Geay, Lucien Eugène (b. Jan. 4, 1900 - d. Aug. 26, 1976), acting governor of Dahomey (1928-29), acting lieutenant governor of Mauritania (1947), and governor of Senegal (1952-54) and French Sudan (1954-56).
Gedvilas, Mecislovas, Russian Mechislovas (Aleksandrovich) Gedvilas (b. Dec. 2 [Nov. 19, O.S.], 1901, Bubiai, Russia [now in Lithuania] - d. Feb. 15, 1981), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1940-46) and of the Council of Ministers (1946-56) of the Lithuanian S.S.R. He was also minister of interior (1940) and education (1957-73).
Geens, Gaston (C.S.A.) (b. June 10, 1931, Kersbeek-Miskom [now in Flemish Brabant province], Belgium - d. June 5, 2002, Winksele, Flemish Brabant), finance minister of Belgium (1977-80) and minister-president of Flanders (1981-92).
Geertsema, Carel Coenraad (b. June 9, 1843, Groningen, Netherlands - d. Oct. 19, 1928, Wiesbaden, Germany), queen's commissioner of Groningen (1892-1917); son of Johan Herman Geertsema Carelszoon.
Geertsema, Molly, byname of Willem Jacob Geertsema (b. Oct. 18, 1918, Utrecht, Netherlands - d. June 27, 1991, Wassenaar, Netherlands), Dutch deputy prime minister and interior minister (1971-73), minister for Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles (1973), and queen's commissioner of Gelderland (1973-83); grandnephew of Carel Coenraad Geertsema. He was also mayor of Wassenaar (1961-71).
Geertsema Carelszoon, Johan Herman (b. July 30, 1816, Groningen, Netherlands - d. April 14, 1908, Utrecht, Netherlands), interior minister of the Netherlands (1866, 1872-74) and king's/queen's commissioner of Overijssel (1878-93).
Geffrard, Fabre (Nicolas Guillaume), ci-devant duc de Tabara (or duc de la Table), name before adoption (by stepfather Fabre) Nicolas Guillaume Geffrard (b. Sept. 19, 1806, Anse-à-Veau, Haiti - d. Feb. 11, 1879, Kingston, Jamaica), president of Haiti (1859-67).
Geghamyan, Artashes (Mamikoni) (b. Dec. 2, 1949, Yerevan, Armenian S.S.R.), Armenian politician. During 1979-86, he held various posts at the Council of the Communist Party of Armenia. During 1987-89, he was the first secretary of the Mashtotz District Council of the Communist Party. In 1989-90, he was mayor of Yerevan. In 1990, he quit the Communist Party. In 1995, he was elected to the National Assembly (parliament) of Armenia. In April 1997, he founded the National Unity party, which in February 1998 at its extraordinary session proposed Geghamyan as a candidate for that year's presidential elections. He won only 0.4% of the vote in that election. He was again presidential candidate in 2003 (16.9% of the vote) and 2008 (0.5%).
Gehlhoff, Walter (b. May 6, 1922, Berlin, Germany - d. Aug. 15, 2004, Königswinter, Germany), West German diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1971-74) and ambassador to the Vatican (1977-84).
Gehlot, Ashok (b. May 3, 1951, Mahamandir, Rajasthan, India), chief minister of Rajasthan (1998-2003, 2008-13).
Geiler, Karl (Hermann Friedrich) (b. Aug. 10, 1878, Schönau [now in Baden-Württemberg], Germany - d. Sept. 14, 1953), minister-president of Hessen (1945-47).
Geingob, Hage (Gottfried) (b. Aug. 31, 1941, Otjiwarongo, South West Africa [now Namibia]), prime minister (1990-2002, 2012-15) and president (2015- ) of Namibia. In 2008-12 he was trade and industry minister.
Geisel, Ernesto (Beckmann) (b. Aug. 3, 19071, Bento Gonçalves, Brazil - d. Sept. 12, 1996, Rio de Janeiro), president of Brazil (1974-79). A career army officer, he joined the military coup led by Getúlio Vargas that overthrew the elected government and installed a dictatorship in 1930. Geisel supported Vargas for 15 years, serving in a variety of military and civil administrative posts, but in 1945 he played an important part in overthrowing Vargas. During the next 15 years he held several important offices, including deputy chief of the military staff of the presidency and military representative to the National Petroleum Council, gaining a reputation for incisive leadership. He participated in the 1964 military coup that toppled Pres. João Goulart, became chief of Pres. Humberto Castelo Branco's military staff, and was promoted to general in 1966. In 1969 he took charge of Petrobrás, the national oil corporation. Placed in the president's seat by the military oligarchy (March 15, 1974), he risked their opposition by beginning a gradual liberalization and demilitarization of the government, permitting open legislative elections in 1974, meeting with opposition leaders, and relaxing censorship. He outlined a new economic policy, "pragmatic nationalism," which called for shifting emphasis from exports to the development of domestic industry. Although there had been some indication that he might be succeeded by an elected civilian president, he and his conservative supporters saw that they would be defeated in open elections. Accordingly, he took no further steps toward democratization, and official repression of the political opposition increased in 1977. He did not run for reelection in 1979 but supported Gen. João Baptista de Oliveira Figueiredo, his successor as president.
1 Year of birth was altered to 1908 to meet age limit for admission to military academy; this falsification was only publicly disclosed on the occasion of his 80th birthday.
Gelder, Wim van, byname of Willem Teunis van Gelder (b. Jan. 21, 1942, Amsterdam, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Zeeland (1992-2007).
Gelling, Donald (James) (b. July 5, 1938, Santon, Isle of Man), chief minister of the Isle of Man (1996-2001, 2004-06).
Gemayel, Amin (Pierre), Arabic Amin Butrus al-Jumayyil (b. Jan. 22, 1942, Bikfaya, Lebanon), president of Lebanon (1982-88); son of Pierre Gemayel. He oversaw the Phalangist Party's vast business interests while his brother Bashir led the party's militia. He was co-founder of the rightist French-language daily newspaper Le Réveil. In contrast to his warlike brother, Amin showed himself to be conciliatory toward the other religious groups in Lebanon. He was first elected to parliament on the death of his uncle in 1970. When the civil war broke out, he fought and was injured when the jeep he was driving came under attack. During the Israeli siege of Beirut in 1982 he crossed the front line for meetings with Palestinian leaders at a time of great tension between the two sides of the divided city, an act that would have been unthinkable for Bashir. Amin was elected president of Lebanon a week after Bashir died. As president, the ineffective Amin proved no more successful than his predecessors in securing an agreement between Lebanon's warring groups that would end the country's civil war. From 1990 to July 2000, he resided in Paris as a self-exiled leader of the opposition.
Gemayel, Bashir (Pierre), Arabic Bashir Butrus al-Jumayyil (b. Nov. 10, 1947, Bikfaya, Lebanon - d. Sept. 14, 1982, Beirut, Lebanon), Lebanese politician; son of Pierre Gemayel. He emerged during the fighting of the late 1970s as the able and ruthless leader of the Phalangist militia. He was believed to be responsible for the 1978 killing of Tony Franjieh, son of former president Suleiman Franjieh. He unified the military forces of the Maronite community in 1980 after launching several murderous surprise attacks on rival Christian militias. He formally took over control of the Phalangist Party from his father in 1980. He was elected president of Lebanon by the parliament on Aug. 23, 1982, in the face of opposition by many of the country's Muslims, who disliked his close association with sectarian violence. He was assassinated in a bomb explosion 10 days before he was due to take office.
Gemayel, (Sheikh) Pierre (Amin), Arabic Butrus Amin al-Jumayyil (b. Nov. 6, 1905, Bikfaya, Lebanon - d. Aug. 29, 1984, Bikfaya), Lebanese politician. He was born into a Christian family already powerful in the region immediately north of Beirut. He went to the Berlin Olympic Games in 1936 as captain of the Lebanese football (soccer) team. He was so impressed by the spirit and discipline of Nazi youth groups that on his return to Lebanon he helped found the right-wing authoritarian youth movement called the Phalange. He became the leader of the Phalange Party in 1937, retaining that position until 1980. This party became the political arm of the largest Christian community in Lebanon, the Maronites. He joined the forces of Fouad Chehab against those of Camille Chamoun when a rebellion broke out in 1958, led by former prime minister Saeb Salam. Gemayel was first elected to the Lebanese parliament in 1960. He was minister of public health (1958-60, 1961, 1968-69, 1984), public works, education, and agriculture (1958-60), finance (1960-61, 1968, 1969), interior (1966, 1968-69), tourism (1968-69), and posts and communications (1968-69, 1984). He ran unsuccessfully for the presidency (which was traditionally held by a Christian) in 1964 and 1970. It was the Phalangist militia that started the 1975 civil war with a massacre of Palestinians. He was instrumental in creating a large, militarily secure Christian enclave north of Beirut and became Lebanon's preeminent Christian political chieftain.
Gemayel, Pierre (Amin), Arabic Butrus Amin al-Jumayyil (b. Sept. 24, 1972, Bikfaya, Lebanon - d. [assassinated] Nov. 21, 2006, Beirut, Lebanon), industry minister of Lebanon (2005-06); son of Amin Gemayel.
Genadiev, Nikola (Ivanov) (b. Nov. 19, 1868, Bitola, Ottoman Empire [now in Macedonia] - d. Oct. 30, 1923, Sofia, Bulgaria), foreign minister of Bulgaria (1913-14). He was also minister of justice (1903-04), trade and agriculture (1904-08), interior (1907), and agriculture (acting, 1913).
Genba, Koichiro, Genba also spelled Gemba (b. May 20, 1964, Tamura, Fukushima prefecture, Japan), foreign minister of Japan (2011-12). In 1993 he was first elected to the House of Representatives as an independent, then joined the New Party Sakigake. In 1996 he took part in the foundation of the Democratic Party of Japan.
Genda, Ambrose Patrick (b. April 20, 1927, Gerihun, Sierra Leone), chairman of the National Reformation Council of Sierra Leone (1967). He was also ambassador to Liberia (1967-68) and the Soviet Union (1969-70) and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1968-69).
Gendebien, Alexandre (Joseph Célestin) (b. May 4, 1789, Mons, Austrian Netherlands [now in Belgium] - d. Dec. 6, 1869, Brussels, Belgium), member of the Provisional Government of Belgium (1830-31).
Gendotti, Gabriele (b. Oct. 10, 1954, Faido, Ticino, Switzerland), president of the Council of State of Ticino (2004-05, 2009-10).
Genebrier, Roger (Pierre) (b. May 16, 1901, Rethel, Ardennes, France - d. July 3, 1988, Paris, France), prefect of police of Paris (1955-57). He was also prefect of Seine-et-Oise département (1950-55).
Genechten, Robert van (b. Oct. 25, 1895, Antwerp, Belgium - d. Dec. 12, 1945, The Hague), provincial commissioner of Zuid-Holland (1943).
Generali, Luigi (b. May 7, 1920, Faido, Ticino, Switzerland - d. June 27, 2005, Lugano, Ticino), president of the National Council of Switzerland (1978-79).
