], 1895, Tsarskoye Selo palace, near Saint Petersburg, Russia), finance minister (1881-86) and chairman of the Committee of Ministers (1887-95) of Russia.
Bur, Dominique (b. Dec. 28, 1947, Monswiller, Bas-Rhin, France), high commissioner of New Caledonia (1995-99). He has also been prefect of the French départements of Loire (1999-2000), Haute-Vienne (2004-07), Côte-d'Or (2007-08), Haute-Garonne (2008-11), and Nord (2011- ).
Bürckel, Josef (b. March 30, 1895, Lingenfeld [now in Rheinland-Pfalz], Germany - d. [suicide] Sept. 28, 1944, Neustadt an der Weinstrasse [now in Rheinland-Pfalz], Germany), German Nazi official. He was in charge of the Saarland after its 1935 reincorporation into Germany, holding the titles of Reichskommissar für die Rückgliederung des Saarlandes (1935-36), Reichskommissar für das Saarland (1936-40), Reichskommissar für die Saarpfalz (1940-41), and Reichsstatthalter in der Westmark (1941-44). From 1926 he had been Gauleiter (party district leader) of Rheinpfalz, which in 1935 merged with the Saarland to form the Gau Pfalz-Saar (later renamed Saarpfalz and then Westmark), with him remaining as Gauleiter. After the annexation of Austria he was Reichskommissar für die Wiedervereinigung Österreichs mit dem Deutschen Reich (1938-40) and Reichskommissar (1939-40) and Reichsstatthalter (1940) of Wien. After the occupation of Lorraine he was chief of civil administration in that territory (1940-44).
Burckhardt(-Schazmann), Carl Christoph (b. Dec. 5, 1862, Basel - d. Feb. 19, 1915, Birsfelden, Basel-Land), president of the government of Basel-Stadt (1908-09).
Burckhardt-Iselin, Karl (b. July 2, 1830, Basel - d. Aug. 24, 1893, Basel), mayor (1868, 1870, 1872, 1874) and president of the government (1875-76, 1877-78, 1881-82, 1885-86, 1889-90) of Basel-Stadt.
Burdyugov, Anatoliy Fedorovych (b. Nov. 9, 1958, Odessa oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.), prime minister of Crimea (2005-06).
Burelli Rivas, Miguel Ángel (b. July 8, 1922, La Puerta, Trujillo state, Venezuela - d. Oct. 22, 2003, Washington, D.C., U.S.), foreign minister of Venezuela (1994-99). He was also justice minister (1964-65), ambassador to Colombia (1965-67), the United Kingdom (1967-68), and the United States (1974-76), and a presidential candidate (1968).
Buresch, Karl (b. Oct. 12, 1878, Gross-Enzersdorf, Lower Austria - d. [suicide?] Sept. 16, 1936, Vienna, Austria), Landeshauptmann of Niederösterreich (1922-31, 1932-33) and chancellor (1931-32), finance minister (1931, 1933-35), and foreign minister (1932) of Austria.
Burford, Anne (Irene McGill) Gorsuch, née McGill, before second marriage (1983) known as Anne M. Gorsuch (b. April 21, 1942, Casper, Wyo. - d. July 18, 2004, Aurora, Colo.), administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1981-83). In 1976, she was elected to the first of two terms in the Colorado House of Representatives, where she was a member of a group that called itself the Crazies for its members' passionate devotion to states' rights and opposition to federal energy and environmental policies. She was named outstanding freshman legislator and worked on legislation concerning hazardous wastes and vehicle emissions. In appointing her EPA administrator, Pres. Ronald Reagan made her a leader in his effort to bring economic discipline to environmental cleanup and to give the states greater enforcement powers on matters like clean air and water. Critics contended that the policies weakened federal environmental enforcement to please polluting industries. This fundamental difference in perspective reached a climax in a battle between a subcommittee of the House of Representatives, which demanded thousands of pages of documents relating to toxic waste cleanup, and Gorsuch, who refused to hand them over. She said she would go to jail rather than surrender them to Congress. Eventually, the White House gave up its claim of executive privilege to keep the documents secret, and she resigned on March 9, 1983. She was the second-ranking woman in the Reagan administration, after United Nations Ambassador Jeane Kirkpatrick. Environmentalists like Gaylord Nelson, chairman of the Wilderness Society, accused her of "a wholesale dismantling" of environmental advances, but she insisted that she was bringing cost-effective market forces to the regulation of pollution.
Burg, Avraham (b. Jan. 19, 1955, Jerusalem), Israeli politician; son of Josef Burg. He was speaker of the Knesset in 1999-2003 and served as interim president of Israel in 2000.
Burg, Josef (Salomon) (b. Jan. 31, 1909, Dresden, Germany - d. Oct. 15, 1999, Jerusalem), Israeli politician. He arrived in British-mandated Palestine just before the outbreak of World War II in 1939. An ordained rabbi, he became a political kingmaker during his 35 years as a cabinet minister (1951-86). He spent some 40 years in parliament after Israel's establishment in 1948 and at various times held the health, posts, welfare, interior, police, and religious affairs portfolios in the cabinet. He served under every Israeli prime minister until his retirement from politics in 1986. To many Israelis, Burg, who never lost his heavy German accent, symbolized the Ashkenazi elite of European Jews who long dominated politics in the Jewish state. He was a founding member (1956) of the National Religious Party (Mafdal), which spearheaded Jewish settlement efforts in the occupied West Bank and Gaza, areas Israel captured in the 1967 Middle East war. Burg, however, was widely regarded as a dove among hawks in the party. After Israel's 1979 peace treaty with Egypt, Burg led a Palestinian Autonomy Committee that failed to make progress on self-rule, later established under a 1993 interim peace deal between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization.
