Graaff (of Tygerberg), Sir David Pieter de Villiers, (1st) Baronet (b. March 30, 1859, Villiersdorp, Cape Colony [now in Western Cape province, South Africa] - d. April 13, 1931, Milnerton, Cape province [now in Western Cape], South Africa), finance minister of South Africa (1915-16); created baronet 1911.
Graaff (of Tygerberg), Sir (David Pieter) De Villiers, (2nd) Baronet (b. Dec. 8, 1913, Cape Town, South Africa - d. Oct. 4, 1999, Cape Town), South African politician; son of Sir David Pieter de Villiers Graaff. He became a member of parliament in 1948, the year the United Party was ousted from government by the conservative National Party, which imposed the formal system of apartheid and held power until the first all-race elections in 1994. Graaff took over leadership of the United Party in 1956. He led the opposition to the governments of three apartheid prime ministers, Johannes Strijdom, Hendrik Verwoerd, and B.J. Vorster. In 1977, the United Party was dissolved and the New Republic Party was founded, of which he briefly served as interim leader before retiring. He succeeded his father as baronet in 1931.
Grabar-Kitarovic, Kolinda, née Grabar (b. April 29, 1968, Rijeka, Croatia), foreign minister (2005-08) and president (2015- ) of Croatia. She was also minister of European integration (2003-05) and ambassador to the United States (2008-11).
Graber, Pierre (b. Dec. 6, 1908, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Neuchâtel, Switzerland - d. July 19, 2003, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland), president of the Council of State of Vaud (1968) and president of the National Council (1965-66), foreign minister (1970-78), and president (1975) of Switzerland.
Grabski, Wladyslaw (b. July 7, 1874, Borowo, near Lowicz, Poland, Russian Empire - d. March 1, 1938, Warsaw), prime minister of Poland (1920, 1923-25). A Socialist in his youth, he later joined the National Democracy Party and was elected a member of three successive sessions of the Duma (1906-12), the legislative body of the Russian Empire, of which Poland was then a part. After Poland had become detached from Russia, Grabski was elected to the Polish constituent assembly (January 1919) but was soon sent to join the Polish delegation at the peace conference in Paris. Returning to Warsaw, he became minister of agriculture in December 1919. From June 23 to July 24, 1920, he was prime minister and in this capacity went to Spa, Belgium, to ask the Allied Supreme Council for immediate aid in arms and munitions to enable Poland to defend itself against Soviet Russia. He served as minister of finance in the cabinet of National Defense until November 1920 and again from January to September 1923. On Dec. 19, 1923, he became prime minister again. He succeeded in stabilizing the Polish economy by the creation of a new Polish currency (Feb. 1, 1924), the gold-based zloty, to stop inflation, and the foundation of the Bank of Poland (April 15, 1924). In the summer of 1925, however, he was faced with a new crisis. Germany launched a "tariff war" on Poland, and the Deutsche Bank sold large quantities of the new Polish currency in the money markets of Berlin and Vienna. The zloty lost almost 50% of its original gold value, prices rose, and unemployment increased, forcing Grabski's resignation on Nov. 13, 1925. After Gen. Józef Pilsudski's coup d'état of May 1926, Grabski retired from active politics.
Graça, Carlos (Alberto Monteiro Dias) da (b. Dec. 22, 1931 - d. April 17, 2013, Lisbon, Portugal), foreign minister (1988-90) and prime minister (1994-95, 1995) of São Tomé and Príncipe.
