Có, Joãozinho Vieira (b. Aug. 10, 1963, Bijimita, Biombo region, Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau]), foreign minister of Guinea-Bissau (2002-03).
Coard, (Winston) Bernard (b. Aug. 10, 1944, Victoria, Grenada), Grenadian politician. He held membership in the Communist Party, USA; the British Communist Party; and Jamaica's pro-Moscow Workers' Liberation League led by Trevor Munroe (later named the Workers' Party of Jamaica). It is reported that in August 1973 Coard was asked to work with drafting the manifesto of Grenada's New Jewel Movement (NJM). He ran successfully in the Nov. 7, 1976, general elections on the People's Alliance ticket from St. George's. He was part of the coup of March 13, 1979, which brought the NJM to power. In October 1982, he resigned from his positions on the Central Committee, the Political Bureau, and the Organizing Committee. Since Aug. 19, 1978, he had chaired the Organizing Committee, concerned with the daily running of the NJM. He continued as deputy prime minister and remained focused on the economy as finance minister. Coard disagreed with the policies of Prime Minister Maurice Bishop, who attempted to develop a good relationship with the United States and allowed private enterprise to continue on the island. He also disliked Bishop's ideas on grassroots democracy. On Oct. 14, 1983, with the support of the army, Coard overthrew the government. After Bishop was put under house arrest, Coard resigned from government, but not from the party. Bishop and most of his ministers were executed on October 19. U.S. Pres. Ronald Reagan, who had been highly critical of Bishop's government, took this opportunity to intervene and sent in the U.S. Marines. After the invasion, Coard was arrested on Oct. 31, 1983. A trial was held in 1986. Along with 13 others, he was sentenced to death. The sentence was commuted to life imprisonment in 1991. In March 2004 the sentence was quashed but he remained in custody until being released in September 2009.
Cobos (Navarro), Julio (César Cleto) (b. April 30, 1955, Godoy Cruz, Mendoza, Argentina), governor of Mendoza (2003-07) and vice president of Argentina (2007-11).
Cóccaro, Hugo (Omar) (b. 1954/55), governor of Tierra del Fuego (2005-07).
Cochrane, Sir Alexander (Forrester Inglis) (b. April 23, 1758 - d. Jan. 26, 1832, Paris), governor of Guadeloupe (1810-13); knighted 1806.
Cockrel, Ken(neth Vern), Jr. (b. 1965), mayor of Detroit (2008-09).
Cocq, (Alphonse Lambert Joseph) Fernand (b. July 8, 1861, Huy, Belgium - d. Dec. 11, 1940, Ixelles, Belgium), justice minister of Belgium (1931-32).
Codey, Richard J(ames) (b. Nov. 27, 1946, Orange, N.J.), acting governor (2002, 2004-06) and governor (2006) of New Jersey.
Codreanu, Corneliu (Zelea), originally (until 1901) Corneliu Zelinski (b. Sept. 13, 1899, Iasi, Romania - d. Nov. 30, 1938, Jilava, near Bucharest, Romania), Romanian politician. He participated widely in anticommunist and anti-Semitic activities during his university years at Iasi (1919-22). In 1922 he helped found the Association of Christian Students, which, from 1923 to 1927, he affiliated with the League of National Christian Defense (LANC), headed by the anti-Semitic university professor A.C. Cuza. Codreanu was arrested and imprisoned in 1923 for threatening to kill "traitors"; arrested again on a murder charge in 1925, he was acquitted. In 1927 he broke with LANC to form his Legion of the Archangel Michael, which later called itself the Legion or Legionary Movement. He also established a militant subdivision within this group called the Iron Guard (1930), the name which outsiders would eventually apply to the movement at large. Codreanu built in this movement against communism and Jewry a mystical religious fervour. Despite official persecution and its own terror tactics, the Guard - now renamed the All for the Fatherland Party - had by 1937 become the third largest party in the state; but its electoral successes moved King Carol II to dissolve it (January 1938) and imprison Codreanu (April 1938). In May he was found guilty of publishing documents vital to the security of the state, of plotting against the social order by appealing for help and instructions to an association of an international character abroad, and of having armed part of his following and organized paramilitary formations for the purpose of civil war. On Nov. 30, 1938, while in transit between prisons (from Rîmnicu Sarat to Bucharest), he and 13 of his associates were shot, supposedly while trying to escape.
Coelho, Agostinho (b. June 9, 1828, Aveiro, Portugal - d. Nov. 13, 1888, Lisbon, Portugal), governor of Portuguese Guinea (1879-81) and governor-general of Mozambique (1882-85).
Coelho, Manuel Maria (b. 1857 - d. 1943), governor-general of Angola (1911-12), governor of Portuguese Guinea (1917), and prime minister and interior minister of Portugal (1921).
Coelho, Pedro Passos (b. July 24, 1964, Coimbra, Portugal), prime minister of Portugal (2011- ).
Coelho, Plínio Ramos (d. August 2001, Manaus, Brazil), governor of Amazonas (1955-59, 1963-64).
Coghlan, Sir Charles (Patrick John) (b. June 24, 1863, King William's Town, Cape Colony [now in South Africa] - d. Aug. 28, 1927, Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia [now Harare, Zimbabwe]), premier of Southern Rhodesia (1923-27); knighted 1910.
Cogo, Margherita (b. Oct. 2, 1951, Tione, Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy), president of Trentino-Alto Adige (1999-2002).
Cohen, Joshua J(ackson), mayor of Annapolis (2009- ).
Cohen, Wilbur J(oseph) (b. June 10, 1913, Milwaukee, Wis. - d. May 18, 1987, Seoul, South Korea), U.S. politician. He helped draft the Social Security Act of 1935 and became the first employee of the Social Security Administration. As assistant secretary of health, education and welfare under Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson, Cohen was instrumental in promoting such important social legislation as the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, the Heart Disease, Cancer and Stroke Amendments of 1965, and the Child Health Act of 1967. From 1968 to 1969 he served as secretary of health, education and welfare.
Cohn-Bendit, Daniel (Marc) (b. April 4, 1945, Montauban, Tarn-et-Garonne, France), European politician. He was the son of German Jewish parents who had emigrated to France in 1933. He lived in France until 1958, when his parents decided to return to Germany. In 1963 he returned to France, holding both citizenships. With his quick tongue and sharp wit, "Danny the Red" (so named for his hair) became famous for his leading part in the May 1968 student protests in France which nearly brought down Charles de Gaulle's government. He was expelled from France and since then lived in Frankfurt, even after the ban was lifted in 1978. He was editor and publisher of the alternative city magazine Pflasterstrand. In 1984 he joined the Green party in Germany and in 1989 became commissioner for multicultural affairs in Frankfurt. In 1994 he was elected to the European Parliament for the German Greens. In October 1998 he was selected to top the list of the French Greens for the June 1999 election to the European Parliament. He quickly stirred up French politics with remarks criticizing both his left-wing allies and the conservative opposition, prompting French Greens leader Dominique Voynet to say he should stop sticking his nose into domestic politics. His call for looser immigration laws led to a clash with Prime Minister Lionel Jospin while the Communists - the Greens' allies in Jospin's "plural left" - were upset by his pledge to outscore them in the European poll (which he did). He and the six Green deputies in the French National Assembly signed an appeal for a "democratic revolution" in Europe with a constitution for the European Union and a reinforced European Parliament. In 2001 he was elected co-leader of the Greens in the European Parliament.
Colak, Barisa (b. Jan. 1, 1956, Listica [now Siroki Brijeg, West Herzegovina canton], Bosnia and Herzegovina), premier of West Herzegovina (1996-99).
Colazo, (Mario) Jorge (b. March 4, 1954, Río Tercero, Córdoba province, Argentina), governor of Tierra del Fuego (2004-05).
Colby, Bainbridge (b. Dec. 22, 1869, St. Louis, Mo. - d. April 11, 1950, Bemus Point, N.Y.), U.S. politician. In 1901-02 he served in the New York state assembly. He joined Theodore Roosevelt's "Bull Moose" bolt from the Republican Party in 1912, and ran for the U.S. Senate as a Progressive in 1914. He subsequently became identified with the Democrats under Woodrow Wilson, who appointed him vice-president of the U.S. Shipping Board in 1917 and, in 1920, secretary of state. He initiated the U.S. policy of nonrecognition of the Soviet Union, declaring the Soviet government was not representative of the "free will and purpose" of the Russian people. Colby initially supported Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt, but later worked politically against him.
Colby, William E(gan) (b. Jan. 4, 1920, St. Paul, Minn. - d. April 27, 1996, Rock Point, Md.), CIA director (1973-76). He served with distinction in World War II as a paratrooper for the Office of Strategic Services, the forerunner of the CIA. In 1950 he joined the CIA, serving first in Stockholm (1951-53) and then in Rome (1953-58). As chief of CIA operations in Saigon, South Vietnam (1959-62), and then in all of Asia (1962-67), he orchestrated CIA activities during the Vietnam War. In 1971 he returned to the agency's headquarters in Washington, D.C., where he pursued the directorship. Appointed on May 10, 1973, by Pres. Richard Nixon, he was confirmed by the Senate on August 1 and sworn in September 4. He showed unusual candour while testifying before Congress in 1975 in the wake of various leaks about CIA covert operations, such as spying on U.S. citizens, plotting coups and assassinations abroad, conducting controversial experiments without the knowledge of the subjects, and involving itself in the Vietnam War and the Watergate scandal. His candidness, championed by some as having resuscitated CIA credibility during its most troubled period, led to his premature resignation (he served until Sept. 30, 1976) and ultimately brought the agency under congressional oversight. After his forced retirement by Pres. Gerald Ford, Colby became an advocate for the reduction of nuclear arms.
Coldwell, M(ajor) J(ames William) (b. Dec. 2, 1888, Seaton, Devon, England - d. Aug. 25, 1974, Ottawa, Canada), Canadian politician. He emigrated to Canada in 1910. He served on the city council of Regina, Sask., in 1922-32 and was provincial leader of the Saskatchewan Farmer-Labour Party in 1932-35. In 1935 he was elected to the House of Commons for the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation and from 1942 to 1960 he was leader of the CCF. He was a member of the Canadian delegation to the United Nations assembly in 1946, 1950, 1953, and 1954. At the March 31, 1958, general election he was defeated in the Rosetown-Biggar, Sask., constituency which he had represented since 1935. In the autumn of 1958 he was appointed by the UN to be chairman of a mission evaluating technical aid community planning in India.
Cole, Christopher Okoro (Elnathan Eustace) (b. April 17, 1921, Waterloo village, Sierra Leone - d. after 1990), president of Sierra Leone (April 19-21, 1971). In a complicated process of constitutional change when the monarchy was abandoned in 1971, it was provided that Siaka Stevens, then prime minister, would become the "second president," while Cole, who had been appointed interim governor-general on March 31, would serve for two days as "first president." Thereafter he reverted to his earlier post of chief justice.
Cole, W(illiam) Sterling (b. April 18, 1904, Painted Post, N.Y. - d. March 15, 1987, Washington, D.C.), director-general of the International Atomic Energy Agency (1957-61).
Coleman, Sir (Cyril Frederick) Charles (b. 1903, Plymouth - d. June 17, 1974), British city commandant of Berlin (1951-54) and lieutenant governor of Guernsey (1964-69); knighted 1957.
Coleman, Michael B(ennett) (b. Nov. 18, 1954, Indianapolis, Ind.), mayor of Columbus (2000- ). On Nov. 2, 1999, he was elected Columbus's first African-American mayor, with about 60% of the vote. He also became the city's first Democratic mayor since 1971.
Coleman, (William) Peter (b. Dec. 15, 1928, Melbourne), administrator of Norfolk Island (1979-81).
Coleman, (Uifa'atali) Peter Tali (b. Dec. 8, 1919, Pago Pago, American Samoa - d. April 28, 1997, Honolulu, Hawaii), governor of American Samoa (1956-61, 1978-85, 1989-93). He was American Samoa's first Samoan attorney general, first Samoan governor (1956), and first elected governor (1978). He was also a founder of the Pacific Basin Development Council, a grouping of U.S. Pacific territories, and he was a senior officer in the administration of the former Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, which governed the nations of Palau, Marshall Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Federated States of Micronesia.
Coleman, William David (b. 1842, Fayette county, Ky., U.S. - d. 1908, Clay Ashland, Liberia), vice president (1892-96) and president (1896-1900) of Liberia.
Colin, André (Gabriel Marie) (b. Jan. 19, 1910, Brest, Finistère, France - d. Aug. 29, 1978, Carantec, Finistère), minister of Overseas France (1958) and president of the Regional Council of Bretagne (1976-78).
Collado Mena, Carlos (b. July 12, 1938, Murcia, Spain), president of the Council of Government of Murcia (1984-93).
Collares, Alceu de Deus (b. Sept. 12, 1927, Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), governor of Rio Grande do Sul (1991-95).
Collas, Richard (John) (b. 1958, Guernsey), bailiff of Guernsey (2012- ).
Collenette, David (Michael) (b. June 24, 1946, London, England), defense minister of Canada (1993-96).
Colley, George (Joseph), Irish Seoirse Ó Colla (b. Oct. 18, 1925, Dublin, Ireland - d. Sept. 17, 1983, London, England), Irish politician. He was first elected to the Dáil (parliament) in 1961. Four years later he was appointed minister of education and in 1966, when he stood unsuccessfully for the Fianna Fáil party leadership, he became minister for industry and commerce. Within the party he was the focus for opposition to Charles Haughey, and their rivalry in some ways blighted Colley's political career. In 1970, when Haughey was dismissed from the post of minister of finance after a scandal over illegal arms imports, Colley succeeded him; but Haughey returned to beat him in the leadership contest in 1977. Colley was tánaiste (deputy prime minister) from 1977 to 1981.
Collin, Frank (Joseph) (b. Nov. 3, 1944, Chicago, Ill.), U.S. neo-Nazi leader. He was the son of a Roman Catholic woman and a Jewish man who was imprisoned in the Dachau concentration camp during World War II. After the war Collin's father emigrated to the U.S., and in 1946 he changed the family name from Cohn to Collin. Frank became involved with the National Socialist White People's Party (formerly the American Nazi Party) and in 1970 founded his own National Socialist Party of America, a group of about 25 members that attempted for several years to spread hatred of Chicago's black population. Failing to gain much notice in this endeavour, he shifted his attention to the Jews and in 1977 applied for a permit to hold a rally in Skokie, Ill., a suburb of Chicago. Of the town's 70,000 residents, roughly 40,000 were Jewish. All were outraged by Collin's proposal, and many threatened violence. The Skokie village board tried to prevent a possible riot by acting to block the rally. There were legal struggles between the Nazis and the Skokie village board late in 1977 and early in 1978. By June the U.S. courts had ruled in favour of the Nazis on constitutional grounds, and it appeared that Collin would march in Skokie. At the final moment, however, Collin canceled a Skokie rally scheduled for June 25 because, a year after petitioning, he was granted a permit to march in Chicago's Marquette Park, far from Jewish neighbourhoods but near an area of black-white confrontation. This meeting was held on July 9 with 20 to 25 Nazis, more than 2,000 spectators and counterdemonstrators, and several hundred riot-equipped police in attendance. Collin later told many people he is "a changed man," and "not into that anymore."