Burgener, Thomas (b. Aug. 11, 1954, Visp, Valais, Switzerland), president of the Council of State of Valais (2002-03, 2006-07).
Burger, Warren E(arl) (b. Sept. 17, 1907, St. Paul, Minn. - d. June 25, 1995, Washington, D.C.), chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1969-86).
Burgess, Harry (b. Feb. 22, 1872, Starkville, Miss. - d. March 18, 1933), governor of the Panama Canal Zone (1928-32). He served in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers advancing in rank to colonel on July 1, 1920. He was in charge of surveys and design of Muscle Shoals power development and Panama Canal maintenance engineer from 1924 to 1928. During his term as governor, canal traffic increased in volume rapidly and steadily until it reached a peak in 1929. This emphasized the need, foreseen by his predecessor Meriwether L. Walker, of providing for a greater future traffic, and much of Governor Burgess' efforts were directed toward this end. Following Walker's lead, he saw that substantial preliminary work was done toward increasing canal capacity, namely, that of constructing a dam for impounding additional water storage for lockages and maintenance of an optimal water level in Gatun Lake. Governor Burgess took great interest in the lives of the people who carried out the work of canal operations and maintenance, and undoubtedly identified more closely with the workers than they themselves realized. For example, he worked hard for, and was largely instrumental in, obtaining the rights of the Canal Zone Retirement Act, which affected favourably every employee of the "Big Ditch." Burgess also planned the construction of school buildings, bachelors and nurses quarters and established a public library and the Canal Zone Junior College. Unlike Walker, he was inclined to be impatient with details, but saw to it that every problem put to him had been well studied and carefully analyzed then acted with quick decision and sound judgment.
Burggraeff, Jan (b. 16... - d. Jan. 14, 1714), commander of Bonaire (1690-95, 1699-1705).
Burgstaller, Gabi, byname of Gabriele Burgstaller (b. May 23, 1963, Penetzdorf/Niederthalheim, Oberösterreich, Austria), Landeshauptfrau of Salzburg (2004- ).
Burity, Tarcísio de Miranda (b. Nov. 28, 1938, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil - d. July 8, 2003, São Paulo), governor of Paraíba (1979-82, 1987-91).
Burjanadze, Nino (Anzoris asuli), also spelled Nino (Anzorovna) Burdzhanadze (b. July 16, 1964, Kutaisi, Georgian S.S.R.), acting president of Georgia (2003-04, 2007-08). She was speaker of parliament in 2001-03, 2004-07, and 2008 and a presidential candidate in 2013.
Burke, Brian (Thomas) (b. Feb. 25, 1947, Perth, Western Australia), premier of Western Australia (1983-88).
Burke, Denis (Gabriel) (b. Sept. 22, 1948, Queensland, Australia), chief minister of the Northern Territory (1999-2001).
Burke, Ray, byname of Raphael Patrick Damian Burke, Irish Rae de Búrca (b. Sept. 30, 1943, Dublin), minister of the environment (1980-81, 1982), communications (1987-91), energy (1987-88), industry and commerce (1988-89), justice (1989-92), and foreign affairs (1997) of Ireland.
Burke, Richard (b. March 29, 1932, New York City, U.S.), education minister of Ireland (1973-76). He was also a member (1977-85) and a vice president (1984-85) of the European Commission.
Burkhalter, Didier (Eric) (b. April 17, 1960, Neuchâtel, Switzerland), interior minister (2009-11), foreign minister (2012- ), and president (2014) of Switzerland.
Bürki(-Weber), Gotthelf (Karl) (b. 1925, Worb, Bern, Switzerland - d. Sept. 29, 2006, Köniz, Bern), president of the government of Bern (1981-82).
Burmania Rengers, Egbert Sjuck Gerrold Juckema van, heer van Cammingaburg (b. March 21, 1745, IJsbrechtum, Friesland, Netherlands - d. Feb. 24, 1806, The Hague), member (1801-05) and chairman (1802) of the Staatsbewind of the Batavian Republic.
Burmistenko, Mikhail Alekseyevich (b. Nov. 22 [Nov. 9, O.S.], 1902 - d. [in combat in World War II] September 1941), chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian S.S.R. (1938).
Burnel, (Étienne Laurent) Pierre (b. 1762, Rennes, France - d. ...), governor of French Guiana (1798-99).
Burney, LeRoy Edgar (b. Dec. 31, 1906, Burney, Ind. - d. July 31, 1998, Park Ridge, Ill.), U.S. surgeon general (1956-61). He made the first federal government statement identifying smoking as a cause of lung cancer. The statement declared that an "increasing and consistent body of evidence" indicated "excessive cigarette smoking is one of the causative factors in lung cancer." Two years later, Burney wrote: "The weight of evidence at present implicates smoking as the principal factor in the increased incidence of lung cancer." His statements helped pave the way for the more famous 1964 Surgeon General's report linking smoking to cancer. Burney also served as president of the World Health Organization in 1958.
Burney, S(ayed) M(uzaffar) H(usain) (b. Aug. 14, 1923, Bulandshahr, United Provinces [now in Uttar Pradesh], India - d. Feb. 7, 2014), governor of Manipur, Nagaland, and Tripura (1981-84) and of Haryana (1984-88).