Gracia Arregui, Ignacio, nom de guerre Iñaki de Rentería (b. Nov. 30, 1955, Rentería, Basque Country, Spain), Basque guerrilla leader. It was believed that he joined the Basque separatist group ETA as a young adult towards the end of the Francisco Franco dictatorship, which brutally repressed Basque culture until Franco died in 1975. In 1977 he was granted an amnesty for ETA members by the new civilian government, but soon went back underground. He received guerrilla training in Algeria, becoming a military commander by 1980, according to the official police biography. He was arrested in Spain for minor offenses in 1981 and 1982 but set free each time. He lived illegally in France from 1987. Investigators believed he was ETA's supreme leader since 1992, when he stepped into a vacuum left by the arrest of 24 suspected ETA leaders in the Basque town of Bidart in southwestern France. By a stroke of irony Bidart was also the town where Gracia Arregui was captured in his flat in September 2000. He was suspected of ordering an assassination attempt on Spain's King Juan Carlos in 1995. ETA experts believed that as head of ETA's military operation, his authority was rivalled only by that of Mikel Albizu, ETA's alleged ideological chief. In February 2000 he had been tried in absentia in France and sentenced to six years for conspiracy, arms possession, and falsifying documents. Gracia Arregui's arrest came two days after 20 other suspected ETA leaders were arrested in what police called a devastating blow to the group. But ETA has bounced back from "devastating" blows before, aided by its hydra-like command structure and driven by a longing to reunite an ancient Basque homeland in northern Spain and southern France.
Grady, J(oseph) Harold (b. Feb. 27, 1917, Williamsport, Pa. - d. Jan. 9, 2002, Timonium, Md.), mayor of Baltimore (1959-62). He was named the city's top prosecutor in 1955 and elected to that post in 1958. He was then drafted to run for mayor in 1959. That year, he rode to victory on a wave of political change, defeating incumbent mayor Thomas J. D'Alesandro, Jr., in the hotly contested Democratic primary. In the general election, Grady defeated Republican Theodore R. McKeldin, former mayor and governor. The election of Grady, who was backed by Irv Kovens, also had historic consequences. It marked the eclipse of James H. "Jack" Pollack's political machine and the rise of Kovens as a kingmaker. When Grady and his running mates, Philip H. Goodman and R. Walter Graham, Jr. - popularized as the Three Gs for Good Government - were elected, they gave every appearance of being a united team. Before the administration finished its first year, it became apparent that the team was not pulling together. Goodman, the City Council president who succeeded him as mayor, and Graham, the comptroller, were complaining that Grady was not consulting them on important matters, and they began disagreeing with the administration line on occasion. The city's financial problems afflicted the new mayor. To save money, he discontinued free public baths and merged the Park Police into the Baltimore Police Department. He also speeded up land acquisition and construction of the Jones Falls Expressway and the Baltimore Civic Center, later renamed the Baltimore Arena. Judge Grady left City Hall in 1962, three years into his term, when he was appointed to the Supreme Bench of Baltimore, forerunner of the Circuit Court. He spent 22 years on the bench - including four as chief judge - until retiring in 1984.
Graeb, Emmanuel François Joseph (b. March 3, 1790, Paris - d. Sept. 9, 1850), governor of Île Bourbon (1846-48).
Graf, Ferdinand (b. June 15, 1907, Klagenfurt - d. Sept. 8, 1969, Vienna), defense minister of Austria (1956-61).
Graf-Schelling, Claudius (Schelling is wife's name) (b. April 1, 1950, Romanshorn, Thurgau, Switzerland), president of the government of Thurgau (2004-05, 2009-10, 2014- ).
Gragson, Oran (b. Feb. 14, 1911, Tucumcari, N.M. - d. Oct. 7, 2002), mayor of Las Vegas (1959-75).
Graham, Bill, byname of William Graham (b. March 17, 1939, Montreal, Quebec), foreign minister (2002-04) and defense minister (2004-06) of Canada. He was interim leader of the Liberal Party from March to December 2006.
Graham, John (b. 1774, Dumfries, Virginia - d. Aug. 6, 1820, Washington, D.C.), acting U.S. secretary of state (1817). He was also minister to Portugal in Rio de Janeiro (1819-20).
Graham, Sir Samuel Horatio (b. May 3, 1912, Trinidad - d. Aug. 10, 1999), administrator of Saint Vincent (1962-66); knighted 1988.