Geng Biao (b. August 1909, Liulin county, Hunan province, China - d. June 23, 2000, Beijing), defense minister of China (1981-82). He was also ambassador to Sweden (1950-56), Pakistan (1956-59), Burma (1963-67), and Albania (1969-71) and minister to Denmark (1950-55) and Finland (1951-54).
Genia, Kilroy (Koiro) (b. Oct. 24, 1961), foreign minister (1996-97, 1997) and defense minister (2000-02) of Papua New Guinea. He was also minister of public service (1995-96), justice (1999-2000), and local government (2002).
Geniatullin, Ravil (Faritovich) (b. Dec. 20, 1955), head of the administration of Chita oblast (1996-2008) and governor of Zabaikalsky kray (2008-13).
Genouille, Jules (Eugène) (b. June 27, 1839, Paris, France - d. Nov. 6, 1923, Paris), governor of Senegal (1886-88).
Genscher, Hans-Dietrich (b. March 21, 1927, Reideburg [now part of Halle, Sachsen-Anhalt], Germany - d. March 31, 2016, Wachtberg, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany), German politician. During World War II he was drafted into the German armed services and was a prisoner of war at war's end. After his release he settled in what became East Germany, but in 1952 he fled to the West and soon joined the Free Democratic Party (FDP), rising quickly in its official ranks in Bremen. In 1965 he was elected to the Bundestag as a deputy for North Rhine-Westphalia. Beginning in 1969, the Free Democrats gave their support to the dominant Social Democrats in a coalition government, and Genscher became minister of the interior. Five years later he won the chairmanship of his party and the foreign ministry in the government. In 1982 the Free Democrats left the coalition with the Social Democrats and switched their allegiance to the Christian Democrats, who took over the government; Genscher then continued as foreign minister. He resigned as FDP chairman in 1985. Genscher strongly favoured better relations with the Soviet Union and the old eastern bloc and, after Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, insisted that the West should take advantage of the historic opportunities for détente. In 1989-90 he worked vigorously for German reunification and became the first foreign minister of the unified Germany until resigning in 1992.
Gentil, Émile (b. April 4, 1866, Volmunster, Moselle, France - d. March 30, 1914, Bordeaux, France), French colonial administrator. A naval officer, he led an expedition from the French Congo down the Shari (Chari) River to Lake Chad in 1895-97, establishing a French protectorate over the sultanate of Baguirmi. On Jan. 23, 1899, he was named commissioner of the Shari region and he was one of the leaders of the campaign against the Muslim leader Rabih az-Zubayr (killed April 22, 1900). Gentil was then installed at Fort-Lamy on May 29, 1900, and left there on August 25 and quit Fort-de-Possel (in the present Central African Republic, which was part of the Chad territory organized on Sept. 5, 1900) on Jan. 2, 1901, remaining titular commissioner until July 2, 1902. Thereafter he was chief administrator of Middle Congo (1902-06) and commissioner-general of French Congo (1904-08).
Gentiloni (Silveri), Paolo (b. Nov. 22, 1954, Rome, Italy), foreign minister of Italy (2014- ). He was also communications minister (2006-08).
Gentvilas, Eugenijus (b. March 14, 1960, Telsiai, Lithuanian S.S.R.), acting prime minister of Lithuania (2001). He was also economy minister (2001).
Geoana, Mircea (Dan Ioan) (b. July 14, 1958, Bucharest, Romania), foreign minister of Romania (2000-04). He was also ambassador to the U.S. (1996-2000). In 2005 he became leader of the Social Democratic Party and in 2008 president of the Senate. He was a presidential candidate in 2009. In 2010 he lost his position as party leader to Victor Ponta. In 2011 he was ousted from the party and removed as Senate president.
Georgakis, Ioannis (b. 1916 - d. Nov. 1, 1993), interior minister of Greece (1993).
George I, in full George Louis, German Georg Ludwig (b. June 7 [May 28, Old Style], 1660, Osnabrück, Hanover [Germany] - d. June 22 [June 11, O.S.], 1727, Osnabrück), elector of Hanover (1698-1727) and king of Great Britain and Ireland (1714-27).
George II, in full George Augustus, German Georg August (b. Nov. 9 [Oct. 30, Old Style], 1683, Herrenhausen Palace, Hanover [Germany] - d. Oct. 25, 1760, London), king of Great Britain and Ireland and elector of Hanover (1727-60); son of George I.
George III, in full George William Frederick, German Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (b. June 4 [May 24, Old Style], 1738, London - d. Jan. 29, 1820, Windsor Castle, near London), king of Great Britain and Ireland (1760-1801) and of the United Kingdom (1801-20) and elector (1760-1814) and king (1814-20) of Hanover. He was the son of Frederick Louis, prince of Wales, and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. On his accession he sought to rule without regard to party, to banish corruption from political practice, and to abandon the Hanoverian preoccupations of his predecessors. However, the chief minister chosen to implement his new system of politics, John Stuart, Earl of Bute, was an unpracticed politician who merely succeeded in disrupting the established politics of the day without creating a viable alternative. The result was 10 years of ministerial instability and public controversy, which ended only in 1770 with the appointment of Lord North, an able and congenial minister. George was a strong supporter of the war against America, and he viewed the concession of independence in 1783 with such detestation that he considered abdicating his throne. At the same time he fought a bitter personal feud with the Whig leader Charles James Fox, and his personal intervention brought the fall of the Fox-North ministry in 1783. He then found another minister, William Pitt the Younger, who suited him. Even as late as 1801 he preferred, however, to force Pitt to resign rather than permit Catholic emancipation, a measure that he interpreted as contrary to his coronation oath to uphold the Church of England. After 1801 his recurring bouts of insanity became a political problem and ultimately compelled him to submit to the establishment of a formal regency in 1811. The regent was his oldest son, the future George IV.
George IV, in full George Augustus Frederick, German Georg August Friedrich (b. Aug. 12, 1762, London, England - d. June 26, 1830, Windsor, Berkshire), king of the United Kingdom and of Hanover (1820-30). He was the eldest son of George III and Charlotte Sophia of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. In November 1810 George III became permanently insane, and shortly afterward the prince became regent under the terms of the Regency Act (1811). In February 1812, when the restrictions of that statute expired, George decided to retain his father's ministers rather than appoint survivors from among his old Whig friends. His decision benefited the nation, because leading Whigs were prepared to abandon the war with France and leave Napoleon the master of the European continent. As it was, Great Britain and its allies finally triumphed over Napoleon in 1815. George IV's accession on the death of his father did not add to the powers that he had possessed as regent. He insulted and intrigued against the 2nd Earl of Liverpool, prime minister from 1820 to 1827. George Canning, who became foreign secretary in 1822 and prime minister in 1827, won George's approval, partly by cultivating the friendship of Sir William Knighton, the king's physician and keeper of the privy purse, on whose advice George relied excessively. But after 1827 he ceased to have any personal weight with either of the two great parties.
George V, in full George Frederick Ernest Albert (b. June 3, 1865, London, England - d. Jan. 20, 1936, Sandringham, Norfolk, England), king of the United Kingdom (1910-36). He was the second son of Prince Albert Edward, later King Edward VII. He became Duke of Cornwall and was created Prince of Wales after his father's accession in 1901, succeeded his father on May 6, 1910, and was crowned on June 22, 1911. Formidable difficulties faced the new king early in his reign. The constitutional struggle to curb the power of the House of Lords was unresolved, and the Liberal government secured an undertaking from the king that, should the lords not yield, he would create sufficient new peers to overcome the opposition. After the Liberal success in the election of December 1910, the House of Lords relented and passed the Parliament Act (1911), and the king did not have to fulfill his pledge. Respect for George greatly increased during World War I, and he visited the front in France several times. In 1917, George changed the name of his house from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to Windsor. After World War I the king was confronted by an outbreak of serious industrial unrest. He was also faced with a difficult decision on the resignation of Bonar Law in 1923, when he had to find a new prime minister. Both Lord Curzon and Stanley Baldwin had supporters among the elder statesmen whom George consulted, but, believing Baldwin had more support in the Conservative Party and that the prime minister should be in the House of Commons, the king selected him. When the Labour administration split in 1931, he persuaded Ramsay MacDonald and a part of his cabinet to remain in office and join with Conservative and Liberal ministers in the formation of a national coalition government.
George VI, also called (1920-36) Prince Albert, Duke of York, in full Albert Frederick Arthur George (b. Dec. 14, 1895, York cottage, Sandringham, Norfolk, England - d. Feb. 6, 1952, Sandringham), king of the United Kingdom (1936-52). He was the second son of the future king George V. On April 26, 1923, he was married to Lady Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon (1900-2002), youngest daughter of the 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. They had two children: Princess Elizabeth (afterward Queen Elizabeth II) and Princess Margaret (afterward Countess of Snowdon). He was officially proclaimed king on Dec. 12, 1936, following the abdication of his brother Edward VIII. He was crowned on May 12, 1937. Before the outbreak of World War II, he affirmed Anglo-French solidarity and formed a close friendship with U.S. Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt, but he supported Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain's "appeasement" policy toward Germany and Italy. In May 1940, when the House of Commons forced Chamberlain to resign, the king wished to appoint Edward Halifax (later 1st Earl of Halifax) to the premiership but was induced to select Winston Churchill, whose wartime leadership he then supported unreservedly. During the war he visited his armies on several battle fronts. Although he had ceased to be emperor of India when India and Pakistan became separate independent countries, he was formally recognized, on April 27, 1949, as head of the Commonwealth of Nations by the governments of its member states. Although he was an important symbolic leader of the British people during World War II, his reign was perhaps most important for the accelerating evolution of the British Empire into the Commonwealth of Nations and the postwar transformation of Britain into a welfare state.
George, Ambrose, finance minister of Dominica (2000-01). He was sent on leave in December 2001, pending the results of a government investigation into his alleged involvement with a local businessman who faced money laundering charges in the United States. As a result it was announced that there was no credible evidence linking George with money laundering. However, Prime Minister Pierre Charles assumed responsibility for finance and switched George to head the Ministry of Industry, Physical Planning and Enterprise Development. In 2004 he became minister of agriculture and environment, in 2005 minister of public works and public utilities, and in 2007 minister of public works and infrastructural development. In 2008 he was dropped from the cabinet following allegations of his involvement in various Internet scams. In 2010, however, he was reappointed as minister for information, telecommunication, and constituency empowerment.
George, Andrew (Neil) (b. Oct. 9, 1952), governor of Anguilla (2006-09).