Burnham, (Linden) Forbes (Sampson) (b. Feb. 20, 1923, Kitty, East Demerara, British Guiana - d. Aug. 6, 1985, Georgetown, Guyana), prime minister (1964-80) and president (1980-85) of Guyana (until 1966, British Guiana). In 1950 he formed the People's Progressive Party together with Cheddi Jagan, the left-wing labour leader. Burnham split with Jagan in 1955 to form the more moderate People's National Congress. After Jagan's party won control of the colonial legislature in two successive elections (1957 and 1961), the British, acting to halt the leftward momentum of the government under Jagan, changed the constitution in 1964 so that Burnham could form a coalition government with a small right-wing party. When Guyana became independent in May 1966, Burnham was well established as the new state's first head of government. Until 1970, Burnham steered a moderate course, seeking foreign investment and keeping his distance from Cuba and the Socialist countries. In 1970, however, he veered sharply to the left, declaring Guyana a "Cooperative Republic," establishing diplomatic relations with Cuba, the Soviet Union, and other Communist countries, and seeking a position of leadership among Third World nations. In a referendum held in July 1978 and with electoral results widely believed to have been fraudulent, Burnham sought to strengthen his party's nearly total control of the government. By 1979 his policies of nationalization had reduced the private sector's share in the economy to 10%. In 1980 a constitutional change replaced the premiership with a more powerful presidency, and Burnham was declared the winner of the presidential election of 1980 (which was also internationally condemned as fraudulent). He died in office.
Burnham, Viola (Victorine), née Harper (b. Nov. 26, 1930, New Amsterdam, British Guiana [now Guyana] - d. Oct. 10, 2003, Miami, Fla.), vice president and deputy prime minister of Guyana (1985-91); widow of Forbes Burnham. She also served as the head of the women's branch of the People's National Congress party and was in the vanguard of a movement to make Guyana self-reliant in food and clothing production.
Burns, Arthur F(rank), originally Arthur Burnzeig (b. April 27, 1904, Stanislau, Austria [now Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine] - d. June 26, 1987, Baltimore, Md.), chairman of the U.S. Federal Reserve Board (1970-78). He began his longtime government service in 1953 when he became chairman of Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower's Council of Economic Advisers. A pragmatist, Burns shifted his policy from advocating tight money to doubling the money supply as inflation either increased or decreased. In 1974, when inflation was at double-digit levels, Burns, who had the responsibility for devising the central banking system's interest-rate policies, escalated the rates, a move that caused him to be blamed for helping plunge the U.S. into a recession that same year. In 1969 he was economic adviser to Pres. Richard M. Nixon and later served under Presidents Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter. In 1980 he was founding chairman of the Committee to Fight Inflation, and from 1981 to 1985 he served as ambassador to West Germany.
Burns, Clarence H(enry), byname Clarence Du Burns (b. Sept. 17, 1918, Baltimore, Md. - d. Jan. 12, 2003, Baltimore), mayor of Baltimore (1987). At 19 - though not of the then-legal voting age of 21 - he registered as a Democrat and became the first black member of the 7th Ward's powerful Bohemian Club. The young Burns began corralling votes for members while building his own political base. He was hired as a locker room attendant at Dunbar High School through City Hall connections, and with political acumen, charm, and personal warmth, ascended from that modest job to the city's highest office. He got the nickname "Du" in the 1940s when he was knee-deep in local politics - always doing things for people. Among his many deeds was delivering votes for Mayor Thomas D'Alesandro, Jr., the task that helped him land the locker room job. He learned the ins and outs of politics through his own political club, which evolved into the Eastside Democratic Organization. From that platform, he launched his campaign for City Council from the 2nd District in 1971 - and won. For the next 17 years he worked at City Hall, making urban renewal the centrepiece of his efforts. By 1986, he had risen to council president, and he went on to become the city's first black mayor in January 1987, when William D. Schaefer left to become Maryland's governor. But he served as mayor for only 11 months - going down to defeat in the 1987 mayoral primary to state attorney Kurt L. Schmoke. Burns ran again in 1991, only to lose again to Schmoke. In his first eight months as mayor, Burns created the first city program to help the homeless, started several housing initiatives, found money to keep five imperiled library branches from closing, and increased school funding.
Burokevicius, Mykolas (Martinovich) (b. Oct. 7, 1927, Alytus, Lithuania), first secretary of the Lithuanian Communist Party (1990-91). He was named as one of the perpetrators in Vilnius' tragic events on Jan. 13, 1991, when 14 people were killed and hundreds were injured during an attempt by Soviet troops and the KGB to overthrow Lithuania's authorities which had declared independence in 1990. Burokevicius and his subordinate Juozas Jermalavicius were detained in Belarus in 1993 and taken to Lithuania. In August 1999, the Vilnius District Court sentenced Burokevicius to 12 years in prison for organizing murder and grievous bodily harm, establishing anti-state organizations, and committing other crimes. He had been awaiting his ruling in prison, so by the time the ruling was handed down, he had already served half of his sentence. He was released on Jan. 13, 2006.
Burr, Aaron (b. Feb. 6, 1756, Newark, N.J. - d. Sept. 14, 1836, Port Richmond, N.Y., U.S.), U.S. vice president (1801-05). He served on Gen. George Washington's staff during the Revolutionary War (1775-83) but was transferred after antagonizing Washington. In 1784 and 1785 he was elected to the New York state assembly, and in 1789 he was appointed attorney general by Gov. George Clinton. By 1791 he had built a successful coalition against Gen. Philip Schuyler, father-in-law of Alexander Hamilton, and won election to the U.S. Senate, incurring the enmity of Hamilton. Burr failed to be reelected in 1797 and spent the next two years in state politics. In 1800 he won the Republican (Jeffersonian) vice presidential nomination. Under the procedures then prevailing, the electors cast their votes for both Thomas Jefferson and Burr without indicating who should be president and who vice president. Hamilton's determined opposition to Burr finally resulted in Jefferson's election. In February 1804 Burr's friends in the New York legislature nominated him for the governorship. Again Hamilton helped to bring about Burr's defeat, and shortly thereafter Clinton replaced him as the Republican vice presidential candidate. Once again he felt himself to be the victim of Hamilton's animosity, and they fought a duel (July 11, 1804) at Weehawken, N.J., in which Hamilton was killed. With warrants out for his arrest in two states, Burr fled to Philadelphia, where he contacted his friend Gen. James Wilkinson. They conspired to invade Mexico, but Wilkinson betrayed Burr to President Jefferson. Trying to escape to Spanish territory, Burr was arrested and returned for trial at Richmond, Va. (May 1807). He was tried for treason, and although he was acquitted, he remained under a cloud of suspicion.