Collings, Marie, née Allaire (b. 1791 - d. 1853), tenant of Jethou (1846-52) and dame of Sark (1852-53).
Collins, (Thomas) LeRoy (b. March 10, 1909, Tallahassee, Fla. - d. March 12, 1991, Tallahassee), governor of Florida (1955-61). He was elected a representative in the Florida House of Representatives before winning office in the Florida Senate in 1940. He interrupted his political career to serve in the Navy during World War II but was reelected to the Senate in 1946 and 1950. Collins, who defeated the acting governor in 1954 for a two-year unexpired term, was elected in 1956 to another term in office. He championed racial justice at a time when the civil rights movement was at its zenith. After his 1957 inauguration, he adopted the unpopular stance of promoting racial integration in the schools. As one of the "New South" politicians, Collins modernized the state's educational and health care programs. His positions on civil rights led opponents to give him the nickname "Liberal LeRoy," and his bid for a Senate seat in 1968 was unsuccessful. In Washington, D.C., Collins was president (1961-64) of the National Association of Broadcasters, director (1964-65) of the Federal Community Relations Service, and under secretary of commerce (1965-66).
Collins, Martha Layne, née Hall (b. Dec. 7, 1936, Bagdad, Ky.), governor of Kentucky (1983-87).
Collins, Michael, Irish Mícheál O Coileáin (b. Oct. 16, 1890, Clonakilty, County Cork, Ireland - d. Aug. 22, 1922, Beal-na-Blath, Cork), chairman of the Irish provisional government (1922). He fought in the Easter Rising, was arrested and held in detention at Frongoch, Merioneth, but was released in December 1916. In December 1918 he was one of 27 out of 73 elected Sinn Féin members (most of whom were in jail) to be present when the Dáil Éireann (Irish Assembly) convened in Dublin and declared for the republic. Their elected president, Eamon de Valera, and vice president, Arthur Griffith, were both in prison. Hence, much responsibility fell on Collins, who became first Sinn Féin minister of home affairs and, after arranging for de Valera's escape from Lincoln jail (February 1919), finance minister. He became famous as director of intelligence of the Irish Republican Army. As chief coordinator of the revolutionary movement, he headed the list of men wanted by the British, who placed a price of £10,000 on his head. After the truce of July 1921, Griffith and Collins were sent to London by de Valera as negotiators (October-December 1921). Collins signed the treaty of Dec. 6, 1921, in the belief that it was the best that could be obtained at the time. It gave Ireland dominion status, but its provisions for partition and for an oath of allegiance to the crown were unacceptable to de Valera and other republican leaders. Collins won acceptance for the treaty in the Dáil, and a provisional government was formed with Griffith as president and Collins as chairman. Effective administration was obstructed by mutinous activities of the anti-treaty republicans. As civil war became inevitable, Collins assumed command of the army. On a tour of military inspection, he was shot to death in an ambush.
Collomb, Francisque (b. Dec. 19, 1910, Saint-Rambert-en-Bugey, Ain, France - d. July 24, 2009), mayor of Lyon (1976-89).
Collor de Mello, Fernando (Affonso) (b. Aug. 12, 1949, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Brazil (1990-92). He became mayor of Maceió, the capital of Alagoas state (1979-82), federal deputy for Alagoas (1982-86), and governor of Alagoas (1987-89; a position his father had held in 1951-56). In each case he was the candidate of the right-wing Social Democratic Party, which had emerged in 1979 from the former ARENA party (the pro-government party under the military regime from 1964). He gained national prominence as governor for his investigation of "maharajas" (marajas), elite civil servants drawing exorbitant paychecks; Collor cut them from the payroll. Collor's rapid ascendancy as the leading presidential contender in a field of a dozen mostly better-established candidates came within only two months of his nomination on behalf of the small National Reconstruction Party formed in late March 1989. He was elected on Dec. 17, 1989, in the second round of the presidential poll after the first round, in mid-November, had failed to produce a clear majority for a single candidate. On March 15, 1990, he took office as Brazil's youngest president. Full of confidence, he introduced a radical plan to cut inflation, but Brazil's economic woes proved intractable. He was removed from office in 1992. In 2010 he unsuccessfully ran again for governor of Alagoas.
Collot, (Georges Henri) Victor (b. March 21, 1750, Châlons-en-Champagne [now in Marne département], France - d. May 13, 1805, Paris), governor of Guadeloupe (1793-94).
Colom Caballeros, Álvaro (b. June 15, 1951, Guatemala City, Guatemala), president of Guatemala (2008-12). He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 1999 and 2003.
Colomb, Joseph Vincent Christophe (b. Jan. 7, 1814, Toulon, France - d. 1887), commandant-superior of Mayotte (1864-68, 1869-71).
Colombani, Antoine (Padouan) (b. Feb. 25, 1919), high commissioner of the Comoros (1966-69).
Colombani, Ignace (Jean Aristide) (b. Aug. 18, 1908, Montreal, Canada - d. Aug. 19, 1988, Bastia, Haute-Corse, France), governor of Oubangui-Chari (1950-51) and Chad (1951-56).
Colombani, (Don) Jean (b. 1903 - d. 1977), governor of Senegal (1955-57) and high commissioner of Niger (1958-60).
Colombi, Arturo (Alejandro) (b. Jan. 6, 1958, Mercedes, Corrientes, Argentina), governor of Corrientes (2005-09); cousin of Ricardo Colombi.
Colombi, (Horacio) Ricardo (b. Aug. 30, 1957, Mercedes, Corrientes, Argentina), governor of Corrientes (2001-05, 2009- ).
Colombini, Enzo (b. June 10, 1958, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2000-01).
Colombo, Chrystian (Gabriel) (b. Nov. 11, 1952, Zapala, Neuquén, Argentina), cabinet chief of Argentina (2000-01).
Colombo, Emilio (b. April 14, 1920, Potenza, Basilicata, Italy), prime minister (1970-72) and foreign minister (1980-83, 1992-93) of Italy and president of the European Parliament (1977-79).
Colosio (Murrieta), Luis Donaldo (b. Feb. 10, 1950, Magdalena de Kino, Sonora, Mexico - d. March 23, 1994, Tijuana, Mexico), Mexican politician. He joined the governing Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) in 1972. He became a protégé of Carlos Salinas de Gortari, and in 1979 he joined the Secretariat of Budget and Planning under his mentor. Colosio was elected to Congress in 1985 and in 1987 became a member of the PRI's national executive committee before winning election to the Senate in 1988. That same year he became Salinas' presidential campaign manager when the latter was named the PRI's candidate by Pres. Miguel de la Madrid. Colosio's political reputation was tarnished when Salinas emerged victorious by a narrow margin only after a suspicious malfunction of the PRI-controlled Federal Electoral Commission's computer. When he was named head of the party, however, Colosio pledged to spearhead electoral reform and attempted to distance himself from the authoritarian rule of the PRI, in power since 1929. In 1992 Colosio headed the newly created Social Development Secretariat (Sedesol), a program designed to address poverty. His promises of social reform, however, did not prevent the January 1994 uprising in the state of Chiapas, one of the chief beneficiaries of Sedesol. He was designated (Nov. 28, 1993) by Salinas as his handpicked successor, making him the PRI candidate and the odds-on favourite to win the August 1994 elections. While campaigning as a man of the people and one dedicated to democracy, Colosio appeared without the protection of bodyguards. As a result, he proved an easy target for the assassin who gunned him down at a campaign rally.
Colotka, Peter (b. Jan. 10, 1925, Sedliacka Dubová village, Dolný Kubín district, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia]), prime minister of the Slovak Socialist Republic (1969-88).
Colrat, Adolphe (b. April 25, 1955, Lyon, France), high commissioner of French Polynesia (2008-11).
Comanescu, Lazar (b. June 4, 1949, Horezu, Romania), foreign minister of Romania (2008).
Compain, Jacques (Marie Julien) (b. May 7, 1912, Paris, France - d. Feb. 11, 1984, Bordeaux, France), governor of French Somaliland (1958-62).
Compaoré, Blaise (b. Feb. 3, 1951, Ouagadougou), president of Burkina Faso (1987- ). A member of the Mossi, one of the dominant ethnic groups of Burkina Faso, Compaoré from 1977 to 1981 served as head of section and later company commander in the paracommando regiment based at Dedougou. A brief period in charge of the national commando training centre at Po was interrupted when he was reposted in April 1982 to Bobo Dioulasso, in the far western part of the country. Within a month, however, he was deeply embroiled in national politics, resigning from the national armed forces council when Thomas Sankara, then secretary of state for information, left the government of Saye Zerbo. A year later, when another power struggle saw Sankara put in prison, Compaoré returned to Po and, with Ghanaian and Libyan help, organized the coup that was to install Sankara as head of state in August 1983. Personally quiet and self-effacing, Compaoré at first seemed content to leave the public business of politics to the more charismatic Sankara and the other two of the "four musketeers," Commandant Jean-Baptiste Lingani and Capt. Henri Zongo, both of whom backed his seizure of power on Oct. 15, 1987. Sankara perished during the takeover. The coup was apparently precipitated by disagreements over security and other strategic issues, although Compaoré professed not to have planned it in advance and to have been devastated by the death of his friend. The coup was quietly welcomed by conservative governments in the region, which had sometimes found Sankara's quirky revolution difficult to live with. However, Compaoré faced a difficult task in overcoming his reputation as the murderer of Sankara, who had attracted a considerable following throughout West Africa. In 2007-08 he was chairman of the Economic Community of West African States.
Comparini, Anne-Marie (b. July 11, 1947, Orange, Vaucluse, France), president of the Regional Council of Rhône-Alpes (1999-2004).
Compton, Sir John (George Melvin) (b. April 29, 1925, Canouan island, Saint Vincent - d. Sept. 7, 2007, Castries, Saint Lucia), prime minister of Saint Lucia (1979, 1982-96, 2006-07). He was head of St. Lucia's government from 1964, first as chief minister and later, after St. Lucia achieved statehood in association with the U.K. in 1967, as premier. He became the first prime minister of independent St. Lucia in February 1979, but held office for only a little over four months, for in a general election on July 2 the United Workers' Party (UWP) under his leadership was heavily defeated by the St. Lucia Labour Party led by Allan Louisy. But two years later the administration was defeated on a budget measure, and Louisy resigned; Winston Cenac formed a new Labour administration. In January 1982 a bill was introduced in parliament that, in the eyes of the opposition, appeared to condone corrupt practices. Under pressure from both the private and public sectors, the government fell. In the general elections on May 3, 1982, the UWP won 14 of the 17 seats. Although Compton's return to power was hailed in the U.S. and elsewhere as a victory for Western-oriented democracy, it was probably more a tribute to the quiet but strong leadership exerted by Compton. For while Compton's politics were in Caribbean terms slightly to the right of centre, his party's landslide victory owed more to the planning and organization he had undertaken during his 2½ years in opposition. During that time St. Lucia had experienced severe economic decline. Compton concentrated on restoring close links with the U.S., the U.K., Canada, Venezuela, and like-minded regional governments. He was also foreign minister (1979, 1982-87), finance minister (1982-92), and home affairs minister (1987-92). He retired from politics in 1996, but returned in 2005 when he was again elected UWP leader; when the party won the 2006 election, he once again became prime minister. He was knighted in 1997.
Compton, Petrus, foreign minister of Saint Lucia (2004-06).
Comtesse, (Hugo) Robert (b. Aug. 14, 1847, Valangin, Neuchâtel - d. Nov. 17, 1922, La Tour-de-Peilz, Vaud), finance minister (1900, 1903, 1905-09, 1911), justice and police minister (1901), posts and railways minister (1902, 1912), and president (1904, 1910) of Switzerland.
Conable, Barber B(enjamin), Jr. (b. Nov. 2, 1922, Warsaw, N.Y. - d. Nov. 30, 2003, Sarasota, Fla.), president of the World Bank (1986-91). A U.S. congressman representing a largely rural section of western New York from 1965 to 1985, he rose to be the senior Republican on the powerful tax-writing House Ways and Means Committee while his party was in the minority. Among the high points of his years in Congress were forcing through the revenue sharing law in 1972 and the Trade Reform Act of 1974, which cleared the way for U.S. negotiations on the lowering of tariff barriers. There were bitter disappointments, none greater than the betrayal he felt during Watergate after years of loyally backing Pres. Richard Nixon's policies. He later refused to answer Nixon's letters or even attend his funeral. The scenario was repeated during his presidency at the World Bank, although he almost doubled its capital budget and sharpened its focus on combating poverty and bolstering primary education. His friendship with Pres. George Bush, dating back to their service together in Congress in the 1960s, turned sour after Bush ascended to the presidency in 1989. Conable announced in early 1991 that he would not seek a second five-year term on the World Bank. "He thought I should be supporting an American agenda; I thought I was there to help the poor people," Conable said in a 1998 interview.
Concha (Cárdenas), Carlos (b. Nov. 27, 1888, Callao, Peru - d. Dec. 17, 1944, Lima, Peru), foreign minister of Peru (1934-36, 1937-39).
Condé, Alpha (b. March 4, 1938, Boké, French Guinea [now Guinea]), president of Guinea (2010- ). He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 1993 and 1998.
Condé, Mamady, foreign minister of Guinea (2004-05, 2006-07).
Condor, Sam (Terence) (b. 1949, Basseterre, Saint Kitts and Nevis), deputy prime minister (1995-2013) and foreign minister (2000-01, 2010-13) of Saint Kitts and Nevis.
Conflans, Hubert de Brienne, comte de (b. 1690 - d. Jan. 27, 1777, Paris, France), governor-general of Saint-Domingue (1748-51).
Congacou, Tahirou (b. 1913 - d. 1994), president of the National Assembly (1964-65) and acting president (1965) of Dahomey.
Conille, Garry (b. Feb. 26, 1966, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), prime minister of Haiti (2011-12).
Conn, Neil Raymond (b. Aug. 17, 1936, Sydney, N.S.W.), administrator of the Northern Territory (1997-2000).
Connally, John B(owden, Jr.) (b. Feb. 27, 1917, Floresville, Texas - d. June 15, 1993, Houston, Texas), governor of Texas (1963-69). He became an aide to Lyndon B. Johnson, when the latter was a freshman Democratic representative. Connally served in the navy during World War II but returned to the political arena to manage Johnson's brutal but successful Senate campaign in 1948. He put aside party loyalty to help Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican candidate, win the presidency in 1952 but returned to the Democratic fold to manage Johnson's ill-fated attempt to wrest the presidential nomination from John F. Kennedy; he stayed with the ticket, however, when Kennedy named Johnson as his running mate. Though appointed secretary of the navy (1961), he soon resigned to run for governor of Texas. It was during his first term in office that Connally was shot and seriously wounded while riding in the front seat of the presidential limousine in Dallas, Texas, when Kennedy was assassinated on Nov. 22, 1963. He was returned to office for two more terms. As secretary of the treasury (1971) under Pres. Richard M. Nixon, Connally took the U.S. off the gold standard and imposed wage-and-price controls. In 1973, shortly after Johnson died, Connally officially became a Republican. Though indicted by a Watergate grand jury in 1974 for accepting a $10,000 bribe from milk producers, he was acquitted. In 1980 Connally made an unsuccessful bid in the Republican presidential primaries. After spending more than $11 million, he had secured only one delegate.