George, Henry (b. Sept. 2, 1839, Philadelphia, Pa. - d. Oct. 29, 1897, New York City), U.S. political figure. He took part in Democratic Party politics in California until 1880. There he was struck by the large tracts of land which had been freely and even recklessly granted to railway companies and other corporations. Meditating on the evils produced by those monopolies, he came to believe that the root of the social maladies of his time was the individual ownership of land. The result of his reflections was his book Progress and Poverty (1879), which had an enormous sale and was translated into many languages. Its vogue was enhanced by his pamphlets, his frequent contributions to magazines, and his lecture tours in both the United States and the British Isles. His central proposal was the "single tax" on land: "What man has produced belongs to the individual producer; what God has created belongs equally to all men ... therefore abolish all taxation save on the value of land." In 1886 he ran for mayor of New York City for the United Labour Party; he was defeated, although he ran ahead of Theodore Roosevelt. He also wrote much on free trade, stating that cause with much clearness and eloquence in his book Protection or Free Trade. In 1897 on the creation of Greater New York he became again the candidate of the labour organizations to oppose Tammany Hall. But the incessant exertions of writing, travelling, and speaking had greatly enfeebled him. He died four days before the election. The Georgist movement then declined, although it still has its adherents today. Internationally it had the most success in Denmark, where a Georgist party (Retsforbund) was long represented in parliament (1926-60, 1973-75, 1977-81) and once participated in a coalition government (1957-60).
George, Hywel (b. May 10, 1924), governor of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1969-70).
George, Norman (b. July 2, 1946, Atiu, Cook Islands), foreign minister (1984-89) and deputy prime minister (1999-2001) of the Cook Islands. He was also speaker of parliament (2004-06), being elected as such on Dec. 14, 2004, though he had lost his seat on Atiu in the 2004 general elections. He was returned to parliament in a by-election held on June 8, 2006.
George, Yosiwo P(alikkun) (b. July 24, 1941, Malem, Kusaie [now Kosrae], Micronesia [now in Federated States of Micronesia]), governor of Kosrae (1983-91) and vice president of the Federated States of Micronesia (2015- ). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1992-95) and ambassador to the United States (2008-12) and Israel (2010-14).
George-Brown, George Alfred George-Brown, Baron, original name George Alfred Brown (b. Sept. 2, 1914, London, England - d. June 2, 1985, Cornwall, England), British politician. He became full-time organizer in North London for the Transport and General Workers' Union and, as its nominee, won (1945) the parliamentary seat of Belper, Derbyshire. After serving as parliamentary secretary to the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (1947-51), he became minister of works (1951). He served as deputy leader of the Labour Party (1960-70), but despite having defeated Harold Wilson in the 1961 and 1962 elections for the party's deputy leadership, he lost to Wilson when a new leader was chosen after Hugh Gaitskell's death (1963). Heading the newly created (and short-lived) Department of Economic Affairs (DEA), he faced balance of payments problems and hostility from the Treasury, on whose ground the DEA impinged. Brown's position became untenable when in a 1966 crisis Wilson took Treasury rather than DEA advice. As foreign secretary (1966-68) Brown made a strenuous but unsuccessful effort (1967) to achieve for Britain membership in the European Communities. He resigned on an impulse when he was not consulted on an urgent decision. He lost his House of Commons seat in 1970 and was created a life peer, changing his surname from Brown to George-Brown by deed poll. He resigned from the Labour Party in 1976 and was a founder-member (1981) of the Social Democratic Party.
George Tupou II (b. June 18, 1874, Neiafu, Vava'u, Tonga - d. April 5, 1918, Nuku'alofa, Tonga), king of Tonga (1893-1918).
George Tupou II
George Tupou V, Tongan Siaosi Tupou V (b. May 4, 1948, Nuku'alofa, Tonga - d. March 18, 2012, Hong Kong, China), king of Tonga (2006-12); son of Taufa'ahau Tupou IV. He was an Oxford University graduate and completed three years' study at the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst. He spent 28 years working for the government after joining the civil service in 1970, and was appointed the first head of the foreign affairs ministry in 1979. The unmarried crown prince, then known as Tupouto'a, resigned from his position as minister of foreign affairs and defense in 1998. He also retired from the chair of Tonga's electric power board, its water board, and its tourism board. Tupouto'a's business interests ranged from a fishing company to brewing. Succeeding his late father as king in 2006, his coronation was postponed after rioting over political reform left eight people dead and the centre of the capital, Nuku'alofa, virtually burned to the ground. Days before his coronation in 2008, he announced that he was "voluntarily surrendering his powers to meet the democratic aspirations of many of his people," leaving day-to-day affairs in charge of the prime minister.
George Tupou V
George-Wout, Lucille (Andrea) (b. Feb. 26, 1950, Curaçao), governor of Curaçao (2013- ).
Georges, Elton (b. May 1, 1943, Tortola island, British Virgin Islands), deputy governor of the British Virgin Islands (1983-2003). He served as acting governor on several occasions, including in October 2002.
Georges-Picot, Guillaume, byname Willie Georges-Picot (b. Aug. 10, 1898, Étretat, Seine-Inférieure [now Seine-Maritime], France - d. Sept. 26, 1985), French diplomat. He was minister to Albania (1946), ambassador to Venezuela (1946-48), Argentina (1948-51), and Mexico (1955-56), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1956-59).
Georgiev (Stoyanov), Kimon (b. Aug. 23, 1882, Tatar Pazardzhik, Eastern Rumelia, Ottoman Empire [now Pazardzhik, Bulgaria] - d. Sept. 28, 1968, Sofia, Bulgaria), prime minister (1934-35, 1944-46) and foreign minister (1934, 1946-47) of Bulgaria. He was also minister of railways, posts, and telegraphs (1926-28), justice (1934-35), and electrification (1947-59), chairman of the committee for construction and architecture (1959), and a deputy premier (1947-49, 1959-62).
Georgiev (Ivanov), Nikolay (b. 1906 - d. June 18, 1987), deputy chairman of the Presidium of the National Assembly of Bulgaria (1958-66).
Georgievski, Ljubco (b. Jan. 17, 1966, Stip, central Macedonia), prime minister of Macedonia (1998-2002). He was elected vice president of Macedonia on Feb. 1, 1991, but resigned on October 22. He changed the spelling of his first name from Ljupco to the "more Macedonian" Ljubco in 1996.
Georgios, Prince (b. June 24, 1869, Corfu, Greece - d. Nov. 25, 1957, Saint-Cloud, Seine-et-Oise [now in Hauts-de-Seine], France), Supreme Plenipotentiary Commissioner of the Powers in Crete (1898-1906); son of Georgios I.
Georgios I, original name Prince (Christian) Vilhelm (Ferdinand Adolf Georg) of Denmark (b. Dec. 24, 1845, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. March 18, 1913, Salonika, Greece), king of Greece (1863-1913). The second son of King Christian IX of Denmark and the brother of Queen Alexandra, wife of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom, he was nominated to the Greek throne by Britain, France, and Russia after the first Greek king, Othon, was deposed in 1862. The National Assembly accepted Vilhelm as king of the Hellenes in March 1863, and he ascended the throne as Georgios I on October 31. In 1867 he married the Grand Duchess Olga Konstantinovna of Russia. Although the early years of his reign were dominated by his harsh and unpopular adviser Count Sponneck, who was obliged to return to Denmark in 1877, he refrained from transgressing the prerogatives of the National Assembly and became one of the most successful constitutional monarchs in Europe. While taking a walk he was shot and killed by a man named Alexandros Skinas, who apparently had no political motives.
Georgios II (b. July 20, 1890, Tatoi, near Athens, Greece - d. April 1, 1947, Athens), king of Greece (1922-24, 1935-47). The eldest son of King Konstantinos I, he was excluded from the succession during World War I for his allegedly pro-German sympathies, but he came to the throne when his father was deposed by Gen. Nikolaos Plastiras in September 1922. Feeling ran high against the royal family, however, and, after a royalist coup d'état had been suppressed in October 1923, Georgios felt compelled to leave Greece on December 19 with his queen, Elizabeth. In March 1924 the Greek National Assembly voted the end of the monarchy and proclaimed Greece a republic. The king remained in exile until the conservative Populist Party, with the support of the army, gained control of the Assembly and declared the restoration of the monarchy in October 1935; a plebiscite, which was most probably manipulated by the prime minister, Gen. Georgios Kondylis, was held in November in an effort to demonstrate that the great majority of the people favoured his return. In 1936 Gen. Ioannis Metaxas seized power after asserting that the nation was on the verge of being taken over by the communists. The king's support of Metaxas put the throne in a controversial position, particularly after Metaxas banned political parties, dissolved Parliament, suspended constitutional rights, and even decreed the censorship of Pericles' great funeral oration to the Athenians as recorded by Thucydides. The king was forced into exile after the German invasion of Greece in April 1941, going first to Crete, then to Alexandria, and finally to London. After the war republican sentiments again threatened his throne, but he was restored by a plebiscite supervised by the Allies and returned to Greece in 1946.
Georgy, Guy (Noël) (b. Nov. 17, 1918, Paris, France - d. July 9, 2003, Paris), high commissioner of Middle Congo (1959-60). He was also ambassador to Bolivia (1961-64), Dahomey (1964-69), Libya (1969-75), Iran (1980-82), and Algeria (1982-84).
Gephardt, Richard (Andrew), byname Dick Gephardt (b. Jan. 31, 1941, St. Louis, Mo.), U.S. politician. He served on the St. Louis Board of Aldermen (1971-77), and in 1976 ran successfully for Congress, portraying himself as a new kind of moderate Democrat. In 2002 he won the seat for the 14th time. In 1985 he helped form the Democratic Leadership Council, the group of moderates that was a spawning ground for such national leaders as Bill Clinton. Gephardt shot to national prominence in 1988 when he won the Iowa caucus and finished second in the New Hampshire Democratic presidential primary. But he withdrew from the race after Super Tuesday, when he captured only one of 21 events - the primary in his home state. House Democrats picked Gephardt as the majority leader, the No. 2 position in the House, in 1989, ushering in what they hoped would be a better image for the party after controversy that led to the resignation of Speaker Jim Wright. Gephardt was the next Democrat in line to succeed Tom Foley of Washington as speaker, and Foley was defeated in the 1994 election. But so were a lot of Democrats, and Gephardt had the unhappy chore of handing the gavel to Newt Gingrich, head of the new majority Republicans, who became speaker, officially ending 40 years of Democratic control over the House. As Democratic leader Gephardt worked closely with the White House to promote its failed attempt to establish a national health care system, and he has been a stalwart supporter of campaign finance reform, increases in the minimum wage, and efforts to save Social Security. But he was at odds with the White House in 1993 in opposing the North American Free Trade Agreement. He has voted to ban a kind of late-term abortion; President Clinton vetoed the ban. In 2004 he again ran for the Democratic presidential nomination, but dropped out after coming fourth in the Iowa caucuses.
Gérard, Bernard (Marcel Paul) (b. July 12, 1932, Niort, Deux-Sèvres, France - d. Nov. 24, 2011, Draguignan, Var, France), high commissioner of French Polynesia (1985-86). He was also prefect of the départements of Jura (1983-84), Ain (1984-85), Hérault (1990-93), and Loiret (1993-97).
Gérard, Étienne Maurice, comte (b. April 4, 1773, Damvilliers [now in Meuse département], France - d. April 17, 1852, Paris, France), war minister (1830, 1834) and prime minister (1834) of France.