Burrenchobay, Sir Dayendranath (b. March 24, 1919, Plaine Magnien, Mauritius - d. March 29, 1999), governor-general of Mauritius (1978-83); knighted 1978.
Burrows, Sir Bernard (Alexander Brocas) (b. July 3, 1910 - d. May 7, 2002), chief political resident of the Persian Gulf (1953-58); knighted 1955.
Burt, Sir Francis (Theodore Page) (b. June 14, 1918, Perth, Western Australia - d. Sept. 8, 2004, Perth), acting governor (1980, 1983-84, 1989-90) and governor (1990-93) of Western Australia.
Bury, Leslie Harry Ernest (b. Feb. 25, 1913, London - d. Sept. 7, 1986), foreign minister of Australia (1971).
Burzan, Dragisa (b. 1950, Titograd [now Podgorica], Montenegro), foreign minister of Montenegro (2003-04). In 2004-06 he was ambassador of Serbia and Montenegro to the United Kingdom.
Bus de Warnaffe, Charles (Paul Marie Léon) du (b. Sept. 16, 1894, Brussels, Belgium - d. Oct. 23, 1965), interior minister (1935-36) and justice minister (1937-38, 1945, 1952-54) of Belgium.
Busbee, George (Dekle) (b. Aug. 7, 1927, Vienna, Ga. - d. July 16, 2004, Savannah, Ga.), governor of Georgia (1975-83). He won the Democratic nomination for governor in 1974 over better-known rivals including Lt.Gov. Lester Maddox. While he was in office, voters approved a constitutional amendment that allowed him to become the state's first governor to serve two consecutive four-year terms. He launched the state's first kindergarten program and steered Georgia through two recessions. Seeing the demise of agriculture and textiles as the state's leading industries, he worked to attract emerging high technology businesses that propelled Georgia's growth in the 1990s.
Busca (Arconati Visconti), Antonio (b. Feb. 17, 1767, Milan - d. May 19, 1834, Milan), acting grand master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (1821-34).
Busch (Becerra), Germán (b. March 23, 1903, San Javier, Santa Cruz province, Bolivia - d. Aug. 23, 1939, La Paz, Bolivia), president of Bolivia (1937-39). A hero of the Chaco War between Bolivia and Paraguay, he afterwards served as commander of the cavalry brigade and as chief of the general staff. He played a prominent part in the 1936 coup which deposed Pres. José Luis Tejada Sorzano and installed Col. José David Toro as chairman of the Government Junta. In 1937 Toro resigned at the demand of a group of army officers and Socialist leaders and Colonel Busch took up his place. He restored the 1880 constitution which had been suspended by Toro. Inspired by Dionisio Foianini, he confiscated the $17,000,000 investment of the Standard Oil Company on March 15, 1937. Foianini became his minister of mines and petroleum in May 1938 after the Congress legalized the seizure. That month a constituent assembly elected Busch president. Busch and Foianini hoped to rebuild Bolivia's collapsed economic structure on the foundation of its oil wealth. Labour troubles and bitter political friction among rival factions, however, continued to harass the country. In April 1939, Busch, whose army included 5,000 German-trained soldiers, established a totalitarian state. He dissolved Congress and the courts, suspended the constitution, and established absolute control over financial and political activities. He was careful to explain that his regime was entirely Bolivian in character and was not allied to the totalitarian ideology of any European state. On Aug. 23, 1939, he died of a bullet wound. The official announcement said he shot himself at his own home during a birthday party for his brother-in-law and that he had been suffering from a severe depression.
Buschor, Ernst (b. July 12, 1943, Dübendorf, Zürich), president of the government of Zürich (1997-98, 2002-03).
Bush, George (Herbert Walker) (b. June 12, 1924, Milton, Mass.), president of the United States (1989-93). He became active in the Republican Party in Houston in 1959, and, after losing a campaign for the U.S. Senate in 1964, he was elected (1966) to the House of Representatives from a safely Republican Texas district. He gave up the seat in 1970 to run again, unsuccessfully, for the Senate. Pres. Richard Nixon chose him to serve as UN ambassador (1971-73). He was chairman of the Republican National Committee in 1973-74. Pres. Gerald Ford appointed him chief of the U.S. Liaison Office in Beijing in 1974. He also served as CIA director (1976-77). In 1980 he mounted a campaign for the Republican presidential nomination but abandoned it in May to support Ronald Reagan, who chose Bush as his running mate. They won the 1980 election and were reelected in 1984 for a second term. Bush secured the 1988 presidential nomination and defeated the Democratic candidate, Michael Dukakis. In December 1989 Bush ordered a brief military invasion of Panama, which toppled that country's leader, Gen. Manuel Noriega, who had been indicted in the U.S. on drug-trafficking charges. When Iraq occupied Kuwait in August 1990, Bush built up an international coalition against Iraq and, over the objections of those who favoured giving an embargo more time to work, increased the U.S. military presence in the region to about 500,000 troops within a few months. After Iraq failed to withdraw from Kuwait, Bush authorized a U.S.-led offensive that began on Jan. 16-17, 1991, which restored Kuwait to independence, at a cost of at least 100,000 Iraqi lives. Bush's popularity dissipated when an economic recession that began late in 1990 persisted into 1992. He lost his reelection bid in 1992 to Democrat Bill Clinton.