Connaught and Strathearn, (Prince) Arthur William Patrick Albert (from 1917:) Windsor, (1st) Duke of, (1st) Earl of Essex (b. May 1, 1850, Buckingham Palace, London, England - d. Jan. 16, 1942, Bagshot Park, Surrey, England), governor-general of Canada (1911-16). The third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Consort Albert, he was knighted in 1867 and created Duke of Connaught and Strathearn and Earl of Essex in 1874. He entered the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, in 1866 and did well in the army, becoming full general in 1893 and field marshal in 1902. He served in Egypt in 1882, commanding the 1st Guards Brigade at Tel el Kebir. He then went to India and held the Bombay command from 1886 to 1890. Returning to England, the duke held various military appointments, notably commander in chief in Ireland (1900-04), inspector general to the forces (1904-07), and commander in chief in the Mediterranean (1907-09). As governor-general of Canada (1911-16) he aroused controversy by attempting to intervene in Canadian military affairs. Thereafter he presided over various state functions over the years and finally withdrew from public life in 1928.
Conner, Chuck, byname of Charles F. Conner (b. Dec. 30, 1957, Lafayette, Ind.), acting U.S. secretary of agriculture (2007-08).
Conner, Martin Sennett (b. Aug. 31, 1891, Hattiesburg, Miss. - d. Sept. 16, 1950, Jackson, Miss.), governor of Mississippi (1932-36).
Connor, John T(homas), byname Jack Connor (b. Nov. 3, 1914, Syracuse, N.Y. - d. Oct. 6, 2000, Boston, Mass.), U.S. secretary of commerce (1965-67). In 1942 he became general counsel for the Office of Scientific Research and Development under Vannevar Bush. His duties included setting up a program to research and produce penicillin. During World War II, he served in the Pacific as an air combat intelligence officer with the Marines. When he returned, he joined the pharmaceutical company Merck in 1947 and became president and chief executive officer in 1955. He served as secretary of commerce from 1965 to 1967, before stepping down to become president and then chairman of Allied Chemical Corp., which later became Allied Signal. During Connor's two years as secretary, several of the department's agencies were spun off into the newly formed Department of Transportation. He left the administration in large part because of a difficult working relationship with Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson. Connor also had begun to oppose the administration's policies in Vietnam. In the 1970s, Connor was a leader of the Committee of Business Executives against the Vietnam War. He served as president and then chairman and CEO of Allied Chemical from 1967 to 1979.
Conombo, Joseph (Issoufou) (b. Feb. 9, 1917, Kombissiri, Upper Volta [now Burkina Faso] - d. Dec. 20, 2008, in plane en route from Paris, France, to Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso), foreign minister (1971-74) and prime minister (1978-80) of Upper Volta. He was mayor of Ouagadougou in 1961-65.
Consalvi (Bottaro), Simón Alberto (b. July 7, 1927, Tovar, Mérida state, Venezuela - d. March 11, 2013), foreign minister of Venezuela (1977-79, 1985-88).
Constans, (Jean Antoine) Ernest (b. May 3, 1833, Béziers, Hérault, France - d. April 7, 1913, Paris), interior minister of France (1880-81, 1889-90, 1890-92) and governor-general of French Indochina and lieutenant governor of Cochinchina (1887-88).
Constantin, Daniel (Auguste) (b. Sept. 8, 1940, Thonon-les-Bains, Haute-Savoie, France), prefect of Réunion (1989-91) and high commissioner of New Caledonia (2002-05).
Constantine, Thomas A. (b. Dec. 23, 1938, Buffalo, N.Y.), director of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (1994-99).
Constantinescu, Emil (Ion) (b. Nov. 19, 1939, Tighina, Romania [now in Moldova]), president of Romania (1996-2000).
Conté, Lansana (b. 1934, Moussayah village, Dubreka prefecture, Guinea - d. Dec. 22, 2008), president of Guinea (1984-2008). A member of the Soussou (Susu) ethnic group and a Muslim, in 1955 he enlisted in the French Army and in 1957 was posted to Algeria during the war of independence. Elected a deputy in 1980, he took part that year in the ruling Democratic Party of Guinea's official pilgrimage to Mecca. In 1984, shortly after the death of Pres. Ahmed Sékou Touré, Colonel Conté assumed power as head of the Military Committee for National Redress (CMRN). In July 1985, Col. Diarra Traoré, a co-leader of Conté's coup but whom Conté had removed from the post of prime minister, attempted to seize power while the president was attending a West African summit in Togo. Troops loyal to Conté swiftly regained control, close to 100 senior military and police officers of the Malinke tribe were summarily executed, and property belonging to Malinkes was looted or destroyed by Soussou hoodlums. On his return from Lomé, Conté pronounced the phrase "wo fatara" meaning "well done" in the Soussou language. Conté legalized political parties in 1992 in response to pressure from the opposition and unrest in the army and civil service but it released a flood of tribal rivalries. He won a turbulent and chaotic multiparty presidential election in 1993 with 51.7% of the vote. The country remained relatively calm until a Feb. 2, 1996, army pay dispute turned into a coup attempt. Conté narrowly escaped death when mutinous troops blasted his presidential palace with shellfire as he huddled in the basement. But unlike in most other African states, the trial of accused coup perpetrators was open and none was sentenced to death. By early 2003 he had been largely incapacitated by various health problems.
Conteh, Abdulai (Osman) (b. Aug. 5, 1945, Pepel, Northern province, Sierra Leone), foreign minister (1977-84), finance minister (1984-85), attorney general (1987-91), and vice president (1991-92) of Sierra Leone. In 2000 he became chief justice of Belize.
Conti, Marco (b. April 14, 1969, Rimini, Italy), captain-regent of San Marino (2010).
Conti, Pietro (b. Sept. 8, 1928, Spoleto, Umbria, Italy - d. Sept. 7, 1988, Perugia, Umbria), president of Umbria (1970-76).
Cook, Sir Joseph (b. Dec. 7, 1860, Silverdale, Staffordshire, England - d. July 30, 1947, Sydney, N.S.W., Australia), prime minister of Australia (1913-14). In 1885 he emigrated to New South Wales. His power of ready speech and force of character brought him soon to the secretaryship of the New South Wales Miners' Association, and his life thenceforth was in politics and public affairs. In 1891 he was elected to the New South Wales Legislative Assembly as a Labor member. The outside Labor organizations decided that the members of the parliamentary party had to sign a pledge to support unconditionally whatever programme the party as a whole might ordain should be followed. Cook and the majority of the Labor members refused, and he entered the next assembly as one of George Reid's Free Trade Party. He held posts in the state cabinet until 1899. Beginning his 20-year tenure in the federal Parliament in 1901, he became leader of the Free Trade Party in 1908 and the following year formed a coalition with the Liberal government headed by Alfred Deakin. In Deakin's administration (1909-10), he helped establish the Australian navy. He was elected prime minister in 1913 but had inadequate support in Parliament and was voted out of office the following year. His government's most imaginative step was to appoint an Inter-State Commission. In 1917 Cook joined the wartime ministry of William Hughes as minister of the navy, served on the Imperial War Cabinet in London (1918), and was Australia's senior delegate to the Versailles Peace Conference in 1919. Between 1921 and his retirement in 1927, he acted as high commissioner for Australia in London and as his country's representative to the League of Nations. He was knighted (G.C.M.G.) in 1918.
Cook, Robin, byname of Robert Finlayson Cook (b. Feb. 28, 1946, Belshill, Lanarkshire, Scotland - d. Aug. 6, 2005, Inverness, Scotland), British foreign secretary (1997-2001). He entered the House of Commons in 1974 as Labour MP for Edinburgh Central. Because of boundary changes, he moved to become MP for nearby Livingston in 1983. For most of his first 10 years in Parliament, he was a left-wing MP. He also led the minority Labour faction that opposed his own party's plans to create an elected assembly in Scotland. In the 1980s, however, he started his journey toward the political centre. In 1981 he broke with Tony Benn, the unofficial leader of Labour's left wing, because he opposed Benn's decision to seek to wrest the deputy leadership of the Labour Party from the moderate Denis Healey. In 1983 Cook managed Neil Kinnock's successful campaign to become leader of the Labour Party; subsequently, he backed Kinnock's strategy of modernizing the party. Tony Blair's decision to appoint Cook as shadow foreign secretary in 1994, following Blair's election as leader, made Cook one of Blair's three most senior lieutenants. (The other two were deputy leader John Prescott and shadow chancellor Gordon Brown.) At first Cook appeared the most junior of the triumvirate, but he gradually gained ground by virtue of his sharp intellect and even sharper debating skills, which regularly cheered Labour MPs and depressed Conservatives. He chaired Labour's Policy Forum, which oversaw the process of replacing doctrinaire socialism with more market-friendly policies. When Blair became prime minister in 1997, Cook became foreign secretary, but in 2001 he was unexpectedly demoted to become leader of the House of Commons, and he resigned in 2003 in protest over Blair's support for the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq.
Cooke, Sir Howard (Felix Hanlan) (b. Nov. 13, 1915, Goodwill, St. James parish, Jamaica), governor-general of Jamaica (1991-2006). He entered politics in 1938 as one of the founding members of the People's National Party. In 1958 he was elected to the West Indies federal parliament, as the representative for St. James. He entered the Jamaican parliament in 1962, and served as senator until early 1967. He served as a member of the House of Representatives between 1967 and 1980, and was a minister of government between 1972 and 1980, holding the portfolios of pension and social security, education, and labour and public service. He was president of the Senate from 1989 to 1991 and served on the executive of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association. He was knighted in 1991.
Coolidge, (John) Calvin (b. July 4, 1872, Plymouth, Vt. - d. Jan. 5, 1933, Northampton, Mass.), president of the United States (1923-29). He entered politics in 1899 as city councilman in Northampton. He then rose through a series of political posts, including mayor, state senator, and lieutenant governor, and in 1918 he was elected governor. In September 1919, he was catapulted into the national spotlight when he called out the state guard to quell two days of rioting and disorder resulting from a Boston police strike. At the Republican National Convention of 1920, delegates nominated him for vice president on the first ballot, in a spontaneous gesture of retaliation against the party bosses who had chosen Warren G. Harding to run for president. The slate easily won the election on a "Return to Normalcy" platform. Acceding to the presidency upon Harding's death (Aug. 2, 1923), he inherited a divided party, a fractious Congress, an administration discredited by scandals, and pressing problems of domestic and foreign policy. He brought about an executive reformation, restored integrity at the seat of government, and gained control of his party so that he easily won renomination in 1924. Using the slogan "Keep Cool with Coolidge," he easily won the election after a standpat campaign directed mainly against the "dangerous radicalism" of the third-party (Progressive) candidate, Robert La Follette. An outstanding presidential policy of Coolidge was noninterference in the affairs of business and industry. Regulatory agencies became institutions for the assistance of business, a program of tax reductions favoured capital, and a high protective tariff was maintained. He refused renomination in 1928.
Cooney, Patrick (Mark), byname Paddy Cooney (b. March 2, 1931, Dublin, Ireland), minister of justice (1973-77), posts and telegraphs and transport (1981-82), defense (1982-86), and education (1986-87) of Ireland.
Coontz, Robert Edward (b. June 11, 1864, Hannibal, Mo. - d. Jan. 26, 1935, Bremerton, Wash.), governor of Guam (1912-13).
Cooper, Peter (b. Feb. 12, 1791, New York City - d. April 4, 1883, New York City), U.S. presidential candidate (1876). He was an inventor and manufacturer who built the "Tom Thumb" locomotive. Cooper's social views were farsighted; as a member of the Board of Aldermen of New York City, he advocated paid police and firemen, public schools, and improved public sanitation. In 1859 he founded The Cooper Union in New York City, where free courses were offered in science, engineering, and art. In the presidential election of 1876 he headed the minority Greenback Party ticket in order to place before the public his economic views, which ran counter to the prevailing deflationary doctrine. He received 75,973 votes.
Cooper, Richard N(ewell) (b. June 14, 1934, Seattle, Wash.), acting U.S. secretary of state (1980). Professor of international economics at Harvard University, he has written extensively on questions of international economic policy. He held several minor offices in the federal government, including deputy assistant secretary of state for international monetary affairs (1965-66), undersecretary of state for economic affairs (1977-81), chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (1990-92), and chairman of the National Intelligence Council (1995-97). In 1980 he held the office of acting secretary of state for one day following the resignation of Cyrus Vance.
Cooper, Warren (Ernest) (b. Feb. 21, 1933, Dunedin, New Zealand), foreign minister (1981-84), defense minister (1990-96), and internal affairs minister (1993-96) of New Zealand.
Cooray (Wijewarnasuriya), (Pestheruwe Liyanaralalage) Reginald (Rosmand), chief minister of Western province, Sri Lanka (2000-05, 2005-09).
Coore, David (Hilton) (b. Aug. 22, 1925, Anchovy, St. James, Jamaica - d. Nov. 14, 2011, Dominican Republic), deputy prime minister and finance minister (1972-78) and foreign minister (1989-93) of Jamaica.
Cooreman, Gerard (François Marie) (b. March 25, 1852, Ghent, Belgium - d. Dec. 2, 1926, Brussels, Belgium), prime minister of Belgium (1918). In 1908-12 he was chairman of the Chamber of Representatives.
Copertino, Giovanni (b. Jan. 25, 1943, Monopoli, Puglia, Italy), president of Puglia (1992-93).
Coppé, Albert (b. Nov. 26, 1911, Brugge, Belgium - d. March 30, 1999), acting president of the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community (1967). He was also a member of the European Commission (1967-73).
Coppet, (Jules) Marcel de (b. May 18, 1881, Paris - d. Aug. 31, 1968, Quiberville, Seine-Maritime, France), lieutenant governor of Chad (1926-29, 1930-32), governor of Dahomey (1933-34) and French Somaliland (1934-35), lieutenant governor of Mauritania (1935-36), governor-general of French West Africa (1936-38), and governor-general (1939-40) and high commissioner (1946-47) of Madagascar.
Coppin de Falaën, Feuillen Charles Marie Joseph, baron de (b. March 10, 1800, Falaën, Belgium - d. March 10, 1887), member of the Provisional Government of Belgium (1830-31).
Coppolani, Xavier (Antoine) (b. Feb. 1, 1866, Marignana, Corse [now in Corse-du-Sud], France - d. [assassinated] May 12, 1905, Tidjikja, Mauritania), commissioner of Mauritania (1904-05).
Coquilhat, Camille (Aimé) (b. Oct. 15, 1853, Liège, Belgium - d. March 24, 1891, Boma, Congo Free State [now Congo (Kinshasa)]), acting governor-general of the Congo Free State (1890-91).
Cor, Henri (François Charles), acting governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1904-05), governor of Réunion (1908) and Guadeloupe (1909-10), acting governor-general of Madagascar (1910), and governor of Senegal (1911-14).
Corach, Carlos (Vladimiro) (b. April 24, 1935), interior minister of Argentina (1995-99).
Coral Heredia, Pascual (b. May 17, 1882, Cozumel, Quintana Roo - d. April 16, 1955, Chetumal, Quintana Roo), governor of Quintana Roo (1921).