Gérard, Max Léo (b. April 24, 1879, Liége [now Liège], Belgium - d. Nov. 26, 1955, Uccle, Belgium), finance minister of Belgium (1935-36, 1938).
Gerasimov, Valentin (Pavlovich) (b. May 28, 1940), chairman of the Executive Committee (1988-91) and head of the administration (1991-95) of Kurgan oblast.
Geraud, (Baptiste) Léon, acting governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1912-13).
Gerbel, Serhiy (Mykolayovych), Russian Sergey (Nikolayevich) Gerbel (b. 1858, Saint Petersburg province, Russia - d. 1936), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the non-Communist Ukraine (1918). He was also governor of Kharkov (1903-04) and minister of food (1918).
Gerbinis, Louis (Martial Innocent) (b. July 1, 1871, Toulon, France - d. July 24, 1954, Meillon, Basses-Pyrénées [now Pyrénées-Atlantiques], France), governor of French India (1919-26), Guadeloupe (1926-27), and Martinique (1928-33).
Gerbrandy, Pieter Sjoerds (b. April 13, 1885, Sneek, Friesland, Netherlands - d. Sept. 7, 1961, The Hague, Netherlands), prime minister of the Netherlands (1940-45). He was also minister of justice (1939-42) and colonies (1941-42).
Gerdener, Theo(dor Johannes Adolph) (b. March 19, 1916, Cape Town, South Africa - d. Nov. 21, 2013), administrator of Natal (1961-70) and interior minister of South Africa (1970-72).
Geremek, Bronislaw (b. March 6, 1932, Warsaw, Poland - d. [car crash] July 13, 2008, Nowy Tomysl, Poland), foreign minister of Poland (1997-2000).
Gerengbo (Yazalo), Marie-Thérèse (b. Aug. 27, 1951, Fataki, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)]), special commissioner (2015-16) and governor (2016- ) of Nord-Ubangi.
Gerhardsen, Einar Henry (b. May 10, 1897, Asker, Norway - d. Sept. 19, 1987, Lilleborg, Oslo, Norway), prime minister of Norway (1945-51, 1955-63, 1963-65). He was active in trade union affairs before he was elected to the Oslo town council in 1932. He became secretary of the Labour Party in 1934 and mayor of Oslo in 1940 but was dismissed later that year by the German occupying forces. Arrested by the Gestapo in 1941 because of his resistance to the occupation, he spent three and a half years in prisons and concentration camps. On his liberation in 1945 he returned to his post as mayor of Oslo. He became leader of the Labour Party and was asked to form a coalition government, which launched a campaign to repair the damage and divisions of the war years. Labour won a majority in the 1945 general elections and could then govern alone. Despite the Marxist and antimilitarist leanings of his youth, Gerhardsen brought Norway into NATO in 1949 and resisted Soviet attempts in 1964 to weaken Norway's commitment. Throughout his career he endeavoured to further East-West détente, and he established Norway's opposition to foreign bases and nuclear weapons. His policies, sometimes controversial abroad, gained support at home. In 1965 the Labour Party was defeated at the polls and he stepped down as party chairman, but he remained a prominent figure in Norwegian politics and served as a member of parliament until he retired in 1969.
Gericke van Herwijnen, Johan Eberhard Paul Ernst (b. Feb. 23, 1785, Kleve, Prussia [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany] - d. Nov. 19, 1845, Maastricht, Netherlands), commissioner/governor of Limburg (1831-45).
Gericke van Herwijnen, (Joseph) Louis (Heinrich Alfred) baron (b. Feb. 18, 1814, Dillenburg, Nassau [now in Hessen, Germany] - d. May 26, 1899, Brussels, Belgium), foreign minister of the Netherlands (1871-74); son of Johan Eberhard Paul Ernst Gericke van Herwijnen. He was also minister to Belgium (1851-70, 1875-95).
Geringer, Jim, byname of James Edward Geringer (b. April 24, 1944, Wheatland, Wyo.), governor of Wyoming (1995-2003). The Republican was elected to the state legislature in 1982. Gov. Mike Sullivan could probably have won a third term in 1994, but he ran for the Senate instead. Secretary of State Kathy Karpan was the obvious Democratic nominee, and in another year might well have won. Instead, the key contest was the Republican primary, won by Geringer. In the anti-Clinton atmosphere of November 1994, he easily prevailed over Karpan, carrying all but one county. Geringer complained of "the increasing imbalance of power between federal and state governments" and wanted to give life to the 10th Amendment which reserves to the states powers not delegated to the federal government. He called for Wyoming to use its mineral resources and low taxes to build a more diversified, higher-tech economy.
Gerlach, Manfred (b. May 8, 1928, Leipzig, Germany - d. Oct. 17, 2011, Berlin, Germany), acting chairman of the Council of State of East Germany (1989-90). He was chairman of the Liberal Democratic Party of Germany from 1967 to 1990.
Gerland, Karl (b. July 14, 1905, Gottsbüren, Hessen - d. [killed in action] April 22, 1945, Oderbogen area), Oberpräsident of Kurhessen (1944-45).
Germain, Gaëtan Loïc Elie Ernest (b. Dec. 23, 1904 - d. Nov. 15, 1956), governor of French Somaliland (1940).
Germain, Jean (b. Sept. 11, 1947, Tours, Indre-et-Loire, France - d. [suicide] April 7, 2015, Tours), mayor of Tours (1995-2014) and first vice president (1998-2011) and acting president (2000, 2007) of the Regional Council of Centre.
Germain, Philippe (b. 1968, Nouméa, New Caledonia), president of the government of New Caledonia (2015- ).
German, civil name Hranislav Djoric (b. Aug. 7, 1899, Josanicka Banja, Serbia - d. Aug. 27, 1991, Belgrade, Serbia), patriarch of the Orthodox Church of Serbia (1958-90).
German, Paul (b. March 30, 1915, Tours, France - d. Sept. 23, 1993, Caen, France), president of the Regional Council of Basse-Normandie (1978-82).
Gerö, Ernö, original name Ernö Singer (b. July 8, 1898, Terbegec, Hungary [now Trebusovce, Slovakia] - d. March 12, 1980, Budapest), Hungarian politician. In 1944 he became a member of the Politburo, and he served as minister in many Communist governments. He was the driving force behind rapid industrialization, demanding in 1950 that Hungary be made a "country of iron and steel." He was named (July 18, 1956) first secretary of the Hungarian Workers' (Communist) Party and served as the country's last Stalinist leader before the 1956 rebellion. After his pro-Soviet broadcast on Oct. 23, 1956, large crowds gathered to protest the oppression of the Hungarian people by the Hungarian and Soviet regimes. Gerö, who was unable to crush the rebellion, called in Soviet troops who fired on the demonstrators. He was replaced (October 25) as first secretary by János Kádár, who was then installed as premier (November 4) by the Soviets. Although Gerö was initially believed to have been killed by rebels in Budapest, he escaped into exile.
Gerry, Elbridge (b. July 17, 1744, Marblehead, Mass. - d. Nov. 23, 1814, Washington, D.C.), governor of Massachusetts (1810-12) and U.S. vice president (1813-14).
Gerter, Ivan (Konstantinovich) (b. 1963, Druzhba, Severo-Kazakhstan oblast, Kazakh S.S.R.), prime minister of Kabardino-Balkariya (2011-12).
Gervais, Jacques François (b. 1795? - d. June 3, 1869, Brest, France), commandant of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1850-55, 1856-59).
Gervais, Jean-Marie Kacou (b. Oct. 7, 1938, Sassandra, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire]), foreign minister of Côte d'Ivoire (2010-11). He was also ambassador to Angola (1982-92) and France (1996-2000) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1992-96).
J.-M. K. Gervais
Gervais, Pierre (b. Oct. 31, 1723 - d. ...), presiding syndic of the Administrative Council of Genève (1795-96, 1797).
Gervil-Yambala, Jean-Louis (b. 1946 - d. Nov. 18, 2001, Paris, France), foreign minister of the Central African Republic (1981-83). He was also ambassador to Belgium (1991-98).
Gerville-Réache, Anne Léodor Philotée Metellus (b. July 26, 1849, Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe - d. ...), commandant of Mayotte (1885-87) and governor of French Guiana (1888-91).
Geshov, Ivan Evstratiev (b. Feb. 20, 1849, Plovdiv, Ottoman Empire [now in Bulgaria] - d. March 11, 1924, Sofia, Bulgaria), prime minister and foreign minister of Bulgaria (1911-13). He took an active part in the Bulgarian struggle for national liberation from the Ottoman Empire. For writing a series of letters condemning Turkish atrocities he was sentenced to death, but the sentence was commuted afterwards to one of exile to Aleppo, and after the signature of the Treaty of San Stefano in March 1878 he was pardoned and returned to Bulgaria. He was the first president of the provincial assembly of Eastern Rumelia (1878-81) and afterwards provincial minister of finance. In 1883 he was appointed governor of the Bank of Bulgaria. He signed the treaty of peace with Serbia in February 1886, and in the same year was appointed Bulgarian minister of finance in the cabinet of Vasil Radoslavov after the abdication of Prince Aleksandur. But, disapproving of the pro-Austrian policy of Stefan Stambolov, who was then one of the regents, he resigned in August 1887 and did not take part in political life again until Dec. 21, 1894, when he was appointed finance minister under Konstantin Stoilov. He resigned three years later, but after Stoilov's death in March 1901 he was elected leader of the Populist Party and in 1911-13 he presided over a coalition government that promoted the policy of the Balkan Alliance and waged the Balkan War against Turkey, which began on Oct. 17, 1912. He resigned on May 30, 1913, the day on which the treaty between Turkey and the Balkan states was signed, as he was not in agreement with King Ferdinand's policy in favour of war with Bulgaria's allies. In 1923 he joined the Democratic Party after the fall of Aleksandur Stamboliyski. Other posts he held were minister of commerce and agriculture (1894-96, 1896-97) and public buildings, roads, and public works (1912) and president of the National Assembly (1901, 1913) and of the Academy of Sciences (1911-24).
Gessler, Otto (Karl) (b. Feb. 6, 1875, Ludwigsburg, Württemberg [now in Baden-Württemberg], Germany - d. March 24, 1955, Lindenberg, Bayern, West Germany), minister of reconstruction (1919-20), defense minister (1920-28), acting interior minister (1925-26), and acting chancellor (1926) of Germany. Earlier he was mayor of Regensburg (1910-14) and Nürnberg (1914-19).
Gestido (Pose), Óscar Diego (b. Nov. 28, 1901, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. Dec. 6, 1967, Montevideo), president of Uruguay (1967). He was also inspector-general of the army (1951-55).
Gettelfinger, Ron(ald Anthony) (b. Aug. 1, 1944, near DePauw, Ind.), president of the United Automobile Workers (2002-10).
Getty, Donald (Ross) (b. Aug. 30, 1933, Westmount, Que. - d. Feb. 26, 2016, Edmonton, Alta.), premier of Alberta (1985-92).