Bush, George W(alker) (b. July 6, 1946, New Haven, Conn.), president of the United States (2001-09); son of George Bush. A Republican, he ran unsuccessfully for Congress in 1978. In 1995-2000 he was governor of Texas; he defeated incumbent Democrat Ann Richards by a greater than expected 53%-46% in 1994, and after being reelected in 1998, he was increasingly seen as the likely Republican presidential candidate in 2000. On June 12, 1999, he formally announced his candidacy for the Republican nomination. He described himself as a "compassionate conservative." By March 7, 2000, so-called Super Tuesday, when Bush took 9 of 13 contests, it was clear that he would win the nomination. He took a strong lead in the opinion polls over Vice Pres. Al Gore, the Democratic nominee, but then the gap in the polls between Bush and Gore narrowed to the closest in any election in 40 years. Although Bush lost the nationwide popular vote by 500,000 votes out of 105 million cast on November 7, the presidency hinged on Florida's 25 electoral votes. The result in Florida was so close that for five weeks after election day, Florida and federal courts weighed the legal challenges until the U.S. Supreme Court effectively awarded the presidency to Bush. By winning Florida, Bush narrowly won the electoral vote over Gore by 271 to 266. With his inauguration, Bush became only the second son of a president to assume the nation's highest office; the other was John Quincy Adams (1825-29), the son of John Adams (1797-1801). After attacks by Islamic extremists on the U.S. on Sept. 11, 2001, Bush called for a global war on terrorism. The U.S. subsequently toppled the regimes of Afghanistan (2001) and Iraq (2003). The latter campaign was widely opposed internationally even among allies like Germany and France. He was reelected in 2004, defeating Democrat John Kerry 51%-48%. After the poor handling of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the financial crisis of 2008, among other factors, he left office as one of the most unpopular presidents in history.
Bush, Jeb, byname of John Ellis Bush (b. Feb. 11, 1953, Midland, Texas), governor of Florida (1999-2007); son of George Bush; brother of George W. Bush. After he lost the 1994 race for governor to the Democratic incumbent, Lawton Chiles, by barely 60,000 votes - the closest governor's race in Florida history - he almost immediately began to reshape his image. He polished some rough political edges and courted new constituencies: Jews, the elderly, and black leaders. While he changed some things, Bush retained his tough stands on crime and opposition to abortion except in instances of rape, incest, or where the mother's health is in danger. He won an easy victory in 1998, collecting 55% of the vote to 45% for Democratic Lt.Gov. Buddy MacKay. After the 2000 presidential election, Jeb Bush and Florida Secretary of State Katherine Harris have been accused of helping to deliver the state to George W. Bush by disenfranchising thousands of mostly black voters, supposedly felons or ex-felons, but in fact including many non-felons whose name, gender, birth date, and race matched - or nearly matched - one of the tens of millions of ex-felons in the United States.
Bush, (William) McKeeva (b. Jan. 20, 1955, West Bay, Cayman Islands), leader of government business (2001-05, 2009) and premier (2009-12) of the Cayman Islands.
Bushati, Ditmir (Sulejman) (b. March 24, 1977, Shkodër, Albania), foreign minister of Albania (2013- ).
Bushati, Maliq (Bej) (b. Feb. 8, 1880, Shkodër, Albania - d. [executed] Feb. 14, 1946), prime minister of Albania (1943).
Busia, Kofi (Abrefa) (b. July 11, 1913, Ashanti, Gold Coast [now Ghana] - d. Aug. 28, 1978, Oxford, England), prime minister of Ghana (1969-72). He entered the Gold Coast legislature in 1951, led the opposition to Kwame Nkrumah in Ashanti, and in 1957 headed the National United Party opposition in Ghana's National Assembly before seeking voluntary exile in the Netherlands and Britain (1959-66). After Nkrumah's overthrow he returned to head the interim military government's advisory committees. Following elections, he became prime minister on Sept. 30, 1969, but his government's economic difficulties led to a military coup (Jan. 13, 1972) while he was visiting England that brought an end to democratic rule. Busia, informed of the coup, chose to remain in England.
Bussi, Antonio Domingo (b. Jan. 17, 1926, Victoria, Entre Ríos, Argentina - d. Nov. 24, 2011, San Miguel de Tucumán, Tucumán, Argentina), governor of Tucumán (1976-77, 1995-99). He was one of the military's most hardline leaders during the 1976-83 dictatorship. Human rights groups say Bussi was among officers who tortured and killed dissidents, and that at least 400 people vanished in Tucumán alone while Bussi commanded forces there. Life after the dictatorship brought legal troubles for the junta leaders, but Bussi parlayed his military ties into years of political success. Disillusionment with a series of post-dictatorship leaders helped him win the governorship of Tucumán, and in July 2003 he won the mayoral race in San Miguel de Tucumán, the province's capital. The same month he was ordered held under house arrest as part of an extradition request by Spanish judge Baltasar Garzón, but it was later dropped by Spain's government and Bussi was freed after 45 days of house arrest.