Graham, Shawn (Michael) (b. Feb. 22, 1968, Kent county, N.B.), premier of New Brunswick (2006-10).
Graham, William A(lexander) (b. Sept. 5, 1804, Vesuvius Furnace, near Lincolnton, N.C. - d. Aug. 11, 1875, Saratoga Springs, N.Y.), governor of North Carolina (1845-49) and U.S. secretary of the Navy (1850-52). He was also a Whig vice presidential candidate (1852).
Grajales Godoy, Francisco (José) (b. April 2, 1898, San Pedro Mártir finca, Villaflores municipality, Chiapas, Mexico - d. Sept. 25, 1985, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas), governor of Chiapas (1948-52).
Gramme, Georges (Nicolas Joseph) (b. Feb. 22, 1926, Battice, Belgium - d. Feb. 7, 1985, Beersheba, Israel), interior minister of Belgium (1979-80). He was also minister of scientific policy (1980).
Gramont, Antoine (Alfred Agénor), duc de (b. Aug. 14, 1819, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France - d. Jan. 18, 1880, Paris, France), foreign minister of France (1870). He was also minister to Hesse-Kassel (1851-52), Württemberg (1852-53), and Sardinia (1853-57) and ambassador to the Papal State (1857-61) and Austria/Austria-Hungary (1861-70).
Gramont, Ernest Bourdon, comte de (b. May 15, 1805, Verson, Calvados, France - d. Aug. 24, 1847, Île Saint-Louis, Senegal), governor of Senegal (1846-47).
Granados Roldán, Otto (b. Nov. 24, 1956, Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Mexico), governor of Aguascalientes (1992-98). He has also been Mexican ambassador to Chile (1999-2001, 2013- ).
Grand, Lucien (b. March 26, 1904 - d. May 8, 1978), president of the Regional Council of Poitou-Charentes (1974-76).
Grandi, Dino, conte di Mordano (b. June 4, 1895, Mordano, Italy - d. May 21, 1988, Bologna, Italy), Italian politician. He joined the Fascist gangs that terrorized the Italian countryside after World War I. At the national Fascist congress in 1921, he failed to gain a prominent post in the Fascist movement but became a member of the party's General Directorate. Grandi was a leader in the 1922 March on Rome that brought Benito Mussolini to power. He then served in the Chamber of Deputies as a party member. As foreign minister (1929-32) and ambassador to Britain (1932-39), he encouraged stronger ties with the League of Nations and helped soothe British opposition to the Italian conquest of Ethiopia (1935-36). He was recalled from Britain in 1939 when Adolf Hitler reportedly objected to his pro-British sympathies. While serving in the cabinet as minister of justice and president of the Chamber of Fasces and Corporations, he held negotiations with King Vittorio Emanuele III against Mussolini. On the night of July 24-25, 1943, Grandi successfully persuaded the Grand Council to dismiss Mussolini for mishandling the war. Grandi was condemned to death in absentia by a Fascist tribunal in 1944, but he had already fled to Portugal. Although he ran a successful business in Brazil from 1948, he returned to Italy in 1973. His death coincided with, and was completely overshadowed by, those of postwar neo-Fascist leaders Giorgio Almirante and Pino Romualdi.
Grandval, Gilbert (Yves Edmond), original surname Hirsch-Ollendorff (b. Feb. 12, 1904, Paris - d. Nov. 29, 1981, Paris), French military governor (1945-48) and high commissioner (1948-52) of the Saarland, resident-general of Morocco (1955), and French labour minister (1962-66).
Grandy, Sir John (b. Feb. 8, 1913, Northwood, Middlesex, England - d. Jan. 2, 2004, Slough, Berkshire, England), governor of Gibraltar (1973-78); knighted 1964. Grandy, who led a fighter squadron in the Battle of Britain (1940), became a marshal of the Royal Air Force and served as chief of the Air Staff (1967-71).
Granger, David (Arthur) (b. July 15, 1945, Georgetown, British Guiana [now Guyana]), president of Guyana (2015- ). He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 2011.