Corbino, Epicarmo (b. July 18, 1890, Augusta, Sicily, Italy - d. April 25, 1984, Naples, Italy), treasury minister of Italy (1945-46).
Corcoran, Des, byname of James Desmond Corcoran (b. Nov. 8, 1928, Millicent, South Australia - d. Jan. 3, 2004, Adelaide, South Australia), premier of South Australia (1979).
Cordeiro, Vasco (Ilídio Alves) (b. March 28, 1973, San Miguel island, Azores, Portugal), president of the government of the Azores (2012- ).
Cordet, Jean-François (Marie Michel) (b. May 4, 1951, Hanoi, Vietnam), prefect of French Guiana (1992-94) and of Martinique (1995-98).
Cordier, Joseph (Marie Emmanuel) (b. Oct. 14, 1773, Brest [now in Finistère département], France - d. 18...), acting governor of French India (1825-26, 1828-29). As chef des ports et administrateur des comptoirs of the Etablissements français en Inde, he resided at Karia (1818-20), Chandernagor (1820-29), and Pondichéry (1829-36). He was administrator of Chandernagor in 1822-23.
Córdova (Rodríguez), Manuel de Jesús (b. Feb. 13, 1894, Chinameca, San Miguel department, El Salvador - d. ...), member of the Revolutionary Council of Government of El Salvador (1948-49).
Córdova Nieto, Andrés F(ernández de) (b. May 8, 1892, Cañar province, Ecuador - d. Oct. 3, 1983), acting president of Ecuador (1939-40). He was a presidential candidate in 1968.
Córdova Rivas, Rafael (Ángel) (b. Nov. 23, 1923, San José, Costa Rica - d. July 16, 2009, Managua, Nicaragua), member of the Government Junta of National Reconstruction of Nicaragua (1980-85).
Cordovez Zegers, Diego (b. Nov. 3, 1935, Quito, Ecuador), foreign minister of Ecuador (1988-92). In 2005 he became permanent representative to the United Nations.
Coric, Miroslav (b. May 15, 1956, Mostar [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), premier of Herzegovina-Neretva (2001-02, 2003-07).
Corkill, Richard (Kenneth) (b. 1951, Douglas, Isle of Man), chief minister of the Isle of Man (2001-04). He resigned in 2004 after he and his wife were briefly arrested by police in connection with allegations concerning their family business, although they were released without charge.
Corlatean, Titus (b. Jan. 11, 1968, Medgidia, Romania), foreign minister of Romania (2012- ).
Corminboeuf, Pascal (b. Feb. 8, 1944), president of the Council of State of Fribourg (2002, 2008).
Cornejo, Hernán (Hipólito), governor of Salta (1987-91).
Cornelis (b. July 27, 1953, Sanggau, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia), governor of Kalimantan Barat (2008- ).
Cornélis, Henri (Arthur Adolf Marie Christopher) (b. Sept. 18, 1910, Bevere, East Flanders province, Belgium - d. 1999, Chaumont-Gistoux, Walloon Brabant province, Belgium), governor-general of Belgian Congo (1958-60).
Corner, Frank Henry (b. 1920), administrator of Tokelau (1975-84). He was also New Zealand's permanent representative to the United Nations (1962-67) and ambassador to the United States (1967-72).
Corni, Guido (Tommaso) (b. Aug. 25, 1883, Stradella, Lombardia, Italy - d. 1946, Genoa, Italy), governor of Somalia (1928-31).
Cornielje, Clemens (Gerard Antoon) (b. June 10, 1958, Lobith, Gelderland, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Gelderland (2005- ).
Cornish, (Robert) Francis (b. May 18, 1942, Bolton, England), British high commissioner to Brunei (1983-86).
Cornulier-Lucinière, Alphonse (Jean Charles [or Claude] René Théodore), comte de (b. April 15, 1811, Lucinière castle, Joué-sur-Erdre, Loire-Inférieure [now Loire-Atlantique], France - d. March 23, 1886, Nantes, Loire-Inférieure, France), governor of Cochinchina (1870-71).
Cornut-Gentille, Bernard (Alfred Charles) (b. July 26, 1909, Brest, France - d. Jan. 21, 1992, Paris), governor-general of French Equatorial Africa (1948-51) and French West Africa (1952-56) and French minister of posts and telecommunications (1959-60); grandson of Jean Joseph Cornut-Gentille. He was also ambassador to Argentina (1957-58).
Cornut-Gentille, Jean Joseph (Alfred) (b. Jan. 26, 1839, Paris - d. 1918), commandant-particular of Gabon (1883-85).
Corona del Rosal, Alfonso (b. July 1, 1906, Ixmiquilpan, Hidalgo, Mexico - d. Dec. 31, 2000, Mexico City, Mexico), Mexican politician. As a young man, he fought in the government's war against a Catholic uprising known as the Cristero War (1926-29), which ended with the church promising not to rise up against the anti-clerical 1917 constitution, and the government promising not to crack down as hard on constitutional violations. Gradually the church's freedom and behind-the-scenes influence increased, but its role in public life remained limited. Corona del Rosal served as governor of Hidalgo state (1957-61) and as the president of the Institutional Revolutionary Party, which ruled Mexico for 71 years until it lost presidential elections in July 2000. His term (1966-70) as chief of government of the Distrito Federal (i.e., mayor of Mexico City) was marred by the 1968 military assault on student demonstrators that killed hundreds. He was considered one of the last surviving officials to have key information concerning the attack by soldiers on the peaceful democracy demonstration in Tlatelolco Plaza. Details are still a mystery, including the exact number of dead and who ordered troops to open fire.
Coronas, Giovanni Rinaldo (b. April 10, 1919, Castelvetrano, Trapani province, Italy - d. Jan. 5, 2008, Rome, Italy), interior minister of Italy (1995-96).
Coronini, Ivan, German in full Johann Baptist Alexius, Graf Coronini-Cronberg (b. Nov. 16, 1794, Görz, Austria [now Gorizia, Italy] - d. July 26, 1880, Görz), ban of Croatia (1859-60).
Corpacci (Saadi de Mercado), Lucía (Benigna) (de Mercado by marriage) (b. Dec. 4, 1959, San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca, Catamarca, Argentina), governor of Catamarca (2011- ); cousin of Ramón Saadi.
Corral (Acosta), Ponciano (b. 17..., Colombia - d. [executed] Nov. 8, 1855, Granada, Nicaragua), de facto president of Nicaragua (1855).
Corrales (Álvarez), Arturo (Gerardo) (b. March 27, 1961), foreign minister (2011-13) and security minister (2013- ) of Honduras.
Corrêa, Luiz Felipe de Seixas (b. July 16, 1945, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting foreign minister of Brazil (2001). He was ambassador to Mexico (1989-92), Spain (1993-97), and Argentina (1997-98) and general secretary of the foreign ministry (1992, 1999-2001).
Correa (Delgado), Rafael (Vicente) (b. April 6, 1963, Guayaquil, Ecuador), economy and finance minister (2005) and president (2007- ) of Ecuador.
Correia, Antônio Epaminondas de Barros, barão de Contendas (b. 1839, Povação de Altinho, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. April 13, 1905, Engenho Contendas, Amaragy municipality, Pernambuco), president (1882-83) and acting governor (1891-92) of Pernambuco.
Correia, Carlos (b. Nov. 6, 1933, Bissau, Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau]), prime minister of Guinea-Bissau (1991-94, 1997-98, 2008-09).
Correia, Luís António de Magalhães (b. June 30, 1873, Lisbon - d. 1960), acting governor of Macau (1922-23), acting foreign minister of Portugal (1932), and administrator of Tangier (1945-48).
Corrias, Efisio (b. May 31, 1911, Bagno di Romagna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy - d. Jan. 15, 2007, Cagliari, Sardegna, Italy), president of Sardegna (1958-66).
Cortez Pereira de Araújo, José (b. 1924? - d. Feb. 21, 2004, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil), governor of Rio Grande do Norte (1971-75).
Cortina Mauri, Pedro (b. March 18, 1908, La Pobla de Segur, Lleida province, Catalonia, Spain - d. Feb. 14, 1993, Madrid), foreign minister of Spain (1974-75).
Corvetto, Louis Emmanuel, comte, originally Luigi Emanuele Corvetto (b. July 11, 1756, Genoa - d. May 23, 1821, Genoa), member of the Executive Directory (1798-99) and of the Commission of Government (1799-1800) of the Ligurian Republic. He became member of the French Council of State in 1805 and Gallicized his name to Louis Emmanuel Corvetto, was made comte (Count) in 1809, and served as finance minister of France (1815-18).
Corzine, Jon (Stevens) (b. Jan. 1, 1947, Taylorville, Ill.), governor of New Jersey (2006-10).
Corzo, Julio (César) (b. 1939 - d. 1989), public health minister of Argentina (1989).
Cosgrave, Liam (Thomas), Irish Liam Tomás Mac Cosgair (b. April 13, 1920, Templeogue, County Dublin, Ireland), prime minister of Ireland (1973-77); son of William Thomas Cosgrave. He entered the Dáil (Irish parliament) as a Fine Gael member in 1943, and he retained his seat until his retirement from politics in 1981. In 1948, when the first interparty government replaced Eamon de Valera's Fianna Fáil regime, which had been in power for the previous 16 years, Cosgrave became parliamentary secretary to the taoiseach (prime minister) and to the minister for industry and commerce. It was a short-lived administration, going out of power after three years, in 1951. But it was back again in 1954 for another three years, at which time Cosgrave became minister for external affairs and led the first Irish delegation to the United Nations General Assembly in 1956. Cosgrave succeeded James Dillon as leader of Fine Gael in 1965 and eight years later, in coalition with the Labour Party, secured the prime ministry. In the face of continuing deterioration of the political situation in Northern Ireland, Cosgrave supported the British government in its establishment of a coalition executive there and its plans for a Council of Ireland to link the governments of the republic and the North. His National Coalition was defeated in the general elections of June 1977, largely on the economic issues of inflation and unemployment.
Cosgrave, William Thomas, Irish Liam Tomás Mac Cosgair (b. June 6, 1880, Dublin, Ireland - d. Nov. 16, 1965, Dublin), prime minister of Ireland (1922-32). At an early age, he was attracted to the Irish nationalist movement Sinn Féin. He took part in the Easter Rising (1916) and was afterward interned by the British for a short time. In 1917 he was elected to Parliament for the city of Kilkenny. In the sweeping election victory of Sinn Féin in 1918, he became a member of the first Dáil Éireann (Irish Assembly). He was made minister for local government in the first republican ministry; and, during the struggle with the British, his task was to organize the refusal of local bodies to cooperate with the British in Dublin. He was a supporter of the 1921 treaty settlement with Great Britain, and he became minister of local government in Ireland's newly formed provisional government. He became the first prime minister of the Irish Free State. In the Dáil there was no serious opposition, since Eamon de Valera's party, which refused to take the oath prescribed in the treaty, abstained from attendance. But neither Cosgrave nor his ministry enjoyed much popularity. Following a 1927 bill declaring that no candidature for the Dáil should be accepted unless the candidate declared himself willing to sit and to take the oath of allegiance, de Valera and his party decided to attend sessions in the Dáil, and, since this greatly altered the parliamentary situation, Cosgrave decided to hold a general election. The election in September 1927 left his party numerically the largest in the Dáil but without an overall majority. He continued in office until de Valera's decisive victory at the 1932 general election. In 1944 he resigned from the leadership of the United Ireland Party (Fine Gael).
Cosic, Dobrica (b. Dec. 29, 1921, Velika Drenova, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia]), president of Yugoslavia (1992-93).
Cosic, Kresimir (b. Oct. 23, 1949, Zagreb, Croatia), acting defense minister of Croatia (1998).
Cosic, Zdenko (b. Jan. 22, 1961, Buhovo, near Siroki Brijeg [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), premier of West Herzegovina (2010, 2010- ).
Cossiga, Francesco (Maurizio) (b. July 26, 1928, Sassari, Sardinia, Italy - d. Aug. 17, 2010, Rome, Italy), president of Italy (1985-92). A second cousin of Communist Party leader Enrico Berlinguer, he joined the Christian Democrat Party in 1945. After holding minor party offices, he was first elected to parliament in 1958 and achieved cabinet office as minister without portfolio in 1974. In 1976 Prime Minister Aldo Moro offered Cossiga the post of minister of the interior. In that post, Cossiga displayed qualities of decisiveness and courage in dealing with two national emergencies - the Friuli earthquake of 1976 and the campaign of political terrorism culminating in the kidnapping and murder of Moro in 1978. He personally supervised the nationwide search for the kidnappers and their hostage. On learning of Moro's murder, Cossiga resigned his office. He then disappeared from the limelight until he was unexpectedly called upon to try to form a government and end Italy's longest postwar political crisis. Three other leading politicians had tried and failed after the indecisive general election of June 1979, but Cossiga succeeded within 48 hours in forming a coalition of Christian Democrats, Liberals, and Social Democrats. One of his first acts was to install sophisticated telecommunications and computerized information-storage systems. He then dealt speedily with a number of controversial banking, political, and diplomatic appointments that had been hanging fire for months. He headed two successive cabinets in 1979-80. He became chairman of the Senate in 1983. On June 24, 1985, he was elected president by the combined houses of parliament on the first ballot, something that had not happened since the election in 1946 of Enrico De Nicola.
Costa, Alberto Romão Madruga da (b. April 15, 1940, Horta, Faial island, Azores, Portugal), president of the government of the Azores (1995-96).
Costa, Cândido José da (b. April 14, 1845 - d. Dec. 10, 1909), governor of Rio Grande do Sul (1890-91).
Costa, Celestino Rocha da (b. Sept. 25, 1938), prime minister of São Tomé and Príncipe (1988-91). He was also minister of education and culture (1976-77), national education, sport, and justice (1977-78), justice (1978-82), commerce (1983-86), and education, labour, and social welfare (1986-88).
Costa, Eduardo Augusto Ferreira da (b. Oct. 14, 1865, Carnide parish, Lisbon, Portugal - d. May 1, 1907, Luanda, Angola), governor-general of Angola (1903-04, 1906-07).
Costa, Fernando dos Santos (b. Dec. 19, 1899, northern Portugal - d. Oct. 15, 1982, Lisbon), defense minister of Portugal (1944-58). He was commissioned in 1918 and became acquainted with António de Oliveira Salazar during the 1920s. In 1936 Costa was appointed deputy minister of war and during World War II, when he was viewed as sympathetic to the Axis, rose to become a key figure in the government. After the discovery of a plot in 1947, Costa, who had been accused by the opposition of complicity in the death in custody of the leading conspirator, established his role as the mainstay of Salazar's power. Costa saved the dictator again in 1958 from the electoral challenge of Gen. Humberto Delgado, but by this time Salazar was wary of Costa's own power and dismissed him. He made a bid to replace Salazar in 1968, when the dictator retired due to ill health, but failed and in the revolution of 1974 stayed in Portugal where, surprisingly, he was allowed to live on unmolested.
Costa, Gabriel (Arcanjo Ferreira da) (b. Dec. 11, 1954, Príncipe), prime minister of São Tomé and Príncipe (2002, 2012- ).
M.P. da Costa
Costa, Guilherme Posser da: see Posser da Costa, Guilherme.