Bustamante, Sir (William) Alexander, original name William Alexander Clarke (b. Feb. 24, 1884, Blenheim, Hanover parish, Jamaica - d. Aug. 6, 1977, Irish Town, Jamaica), chief minister (1953-55) and prime minister (1962-67) of Jamaica; cousin of Norman Manley. After traveling across Latin America and the Mediterranean, he returned to Jamaica in the early 1930s with the name Bustamante (he officially changed his name by deed poll in 1944). A labour organizer in the 1930s, he founded the Bustamante Industrial Trade Union, Jamaica's largest union. Subsequently he formed (1943) the moderate Jamaica Labour Party to counteract Manley's more radical People's National Party. His party won the 1944 elections, and he became minister of communications and unofficial head of government, until in 1953 he became chief minister and minister of local government. After his party's defeat in 1955, he led the opposition. He was president of the West Indies Democratic Labour Party from 1958 to 1960, but resigned to campaign for Jamaica's withdrawal from the federation. Becoming prime minister in April 1962, he presided over Jamaica's acquisition of independence (August 1962) and then also took over the ministries of external affairs and defense. He initiated extensive public works programs and land reform. He was knighted in June 1955.
Bustamante Belaúnde, (José) Alberto (b. Sept. 12, 1950, Arequipa, Peru - d. Feb. 7, 2008, Lima, Peru), prime minister and justice minister of Peru (1999-2000).
Bustamante y Bustamante, Alfonso (b. Nov. 12, 1941, Arequipa, Peru), prime minister of Peru (1993-94). He was also minister of industry, commerce, tourism, integration, and international trade negotiations (1993-94).
Bustamante y Rivero, José Luis (Pablo) (b. Jan. 15, 1894, Arequipa, Peru - d. Jan. 11, 1989, Lima, Peru), president of Peru (1945-48). He was justice and education minister (1930-31), minister to Bolivia (1934-38) and Uruguay (1939-42), and ambassador to Bolivia (1942-45). During his tenure as president he extended Peruvian sovereignty to 200 mi out to sea, a law that was widely adopted by dozens of nations. He was ousted in a coup in 1948 led by his minister of the interior, Manuel Odría. In 1961 he became a judge at the International Court of Justice in The Hague, Netherlands, and from 1967 to 1970 he served as its president. A skilled diplomat, Bustamante served as mediator in 1977 between El Salvador and Honduras, which were at war. The two countries signed a peace accord in 1980.
Busti, Jorge (Pedro) (b. Oct. 18, 1947, Concordia, Entre Ríos, Argentina), governor of Entre Ríos (1987-91, 1995-99, 2003-07).
Butba, Beslan (Tikovich) (b. Feb. 7, 1960, Chlou, Abkhaz A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R.), prime minister of Abkhazia (2014- ).
Buthelezi, (Ashpenaz Nathan) Mangosuthu (Gatsha) (b. Aug. 27, 1928, Mahlabatini, Natal [now in KwaZulu-Natal], South Africa), South African politician; grandson of Dinuzulu and great-grandson of Cetshwayo (kings of kwaZulu). He was a member of the Youth League of the African National Congress (ANC). He assumed his role as the hereditary chief of the Buthelezi clan of Zulus in 1953 and was accepted in that role by white authorities about four years later. Though he initially opposed the creation of black homelands (then called Bantustans), Buthelezi won election as chief minister of the nonindependent black state of KwaZulu in 1972. In 1974, having broken with the ANC, Buthelezi revived Inkatha yeNkululeko yeSizwe, a movement founded in 1924 by his grandfather, King Dinizulu, as a Zulu cultural movement. Buthelezi rejected full independence for KwaZulu and continued to work within the white establishment to end apartheid. After the South African government lifted its ban on the ANC in 1990 and began signaling its willingness to disband the apartheid system, Buthelezi became engaged in a fierce struggle for political leadership with the ANC and its allies for the allegiance of black South Africans. As a result, thousands were killed in clashes between Inkatha and ANC supporters in Natal in the years 1990-94. Meanwhile, Buthelezi converted his cultural movement into a political party, the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP), in order to compete in South Africa's first all-race parliamentary elections in 1994. His party received 10.5% of the total vote, and Buthelezi was appointed minister of home affairs in a coalition government formed by ANC leader Nelson Mandela. In June 1999 he was offered the post of deputy president by the new president Thabo Mbeki, but Buthelezi refused. He remained home affairs minister until 2004.
Butime, Tom (Rwakaikara) (b. Nov. 15, 1947), internal affairs minister (1996-99) and acting foreign minister (2004-05) of Uganda.
Butkevicius, Algirdas (b. Nov. 19, 1958, Paezeriai village, Radviliskis region, Lithuanian S.S.R.), finance minister (2004-05) and prime minister (2012- ) of Lithuania.
Butler, Benjamin F(ranklin) (b. Nov. 5, 1818, Deerfield, N.H. - d. Jan. 11, 1893, Washington, D.C.), U.S. presidential candidate (1884). In 1853 he was elected by the Democrats to the Massachusetts legislature, and remained a member of that body until 1860, distinguishing himself by vigorously supporting the cause of labour and of naturalized citizens. Though he was affiliated with the Southern wing of the Democratic Party in the 1860 elections, he strongly supported the Union after the Civil War broke out. He was appointed a Union officer for political reasons, and his military career was mercurial and often controversial. He became a strong opponent of slavery and refused to return fugitive slaves. He was also one of the few military commanders who favoured the recruitment of black regiments. After the war, he became a Radical Republican in the U.S. House of Representatives (1867-75, 1877-79), supporting firm Reconstruction measures toward the South and playing a leading role in the impeachment trial of Pres. Andrew Johnson. Although a staunch supporter of Pres. Ulysses S. Grant after 1868, he broke with the party in 1878 because of his sympathy with the inflationary Greenback Movement. After two unsuccessful tries, he was elected Democratic governor of Massachusetts in 1882 and two years later became the presidential candidate of the Greenback Labor Party and the Anti-Monopoly Party. He advocated the eight-hour day and national control of interstate commerce but failed to win a single electoral vote. At various times in his career Butler was accused of corruption, but no charges against him were ever proved.