Granholm, Jennifer (Mulhern) (Mulhern added on marriage) (b. Feb. 5, 1959, Vancouver, B.C., Canada), governor of Michigan (2003-11).
Granic, Mate (b. Sept. 19, 1947, Baska Voda, Croatia), foreign minister of Croatia (1993-2000). In the 2000 presidential election, he was the candidate of the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), but failed to make it into the second round. He later formed a small party, Democratic Centre, which became a junior partner in Prime Minister Ivo Sanader's centre-right coalition government. He was arrested in 2004 after a special corruption task force implicated him in a bribery scandal, but was released within days for lack of substantial evidence.
Granier Melo, Andrés (Rafael) (b. March 5, 1948, Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico), governor of Tabasco (2007-12). He was also mayor of Centro municipality (Villahermosa) (2000-03).
Granja Ricalde, Federico (b. Aug. 17, 1942, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico), governor of Yucatán (1994-95). He was also mayor of Mérida (1976-78).
Grant, John James (b. Jan. 17, 1936, New Glasgow, N.S.), lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia (2012- ).
Grant, Lewis (d. Jan. 26, 1852), governor of the Bahamas (1821-29) and Trinidad (1829-33); knighted 1831.
Grant, Ulysses S.1, original name Hiram Ulysses Grant (b. April 27, 1822, Point Pleasant, Ohio - d. July 23, 1885, Mount McGregor, N.Y.), president of the United States (1869-77). He served in the Mexican War (1846-48) and resigned from the army on April 11, 1854. During the Civil War, Grant was appointed lieutenant general in March 1864 and was given command over all the armies of the United States. His basic plan for the 1864 campaign - to immobilize Gen. Robert E. Lee near the Confederate capital at Richmond, Va., while Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman led the western Union army southward through Georgia - was successful. In late 1865 Grant toured the South at Pres. Andrew Johnson's request, was greeted with surprising friendliness, and submitted a report recommending a lenient Reconstruction policy. In 1866 Grant was appointed to the newly established rank of general of the armies of the United States. In 1867 Johnson removed Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton in order to test the constitutionality of the Tenure of Office Act, which required the assent of Congress to removals from office, and in August he appointed Grant secretary of war ad interim. When Congress insisted upon Stanton's reinstatement, Grant resigned his secretaryship (January 1868), thus infuriating Johnson, who believed that Grant had promised to remain in office to provoke a court decision. Johnson's angry charges brought an open break and strengthened Grant's Republican ties, leading to his nomination for president in 1868. He was elected with a small popular margin over his Democratic opponent, Horatio Seymour, former governor of New York. He won reelection easily in 1872, with a large margin over Horace Greeley.
1 Grant decided to reverse his given names and enroll at West Point as Ulysses Hiram Grant (presumably to avoid having the initials HUG embroidered on his clothing); however, his congressional appointment was erroneously made in the name Ulysses S. Grant, the name he eventually accepted, maintaining that the middle initial stood for nothing.
Grantham, Sir Alexander (William George Herder) (b. March 15, 1899 - d. Oct. 4, 1978), governor of Fiji (1945-47) and Hong Kong (1947-57); knighted 1945.
Grasset, Bernard (Michel) (b. Dec. 23, 1933, La Rochelle, Charente-Maritime, France), high commissioner of New Caledonia (1988-91). He was also prefect of the French départements of Hautes-Alpes (1980-81), Charente-Maritime (1984-86), Finistère (1986-88), Somme (1991), and Ille-et-Vilaine (1993-94).