Costa, Humberto (b. Sept. 2, 1906, Santa Ana, El Salvador), member of the Revolutionary Council of Government of El Salvador (1948-50).
Costa, Jorge Nova da (b. Dec. 13, 1925), governor of Amapá (1985-90).
Costa, Manuel Pinto da (b. Aug. 5, 1937, Água Grande, São Tomé), president (1975-91, 2011- ) and defense minister (1975-78, 1982-86) of São Tomé and Príncipe.
Costa, Zacarias (Albano) da (b. Jan. 16, 1964, Remexio, Portuguese Timor [now East Timor]), foreign minister of East Timor (2007-12).
Z. da Costa
Costa Gomes, Francisco da (b. June 30, 1914, Chaves, Portugal - d. July 31, 2001, Lisbon), president of Portugal (1974-76). He was appointed undersecretary of state for the armed forces by dictator António Salazar in 1958. However, he later was fired because he disagreed with the wars which began in 1961 against independence movements in Portugal's five African colonies. He had served as supreme commander of Portuguese forces in Angola and Mozambique. After Salazar died and was replaced by Marcelo Caetano (1968), Costa Gomes returned as armed forces chief (1972) but resigned six weeks before the military coup of April 25, 1974, that toppled the 42-year rightist dictatorship. He was one of the seven members of the junta which took power after the coup. The bloodless revolution was led by army captains weary of the protracted colonial wars in Africa. Two years later, they restored democracy to Portugal. Gen. António de Spínola headed the military junta but stepped down five months later and was replaced by Costa Gomes, also a general, who served as president until elections were staged in 1976. He was promoted to marshal, Portugal's highest military rank, in 1981.
Costa Méndez, Nicanor (b. 1922 - d. Aug. 2, 1992, Buenos Aires, Argentina), foreign minister of Argentina (1966-69, 1981-82).
Costello, John A(loysius), Irish Seán Ua Coisdealbha (b. June 20, 1891, Dublin - d. Jan. 5, 1976, Dublin), prime minister of Ireland (1948-51, 1954-57). He was attorney general (1926-32) and represented the government at imperial conferences and at the League of Nations. He was elected to the Dáil (parliament) in 1933 for the Fine Gael party. He owed his selection as prime minister to a coalition of several parties and prominent independent politicians united in opposition to Eamon de Valera's Fianna Fáil (Republican Party). During his first term as prime minister, he introduced into the Dáil the Republic of Ireland Act (1948), by which Ireland withdrew from the Commonwealth; the Republic of Ireland was formally inaugurated on April 18, 1949. The "Mother and Child" health scheme, strongly opposed by the Catholic hierarchy, and a dispute with the farming community over the price of milk were among the issues which led Costello to seek a dissolution of the Dáil in May 1951. After the general election of June 1951 Fianna Fáil formed a government. In the next election (May 1954), Fianna Fáil was defeated, and Costello again formed a coalition government. It was marked by a sharp increase in acts of terrorism by the Irish Republican Army (IRA). Seán MacBride, leader of the small Clann na Poblachta party, tabled a motion of no confidence, based on the weakening state of the economy; then Fianna Fáil tabled its own motion of no confidence, and, rather than face almost certain defeat, Costello again asked the president to dissolve parliament. In the subsequent general elections (March 1957), Fianna Fáil returned to office. Costello resigned as opposition leader in 1959.
Cota, Roberto (b. July 13, 1968, Novara, Piemonte, Italy), president of Piemonte (2010- ).
Cotti, Flavio (b. Oct. 18, 1939, Muralto, Ticino, Switzerland), president of the Council of State of Ticino (1977-78, 1981-82) and president of the Christian Democratic People's Party (1984-87), interior minister (1987-93), president (1991, 1998), and foreign minister (1993-99) of Switzerland.
Cottier, Anton (b. Dec. 4, 1943, Jaun [Bellegarde], Fribourg, Switzerland - d. Nov. 3, 2006), president of the Christian Democratic People's Party (1994-97) and of the Council of States (2001-02) of Switzerland.
Coty, René (Jules Gustave) (b. March 20, 1882, Le Havre, France - d. Nov. 22, 1962, Le Havre), president of France (1954-59). He became a municipal councillor in Le Havre in 1908 and a councillor-general for Seine-Inférieure (now Seine-Maritime) in 1919. He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1923. He sat with the left Republicans and specialized in matters of merchant shipping and government reform. In December 1930 he served briefly as undersecretary of the interior. In 1935 he left the Chamber to enter the Senate. He remained relatively inactive during World War II and returned to the Chamber in 1945. He was minister of reconstruction and urban affairs in 1947-48 and then returned to the Council of the Republic (as the Senate had been renamed) and became one of its four vice presidents. He was rather unknown to the public when in the tumultuous presidential election of 1953 he was chosen president (December 23) after six days and 13 ballots. He had not originally been a candidate and when, on the 12th ballot, with the election hopelessly deadlocked, a group of right-wing senators suddenly entered his name, it must have been entirely outside his expectations that he should become president. Coty served with dignity but was less active in trying to influence policy than his predecessor, Vincent Auriol, had been. He watched impotently as the Fourth Republic descended ever deeper into governmental instability until it was apparent in May 1958 that the system was hopelessly blocked. After a revolution broke out in Algiers that month, Coty's threat to resign induced the National Assembly to elect Gen. Charles de Gaulle as prime minister. Coty retired in January 1959, two years before the end of his septennate, to allow de Gaulle to assume the presidency of the Fifth Republic.
Coubeau, Oger (b. Sept. 8, 1885 - d. 19...), resident of Urundi (1933-35).
Coubertin, Pierre (de Frédy), baron de (b. Jan. 1, 1863, Paris, France - d. Sept. 2, 1937, Geneva, Switzerland), president of the International Olympic Committee (1896-1916, 1919-25).
Couceiro, Henrique Mitchell de Paiva (Cabral) (b. Dec. 30, 1861, São Mamede parish, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Feb. 11, 1944, São Sebastião da Pedreira parish, Lisbon), governor-general of Angola (1907-09) and chairman of the Governing Junta of Portugal in rebellion (1919).
Couchepin, Arthur (Joseph Marie) (b. March 1, 1869, Martigny-Bourg, Valais, Switzerland - d. April 11, 1941, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland), president of the Council of State of Valais (1907-08, 1912-13) and president of the Federal Tribunal of Switzerland (1935-36).
Couchepin, François (b. Jan. 19, 1935, Martigny, Valais, Switzerland), federal chancellor of Switzerland (1991-99); grandson of Arthur Couchepin.
Couchepin, Pascal (b. April 5, 1942, Martigny, Valais, Switzerland), economy minister (1998-2002), interior minister (2003-09), vice president (2002, 2007), and president (2003, 2008) of Switzerland; grandnephew of Arthur Couchepin.
Coudert, Pierre (Léonard Alphonse) (b. April 22, 1900 - d. July 16, 1970), administrator-superior of the Comoros (1950-56).
Coulibaly, (Daniel) Ouezzin (b. July 1, 1909, Pouy village, Upper Volta [now Burkina Faso] - d. Sept. 7, 1958, Paris), prime minister of Upper Volta (1957-58).
Coulibaly, Sori (b. 1925, Sokolo, north of Segou, French Sudan [now Mali]), foreign minister of Mali (1969-70).
Coulibaly, Tieman (Hubert) (b. 1967?, Bamako, Mali), foreign minister of Mali (2012- ).
Coulson, Sir John (Eltringham) (b. Sept. 13, 1909, Gosforth, England - d. Nov. 15, 1997), secretary-general of the European Free Trade Association (1965-72); knighted 1957.
Counsell, Marilyn Trenholme (b. Oct. 22, 1933, Baie Verte, New Brunswick, Canada), lieutenant governor of New Brunswick (1997-2003).
Courbet, (André) Amédée (Anatole Prosper) (b. June 26, 1827, Abbeville, Somme, France - d. June 11, 1885, aboard his flagship Le Bayard in the harbour of Makung, Taiwan), governor of New Caledonia (1880-82).
Courmo, Barcourgné (b. 1916, Say, Niger - d. Nov. 16, 1993, Niamey, Niger), foreign minister of Niger (1970).
Cournarie, Pierre Charles (Albert) (b. Aug. 26, 1895, Terrasson, Dordogne, France - d. Sept. 29, 1968, La Bachellerie village, Dordogne), governor of the French Cameroons (1940-43), governor-general of French West Africa (1943-46), and governor of New Caledonia (1948-51).
Cournoyea, Nellie J(oy) (b. March 4, 1940, Aklavik, Northwest Territories, Canada), government leader (1991-94) and premier (1994-95) of the Northwest Territories.
Courrejolles, Charles Louis Théobald (b. Feb. 5, 1842, Vervins, Aisne, France - d. 1902), administrator of Kwangchowan (1898-1900).
Court, Sir Charles (Walter Michael) (b. Sept. 29, 1911, Crawley, Sussex, England - d. Dec. 22, 2007, Nedlands, Western Australia), premier of Western Australia (1974-82); knighted 1972.
Court, Joseph (Urbain) (b. July 1, 1881, Lutzelhouse, Bas-Rhin, France - d. May 1948, Paris, France), governor of French Sudan (1930-31), lieutenant governor of Niger (1935-38), and governor of Réunion (1938-39).
Court, (from 1823, Jonkheer) Paulus Emmanuel Anthony de la (b. 1760 - d. 1848), president of the National Assembly of the Batavian Republic (1796).
Court, Richard (Fairfax) (b. Sept. 27, 1947, Nedlands, Western Australia), premier of Western Australia (1993-2001); son of Sir Charles Court.
Courtenay, Eamon (Harrison) (b. June 11, 1960), foreign minister of Belize (2006-07).
Cousebandt d'Alkemade, Alexandre (b. April 26, 1840, Oudenaarde, Belgium - d. Nov. 2, 1922, Brussels, Belgium), war minister of Belgium (1899-1907).
Cousin-Montauban, Charles Guillaume (Marie Apollinaire Antoine), comte (count) de Palikao (b. June 24, 1796, Paris - d. Jan. 8, 1878, Versailles, France), prime minister of France (1870). Commissioned in the army in 1815, he passed through the staff college and went with the 1823 expedition to Spain to restore Fernando VII to the throne. He served in Algeria from 1831 to 1857, rising to the rank of divisional general in 1855 and commanding the province of Constantine. From 1857 to 1860 he held three commands in metropolitan France before being sent to China in 1860 to command French troops in the joint Anglo-French expedition sent to enforce Chinese compliance with the Treaty of Tientsin (1858). He defeated a large force of Chinese troops at Baliqiao (French: Palikao), a place near Beijing, on September 21 and entered the Chinese capital on October 12; worldwide indignation was aroused when troops under his command took part in the pillage and burning of the summer palaces outside Beijing. A hero at home, however, he was appointed to the French Senate in December and named comte de Palikao by Napoléon III in 1862. In 1865 he was appointed to command the 4th Army Corps at Lyon. After the outbreak of the Franco-German War, he was not given a command in the field, but was designated prime minister by the empress regent Eugénie on Aug. 9, 1870. His government, which lasted less than a month, witnessed the downfall of the Second Empire. Despite his reorganization of the country's military resources, he was unable to prevent the catastrophic defeat at Sedan (September 1-2). Ousted by the republican revolution of September 4, he fled to Belgium.
Cousseran, Paul (Jules) (b. July 30, 1922, Uzerche, Corrèze, France - d. July 22, 2000, Neuilly-sur-Seine, near Paris, France), prefect of Réunion (1969-72) and high commissioner of French Polynesia (1977-81).
Coussirou, Jean (Marie) (b. Jan. 22, 1930, Larche, Corrèze, France - d. May 6, 2006), prefect of Mayotte (1976-78).
Cousturier, Paul (Jean François), governor of French Guinea (1900-04) and Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1904-05) and acting lieutenant governor of Gabon (1905).
Coutanche (of St. Brelade in the Island of Jersey and of the City of Westminster), Alexander (Moncrieff) Coutanche, Baron (b. May 9, 1892, St. Saviour, Jersey - d. Dec. 18, 1973, St. Brelade, Jersey), bailiff (1935-61) and president of the Superior Council (1940-45) of Jersey. He was knighted in 1945 and made a life peer in 1961.
Coutinho, António Alva Rosa (b. Feb. 14, 1926, Lisbon, Portugal - d. June 2, 2010), high commissioner of Angola (1974-75).
Couve de Murville, (Jacques) Maurice (b. Jan. 24, 1907, Reims, France - d. Dec. 24, 1999, Paris), French politician. He joined the corps of finance inspectors in 1930 and in 1940 became director of external finance in the Ministry of Finance. He served in the cabinet of Philippe Pétain and Pierre Laval until 1943, when he joined Gen. Henri Giraud in Algiers and became commissioner of finance in the Free French government under Charles de Gaulle. Upon the war's end he served as director general of political affairs in the foreign ministry, and he took an important part in the complex diplomatic negotiations that attended the European postwar settlement. He held posts as ambassador to Italy (1945), Egypt (1950-54), NATO (1954), the U.S. (1955), and West Germany (1956-58). In 1958 de Gaulle became president and appointed him foreign minister, a position he held for a record 10 years. He helped sign a friendship treaty with West Germany and was instrumental in France's barring Great Britain from the Common Market, pulling out of NATO, and recognizing the People's Republic of China. Defeated the first time that he ran for political office (1967), he ran again as deputy to the National Assembly and was elected (1968). De Gaulle appointed him finance minister (May-July 1968) and then prime minister (1968-69). He was appointed inspector general of finances in 1969, and he also served as president of the foreign affairs committee of the National Assembly (1973-78) and as a member of the French delegation to the UN (1978-81). Pres. Valéry Giscard d'Estaing made him special emissary to Lebanon at Egyptian president Anwar as-Sadat's request during the 1976 civil war in Lebanon. He held his National Assembly seat to 1986, then served in the Senate to 1995.
Couve de Murville
Covas, Mário, Júnior (b. April 21, 1930, Santos, São Paulo state, Brazil - d. March 6, 2001, São Paulo), governor of São Paulo (1995-2001). He entered politics in 1962 when he was elected to Congress for the Brazilian Democratic Party. As he began his second term in 1966, the military regime stripped him of his political rights after he defended a fellow congressman who had criticized the armed forces. In 1979, Covas returned to Congress. Four years later, he was appointed mayor of the city of São Paulo. Covas was elected to the Senate in 1986, and two years later, he and then senator Fernando Henrique Cardoso founded the Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB). Covas was the party's candidate in the 1989 presidential elections, but came in fourth. Cardoso went on to win in 1994, with Covas being elected governor of São Paulo. Many analysts credit Covas for saving the PSDB from ruin, when he rallied to stop the party from supporting the Fernando Collor de Mello government shortly before a series of corruption scandals led to Collor's impeachment and eventual resignation. Before he was diagnosed with his second case of cancer, Covas was tipped as a candidate to succeed Cardoso in the 2002 election. But even with dubious health, Covas was considered a chief player in the selection of a candidate for the presidential race. He was known for fighting back when offended, breaking loose from his bodyguards to engage in verbal battles with hecklers and striking state workers. He died halfway through his second four-year term at the helm of Brazil's most populous state; Cardoso decreed seven days of national mourning.