Ghafoor, Abdul (b. 1918, Sareya Akhtiyar village, Gopalganj district, Bihar, India - d. July 10, 2004, Patna, Bihar), chief minister of Bihar (1973-75).
Ghafoorzai, Abdul Rahim (b. 1946? - d. Aug. 21, 1997, Bamyan province, Afghanistan), foreign minister of Afghanistan (1996). After the Taliban took Kabul in 1996, he remained foreign minister in the anti-Taliban government and in 1997 became its prime minister, but shortly afterwards was killed in a plane crash.
Ghalawanji, Omar (Ibrahim) (b. 1954, Tartous, Syria), acting prime minister of Syria (2012). He has been minister of housing and construction (2008-11) and local administration (2011- ).
Ghaleb, (Mohamed) Murad, Arabic (Muhammad) Murad Ghalib (b. April 1, 1922, Cairo, Egypt - d. December 2007), foreign minister of Egypt (1972). He was also ambassador to Congo (Léopoldville) (1960), the Soviet Union (1961-71), and Yugoslavia (1974-77) and information minister (1973-74).
Ghali, Ibrahim (b. Aug. 19, 1949, Smara, Spanish West Africa [now Western Sahara]), defense minister (1976-89, 1993-98) and president (2016- ) of the Saharan Arab Democratic Republic. He was also minister of the occupied territories (1998-99) and ambassador to Algeria (2008-16).
Ghalib, Umar Arteh, Somali Cumar Carte Qaalib (b. 1930, Hargeysa, British Somaliland), foreign minister (1969-76), speaker of the People's Assembly (1982-91), and prime minister (1991-93) of Somalia. He was also ambassador to Ethiopia (1965-68) and minister of higher education and culture (1976-78). As Somalia descended into civil war in 1991, his position as prime minister became increasingly nominal and he spent much time abroad. In 1993 he returned to Somaliland, recognizing that region's secession from Somalia.
Ghandour, Ibrahim (Ahmed Abdelaziz) (b. 1952, El Dueim, Sudan), foreign minister of The Sudan (2015- ).
Ghanem, Shukri (Muhammad), Arabic Shukri (Muhammad) Ghanim (b. Oct. 9, 1942, Tripoli, Libya - d. April 29, 2012, Vienna, Austria), secretary of the General People's Committee of Libya (2003-06). He tried to move the socialist economy towards a free market model, but his policies were roundly criticized by the local People's Committees, which implement government policy. In 2006 he was named to head the National Oil Corporation. He defected from the Muammar al-Qaddafi regime in May 2011.
Ghani (Ahmadzai), (Mohammad) Ashraf (b. May 19, 1949, Logar province, Afghanistan), finance minister (2002-04) and president (2014- ) of Afghanistan. He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 2009, winning less than 3% of the vote.
Ghani, Owais Ahmed (b. Feb. 5, 1951, Peshawar, Pakistan), governor of Balochistan (2003-08) and North-West Frontier Province/Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (2008-11).
Ghannouchi, Mohamed, Arabic Muhammad al-Ghanushi (b. Aug. 18, 1941, Sousse, Tunisia), prime minister (1999-2011) and interim president (2011) of Tunisia. Earlier he was minister of planning (1987), finance (1989-92), and international cooperation and foreign investment (1992-99).
Gharekhan, Chinmaya (Rajaninath) (b. 1934), Indian diplomat. He was ambassador to Vietnam (1975-76), permanent representative to the United Nations (1986-92), and UN special representative to Middle East peace talks (1993-99).
Gharsalli, (Mohamed) Najem (b. Dec. 30, 1962, Kasserine, Tunisia), interior minister of Tunisia (2015-16). He has also been governor of Mahdia (2011-15) and ambassador to Morocco (2016- ).
Ghashmi, Ahmad (Hussein) al-, Arabic Ahmad (Husayn) al-Ghashmi (b. 1938, Hamada, central Yemen - d. June 24, 1978, Sana, Yemen), Yemen (Sana) politician. Early schooled in the use of arms he became an army cadet. His experiences inclined him to the republican cause and he joined the republican forces in the Yemeni revolution against Imam Muhammad al-Badr. Later he became the chief of staff and deputy commander-in-chief of the armed forces under Pres. Ibrahim al-Hamadi. He became chairman of the three-member Presidential Council that assumed power when Hamadi was assassinated in October 1977. In April 1978 he was elected president. He was head of state for only eight months altogether before his own assassination. He was meeting with an envoy dispatched by Pres. Salem Rubayyi Ali of Yemen (Aden) when a briefcase, reportedly containing a top-secret message, exploded, killing both Ghashmi and the envoy.
Ghawail, Khalifa al-, also spelled al-Ghweil (b. 1964, Misratah, Libya), prime minister of Libya (2015-16; Tripoli government).
Ghazi I, in full Ghazi ibn Faysal ibn al-Husayn al-Hashimi (b. March 21, 1912, Mecca [now in Saudi Arabia] - d. April 4, 1939, Baghdad, Iraq), king of Iraq (1933-39); son of Faysal I. Like all the scions of the Sharifian family, he had to spend some of his early years among the nomad tribes of the desert. While not yet in his teens he was taken, in 1921, to Baghdad, where his father had been chosen to rule. Four years later he was sent by Faysal to England to pursue his studies at Harrow. In 1928 he was recalled to Baghdad to study at the Military Academy. He showed little disposition to meddle in internal politics; his friends were not among the politicians, and except on the most important occasions, particularly those which inaugurated the material advancement of his country, such as the opening of oil pipelines or of barrages, he did not trouble to conceal his lack of interest in public affairs. Only once did he immerse himself in a major way in the manoeuvres of politicians in Baghdad. This was on the occasion of the famous coup of Gen. Bakir Sidki, who sent planes over the capital and actually dropped a few bombs in order to show the cabinet of Yasin al-Hashimi that he was in earnest. To this coup the young king was unquestionably privy, and of his approval of it there is no doubt. In the end opposition to Ghazi grew among all sections of the community in Iraq. The townspeople did not share in his delight in fast motor cars and planes, and of the tribesmen he took little notice. This conduct was in great contrast to his father, who assiduously cultivated the friendship and the respect of both townsmen and tribesmen. Ghazi died from injuries received in an accident when the car he was driving struck an electric-light standard.
Ghazzi, Said al-, Arabic Sa`id al-Ghazzi (b. 1893, Damascus, Syria - d. Sept. 18, 1967), prime minister (1954, 1955-56) and foreign minister (1955-56) of Syria. He was also minister of justice (1936, 1945, 1948), finance (1946-47), economy (1947-48), and defense (1954) and speaker of parliament (1962-63).
Ghedi, Ali Muhammad, Somali Cali Maxamed Geedi, Arabic `Ali Muhammad Jidi (b. 1952, Mogadishu, Somalia), prime minister of Somalia (2004-07).
Gheorghiu-Dej, Gheorghe, original full name Gheorghe Tanase Gheorghiu ("Dej" was a revolutionary pseudonym) (b. Nov. 8, 1901, Barlad, Romania - d. March 19, 1965, Bucharest), Romanian politician. Having become a revolutionary after World War I, he joined the then-outlawed Romanian Communist Party in 1930 and was sentenced to 12 years' hard labour for his role in the Grivita railwaymen's strike of 1933. He escaped prison in August 1944, the same month an anti-Fascist coup brought Romania into the war against Germany. He became minister of communications in the first liberation cabinets (1944-46) and played an instrumental role in forcing Prime Minister Nicolae Radescu out of office and establishing a Communist-dominated government (early 1945). He was elected secretary-general of the Communist Party in October 1945. In 1946-52 he held several key posts in government economic planning. In 1952, after purging the party of his rivals, who had been closely identified with Soviet leaders and policies, he became prime minister. He gradually adopted economic and foreign policies that served Romania's national interests rather than those of international socialism as defined by the Soviet leaders. He resigned as prime minister in 1955 but assumed the position of president of the State Council in 1961. Following an even more determined independent course, he overcame the objections of the other Soviet-bloc countries, which wanted Romania's economy to remain primarily agricultural, and pursued a far-reaching program of industrialization in 1964. In the mid-1960s he also demonstrated Romania's independence from Soviet domination by forming cordial relations with non-Communist nations and with China, which had become increasingly alienated from the Soviet Union.
Gherman, Natalia (b. March 20, 1969, Kishinev, Moldavian S.S.R. [now Chisinau, Moldova]), foreign minister (2013-16) and acting prime minister (2015) of Moldova; daughter of Mircea Snegur. She was also ambassador to Austria (2002-06) and Sweden (2006-09; also accredited to Norway and Finland).
Gherman, Oliviu (b. April 26, 1930, Mihai Viteazu, Romania), Romanian politician. He was president of the Senate (1992-96) and ambassador to France (2001-04).
Ghezal, Ahmed (b. Sept. 8, 1930, M'Saken, Tunisia), Tunisian diplomat. He was ambassador to Austria and Hungary (1977-85) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1987-91).
Ghica, Prince Dimitrie, byname Beizadea Mitica (b. May 31, 1816 - d. Feb. 15, 1897, Bucharest, Romania), prime minister of Walachia (1861-62) and foreign minister (1868-69) and prime minister (1868-70) of Romania. He was also minister of education (1860), finance (1861), and interior (1861-62) of Walachia and minister of interior (1866, 1870) and agriculture, commerce, and public works (1868-70) and president of the Senate (1879-88, 1895-97) of Romania.
Ghica, Ion (Dimitrie), Greek Ioannis Ghikas (b. Aug. 12, 1816, Bucharest, Walachia [now in Romania] - d. May 4, 1897, Ghergani, Romania), prime minister of Romania (1866-67, 1870-71). Descended from the Walachian prince Grigore III Ghica, Ion Ghica joined the opposition to the rule of his cousin Alexandru II Ghica, prince of Walachia from 1834, that resulted in Alexandru's deposition in October 1842. Ghica figured prominently in the revolutionary activity of 1848 and was subsequently forced into exile. Named governor of Samos by the Turkish government in 1854, he headed the administration of the island until 1859. He then became prime minister of Moldavia (1859) and Walachia (1859-60). In 1866 he joined the secret committee that secured the overthrow of the first prince of united Romania, Alexandru Ioan, and his replacement by Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, thereafter Carol I (prince, 1866-81; subsequently king). Twice prime minister in 1866-67, Ghica, during his second administration, won the agreement of the sultan to Carol's accession. He served again as prime minister in 1870-71 and was subsequently Romanian minister in London (1880-87).
Ghimire, Madhav Prasad (b. Feb. 7, 1961, Tansen municipality-12, Palpa district, Nepal), foreign and home affairs minister of Nepal (2013-14).
Ghimpu, Mihai (Toader) (b. Nov. 19, 1951, Colonita village, Moldavian S.S.R.), chairman of parliament (2009-10) and acting president (2009-10) of Moldova.
Ghiotti, Renzo (b. May 21, 1951), captain-regent of San Marino (1994-95).