Grasso, Ella (Rosa Giovanna Oliva) T(ambussi), née Tambussi (b. May 10, 1919, Windsor Locks, Conn. - d. Feb. 5, 1981, Hartford, Conn.), governor of Connecticut (1975-80). A Democrat, she served two terms in the Connecticut House of Representatives (1953-57), 12 years as Connecticut's secretary of state (1959-71), and two terms in the U.S. Congress (1971-75). She was elected governor of Connecticut in 1974 and in so doing became the first woman to be elected governor in her own right (i.e. the first not to be the wife or widow of a governor). In office, she exercised great frugality. She kept state spending low by limiting aid to cities and welfare recipients and, in a memorable blunder in 1975, by laying off 500 state workers just before Christmas. Her popularity suffered as a result of these austerity measures. Her success with Connecticut's economy, however, ultimately gained her a second term as governor. She left a mark of conservatism on the government, choosing, for example, to prohibit the state financing of abortions under Medicaid, saying "I do not wish to be a party to killing the children of the poor," a formulation that dismayed feminists. She also consistently opposed the extension of legalized gambling, an important source of state revenue. She was forced to resign on Dec. 31, 1980, because of fast-spreading cancer.
Gratz, Leopold (b. Nov. 4, 1929, Vienna - d. March 2, 2006, Vienna), mayor of Wien (1973-84) and foreign minister of Austria (1984-86). He was also education minister (1970-71) and president of the National Council (1986-89).
Grauss, Alois (b. June 18, 1890, Jenbach, Tirol, Austria - d. Nov. 29, 1957, Rotholz bei Jenbach, Tirol), Landeshauptmann of Tirol (1951-57).
Gravenhorst, Jacob Bennebroek (b. Dec. 6, 1802, Curaçao - d. Sept. 29, 1859, Curaçao), interim governor of Curaçao (1854-56).
Graves, Bill, byname of William Preston Graves (b. Jan. 9, 1953, Salina, Kan.), governor of Kansas (1995-2003). The Republican was elected secretary of state in Kansas in 1986. He was not the favourite going into the 1994 governor's race. That was probably Democratic Congressman Jim Slattery, one of those instinctively political Democrats who captures a Republican seat (as he did in 1982) and holds onto it indefinitely, with a voting record that promotes local interests and wobbles between moderate and liberal on national issues. Slattery was able to win a five-candidate Democratic gubernatorial primary with an impressive 53%. But in the general he had little to say, slipping from one issue to another, then focusing on charges that Graves had received contributions from executives of an Alabama company owned by his father-in-law which was accused of misleading seniors about their insurance coverage. Graves, who won his six-candidate primary with 41%, had a more solid theme. He pledged to keep spending down, to rein in government; he called Slattery a "double-dealing Washington congressman" - pretty tough stuff in 1994. The race blew open in the last weeks, and Graves won 64%-36% - the widest margin in over 20 years, and an astonishing showing against a man who had after all won election to Congress five times in a major portion of the state; Slattery carried three of 105 counties. Graves was reelected even more decisively in 1998, defeating Democrat Tom Sawyer 73%-23%.
Gray, L. Patrick, in full Louis Patrick Gray III (b. July 18, 1916, St. Louis, Mo. - d. July 6, 2005, Atlantic Beach, Fla.), acting director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (1972-73). He served aboard submarines in World War II and the Korean War during a 20-year career in the Navy. In 1960 he worked for Vice Pres. Richard Nixon in his failed bid for president. He returned to government service after Nixon was elected president in 1968, serving as executive assistant to the secretary of health, education and welfare and on the president's cabinet committee on desegregation. In 1970 he was appointed assistant attorney general for the Justice Department's civil division. Nixon appointed Gray acting FBI director in May 1972, after the death of J. Edgar Hoover. Months later, the Watergate break-in occurred which ultimately led to Nixon's resignation. Though Gray was never indicted for any Watergate-related misdeeds, descriptions of him as a Nixon loyalist who helped thwart the investigation and as someone the White House thought could be pushed around dogged him in the years following the scandal. He vigorously disputed the depiction. Shortly before his death, he said that he had reacted with "total shock, total disbelief" to the revelation that his former deputy, W. Mark Felt, was the secret Watergate source known as Deep Throat who was secretly feeding information to Washington Post reporter Bob Woodward. Gray said he believed the trusted deputy had been unhappy at being passed over for the top job and had talked to the Post in order to sabotage him.