Coveney, Hugh (b. July 20, 1935, Cork, Ireland - d. March 14, 1998, off Robert's Cove, Kinsale, Ireland), Irish politician. Coveney, first elected to parliament in 1981, was a senior figure in the Fine Gael party in Cork. He served as defense and marine minister from December 1994 to May 1995. His body was recovered from the sea after he apparently fell off a cliff while trying to rescue one of his dogs.
Covic, Dragan (b. Aug. 20, 1956, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina), finance minister and deputy prime minister (1998-2001) and acting prime minister (2001) of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. He became the Croat member of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2002 and was its chairman in 2003-04; he was sacked in March 2005 after refusing to step down in the face of serious corruption charges relating to his time as finance minister. In June 2005 he became president of the Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In November 2006 he was sentenced to five years in prison. An appeal of his conviction led to a retrial, during which the court decided it had no jurisdiction over the case. In 2012 he was chairman of the House of Peoples of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Covic, Nebojsa (b. July 2, 1958, Belgrade, Serbia), acting prime minister of Serbia (2003). He was a rising star in Slobodan Milosevic's Socialist Party and mayor of Belgrade in 1994-97. But Covic, who stood behind Milosevic during government-organized rallies, was expelled from the party after he conceded defeat to the opposition in elections for Belgrade city hall in the winter of 1996-97. Zoran Djindjic took over as mayor. Covic subsequently formed the Democratic Alternative, which became one of the smaller parties in the DOS alliance. A politician who does not shy away from firm action, he reportedly brought a truck laden with weapons to Belgrade on the eve of the Oct. 5, 2000, uprising which ousted Milosevic. He went into hiding after police issued an arrest warrant. After the overthrow of the old regime, Covic became a deputy prime minister of Serbia, first under Prime Minister Milomir Minic and, from January 2001, under Djindjic. He won praise from Western governments for the way he helped end a local Albanian guerrilla insurgency which gripped southern Serbia east of Kosovo in 2001. Instead of deploying the heavy-handed tactics Milosevic used in a failed attempt to quell a 1998-99 uprising in Kosovo, he helped engineer a peace deal under which rebels lay down their arms in return for improved rights for the Albanian community. He is also the government's point man for Kosovo, the majority Albanian province in southern Serbia which came under international administration in 1999. He openly opposed some of Djindjic's reform policies and supported Yugoslav Pres. Vojislav Kostunica, who ran against a candidate backed by Djindjic in the failed Serbian presidential election of December 2002. He briefly became acting prime minister after the assassination of Djindjic.
Coward, Sir John (Francis) (b. Oct. 11, 1937), lieutenant governor of Guernsey (1994-2000); knighted 1990.
Cowen, Brian, Irish Brian Ó Comhain (b. Jan. 10, 1960, Tullamore, County Offaly, Ireland), deputy prime minister (2007-08) and prime minister (2008-11) of Ireland. He was catapulted into the Dáil at the very young age of 24 due to the untimely death of his father, Ber Cowen, in 1984. His deep roots in the Fianna Fáil (FF) party go back not only to his father but to his grandfather, who was a county councillor in Offaly. He backed Albert Reynolds in his unsuccessful tilt for taoiseach in 1991 before Charles Haughey was finally ousted in February 1992, and was appointed to ministerial office when Reynolds took the helm. FF was in coalition with the Progressive Democrats (a party formed by FF dissidents) at the time and Cowen earned a lot of publicity with his declaration "If in doubt leave them out." It was a stance he repeated later before accepting them as partners under Bertie Ahern. His record as a minister in five departments - labour (1992-93), transport, energy and communications (1993-94), health and children (1997-2000), foreign affairs (2000-04), and finance (2004-08) - was not spectacular but he showed a knack of keeping out of political trouble and made no serious mistakes. Appointed health minister after the FF victory in 1997, he famously described that department as "Angola" because landmines were liable to go off any time. He could not disguise his relief at being moved to foreign affairs in 2000. While there he presided over the continuing and complex developments in the Northern Ireland peace process and was involved in Ireland's campaign for a seat on the UN Security Council. Moved to finance after FF suffered a drubbing in the local and European elections of 2004, his budgets were more traditional, with a greater emphasis on social inclusion, than those of his predecessor Charlie McCreevy. After Ahern's resignation in 2008, he succeeded him as party leader and prime minister. As Ireland was caught in the global financial crisis, he had to ask for an EU-IMF bailout in 2010 and introduced austerity measures. In January 2011 he stepped down as FF leader ahead of early elections in which the party suffered a crushing defeat.
Cowen, Sir Zelman (b. Oct. 7, 1919, Melbourne, Vic. - d. Dec. 8, 2011, Toorak, Vic.), governor-general of Australia (1977-82); knighted 1976.
Cowles, Leila (Teresa) Rachid (Lichi) de (b. March 30, 1955, Asunción, Paraguay), foreign minister of Paraguay (2003-06).
Cox, Archibald, (Jr.) (b. May 17, 1912, Plainfield, N.J. - d. May 29, 2004, Brooksville, Maine), U.S. solicitor general (1961-65). He served as a speechwriter and adviser to John F. Kennedy in the Senate and in his campaign for the presidency. President Kennedy then appointed Cox solicitor general, which remained the highest federal position he held. He took over the investigation of the Watergate scandal on May 18, 1973. In April Pres. Richard M. Nixon had forced Attorney General Richard Kleindienst to resign and chosen Elliot Richardson to succeed Kleindienst; as the price for Richardson's confirmation, the Democratic-controlled Senate Judiciary Committee insisted that a special prosecutor be named. In that role, Cox wound up in a confrontation with the White House, where Nixon appointees suspected he was out to get the president. Over five months Cox built up a prosecution staff of energetic young lawyers and widened his investigation into a number of areas, including reports of suspicious financial dealings among members and former members of the Nixon administration. Cox tried to force the White House to turn over the tapes of Oval Office conversations that ultimately proved that there had been a conspiracy to cover up the administration's ties to the Watergate burglary. When Nixon resisted surrendering the tapes, Cox took the matter to the courts, which ruled in his favour. But Nixon would not give in, and the "Saturday Night Massacre" ensued: Nixon ordered Richardson to dismiss Cox, Richardson refused and resigned, his deputy William D. Ruckelshaus likewise refused and was himself dismissed, and finally Cox was dismissed by the solicitor general, Robert H. Bork. From 1980 to 1992 Cox was chairman of Common Cause, a nonpartisan "citizens' lobby."
Cox, James M(iddleton) (b. March 31, 1870, Jacksonburg, Ohio - d. July 15, 1957, Dayton, Ohio), U.S. politician. Entering Democratic politics, he early became identified with the programs of party leader Woodrow Wilson, future U.S. president. Cox served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1909-13) and as governor of Ohio (1913-15, 1917-21), where he introduced workmen's compensation, minimum wage, and the initiative and referendum legislation. Cox was nominated for president by the Democrats in 1920 and campaigned in favour of Wilson's program for U.S. entry into the League of Nations, but he was defeated in a landslide in which the Republicans not only recaptured the presidency but won the largest number of seats in the U.S. House of Representatives they had ever held. Cox then retired from active politics. In 1933 he was a member of the American delegation to the World Monetary and Economic Conference in London.
Cox, Pat, Irish Pádraig Mac Coiligh (b. Nov. 28, 1952, Dublin, Ireland), president of the European Parliament (2002-04).
Cox, Paula (Ann) (b. 1964?, Canada), finance minister (2004-12) and premier (2010-12) of Bermuda.
Cox, Sir Percy (Zachariah) (b. Nov. 20, 1864, Herongate, Essex, England - d. Feb. 20, 1937, Melchbourne, Bedfordshire, England), British consul in Oman (1899-1904), chief political resident of the Persian Gulf (1904-20), and high commissioner of Iraq (1920-23); knighted 1911.
Cox, William (John Ellis) (b. April 1, 1936, Hobart, Tasmania), acting governor (2004) and governor (2004-08) of Tasmania. He was a puisne judge (1982-95) and chief justice (1995-2004) of the Supreme Court of Tasmania.
Cramer, Jaap, byname of Jacob Cramer (b. Feb. 25, 1899, Heukelum, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands - d. April 25, 1998, Assen, Drenthe), queen's commissioner of Drenthe (1951-64).
Cramer, Robert (Christian) (b. Feb. 7, 1954, Amsterdam, Netherlands), president of the Council of State of Genève (2003-04).
Crawford, James Adair (b. 1857 - d. Oct. 13, 1936, London), acting chief political resident of the Persian Gulf (1893) and acting chief commissioner of Baluchistan (1896).
Crawford, Sir (Robert) Stewart (b. Aug. 27, 1913 - d. Oct. 11, 2002), chief political resident of the Persian Gulf (1966-70); knighted 1966.
Crawford, William H(arris) (b. Feb. 24, 1772, Amherst County [now Nelson County], Virginia - d. Sept. 15, 1834, Elberton, Ga., U.S.), U.S. presidential candidate (1824). A Jeffersonian Republican, he entered elective politics in 1803, winning a seat in the Georgia legislature. In 1807 he went to Washington to fill the unexpired term of Georgia's deceased U.S. senator Abraham Baldwin. In the Senate, he quickly earned a reputation for wisdom and sound judgment, and the Georgia legislature elected him to a full term as senator in 1811. He backed U.S. preparations for and the declaration of war against Britain in 1812 and - unlike most Democratic Republicans - favoured a tariff and extension of the charter of the Bank of the United States. When Vice President George Clinton died in 1812, Crawford was elected president pro tempore of the Senate but left the position the following year to become minister to France. In 1815 Pres. James Madison appointed Crawford secretary of war and in 1816 named him secretary of the treasury. A leading candidate for the 1816 presidential nomination, he deferred to James Monroe, who was elected and who retained Crawford as secretary of the treasury. Monroe was reelected virtually without opposition in 1820. In 1824 Crawford was again a presidential prospect, along with John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, and Andrew Jackson. He won the vote of the party caucus, but by 1824 the caucus system had fallen into disrepute, and its choice proved meaningless. At the time of the election Crawford was paralyzed and nearly blind as the result of a stroke. Although his supporters claimed that he was steadily improving, he finished a distant third behind Adams and Jackson. Crawford refused Adams' invitation to stay on as secretary of the treasury.
Craxi, Bettino, byname of Benedetto Craxi (b. Feb. 24, 1934, Milan, Italy - d. Jan. 19, 2000, Hammamet, Tunisia), prime minister of Italy (1983-87). He joined the Socialist Youth Movement in his late teens and became a member of the Italian Socialist Party's central committee in 1957. He won a seat on the city council of Milan in 1960, was elected to a seat in the national Chamber of Deputies in 1968, and became one of three deputy secretaries of the Socialist Party in 1970. When the Socialists performed badly in the 1976 general elections, Craxi became the party's general secretary. He proceeded to unite the faction-ridden party, committed it to moderate social and economic policies, and tried to dissociate it from the much larger Communist Party. He also used the Socialists' role in coalition building to give the party a voice three or four times greater than its electoral weight. Under Craxi's leadership the Socialists were members in five of Italy's six coalition governments from 1980 to 1983. Craxi's decision to pull out of the Christian Democrat-led coalition in April 1983 provoked general elections in June that resulted in his being invited to form a government. He became Italy's first Socialist prime minister, forming a coalition government with the Christian Democrats and several small, moderate parties. He pursued anti-inflationary fiscal policies and steered a pro-American course in foreign affairs. He formed a new coalition government in 1986 but resigned in early 1987. In February 1993 multiple charges of political corruption forced Craxi, who denied the allegations, to resign his post as party leader. In 1994 he went into self-imposed exile in Tunisia. He was convicted in absentia for involvement in illegal financing of parties.
Crean, Frank, byname of Francis Daniel Crean (b. Feb. 28, 1916, Hamilton, Vic. - d. Dec. 2, 2008, Melbourne, Vic.), treasurer (1972-74) and deputy prime minister (1975) of Australia. He was a member of parliament from 1951 to 1977.
Crean, Simon (Findlay) (b. Feb. 26, 1949, Melbourne, Vic.), Australian politician; son of Frank Crean. He was an official of the Storemen and Packers Union before being elected president of the Australian Council of Trade Unions in 1985. In this position he negotiated a number of wage agreements with the Labor government of Bob Hawke. In 1990 he resigned this position to enter parliament as member for Hotham, Victoria. He immediately entered the ministry as minister for science, and was later minister for primary industry and energy (1991-93) and for employment, education and training (1993-96). After Labor's defeat in 1996, he became a senior opposition frontbencher. He was deputy opposition leader and shadow treasurer in 1998-2001. In November 2001 he was elected unopposed as leader of the Labor Party in succession to Kim Beazley. But he proved unable to connect with the voters enough to lift his approval rating to a respectable level. He stepped down in November 2003, becoming the first Labor leader not to have contested an election. When Labor returned to power in 2007, he became trade minister, moving in June 2010 to education, employment, social inclusion, and workplace relations, and in September 2010 to the arts, regional development, and local government. In March 2013 he called for a spill of all leadership positions in the party, urging Kevin Rudd to challenge Prime Minister Julia Gillard, with himself standing for deputy leader. But Rudd refused, and Crean was dismissed from the ministry.
Cren, Pierre Vincent (b. July 13, 1815, Brest, France - d. ...), commandant of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1864-72).
Crépeau, Michel (Édouard Jean) (b. Oct. 30, 1930, Fontenay-le-Comte, Vendée, France - d. March 30, 1999, Paris, France), French politician. He was introduced to politics in 1948, when he joined the Radical Party of the time. He was mayor of the Atlantic coastal town of La Rochelle since 1971. At one point (1978-81), he served as president of the Movement of Radicals of the Left, a small party allied with the Socialists. He was a presidential candidate in the 1981 election won by Pres. François Mitterrand. During his long political career, Crépeau headed various ministries, including Environment (1981-83), Commerce (1984-86), and Justice (1986). Crépeau was first elected deputy in 1973, again in 1986, and finally in 1997. The longtime lawmaker was known for his incisive questions and lyrical orations before the French Parliament. At the time of his death, Crépeau served as president of the Radical, Citizen and Green group in the National Assembly, which brought together several small parties. He died a week after collapsing in his National Assembly seat from a heart attack, minutes after asking a question about savings accounts.
Crescentini, Giorgio (b. 1950), captain-regent of San Marino (1984).
Crespo, Vítor (Manuel Trigueiros) (b. 1932, Porto de Mós, central Portugal), high commissioner of Mozambique (1974-75).
Crespo, Vítor Pereira (b. Dec. 2, 1932, Milagres, Leiria district, Portugal), Portuguese politician. He was education minister in 1980-83 and president of the Assembly of the Republic in 1987-91.