Butler, John D(avid) (b. Aug. 4, 1915, San Diego, Calif. - d. Feb. 9, 2010, San Diego), mayor of San Diego (1951-55).
Butler, Sir Milo (Boughton) (b. Aug. 11, 1906, New Providence island, Bahamas - d. Jan. 22, 1979, Nassau, Bahamas), governor-general of The Bahamas (1973-79); knighted 1973.
Butler, Sir Montagu Sherard Dawes (b. May 19, 1873, Julian Hill, Harrow, England - d. Nov. 7, 1952, Cambridge, England), governor of the Central Provinces (1925-32) and lieutenant governor of the Isle of Man (1932-37); knighted 1924.
Butler, Sir Richard (b. Dec. 3, 1850, Stadhampton, near Oxford, England - d. April 28, 1925, England), premier of South Australia (1905); knighted 1913.
Butler, Richard (William) (b. May 13, 1942, Coolah, N.S.W.), governor of Tasmania (2003-04). He was Australian ambassador to the United Nations in 1992-97 and chief weapons inspector in Iraq in 1997-99. An avowed republican, he opted to waive the title of "His Excellency" for himself though he recited the standard oath to "well and truly serve Her Majesty the Queen of Australia in the Office of Governor, in and over Her Majesty's state of Tasmania and its dependencies." He resigned in 2004, claiming to have been the victim of a malicious campaign of denigration.
R. (W.) Butler
Butler, Richard E(dmund) (b. March 25, 1926, Melbourne, Vic. - d. June 23, 2012), secretary-general of the International Telecommunication Union (1983-89).
Butler, Sir Richard Layton (b. March 31, 1885, Yattalunga Station, near Onetree Hill, South Australia - d. Jan. 21, 1966, Adelaide), premier of South Australia (1927-30, 1933-38); knighted 1939; son of Sir Richard Butler.
Butler of Saffron Walden, Richard Austen Butler, Baron, byname Rab Butler (b. Dec. 9, 1902, Attock Serai, India - d. March 8, 1982, Great Yeldham, Essex, England), British politician; son of Sir Montagu Butler. He was elected to Parliament as a Conservative in 1929 and represented Saffron Walden throughout his parliamentary career. He served as private secretary to Sir Samuel Hoare and helped draw up the Government of India Act, 1935. In 1938, as undersecretary of state at the Foreign Office, he became one of the main defenders in the House of Commons of the policy of appeasement, and this had an adverse effect later on in his career. He was moved to the Board of Education (1941-45) and reorganized the educational system. In 1951-55 he was chancellor of the exchequer and presided over a period of economic expansion that allowed him to make considerable tax concessions in his last budget. These proved, however, to have been overoptimistic. In 1955-59 he was lord privy seal. He suffered a further setback in 1956 because of his outspoken and inflexible line during the Suez crisis. This probably explained his failure to be chosen as successor to the prime ministership when Anthony Eden resigned. He served as home secretary (1957-62) and deputy prime minister (1962-63) under Harold Macmillan. As head of the Central African Office, he played a major role in the 1963 conference that ultimately led to the independence of Zambia and Malawi. In October 1963 Macmillan resigned, but once more, Butler failed in his bid for the party leadership. He served as foreign secretary under Sir Alec Douglas-Home until the Conservative defeat in 1964, was appointed in 1965 as a life peer, and remained an active member of the House of Lords until a few years before his death.
Butov, Vladimir (Yakovlevich) (b. April 10, 1958), head of the administration of Nenets autonomous okrug (1996-2005).
Butte, George C(harles) (b. May 9, 1877, San Francisco, Calif. - d. Jan. 18, 1940, Mexico City, Mexico), acting governor-general of the Philippines (1932).
Buttigieg, Anton (b. Feb. 19, 1912, Qala, Gozo - d. May 5, 1983), president of Malta (1976-82). He was also minister of justice and parliamentary affairs (1971-76).
Buttolo, Albrecht (b. Sept. 1, 1947, Langenrinne, Sachsen, Germany), Regierungsbevollmächtigter of Chemnitz (1990).
Butz, Earl L(auer) (b. July 3, 1909, Albion, Ind. - d. Feb. 2, 2008, Washington, D.C.), U.S. agriculture secretary (1971-76).
Buyan-Badyrgy, Mongush (b. April 25, 1892 - d. [executed] on or after March 22, 1932), chairman of the Council of Ministers of Tannu Tuva (1923-24).
Buyoya, Pierre (b. Nov. 24, 1949, Rutovu, Burundi), president of Burundi (1987-93, 1996-2003). Buyoya trained as an army officer in Belgium. He belonged to the same Tutsi group as both his predecessors, Michel Micombero and Jean-Baptiste Bagaza. The Tutsi, who made up some 15% of the population, dominated the majority Hutu people since independence. On Sept. 3, 1987, the unknown army officer seized power in a bloodless coup when Bagaza was attending a conference of heads of state of French-speaking nations in Quebec. The reasons Buyoya advanced for the coup were almost identical to those that had been advanced by Bagaza when he overthrew Micombero in 1976. Buyoya denounced the speculation, corruption, and fraud of the Bagaza regime and promised to respect human rights, religious freedom, and constitutional government. His immediate aim was to bring to an end the struggle that had been taking place for some time between the state and the Roman Catholic Church. He promised that his regime would be more liberal than that of his predecessor and that it would be relaxed in its approach to tribal, religious, and political policies. In his takeover speech immediately after the coup, he said that those who had plotted the coup - which appeared to have been instigated solely by the military - had objected to the acquisition of too much power by one person (Bagaza had been head of state, chief of the armed forces, and leader of the ruling party, UPRONA). Buyoya also condemned the institutional inertia, the "constant violation of the constitution," and the "incoherent" economic policy of his predecessor's regime. He promised religious freedom for all and immediately reopened Roman Catholic places of worship that had been closed down during the church-state row of the preceding year.