Graziani, Rodolfo, marchese (marquess) di Neghelli (b. Aug. 11, 1882, Filettino, near Frosinone, Italy - d. Jan. 11, 1955, Rome), Italian colonial administrator. He served in Eritrea (1908-13) and Libya (1914) and then took part in World War I. Soon afterwards he returned to Africa and participated in the fighting for the reconquest of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. In 1930 he became governor of Cyrenaica and assumed the task of crushing the Sanusi rebellion of Omar al-Muktar. He created vast concentration camps into which he herded the nominally peaceful natives, thus cutting them off from the Sanusi. At the same time he constructed along the Cyrenaican-Egyptian frontier a continuous line of barbed-wire entanglements which prevented the passage of supplies to the rebels from their sympathizers in Egypt. Recalled home to a high military command in 1934, he was not left long in charge of the Udine Army Corps but was sent out in the following year to be governor of Somalia (1935-36). When the Ethiopian war broke out, he was entrusted with the operations on the southern front. His services were rewarded by his promotion to be a marshal and later by the marquisate of Neghelli. He was viceroy (1936-37) and honorary governor (1938) of Italian East Africa. Again commanding in Libya at the outbreak of World War II, he advanced against Egypt in 1940. Decisively defeated by Sir Archibald (later Earl) Wavell (December 1940-February 1941), he resigned his post. After the Italian armistice of 1943, Graziani became defense minister of Mussolini's German-backed Italian republic, engaging in antipartisan warfare. Placed on trial after the war, he was sentenced to 19 years' imprisonment in 1950 but was released the same year, later becoming leader of the Italian neofascist movement.
Greceanîi, Zinaida (Petre), also spelled Grecianîi (b. Feb. 7, 1956, Tomsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), finance minister (2002-05) and prime minister (2008-09) of Moldova.
Grechukha, Mikhail Sergeyevich (Russian), Ukrainian Mikhailo Serhiyovych Grechukha (b. 1902 - d. May 15, 1976), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian S.S.R. (1939-54).
Greeff, Johan(nes Wessel) (b. June 2, 1921 - d. May 6, 2004), speaker of the House of Assembly of South Africa (1983-86).
Greeley, Horace (b. Feb. 3, 1811, Amherst, N.H. - d. Nov. 29, 1872, New York City), U.S. politician. A liberal Whig, he became increasingly bitter in the early 1850s over the failure of his Whig colleagues to support him for high public office - a lifelong ambition. He also grew disenchanted with the party's ambivalence toward slavery, which he opposed on both moral and economic grounds. In 1854 he transferred his allegiance to the newly emerging Republican Party, which he helped organize. Throughout the decade, his newspaper, the New York Tribune, constantly fed the rising antislavery excitement of the North; his paper became anathema to slaveholders of the South. After the onset of the Civil War (1861), Greeley pursued an erratic course, though generally he sided with the Radical Republicans in advocating early emancipation of the slaves and, later, civil rights for freedmen. He lost much public respect by opposing the renomination of Pres. Abraham Lincoln in 1864 and in signing the bail bond of former Confederate president Jefferson Davis in 1867. Partly out of political pique and partly from disagreement with the corruption apparent in the first administration of Pres. Ulysses S. Grant (1869-73), he joined a group of Republican dissenters, forming the Liberal Republican Party, which opposed Grant in 1872. The party nominated Greeley for president, and, in the dreary campaign that followed, Greeley was so mercilessly attacked that, as he said, he scarcely knew whether he was running for the presidency or the penitentiary. Despite the faction's inexperience, Greeley polled more than 40% of the popular vote; he died before the electoral college met, and his 86 electoral votes went to four minor candidates.
Green, Anne, chief islander of Tristan da Cunha (1988-91, 2003-07); sister of James Glass.
Green, Arnold (Karlovich) (b. Aug. 30, 1920, Riga, Latvia - d. Nov. 4, 2011), foreign minister of the Estonian S.S.R. (1962-90).