Ghiz, Joseph A(tallah) (b. Jan. 27, 1945, Charlottetown, P.E.I. - d. Nov. 9, 1996, Charlottetown), premier of Prince Edward Island (1986-93). Ghiz was best known by Canadians for the role he played in promoting two failed attempts at trying to persuade largely French-speaking Quebec to sign the Canadian constitution - the Meech Lake and Charlottetown accords. Ghiz was also instrumental in pushing for the construction of a bridge linking Prince Edward Island to mainland Canada. The bridge was built in 1996. After his premiership he was appointed to the province's Supreme Court.
Ghiz, Robert (Watson Joseph) (b. Jan. 21, 1974, Charlottetown, P.E.I.), premier of Prince Edward Island (2007-15); son of Joseph A. Ghiz.
Ghizikis, Phaidon (Dimitriou) (b. June 16, 1917, Volos, Greece - d. July 26, 1999, Athens), president of Greece (1973-74). He was a second lieutenant during the 1940-41 Greek-Italian war, where he received two gold honours for bravery. He also received 13 medals and military decorations between 1944 and 1949. General Ghizikis became president in November 1973, after Col. Georgios Papadopoulos was toppled by his military police chief, Brig. Dimitris Ioannides. Within months Ghizikis, recognizing the need for a return to civilian rule, recalled several former politicians from exile and in July 1974, he swore in Konstantinos Karamanlis as the first post-dictatorship premier. In return, he was never prosecuted for his role in the junta, while others were convicted of treason and imprisoned. Ghizikis held his post until December 1974, when he resigned and retired from the army.
Ghonda (Mangalibi), Antoine (b. Feb. 19, 1965, Leuven, Belgium), foreign minister of Congo (Kinshasa) (2003-04).
Ghotbzadeh, Sadegh, also spelled Sadeq Qotbzadeh (b. 1936 [other sources say 1937 or 1938] - d. Sept. 15, 1982, Tehran), foreign minister of Iran (1979-80). He was a leader of opposition to the shah and a supporter of the National Front of Mohammad Mossadegh. He joined Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini during the latter's exile and became one of Khomeini's closest associates. After the revolution he was appointed head of the National Iranian Radio and Television (Feb. 11, 1979). In that capacity he quickly earned the dislike of many who had supported the revolution, particularly those on the left, by his authoritarian use of censorship to impose an "Islamic" line on the programmes and to suppress reports of views differing from Khomeini's - for instance, those favouring women's rights. During the crisis caused by the detention of U.S. hostages following the seizure of the U.S. embassy in Tehran, Ghotbzadeh was appointed foreign minister (November 1979). Though his efforts to resolve the situation were viewed as sincere, he finally resigned (August 1980) over the deadlock in negotiations. Less than three months later, on Nov. 7, 1980, he was arrested after criticizing the Islamic Republican Party; he was released on November 10 but after that played no further part in public life. He was arrested again in April 1982 and accused of plotting against the regime. He apparently admitted complicity with Ayatollah Kazem Shariat-Madari in a plot against the government, but denied any conspiracy to take Khomeini's life. He was executed by a firing squad.
Ghozali, Sid Ahmed, Arabic Sid Ahmad Ghuzali (b. March 31, 1937, Marnia, Algeria), finance minister (1988-89), foreign minister (1989-91), and prime minister and economy minister (1991-92) of Algeria. He was also minister of energy and petrochemicals (1977-79) and irrigation (1979) and ambassador to Belgium (1984-88) and France (1992-93).
Ghulabzoi, Sayed Mohammad (b. 1951), interior minister of Afghanistan (1979-88). He was also minister of communications (1978-79) and ambassador to the Soviet Union (1988-90).
Giacobbi, Antoine Félix (b. July 22, 1891, Aix-en-Provence, Bouches-du-Rhône, France - d. July 31, 1957, Cervione, Corse [now in Haute-Corse], France), governor of French Guinea (1940-42).
Giacobbi, François (b. July 19, 1919, Venaco, Corse [now in Haute-Corse], France - d. March 7, 1997, Paris, France), president of the Regional Council of Corse (1974-79).
Giacomini, Gino (b. Dec. 27, 1878, Borgo Maggiore, San Marino - d. Feb. 19, 1962), secretary of state for foreign and political affairs of San Marino (1945-57).
Giacomini, Pietro (b. Oct. 14, 1944, San Marino), Sammarinese diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1996-97).
Giagu De Martini, Antonio (b. March 17, 1925, Thiesi, Sardegna, Italy - d. Nov. 4, 2006, Sassari, Sardegna, Italy), president of Sardegna (1970-72, 1972-73).
Giannattasio (Finocchietti), Luis (b. 1894 - d. Feb. 7, 1965, Punta del Este, Uruguay), president of the National Council of Government of Uruguay (1964-65). He was also minister of public works (1959-63).
Giannettasio, Graciela (María) (b. Oct. 20, 1950, Remedios de Escalada, Lanús, Buenos Aires province), education minister of Argentina (2002-03).
Giannitsis, Tassos, byname of Anastasios Giannitsis (b. 1944, Athens, Greece), foreign minister (2004) and interior minister (2011-12) of Greece. He was also minister of labour and social security (2000-01).
Giannoni, Giovanni (b. Dec. 31, 1948, Serravalle, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2003).
Giannopoulos, Evangelos, also spelled Yiannopoulos (b. 1918, Migdalia, southern Greece - d. Sept. 4, 2003, Athens, Greece), Greek politician. He served as a defense lawyer for people charged with political crimes by the military dictatorship that ruled Greece for seven years before collapsing in 1974. He was also imprisoned for resistance to the junta. In 1974, he helped establish the Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK), headed by Andreas Papandreou. He served in various government posts beginning in 1981, when the Socialists first came to power. He was justice minister (1996-2000) and also headed the transport and merchant marine ministries. After Papandreou's death in 1996, Giannopoulos was one of the few members of the Socialist "old guard" to stay in government. His presence added a populist edge to Kostas Simitis' technocratic administration. Simitis dropped him from his cabinet in 2000, however. He retained a seat in parliament. He was known for taking pride in partying at nightclubs, which he called "beacons of culture."
Gibbons, Sir (John) David (b. June 15, 1927 - d. March 30, 2014), premier of Bermuda (1977-82); knighted 1985. He was health minister in 1974-75 and finance minister in 1975-84.
Gibbons, Yutaka (Miller) (b. Jan. 17, 1944), Ibedul, i.e. paramount chief of Koror, one of two traditional high chiefs of Palau (1972- ); nephew of Ibedul Ngoriakl. He was a presidential candidate in 1984, 1988, and 1996. In August 2003 he was sentenced to three years in prison, with two years suspended, for the assault of an attorney. The attorney, Matthew Johnson, said he was assaulted by Gibbons with a baseball bat on January 7 at the Koror State Building. Gibbons said that Johnson, as an American, was new in Palau and unaware of the importance of the title of paramount chief. Gibbons said he tried his best to settle their differences, but Johnson "didn't want to talk to him." Pres. Tommy Remengesau first granted Gibbons a conditional pardon, suspending his one year imprisonment, and in June 2004 he granted a full pardon.
Gibbs, Daniel (b. Jan. 8, 1968), acting president of the Territorial Council of Saint-Martin (2009).
Gibbs, Thomas F(ortson) (b. Jan. 25, 1797, Watkinsville, Ga. - d. Dec. 9, 1859, Memphis, Tenn.), mayor of Atlanta (1852).
Gibson, Garretson Wilmot (b. May 20, 1832, Maryland, U.S. - d. April 26, 1910), secretary of state (1892-1900) and president (1900-04) of Liberia.
Giddings, Lara, byname of Larissa Tahireh Giddings (b. Nov. 14, 1972, Goroka, Papua New Guinea), premier of Tasmania (2011-14). She was the first female premier of the state.
Gierek, Edward (b. Jan. 6, 1913, Porabka, Austria [now in Poland] - d. July 29, 2001, Cieszyn, Poland), Polish politician. After emigrating with his mother to France, he joined the French Communist Party in 1931. In 1937 he joined the Belgian Communist Party and there during World War II he reputedly was a leader of a group of Poles in the anti-Nazi underground. Gierek returned to Poland in 1948 and organized the party in Upper Silesia, Poland's most industrialized region. In 1954 he was named director of Poland's heavy industry department and two years later was elevated into the 11-man Politburo. Differing from the "Moscow" faction of the party, Gierek favoured a certain amount of "national reconciliation," or adaptation of the Soviet party line to national and cultural circumstances. When angered industrial workers began rioting to protest a substantial rise in food prices announced by party leader Wladyslaw Gomulka just before the Christmas holidays in 1970, Gierek took over (December 20) as the first secretary of the party's Central Committee with a promise to improve the "material situation" of families and reevaluate the government's economic policies. He introduced a new, more relaxed style of rule that included cultural amenities and more freedom to travel to the West than permitted by other Soviet-bloc countries. His departures from orthodox communist rule included licenses for the Fiat mini car that helped put Poland on wheels, buses from France, tractors from Britain, and American Coca-Cola and Marlboro cigarettes. In September 1980 Gierek, faced with another outburst of demonstrations by workers, lost his place as first secretary to Stanislaw Kania; in 1981 Gierek was expelled from the party.
Gifuza, Gérard (Godefroid Ginday), governor of Bandundu (2006).
Gigaba, (Knowledge) Malusi (Nkanyezi) (b. Aug. 30, 1971, Eshowe, Zululand [now in KwaZulu-Natal], South Africa), home affairs minister of South Africa (2014- ).
Gigea, Petre (b. March 31, 1930, Goicea, Romania), finance minister of Romania (1981-86).
Gigli, Rodolfo (b. June 24, 1935, Viterbo, Lazio, Italy), president of Lazio (1990-92).
Gigot, (Edme) Albert (b. Jan. 1, 1835, Châteauroux, Indre, France - d. Jan. 16, 1913), prefect of police of Paris (1877-79). He was also prefect of the départements of Vaucluse (1871), Loiret (1871-73), Doubs (1873-76), and Meurthe-et-Moselle (1876-77).
Gigov, Strahil (b. Sept. 16, 1909, Veles, Ottoman Empire [now in Macedonia] - d. May 19, 1999, Skopje, Macedonia), president of the Presidium of the People's Assembly of Macedonia (1951-53).
Gikalo, Nikolay (Fyodorovich) (b. March 20 [March 8, O.S.], 1897, Odessa, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. [executed] April 25, 1938), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Uzbek S.S.R. (1929), Azerbaijan S.S.R. (1929-30), and Belorussian S.S.R. (1932-37). He was also first secretary of the party committee of Kharkov oblast (1937).
Gil Borges, Esteban (b. 1879, Caracas, Venezuela - d. Aug. 3, 1942, Caracas), foreign minister of Venezuela (1919-21, 1936-41). He was also chargé d'affaires in Spain (1910-18).
Gil Preciado, Juan (b. June 26, 1909, Juchitlán, Jalisco, Mexico - d. Jan. 19, 1999, Guadalajara, Jalisco), governor of Jalisco (1959-64). He was also mayor of Guadalajara (1956-58) and Mexican minister of agriculture (1964-70).