Buzek, Jerzy (Karol) (b. July 3, 1940, Smilowice, Slaskie województwo, Poland [now Smilovice, Czech Republic]), prime minister of Poland (1997-2001). He joined Solidarity when it arose in 1980 as the Soviet bloc's first free trade union and steered its underground structure in Silesia after communist authorities declared martial law to crush it in December 1981. He oversaw the drafting of the Solidarity Electoral Action (AWS) programme but was little-known until 1997. In that year the AWS won elections and the tall, greying Buzek was selected as prime minister owing to his ties with AWS leader Marian Krzaklewski, who did not want to be prime minister but planned to steer policy as head of the AWS caucus. The AWS ruled in coalition with the smaller Freedom Union. He was elected a member of the European Parliament in 2004 and was its president (the first Eastern European to hold the post) in 2009-12.
Bwakira, Melchior (b. Dec. 13, 1937), foreign minister of Burundi (1975-76). He was also ambassador to Ethiopia (1978-81, 1997-2001) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1981-86).
Bwanali, Edward (Chitsulo Isaac), finance minister (1978-80, 1984-86) and foreign minister (1994-96) of Malawi.
Byam, Edward (b. Jan. 9, 1662 - d. Dec. 4, 1741, Antigua), deputy governor of Antigua (1715-41).
Byambasüren, Dashiyn (b. June 20, 1942, Binder district, Hentii province, Mongolia), prime minister of Mongolia (1990-92).
Byatt, Robin, byname of Ronald Archer Campbell Byatt (b. Nov. 14, 1930), governor of Pitcairn Island (1987-90).
Byng of Vimy (of Thorpe-le-Soken), Julian Hedworth George Byng, Viscount, also called (1919-28) Baron Byng of Vimy (of Thorpe-le-Soken) (b. Sept. 11, 1862, Wrotham Park, Middlesex, England - d. June 6, 1935, Thorpe Hall, Essex), governor-general of Canada (1921-26). A career soldier from 1883, Byng was promoted to major general in 1909. As commander of the Canadian Corps in France (from May 1916), he was responsible for one of the most famous Canadian victories in either world war, the capture of Vimy Ridge, north of Arras (April 9, 1917). As commander of the British 3rd Army (from June 1917) he conducted the first large scale attack by tanks in history (at Cambrai, Nov. 20, 1917). His army broke the German Hindenburg Line on Sept. 27, 1918. Byng was promoted to full general in 1917 and was made a field marshal in 1932. After World War I he served as governor-general of Canada (1921-26) and commissioner of London police (1928-31). He was created a baron in 1919 and a viscount in 1928.
Bynoe, Dame Hilda (Louisa), née Gibbs (b. Nov. 18, 1921, Crochu village, Grenada - d. April 6, 2013, Trinidad and Tobago), governor of Grenada (1968-74); knighted 1969.
Byrd, Robert C(arlyle), originally Cornelius Calvin Sale, Jr. (b. Nov. 20, 1917, North Wilkesboro, N.C. - d. June 28, 2010, Falls Church, Va.), U.S. politician. A member of the House of Representatives (1953-59) and of the Senate (1959-2010), he became in 2009 the longest-serving member of Congress in U.S. history. He served as Senate majority leader (1977-81, 1987-89) and president pro tempore (1989-95, 2001, 2001-03, 2007-10).
Byrne, Jane M(argaret), née Burke (b. May 24, 1933, Chicago, Ill. - d. Nov. 14, 2014, Chicago), mayor of Chicago (1979-83). Democrat Byrne entered politics as a Chicago volunteer in John F. Kennedy's 1960 presidential campaign. Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley, another Kennedy supporter, was impressed with her firm, no-nonsense style. Beginning in 1964 he appointed her to several relatively minor city hall jobs. In 1974 Daley named her co-chairman of the Cook County, Ill., Democratic Party. Since Byrne's position in the party hierarchy depended almost entirely on Daley's sponsorship, Daley's death in 1976 seemed a serious blow to her career. The Daley machine's handpicked new mayor, Michael Bilandic, stripped her of her position in the party, although she kept her job as Chicago's commissioner of consumer sales, weights and measures. Then Byrne, in a remarkable reversal, turned against the machine her mentor had created. In 1977, using her consumer job as a platform, she accused Bilandic and others of attempting to "grease" the way for a taxi-fare increase. Bilandic promptly fired her. Suddenly, Byrne had become a symbol of reform in Chicago and, ultimately, a candidate for mayor. Aided by a massive snowstorm that Chicagoans believed was dealt with poorly by the Bilandic administration, Byrne narrowly defeated Bilandic in the February 1979 Democratic mayoral primary and went on to a landslide victory in the April 3 general election. Whereas Daley was known by a single nickname - "Hizzoner" - Byrne had a number of nicknames. To some she was "Ayatollah Jane" or "Calamity Jane"; to others, she was "Miss Bossy" or "Mommy Mayor."