Cresson, Edith, née Campion (b. Jan. 27, 1934, Boulogne-Billancourt, near Paris), prime minister of France (1991-92). She joined the Socialist Party in 1965 and worked vigorously in François Mitterrand's failed presidential campaign of that year. In February 1975 at the Pau congress of the Socialist Party, she took her place in the party's National Secretariat, in charge of youth and students. In 1975 she was asked by the Socialists to run for a parliamentary seat in Châtellerault, a conservative bastion southwest of Paris. She lost but earned her reputation as a fighter and pragmatist rather than an ideologue. She again ran unsuccessfully for parliament in 1978 but was elected mayor of Thuré (1977) and member of the European Parliament (1979). In 1981 she became agriculture minister. In 1983 she was elected mayor of Châtellerault, the only Socialist to unseat a conservative mayor in that year's election. That same year she was appointed minister of tourism and foreign trade; the next year, industrial redeployment and foreign trade. In 1986 she was elected as a Socialist deputy from Vienne. In 1988 she became minister of European affairs but, frustrated by the government's inability to encourage French competition with Japanese and German industries, she quit that post in October 1990. When Michel Rocard resigned in 1991, Mitterrand appointed Cresson premier, but rising unemployment and declining popular support for the Socialist Party prompted Mitterrand to replace her after less than a year. In 1995 she became a member of the European Commission, responsible for research and education. Allegations of corruption against her and other commissioners led to the mass resignation of the commission in 1999.
Crill, Sir Peter (Leslie) (b. Feb. 1, 1925 - d. Oct. 3, 2005), bailiff of Jersey (1986-95); knighted 1987. Earlier he was solicitor general (1962-69), attorney general (1969-74), and deputy bailiff (1975-85).
Crisona, James J. (b. Aug. 30, 1907, Brooklyn, New York City - d. Sept. 4, 2003, Manhattan, New York City), borough president of Queens (1958).
Crispi, Francesco (b. Oct. 4, 1819, Ribera, Sicily - d. Aug. 12, 1901, Naples), prime minister of Italy (1887-91, 1893-96). He helped plan the successful 1848 uprising in Sicily but the island was regained by the Bourbon king Ferdinand II in 1849. Crispi and the republicans hoped eventually to unify Italy by beginning a revolution in Sicily, and in 1859 he twice travelled to Sicily, using forged passports, to organize another uprising. After much delay, he persuaded Giuseppe Garibaldi to invade Sicily in May 1860 with his band of volunteers, known as "the Thousand," to assist the popular uprising there. Quickly conquering the whole island, Garibaldi proclaimed himself dictator and named Crispi interior minister. In that position Crispi came into conflict with Count Cavour, premier of Sardinia-Piedmont, who wanted to annex Sicily. After Crispi's forced resignation, Sicily was annexed to the newly created Kingdom of Italy (1860). When the leftists came to power, he was elected president of the chamber (1876). Invited to be interior minister in the cabinet of Agostino Depretis (1877), he was within a few months forced to resign over a charge of bigamy. When Depretis died, Crispi formed his first cabinet (1887). A large budgetary deficit, necessitating increased taxes, toppled his government in 1891. Nevertheless, in 1893 he again became premier. While he greatly improved the economic situation, he became increasingly repressive, brutally crushing a socialist uprising in Sicily. He also embarked upon a disastrous foreign policy. He tried to turn Italy into a colonial power in Africa. The disastrous Italian defeat at the Battle of Adowa in 1896 at the hands of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia earned Crispi a vote of censure that caused him to resign.
Crissinger, Daniel R(ichard) (b. Dec. 10, 1860, Tully Township, Marion county, Ohio - d. July 12, 1942, Marion, Ohio), governor of the Federal Reserve System (1923-27).
Cristea, Miron, secular name Elie (Gheorghe) Cristea (b. July 20, 1868, Toplita, Romania - d. March 6, 1939, Cannes, France), prime minister of Romania (1938-39). In 1910 he was elected Greek Orthodox bishop of Caransebes, Romania. In 1918, at the end of World War I, he was a member of the delegation which approached King Ferdinand with the decision which had been voted at Alba in July that Transylvania, which had been under Hungarian rule, should join itself to Romania. After the union was effected, he was (1919) unanimously chosen metropolitan of Walachia and archbishop of Bucharest, and as such primate of Romania. Early in 1925 a plenary meeting of the Holy Synod unanimously decided on the creation of a patriarchate for the Romanian Orthodox Church and raised the primate to the rank of patriarch. His enthronement as first patriarch of Romania took place in Bucharest in October 1925. In 1926 he was appointed in his capacity as patriarch by King Ferdinand to be a member of the Regency Council, and he carried out the duties of that appointment from 1927 to 1930 during the interval between King Ferdinand's death and the return of Prince Carol to seize the throne. On a journey to Palestine in 1927, he visited the patriarch of Constantinople and other heads of Orthodox churches; in 1936 he went to England at the invitation of the archbishop of Canterbury and was received by King Edward VIII. After the resignation of the Octavian Goga cabinet in February 1938, he was appointed prime minister as King Carol II decided that the patriarch's prestige would add authority to an administration which was designed to break with the unsatisfactory party connections of the past. He attempted to achieve political stability and unity amid increasing popular support for the Fascist Iron Guard.
Cristiani (Burkard), Alfredo (Félix) (b. Nov. 22, 1947, San Salvador), president of El Salvador (1989-94). In 1984, Cristiani joined the right-wing National Republican Alliance (Arena), founded in 1981 by Roberto D'Aubuisson to oppose the guerrilla Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN). He sought to moderate Arena and attracted a coalition of peasants, businessmen, and landed oligarchs to its banner. In 1989, when D'Aubuisson was forced to step aside because of U.S. opposition to his extremism, Cristiani led Arena to victory in the presidential election. As president, he opened serious discussions with the guerrilla leaders and, following the murder of six politically active Jesuit priests that fall, acknowledged the army's responsibility and promised an army shake-up. After UN-sponsored peace talks and numerous reforms in response to rebel demands, all parties to the fighting signed a far-reaching accord in 1992. Constitutionally barred from succeeding himself, he yielded power to Arena's freely elected Armando Calderón Sol.
Critchley, Thomas Kingston, byname Tom Critchley (b. Jan. 27, 1916, Melbourne, Vic. - d. July 14, 2009, Sydney, N.S.W.), Australian high commissioner to Papua New Guinea (1974-78). He was also ambassador to Thailand (1969-74) and Indonesia (1978-81).
Crocetta, Rosario (b. Feb. 8, 1951, Gela, Sicilia, Italy), president of Sicilia (2012- ).
Croes, Betico, byname of Gilberto François Croes (b. Jan. 25, 1938, Santa Cruz, Aruba - d. Nov. 26, 1986), Aruban politician. In 1971 he committed himself to fight for a "Status Aparte" for Aruba, i.e. its detachment from the rest of the Netherlands Antilles. This was achieved on Jan. 1, 1986. But just minutes from celebrating the realization of his dream, a fatal car accident on Dec. 31, 1985, resulted in him slipping into a coma from which he never returned.
Croitor, Dumitru (b. Oct. 2, 1959), governor of Gagauz-Yeri (1999-2002).
Crokaert, Paul (Gustave Corneille) (b. Dec. 1, 1875, Brussels, Belgium - d. April 4, 1955, Brussels), defense minister of Belgium (1932).
Cromer, Evelyn Baring, (1st) Earl of, Viscount Errington of Hexham, Viscount Cromer, Baron Cromer of Cromer, also called (1883-92) Sir Evelyn Baring (b. Feb. 26, 1841, Cromer Hall, Norfolk, England - d. Jan. 29, 1917, London), British administrator. In 1872 his cousin, Thomas George Baring, Baron Northbrook, just named viceroy to India, took him along as his private secretary. His obvious administrative qualities were highly appreciated by his superiors. His colleagues, however, dubbed him "Vice-Viceroy" and "Over-Baring," nicknames which clearly bespoke his self-assured efficiency and ability to command - traits invaluable in a leader of men, though not necessarily conducive to popularity among his equals. His manner was gruff to his equals, condescending and patronizing to his subordinates and to the people he chose to describe as the "subject races." Imbued with immense common sense and a profound belief in himself and his country, he could not abide cant or hypocrisy. He was the typical Victorian colonial administrator, eminently fair and just but with little to endear him save an occasional flash of humour. In 1883 he became British agent and consul-general in Egypt with plenipotentiary powers, having in the interim been knighted. Until his resignation he remained the real ruler of Egypt. The system worked well during the first 10 years, for the khedive Tawfiq Pasha abdicated all responsibility to the English. In 1892 a young new ruler, Abbas Hilmi Pasha, gave encouragement to a budding nationalist movement. Baring, who had been raised to the peerage as Lord Cromer, succeeded in intimidating him quite thoroughly. In 1907 London adopted a more accommodating attitude toward Egypt. Cromer realized that a change was impending and, as his health had deteriorated, resigned office.
Crommelin, Wigbold (b. Sept. 13, 1712, Haarlem, Noord-Holland, Netherlands - d. March 5, 1789, Grave, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands), governor-general of Dutch Guiana (1752-54, 1757-68).
Cromwell, George (b. July 3, 1860, Brooklyn [now in New York City] - d. Sept. 17, 1934, Staten Island, New York City), borough president of Richmond (1898-1913).
Crook, Kenneth Roy (b. July 30, 1920 - d. July 24, 2012), governor of the Cayman Islands (1971-74).
Crosbie, John (Carnell) (b. Jan. 30, 1931, St. John's, Newfoundland), finance minister (1979-80) and justice minister (1984-86) of Canada and lieutenant governor of Newfoundland and Labrador (2008-13).
Crose, William Michael (b. Feb. 8, 1867, Greencastle, Ind. - d. April 4, 1929, San Diego, Calif.), governor of American Samoa (1910-13).
Crosland, (Charles) Anthony (Raven) (b. Aug. 29, 1918, St. Leonards, East Sussex, England - d. Feb. 19, 1977, Oxford, England), British foreign secretary (1976-77). He entered Parliament in 1950. He served Labour governments (1964-70) in four successive cabinet posts and (1974-76) as secretary of state for the environment. When James Callaghan became prime minister, Crosland succeeded him as foreign secretary (April 1976). He died in office.
Cross, Burton M(elvin) (b. Nov. 15, 1902, Augusta, Maine - d. Oct. 22, 1998, Augusta), governor of Maine (1952-53, 1953-55). Cross, a Republican who emphasized fiscal conservatism, entered the state House of Representatives in 1941 and moved on to the state Senate in 1945. He was elected governor in 1952 but lost his reelection bid two years later to Edmund Muskie. He was actively involved in preserving the Maine gubernatorial mansion known as the Blaine House.
Crowe, E(dwin) Norman (b. Feb. 13, 1905 - d. April 27, 1992), chairman of the Executive Council of the Isle of Man (1967-71).
Croÿ-Roeulx (et de Solre), Étienne (Gustave Emmanuel Antoine Engelbert Marie) de Croÿ, prince de (b. Sept. 9, 1898, Brussels, Belgium - d. Jan. 8, 1990, Brussels), administrator of Tangier (1954).
Cruder, Giancarlo (b. Nov. 23, 1947, Tarcento [now in Friuli-Venezia Giulia], Italy), president of Friuli-Venezia Giulia (1996-98).
Cruickshank, (Chiefton) Allan, foreign minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1998-2001).
Cruz, António (Manuel de Mendonça) Martins da (b. Dec. 28, 1946, Lisbon), foreign minister of Portugal (2002-03).
A.M. da Cruz
Cruz e Santos, João da, barão de Uruçui, member of the Governing Junta of Piauí (1889).
Cruz Porras, Arturo José (b. December 1923, Jinotepe, Carazo department, Nicaragua), member of the Government Junta of National Reconstruction of Nicaragua (1980-81).
Cruz Uclés, Ramón Ernesto (b. Jan. 4, 1903, San Juan de Flores, Honduras - d. Aug. 6, 1985, Tegucigalpa, Honduras), president of Honduras (1971-72). Cruz became a member of the Supreme Court in 1949. From 1958 to 1960 he defended his country's territorial rights in a border dispute with Nicaragua before the International Court of Justice at The Hague, Netherlands; the court upheld the boundaries between the two countries. In the 1963 presidential election, Cruz was the National Party candidate, but Gen. Oswaldo López Arellano was brought to power by a military coup. When Cruz was elected president in 1971, he became the first president of the country to serve under the new national unity system, in which the National and Liberal parties shared congressional seats, cabinet posts, and judicial positions. Though the system was endorsed by outgoing president López, who remained commander of the armed forces, the military overthrew Cruz in 1972 and reinstated López.
Crvenkovski, Branko (b. Oct. 12, 1962, Sarajevo), prime minister (1992-98, 2002-04) and president (2004-09) of Macedonia.
Crvenkovski, Krste (b. 1921 - d. July 21, 2001), secretary of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Macedonia (1963-69).
Crvenkovski, Stevo (b. March 18, 1947, Skopje - d. Feb. 4, 2004, Skopje), foreign minister of Macedonia (1993-96); son of Krste Crvenkovski.
Cuadra Somarriba, Jaime (José) (b. June 27, 1926, Matagalpa, Nicaragua - d. Sept. 3, 2007, Matagalpa), Nicaraguan politician. The Conservative Party congressman was the first civilian defense minister in Nicaraguan history (1997-98) and thereafter became interior minister (1998-99), agriculture minister (1999-2000), and president of the National Assembly (2002-04).
Cubas Grau, Raúl (Alberto) (b. Aug. 23, 1943, Asunción, Paraguay), president of Paraguay (1998-99). A former finance minister, he was elected president as a stand-in for Lino Oviedo, who was sentenced to jail for leading a coup attempt in 1996. After taking office Cubas freed Oviedo, which led Congress to start impeachment proceedings against him in 1999. After the assassination of Vice Pres. Luis María Argaña, Cubas resigned. He sought refuge in Brazil on March 30, 1999, flying in on a Brazilian air force plane.
Cubillos Sallato, Hernán (b. Feb. 25, 1936, Viña del Mar, Chile - d. April 11, 2001, Santiago, Chile), foreign minister of Chile (1978-80).
Cuéllar Abaroa, Crisanto (b. Feb. 15, 1901, Atlangatepec, Tlaxcala - d. July 16, 1989, Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala), interim governor of Tlaxcala (1970).
Cuervo Rubio, Gustavo (b. Dec. 24, 1890, Pinar del Río, Cuba - d. April 3, 1978, Miami, Fla.), vice president (1940-44) and foreign minister (1945) of Cuba.
Cuffaro, Salvatore (b. Feb. 21, 1958, Raffadali, Agrigento province, Sicilia, Italy), president of Sicilia (2001-08). A member of the Forza Italia party, he was charged on Sept. 2, 2004, with aiding and abetting the Mafia by passing on privileged information. He went on trial on Feb. 1, 2005. Found guilty in January 2008, he was jailed for seven years in January 2011 after losing a final appeal.
Cuinier, Pierre Étienne (b. April 24, 1824, Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe - d. ...), governor of Réunion (1879-86).
Culafic, Dobroslav-Toro (b. Jan. 16, 1926, Andrijevica, Yugoslavia [now in Montenegro] - d. June 3, 2011, Podgorica, Montenegro), secretary of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Montenegro (1982-84) and interior minister of Yugoslavia (1984-89).
Cullen, Bud, byname of Jack Sydney George Cullen (b. April 20, 1927, Creighton Mine, near Sudbury, Ontario - d. July 5, 2005, Ottawa), Canadian minister of national revenue (1975-76), manpower and immigration (1976-77), and employment and immigration (1977-79).
Cullen (y Rodríguez del Fresno), José María (b. 1823 - d. 1876), governor of Santa Fe (1854-56).