Gil-Robles (Gil-Delgado), José María (b. June 17, 1935, Madrid, Spain), president of the European Parliament (1997-99).
Gilani, Yousaf Raza, also spelled Gillani (b. June 9, 1952, Karachi, Pakistan), prime minister of Pakistan (2008-12). He was speaker of the National Assembly in 1993-97. In April 2012 the Supreme Court found him guilty of contempt of court for refusing to reopen corruption cases against Pres. Asif Ali Zardari and gave him a symbolic sentence of a few minutes' detention in the courtroom. In June the court ruled that the April decision meant that he ceased to be prime minister.
Gilashvili, Pavel (Georgiyevich) (b. May 2, 1918, Tbilisi, Transcaucasia [now in Georgia] - d. Oct. 1, 1994), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian S.S.R. (1976-89). He was also chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz A.S.S.R. (1967-72) and first secretary of the party committee of Tbilisi city (1972-76).
Gilauri, Nika, byname of Nikoloz (Zurabis dze) Gilauri (b. Feb. 14, 1975, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), finance minister (2007-09) and prime minister (2009-12) of Georgia.
Gilbert-Pierre, Octave Bernard (b. June 8, 1817, Fort-de-France, Martinique - d. ...), acting governor of Martinique (1871) and commandant of the French Settlements in Oceania (1873-76).
Giles, Adam (Graham) (b. 1973, Blue Mountains region, N.S.W.), chief minister of the Northern Territory (2013-16). He was Australia's first indigenous head of government.
Gill, Frank, byname of Thomas Francis Gill (b. Jan. 31, 1917, Wellington, New Zealand - d. March 1, 1982, Auckland, New Zealand), defence minister of New Zealand (1978-80). He was also minister of health and immigration (1975-78) and police (1978-80) and ambassador to the United States (1980-82).
Gillard, Julia (Eileen) (b. Sept. 29, 1961, Barry, Wales), prime minister of Australia (2010-13). She emigrated to Australia with her family as a child and became president of the National Union of Students. She was chief of staff to John Brumby, the opposition leader (later premier) of Victoria, in 1995-98, then entered the federal parliament as the Australian Labor Party member for the seat of Lalor (Victoria) in 1998. After holding a series of opposition frontbench positions, she was elected deputy party leader in December 2006. When Kevin Rudd led Labor to victory in November 2007, Gillard became Australia's first female deputy prime minister, holding the portfolios of minister for education, minister for employment and workplace relations, and minister for social inclusion. She dismantled the previous government's industrial relations system, which was seen as hostile to trade unions and unfair to workers. As education minister she has presided over a massive national schools rebuilding program. Although originally from the left of the Labor Party, she adopted a moderate image and was seen as Rudd's likely successor. In 2010 she challenged Rudd for the leadership after his popularity plunged, and as she apparently had the necessary votes, Rudd stood aside and she took over as leader without a vote and accordingly also became prime minister. But as her own popularity plummeted, Rudd in 2012 tried a comeback; although he was clearly favoured in opinion polls, Gillard prevailed in the Labor caucus (71-31). In 2013, however, with an election disaster looming, Rudd defeated her in another leadership spill, 57-45. She then left politics.
Gillerman, Dan (b. 1944, Palestine), Israeli diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2003-08).
Gilligan, John J(oyce) (b. March 22, 1921, Cincinnati, Ohio - d. Aug. 26, 2013, Cincinnati), governor of Ohio (1971-75).
Gilmer, Thomas W(alker) (b. April 6, 1802, Albemarle county, Va. - d. [killed in explosion of experimental cannon on the warship Princeton] Feb. 28, 1844, Potomac River, near Washington, D.C.), governor of Virginia (1840-41) and U.S. secretary of the navy (1844).
Gilmore, Eamon, Irish Éamon Mac Giollamóir (b. April 24, 1955, Caltra, County Galway, Ireland), deputy prime minister and foreign minister of Ireland (2011-14).
Gilmore, Jim, byname of James Stuart Gilmore III (b. Oct. 6, 1949, Richmond, Va.), governor of Virginia (1998-2002). The Republican was elected in 1987 as commonwealth's attorney for Henrico County. He was reelected in 1991. In 1993, he was elected Virginia's attorney general. In 1997, he was elected governor, defeating Democrat Don Beyer 56%-43%. His pledge to slash Virginia's much hated car tax caught fire late in the campaign, propelling him to victory. In 2001-02 he was chairman of the Republican National Committee. He unsuccessfully ran for the U.S. Senate in 2008. In August 2015 he joined the race for the 2016 Republican presidential nomination, but he was the longest long-shot in a crowded field and dropped out in February 2016.
Gilowska, Zyta (Janina), née Napolska (b. July 7, 1949, Nowe Miasto Lubawskie, Poland - d. April 4/5, 2016), deputy prime minister and finance minister of Poland (2006, 2006-07). She was forced to quit office in June 2006 over allegations that she had failed to reveal her ties with Communist-era secret police, but she was reinstated in September following a court ruling that she had told the truth when she said she did not knowingly spy for the secret services.
Gilson, Arthur (Robert Aline Ghislain) (b. Feb. 27, 1915, Antwerp, Belgium - d. Feb. 3, 2004), defense minister (1958-61) and interior minister (1961-65) of Belgium.
Gimeno, Amalio Gimeno y Cabañas, conde de (b. May 31, 1852, Cartagena, Spain - d. Sept. 13, 1936, Madrid, Spain), foreign minister of Spain (1916-17). He was also minister of education and fine arts (1906, 1906-07, 1911-12), navy (1912-13, 1917-18), interior (1918-19), and development (1919-20). He was created count in 1920.
Gingrich, Newt(on Leroy), original name (before adoption) Newton Leroy McPherson (b. June 17, 1943, Harrisburg, Pa.), U.S. politician. After unsuccessful runs for Congress in 1974 and 1976, Gingrich in 1978 won a seat from Georgia's 6th District (outside Atlanta). From the beginning he was confrontational. In the 1980s he led a group of conservatives who used the "special orders" period following House sessions to read highly charged material into the Congressional Record, all televised on C-SPAN. In 1987 he began an assault on Speaker of the House Jim Wright for questionable financial dealings. The charges forced Wright to resign in 1989. That same year, Gingrich was elected House minority whip by a vote of 87-85. In 1994 he helped draft the "Contract with America," a document outlining legislation to be enacted by the House within the first 100 days of the 104th Congress. In December 1994 he was chosen by the majority Republicans as House speaker. On Jan. 4, 1995, he became the first Republican in 40 years to hold the powerful position. He tried to reduce the size and influence of the federal government and to redirect the U.S. away from what he called a "welfare state" to an "opportunity society." With one exception, all parts of the "Contract with America" were passed by the House within 100 days. During the course of his career, Gingrich had at times come under attack for his own behaviour. Perhaps the most publicized controversy involved a $4.5 million advance from the publisher HarperCollins, owned by Rupert Murdoch's News Corp., Ltd., for two books. Because Murdoch, who had met with Gingrich, was under investigation by the Federal Communications Commission, the deal appeared to many to be a clear conflict of interest, and Gingrich was forced to give up the advance. He remained speaker until 1999, when he also left Congress. In 2011 he entered the race for the 2012 Republican presidential nomination; he withdrew in May 2012.
Gioja, José Luis (b. Dec. 4, 1949, San Juan province, Argentina), governor of San Juan (2003-15). On Oct. 11, 2013, he was injured in a helicopter accident.
Giolitti, Giovanni (b. Oct. 27, 1842, Mondovì, Piedmont, Kingdom of Sardinia [now in Italy] - d. July 17, 1928, Cavour, Italy), Italian politician. He became a deputy in the Italian parliament in 1882, a position he held until his death. He first came to public attention by criticizing Finance Minister Agostino Magliani (February 1886), after whose downfall Giolitti became the minister of the treasury (March 1889). Many were surprised when Giolitti, the bureaucrat, was chosen prime minister in 1892. His moderate reaction to strikes in Sicily proved unpopular and forced him to resign in 1893. After the downfall of Francesco Crispi in 1896, he took an influential behind-the-scenes role in forming governments. He was minister of the interior (1901-03) and prime minister again (1903-05). He resigned his second ministry but saw to it that one of his supporters filled his place. His third ministry was formed in 1906 and he resigned while still powerful (1909). He began a fourth ministry in 1911 which he resigned in March 1914. He actively opposed intervention in World War I because he knew that Italy, which had declared neutrality in August 1914, was unprepared. Italy entered the war on the side of the Allies in May 1915. As prime minister for the last time, Giolitti in June 1920 undertook the reconstruction of Italy. Shunning a repressive policy, he tolerated the Fascist squadristi ("armed squads") when he could have crushed them, and, as the Fascists gained strength, he welcomed their support. He resigned in 1921. While he was waiting for the right moment to take power again, the Fascists marched on Rome (October 1922) and took over Italy. Giolitti seemed to back the new regime, but in November 1924 he formally withdrew his support.
Giorgetti, Roberto (b. Nov. 4, 1962, Borgo Maggiore, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2006-07).
Gioura, Derog (b. Sept. 1, 1932 - d. Sept. 25, 2008), president of Nauru (2003). He was also justice minister (1986) and speaker of parliament (1987-92).
Giovagnoli, Gino (b. April 18, 1951, Faetano, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2001-02).
Gipoulon, Henri Victor (b. Nov. 17, 1913 - d. May 16, 1989), high commissioner of French Sudan (1956-58).
Giral Pereira, José (b. Oct. 22, 1879, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba - d. Dec. 23, 1962, Mexico City, Mexico), prime minister (1936 and in exile 1945-47) and foreign minister (1937-38) of Spain. He was also navy minister (1931-33, 1936) and minister without portfolio (1936-37, 1938-39).
Girão, Eduardo Henrique (b. April 12, 1882, Morada Nova, Ceará, Brazil - d. Dec. 25, 1961, Fortaleza, Ceará), acting president of Ceará (1928).
Girard, Hippolyte Auguste (b. Nov. 11, 1822, Cherbourg, Manche, France - d. ...), commandant of the French Settlements in Oceania (1871-73).
Girardin, Brigitte (b. Jan. 12, 1953, Verdun, France), administrator-superior of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands (1998-2000) and overseas minister of France (2002-05).
Giraud, André (Louis Yves) (b. April 3, 1925, Bordeaux, France - d. July 27, 1997, Levallois-Perret, near Paris, France), defense minister of France (1986-88). He was also industry minister (1978-81).
Giraud, Henri (Honoré) (b. Jan. 18, 1879, Paris, France - d. March 11, 1949, Dijon, France), co-chairman of the National Committee of the Free French (1943).
Giraud, Michel (b. July 14, 1929, Pontoise, France - d. Oct. 26/27, 2011), president of the Regional Council of Île-de-France (1976-88, 1992-98) and labour minister of France (1993-95).
Giray, (Ismail) Safa (b. March 5, 1931, Izmir, Turkey - d. June 20, 2011, Ankara, Turkey), defense minister (1989-90) and foreign minister (1991) of Turkey. He was also minister of public works and housing (1983-89).