Cullen, Michael (John) (b. Feb. 5, 1945, London, England), finance minister (1999-2008), deputy prime minister (2002-08), and attorney general (2005, 2006-08) of New Zealand.
Cullen (y Rodríguez del Fresno), Patricio (b. 1826 - d. 1877), governor of Santa Fe (1862-65); brother of José María Cullen and Tomás Cullen.
Cullen (y Rodríguez del Fresno), Tomás (b. 1835 - d. ...), political chief of Santa Fe (1861); brother of José María Cullen and Patricio Cullen.
Cultiaux, Didier (Pierre Roger) (b. June 9, 1943, Paris), high commissioner of New Caledonia (1994-95).
Cumming, Sir Duncan Cameron (b. Aug. 10, 1903 - d. Dec. 10, 1979), administrator of Cyrenaica (1943-45) and chief administrator of Eritrea (1951-52); knighted 1953.
Cummins, Hugh Gordon (Hylvestra) (b. Feb. 2, 1891, St. James, Barbados - d. Oct. 26, 1970, Bridgetown, Barbados), premier of Barbados (1958-61).
Cunha, Paulo (Arsénio Viríssimo) (b. 1908 - d. 1986), foreign minister of Portugal (1950-58).
Cunha, Pedro Alexandrino da (b. October 1801, Lisbon, Portugal - d. July 6, 1850), governor-general of Angola (1845-48) and governor of Macau (1850).
Cunhal, Álvaro (Barreirinhas) (b. Nov. 10, 1913, Sé Nova parish, Coimbra, Portugal - d. June 13, 2005, Lisbon), general secretary of the Portuguese Communist Party (1961-92). He formed the PCP into one of the main centres of resistance to the right-wing dictatorship of António Salazar and spent 11 years in prison under the regime. Following the 1974 "carnation revolution" that overthrew the dictatorship, Cunhal's Communists came close to seizing power in alliance with radical members of the armed forces. The PCP declined since the peak of its power in the turmoil following the revolution.
Cunningham, Sir Alan Gordon (b. May 1, 1887, Dublin, Ireland - d. Jan. 30, 1983, Royal Tunbridge Wells, Kent, England), high commissioner of Palestine (1945-48). He was commissioned into the Royal Artillery in 1906 and served throughout World War I with the Royal Horse Artillery on the Western Front. Between the wars he held two staff appointments, at the Straits Settlements and as instructor at the Small Arms School, Netheravon. In 1937 he became commander of the Royal Artillery of the 1st Division and in 1938 was given command of the 5th Anti-Aircraft Division. In 1940 he commanded several infantry divisions in the U.K. As general officer commanding British forces in Kenya, he played a leading role in the campaign that resulted in the surrender of Italian forces in Ethiopia in May 1941; Cunningham's forces, comprising South, East, and West African troops, covered some 2,700 km in 57 days and took 50,000 prisoners. Cunningham's share in the Ethiopian campaign gained him a knighthood. He then commanded the British 8th Army in the opening phase of the Libyan Desert offensive against the German Afrikakorps under Gen. Erwin Rommel. Rommel's early success put Cunningham on the defensive, and on Nov. 25, 1941, he was replaced as 8th Army commander by Gen. Neil Ritchie. During the remainder of the war he held commands in the U.K. In 1945 he was promoted to full general and was appointed high commissioner and commander in chief, Palestine. In face of a mounting tide of violence and almost insuperable administrative problems, the government at this time was still trying to mediate between Arabs and Jews. But when it seemed that efforts at reconciliation had no hopes of success, the decision was taken to end the mandate and British troops were withdrawn in May 1948.
Cunningham, Glenn (Clarence) (b. Sept. 10, 1912, Omaha, Neb. - d. Dec. 18, 2003, Omaha), mayor of Omaha (1948-54). When he took office as mayor at the age of 35, he was the youngest person ever to hold that job. Later, he was elected to represent Nebraska's second district in the U.S. Congress where he served 14 years (1957-71).
Cunningham, Glenn (Dale) (b. Sept. 16, 1943, Jersey City, N.J. - d. May 25, 2004, Jersey City), mayor of Jersey City (2001-04). After an unsuccessful run in 1989, he was elected as the first black mayor of Jersey City in 2001.
Cuno, Wilhelm (Carl Josef) (b. July 2, 1876, Suhl [now in Thüringen], Germany - d. Jan. 3, 1933, Aumühle, near Hamburg), chancellor of Germany (1922-23). He entered the civil service in 1900 and from 1907 to 1916 served with distinction in the imperial treasury. During World War I, he headed the office of grain management (until July 1916), served in the food ministry, and again in the treasury as general adviser on the war economy. In 1919 he represented his government as an economic expert during the peace negotiations. Following the suicide of shipping magnate Albert Ballin, Cuno succeeded to the direction of the Hamburg-American Line (December 1918), the largest German shipping concern, and in this position frequently acted as unofficial spokesman for German foreign political interests. After twice refusing cabinet appointments in governments of the Weimar Republic, Cuno was finally persuaded to accept the chancellorship (November 1922). To this office he brought the advantages of a creditable international reputation and the strong support of German business and industry. His ministry nonetheless succeeded neither in securing a much-needed readjustment of war reparations nor in halting inflation. With the Franco-Belgian invasion of the Ruhr over defaulted reparations payments (January 1923), he urged a national policy of passive resistance. Though proving successful in certain respects, it ultimately taxed beyond endurance the resilience of an already crippled economy. The initial popular support for the passive resistance accordingly waned, and at the end of July he was threatened with defeat in the Reichstag. To avoid this he resigned (August 1923), being succeeded by Gustav Stresemann, who was able to initiate a policy of reconciliation.
Cuomo, Andrew (Mark) (b. Dec. 6, 1957, Queens, New York City), U.S. secretary of housing and urban development (1997-2001) and governor of New York (2011- ); son of Mario Cuomo.
Cuomo, Mario (Matthew) (b. June 15, 1932, Queens, New York City), governor of New York (1983-95). The Democrat was defeated in his 1974 bid for the nomination for lieutenant governor by a ticket headed by an old friend, Hugh Carey. One of Carey's first appointments as governor was Cuomo as his secretary of state. After Cuomo was defeated by Ed Koch in the New York City mayoral primary in 1977, he joined the ticket in Carey's 1978 reelection campaign. When Cuomo ran for governor four years later, he had to wage a fierce rematch against Koch in the Democratic primary. The popular New York mayor, who was favoured in the polls, blundered early in the campaign, antagonizing upstate New Yorkers. Cuomo, while advocating liberal policies, capitalized on his simple, conservative family life and upset Koch by more than 80,000 votes. When voters went to the polls to elect a governor on Nov. 2, 1982, they were faced with a classic choice of the old versus the new. Republican businessman Lewis Lehrman, a strong supporter of Pres. Ronald Reagan's policies, advocated social welfare cuts, tougher anticrime laws, reinstatement of capital punishment, and a 40% tax cut; while Cuomo harked back to the Great Society of the 1960s and the necessity of aid to the needy, despite budget deficits. Lehrman waged a powerful campaign using effective television ads and was reported to have spent as much as $8 million. But in the end it was Cuomo's traditional coalition of liberals, labour unions, and minorities that prevailed. At the 1984 Democratic national convention, Cuomo gave the keynote address. His impassioned speech told of a nation divided into "the lucky and the left-out" and of the need for a new Democratic leadership to unify the "family of America" with renewed "common sense and compassion."
Curcio, Renato (b. Sept. 23, 1941, Monterotondo, near Rome), founder of Italy's Red Brigades. He played a prominent part in the 1968 students revolt. The Red Brigades' acts of terrorism began in 1970. They included a long series of kidnappings, robberies, and murders of lawyers, judges, and police. Curcio was arrested at Pinerolo in September 1974 after being betrayed by a former monk who had infiltrated the Red Brigades organization. In February 1975 he escaped after a raid on the prison at Casale Monferrato led by his wife, who in June that year was shot dead by police during a gun battle. Curcio was recaptured in January 1976 after another gun battle when police discovered him in an apartment in Milan. He received a seven-year sentence from a Milan court in 1977 for illegally possessing firearms, assaulting a policeman, and resisting arrest. When the assassination of former premier Aldo Moro, the most sensational political murder since Fascist times, took place in Rome in May 1978, Curcio was in police custody in Turin, on trial for armed robbery, kidnapping, conspiracy, and armed subversion against the state. He told the court: "The act of revolutionary justice carried out against Aldo Moro is the highest act of humanity possible in this class-ridden society." On June 23 he was sentenced to 15 years in prison for terrorist crimes carried out up to 1974. During the two years and one month that the trial of Curcio and 14 accomplices lasted, no fewer than 17 people, including Moro and his five police bodyguards, were killed by the Red Brigades in their campaign of "total warfare" against the Italian establishment. He remained in custody until April 7, 1993.
Cureau, Adolphe (Louis) (b. June 1, 1864, Chartres, France - d. Nov. 9, 1913, Paris, France), lieutenant governor of Haut-Oubangui (1900-04) and chief administrator (1906-09) and lieutenant governor (1909-10) of Middle Congo.
Curley, James M(ichael) (b. Nov. 20, 1874, Boston, Mass. - d. Nov. 12, 1958, Boston), U.S. politician. The lifelong Democrat entered politics in 1899, winning a seat on the Boston common council. He was state legislator (1902-03), Boston alderman, city councilman, and U.S. representative (1911-14). He was elected mayor of Boston for four separate 4-year terms, in 1913, 1921, 1929, and 1945, and was defeated five times for this office. He centralized the powers of patronage in his own hands and distributed public-works jobs in such a way as to retain the loyalty and support of his working-class electoral base. Unable in 1932 to win a seat in the Massachusetts delegation to the Democratic convention, he contrived by means he never explained to be elected a delegate from Puerto Rico. As governor of Massachusetts (1935-37), he spent New Deal funds lavishly on public works programs. He won a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives in 1942 and was reelected two years later. During his last tenure as mayor (1946-50), he spent 5 months in federal prison following a conviction for mail fraud. Pres. Harry S. Truman secured his release (November 1947) and later (1950) granted him a full pardon, but Curley - who had foiled an attempt by Republicans to have him replaced while he was in prison - retired from politics after losing reelection bids in 1949 and 1953. He was the obvious prototype of Frank Skeffington, the fictional mayor of Edwin O'Connor's popular novel The Last Hurrah (1956). He was described as the "last of the big city political bosses" - the group of powerful municipal leaders that included Frank Hague of Jersey City, N.J., Tom Pendergast of Kansas City, Mo., Edward J. Kelly of Chicago, and Ed Crump of Memphis, Tenn.
Currie, Archibald (b. March 7, 1889, Beneden Cottica district, Dutch Guiana [now Suriname] - d. Nov. 28, 1986), prime minister (1952-55) and governor (1962-64) of Suriname.
Currigan, Thomas G(uida) (b. July 8, 1920, Denver, Colo.), mayor of Denver (1963-68).
Curtin, John (Joseph Ambrose) (b. Jan. 8, 1885, Creswick, Victoria - d. July 5, 1945, Canberra), prime minister of Australia (1941-45). From 1911 to 1915 he was secretary of the Timber Workers' Union. During World War I he gave up this position in order to become secretary of the Anti-Conscription League. His activities in this capacity brought him into conflict with the law and led to a sentence of imprisonment. In 1924 he was selected by the Labor Party to attend the International Labour Organization conference at Geneva. In 1928 he entered the federal Parliament as member for Fremantle. In 1935 he was elected quite unexpectedly and by a majority of one as leader of the Labor Party. By unifying the party, Curtin prepared for its assumption of power in 1941. He served as a member of the Advisory War Council in 1940 and the following year became prime minister and minister for defense coordination (from 1942, defense). He led a full-scale national mobilization for war, winning difficult political battles in 1942-43 for expansion of federal taxation and broader conscription. He changed Australia's traditional military dependence on Great Britain when Japanese advances to the south in 1941-42 led him to appeal principally to the U.S. for aid and to transfer Australian troops from the Middle East, a move that angered British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. In the general elections of August 1943 he was returned with a triumphant majority. When Curtin died, he had already established welfare-state economic policies that guided Australia's growth during the postwar period.
Curtis, Henry O(sborne) (b. Nov. 18, 1888 - d. Jan. 28, 1964), commander of the Allied occupation forces in Iceland (1940-42).
Curtius, Julius (b. Feb. 7, 1877, Duisburg [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen], Germany - d. Nov. 10, 1948, Heidelberg [now in Baden-Württemberg], Germany), foreign minister of Germany (1929-31).
Curzon (of Kedleston), George Nathaniel Curzon, Marquess, Viscount Scarsdale, Baron Ravensdale (b. Jan. 11, 1859, Kedleston Hall, Derbyshire, England - d. March 20, 1925, London, England), viceroy of India (1899-1905) and British foreign secretary (1919-24). He was created baron in 1898, earl in 1911, and marquess in 1921.
Cusin, Gaston (b. June 15, 1903, Annecy, France - d. 1993), governor-general (1956-57) and high commissioner (1957-58) of French West Africa.
Cutler, Sir (Arthur) Roden (b. May 24, 1916, Manly, Sydney, N.S.W. - d. Feb. 21, 2002, Sydney), governor of New South Wales (1966-81). He was awarded the Victoria Cross (1941) for his bravery during the Syrian campaign in World War II, and was knighted in 1965.
Cuttaree, Jaya Krishna, also called Jayen Cuttaree (b. June 22, 1941), foreign minister of Mauritius (2003-05).
Cuvillier, Jacques Philippe (b. April 21, 1774, Rochefort [now in Charente-Maritime département], France - d. 18...), governor of Île Bourbon (1832-38).
Cvetkovic, Mirko (b. Aug. 16, 1950, Zajecar, Serbia), finance minister (2007-08, 2011-12) and prime minister (2008-12) of Serbia.
Cvijanovic, Zeljka (b. 1967, Teslic [now in Republika Srpska], Bosnia and Herzegovina), prime minister of the Republika Srpska (2013- ).
Cyrankiewicz, Józef (Adam Zygmunt) (b. April 23, 1911, Tarnów, Austria-Hungary [now in Poland] - d. Jan. 20, 1989, Warsaw, Poland), prime minister of Poland (1947-52, 1954-70). He became secretary of the Kraków branch of the Polish Socialist Party (PSP) in 1935. He was captured by German forces in 1939, but he escaped and joined the Polish underground. Recaptured in 1941, he spent the remainder of the war in the Nazi concentration camp at Auschwitz. Cyrankiewicz was named secretary-general of the pro-Soviet PSP Central Executive Committee in 1945. As prime minister he presided over the forcible merger (1948) of the PSP with the Soviet-backed Polish Workers' Party to form the Polish United Workers' Party. Although he was briefly demoted to deputy prime minister in July 1952, he was reinstated as chairman of the new Council of Ministers in March 1954. On Dec. 7, 1970, Cyrankiewicz and West German Chancellor Willy Brandt signed the treaty that formally established the German-Polish border. Later that month Cyrankiewicz and controversial First Secretary Wladyslaw Gomulka were forced out of office after food-price increases touched off riots in several Polish cities. Cyrankiewicz then held the ceremonial post of chairman of the Council of State (president) until he retired in 1972.
Czyrek, Józef (b. July 20, 1928), foreign minister of Poland (1980-82).