Gireyev, Sultan (Alaudinovich) (b. 1947), acting prime minister of Ingushetia (2002).
Girginov, Aleksandur (Angelov) (b. April 29, 1879, Turnovo, Ottoman Empire [now Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria] - d. Nov. 1, 1953, Belene, Bulgaria), finance minister (1931, 1944) and interior minister (1931-34) of Bulgaria. He was also minister of trade, industry, and labour (1944).
Giri, Tulsi (b. Oct. 8, 1926, Bastipur, Siraha district, southern Nepal), first minister (1960-63), prime minister (1963, 1964-65, 1975-77), and foreign minister (1961-62, 1962-63) of Nepal. He was a vice-chairman of the royal Council of Ministers in 2005-06.
Giri, Varahagiri Venkata (b. Aug. 10, 1894, Berhampur, Orissa [now Odisha], India - d. June 24, 1980, Madras [now Chennai], India), president of India (1969-74). While studying in Ireland, he became involved in the nationalist Sinn Féin movement before being expelled in 1916. When Giri returned to India, he joined the independence movement of Mohandas Gandhi and was imprisoned in 1922. After his release he helped organize the railwaymen's trade union, which he built up into a major political force. Giri was elected to the Legislative Assembly in Madras in 1937 and was India's high commissioner in Ceylon from 1947 to 1951 before joining Jawaharlal Nehru's government as labour minister in 1952, resigning in 1954 over a controversial pay award to bank employees. He was successively governor of the states of Uttar Pradesh (1957-60), Kerala (1960-65), and Mysore (1965-67). In 1967 he was elected vice-president as a member of the Congress Party. He campaigned for the presidency two years later as an independent, and the Congress Party split over Indira Gandhi's support for him. During his presidency Giri worked closely with Gandhi on such measures as restrictions on private wealth and the nationalization of banks. As head of state he travelled widely, visiting the U.S.S.R., Switzerland, Finland, Afghanistan, several African countries, and the Far East.
Girma Wolde-Giorgis (Lucha) (b. December 1924, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia), president of Ethiopia (2001-13). A member of the Oromo ethnic group, which constitutes over 30% of Ethiopia's population, he served as parliamentary speaker under Emperor Haile Selassie, prior to which he had been an air force officer. At the time of the emperor's overthrow in 1974, he was president of the Red Cross in Eritrea. He remained in government service under the military government. After the ousting of Mengistu Haile Mariam in 1991 by the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front, he established a political organization called Sodojeda, which, however, was no longer active by 2000, when he was elected to parliament as an independent member. He was a surprise choice as president in 2001 when he was elected by a unanimous acclamation of parliament. In 2007 he was elected for another six-year term to the largely ceremonial post. He has been a prominent figure in ecological initiatives.
Girod de l'Ain, Louis Gaspard Amédée, baron (b. Oct. 18, 1781, Gex, Ain, France - d. Dec. 27, 1847, Paris, France), prefect of police of Paris (1830). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1831-32) and minister of public instruction (1832), justice (1839), and worship (1832, 1839) of France.
Girot de Langlade, Paul (b. Aug. 11, 1946, Meilhaud, Puy-de-Dôme, France), prefect of Guadeloupe (2004-06). He was also prefect of the départements of Corrèze (1996-99), Savoie (1999-2002), Vaucluse (2002-04), and Indre-et-Loire (2006-07).
Girs, Aleksandr (Aleksandrovich) (b. May 4 [April 22, O.S.], 1850 - d. Nov. 5, 1923, Maribor, Yugoslavia [now in Slovenia]), Russian diplomat; nephew of Nikolay (Karlovich) Girs. He was minister to Montenegro (1912-15).
Girs, Aleksandr (Nikolayevich) (b. 1861 - d. af. 1917), Russian official; son of Nikolay (Karlovich) Girs. He was governor of Yeniseysk (1906-09).
Girs, Aleksey (Fyodorovich) (b. March 30, 1871 - d. Feb. 11, 1958, Paris, France), Russian official. He was governor of Kiev (1909-12), Minsk (1912-15), and Nizhny Novgorod (1915-17).
Girs, Mikhail (Nikolayevich) (b. July 22, 1856, Odessa, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. Nov. 27, 1932, Paris, France), Russian diplomat; son of Nikolay (Karlovich) Girs. He was minister to Brazil and Argentina (1895-98), China (1898-1901), Bavaria (1901-02), and Romania (1902-12) and ambassador to the Ottoman Empire (1913-14) and Italy (1915-17).
Girs, Nikolay (Karlovich) (b. May 21 [May 9, O.S.], 1820, Radzivilov, Volhynia region, Russia - d. Jan. 26 [Jan. 14, O.S.], 1895, St. Petersburg, Russia), foreign minister of Russia (1882-95). He was also consul general to Egypt (1856-58) and Moldavia and Walachia (1858-63), minister to Persia (1863-69), Switzerland (1869-72), and Sweden (1872-75), and deputy foreign minister (1875-82).
Girs, Nikolay (Nikolayevich) (b. March 4, 1853, Iasi, Moldavia [now in Romania] - d. Sept. 20, 1924, Nice, France), Russian diplomat; son of Nikolay (Karlovich) Girs. He was minister to Belgium (1897-1910) and ambassador to Austria-Hungary (1910-13).
Giscard d'Estaing, Valéry (René Marie Georges) (b. Feb. 2, 1926, Koblenz, Germany), president of France (1974-81); great-grandson of Agénor Bardoux. In the early 1950s he worked in the Finance Ministry. He was elected to the French National Assembly from Puy-de-Dôme in 1956 and was a delegate to the United Nations General Assembly (1956-58). He served as the secretary of state for finance (1959-62) and was appointed finance minister (1962-66) by Pres. Charles de Gaulle. During his first term of office as finance minister, France attained a balanced budget for the first time in 30 years. His international economic policies - among them his attempt to limit American economic influence in France - and his other conservative financial measures helped cause a recession and brought him discredit in the business and labour sectors; he was dismissed. Giscard founded and served as first president (1966-74) of the National Federation of Republicans and Independents, a conservative party that worked in coalition with the Gaullists. From 1969 to 1974 he was again finance minister under Pres. Georges Pompidou. Giscard was elected to the presidency in a runoff election against the leftist candidate François Mitterrand on May 19, 1974. One of the notable achievements of his presidency was France's role in the strengthening of the European Economic Community. He was defeated in another runoff with Mitterrand on May 10, 1981. Giscard returned to politics in 1982, serving as conseiller général of Puy-de-Dôme département until 1988. In 1988-96 he was leader of the Union for French Democracy, a coalition of right-centrist parties. He was also president of the Regional Council of Auvergne in 1986-2004. He was chairman of the European Convention of 2002-03, which drafted a European constitution.
Gisi(-Willisegger), Ruth (b. 1951, Hochwald, Solothurn), Landammann of Solothurn (2000, 2004).
Gísladóttir, Ingibjörg Sólrún (b. Dec. 31, 1954, Reykjavík, Iceland), foreign minister of Iceland (2007-09). She was mayor of Reykjavík in 1994-2003.
Gíslason, Gylfi Th(orsteinsson) (b. Feb. 7, 1917, Reykjavík, Iceland - d. Aug. 18, 2004, Reykjavík), Icelandic politician; president of the Althing (1974).
Gittens, Hyden C.I. (b. 1961, Sint Eustatius, Netherlands Antilles), administrator of Sint Eustatius (2004-10).
Giuliani, Rudolph (William Louis, III), byname Rudy Giuliani (b. May 28, 1944, Brooklyn, New York City), mayor of New York City (1994-2002). In 1983 he became U.S. attorney for the southern district of New York and launched a campaign to rid New York City of drug dealers and mob bosses. In 1986 he used the 1970 Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) to obtain a single conviction of eight top Mafia leaders. His pioneering use of RICO to prosecute entire organizations rather than individuals set the stage for an expanded definition of racketeering. In May 1986 he used long-neglected securities laws from the 1930s against investment banker Dennis Levine and arbitrageur Ivan Boesky in an insider-trading scandal that rocked Wall Street. In 1988 he unveiled the largest-ever insider-trading case against the investment firm Drexel Burnham Lambert Inc. and its star "junk bond" dealer, Michael Milken. In December Drexel pleaded guilty to several other criminal charges in order to avoid a racketeering indictment. Perhaps Giuliani's most controversial use of RICO was in October 1988 when he filed charges against former Philippine Pres. Ferdinand Marcos and his wife, Imelda. In 1989 he first ran for mayor, but lost to Democrat David Dinkins. He defeated Dinkins in 1993 and was reelected in 1997. He dramatically reduced crime in the city, but at the same time complaints of police brutality rose, especially when in 1999 an unarmed Guinean immigrant, Amadou Diallo, was killed by four white policemen firing 41 bullets at him. The officers said they thought he was reaching for a gun, which turned out to be a wallet. Giuliani's popularity soared when he organized tireless recovery efforts after the Sept. 11, 2001, attack on the World Trade Center. He was a candidate for the 2008 Republican presidential nomination.
Giuriati, Giovanni (Battista di Domenico) (b. Aug. 4, 1876, Venice - d. May 6, 1970, Rome), provisional president of Fiume (1922).
Giustiniani (Banca), Brizio, byname of Fabrizio Giustiniani (b. 1713 - d. 1778), doge of Genoa (1775-77).
Giustiniani (Campi), Giovanni Antonio (b. 1660 - d. 1735), doge of Genoa (1713-15).
Gizenga (Fundji), Antoine (b. Oct. 5, 1925, near Gungu, Kwilu district, Léopoldville province, Belgian Congo [now in Bandundu province, Congo (Kinshasa)]), deputy prime minister (1960, 1961-62); prime minister (1960-61) and head of state (1961) in rebellion; and prime minister (2006-08) of Congo (Léopoldville/Kinshasa). His government at Stanleyville was recognized by 21 Afro-Asian and Eastern European countries in February 1961. He was arrested in January 1962-July 1964 and October 1964-November 1965 and in exile from February 1966 to February 1992 in the Soviet Union, France, Angola, and eventually Congo (Brazzaville). In August 1964 he had founded the Unified Lumumbist Party (PALU), which kept alive the political legacy of Patrice Lumumba, the country's first prime minister, who was murdered in 1961. Gizenga was a presidential candidate in 2006, coming third in the first round. He then signed an agreement with Joseph Kabila's political coalition ahead of the runoff, promising his support in exchange for a guarantee that the post of prime minister would go to a member of his party. Kabila won and appointed Gizenga as prime minister. Until the 2006 elections, PALU had never held a parliamentary seat, having refused to take part in a series of undemocratic elections in Mobutu Sese Seko's dictatorship.
Gjinushi, Skënder (Et'hem) (b. Dec. 24, 1949, Vlorë, southwestern Albania), acting president of Albania (1997). He was education minister (1987-91), chairman of the People's Assembly (1997-2001), and deputy prime minister and minister of labour and social affairs (2001-02).