Green, Dwight H(erbert) (b. Jan. 9, 1897, Ligonier, Ind. - d. Feb. 20, 1958, Chicago, Ill.), governor of Illinois (1941-49). He was defeated for a third term by Adlai E. Stevenson. Green had first attracted public notice in 1931 as the prosecutor who sent Al Capone to prison for federal income tax evasion.
Green, Sir Guy (Stephen Montague) (b. July 26, 1937, Launceston, Tasmania), acting governor (1973, 1982, 1987) and governor (1995-2003) of Tasmania and acting governor-general of Australia (2003); knighted 1982.
Green, Hamilton (b. Nov. 9, 1934, Georgetown, British Guiana [now Guyana]), prime minister of Guyana (1985-92). He has also been mayor of Georgetown (1994- ).
Green (Macías de Heller), (María del) Rosario (Gloria) (b. March 31, 1941, Mexico City, Mexico), foreign minister of Mexico (1998-2000). She held a string of diplomatic and foreign posts, culminating in her arrival at the UN in New York in March 1994 as assistant secretary-general in the political affairs department. The highest-ranking woman at the time in the UN bureaucracy in New York, Green was appointed the first coordinator of all women's issues in the UN system in 1995. Most considered her an outspoken advocate on a wide variety of issues, including working conditions at the UN, harassment complaints, and the role of women in UN programs worldwide. Green moved to Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali's personal office where she was an adviser mainly on Western Hemisphere and European affairs. A former Mexican deputy foreign minister, Green was well versed on Central American problems and played a key role in the 1992 El Salvador peace accords. She continued to advise Boutros-Ghali on the issue and traveled with him to the region. She left the UN at the end of 1996, at the same time as Boutros-Ghali. She returned to Mexico, where she won election to the Senate for the ruling Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) the following year. Appointing her Mexico's first female foreign minister in 1998, Pres. Ernesto Zedillo stressed Green's extensive foreign affairs experience in posts ranging from Mexico's last ambassador to East Germany (1989-90) to its representative at the World Bank. In 2001-04 she was ambassador to Argentina.
Greene, Wallace M(artin), Jr. (b. Dec. 27, 1907, Waterbury, Vt. - d. March 8, 2003, Alexandria, Va.), U.S. Marine Corps commandant (1964-67). His 37-year Marine career took him to China in the 1930s and to London and the South Pacific in World War II. In March 1965, when Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson ordered combat troops to what was then South Vietnam, a Marine regiment was the first American combat unit to enter the country. The U.S. presence eventually grew to 500,000, of which about 70,000 were Marines. Under Greene, the Marine Corps grew from 178,000 active-duty personnel to nearly 300,000. As chief of staff of the Marine Corps and then as commandant, Greene was instrumental in a study that looked 20 years into the future and put forth new ideas that later became part of Marine Corps doctrine. A key proposal was training individual infantrymen to spot targets and use satellite positioning and "terminal guidance" systems to call in artillery, airstrikes, or rockets.
Greenidge, Carl (Barrington) (b. March 3, 1949, New Amsterdam, British Guiana [now Guyana]), finance minister (1983-92) and foreign minister (2015- ) of Guyana and acting secretary-general of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (1994-96).
Greenspan, Alan (b. March 6, 1926, New York City), chairman of the U.S. Federal Reserve Board (1987-2006). He was an ardent follower and close friend of the writer Ayn Rand, whose espousal of laissez-faire capitalism formed the basis of much of Greenspan's economic philosophy. He favoured a kind of supercapitalism based on decreased government regulation, a balanced budget with strong defense spending, liberalized banking laws, and a return to the gold standard, but he admitted that this was impossible in a less-than-perfect world. An economic adviser (1968-74) to Pres. Richard Nixon and chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers (1974-77) under Pres. Gerald Ford, he was considered a free-market theorist with a practical ability to get things done. He was also chairman of the National Commission on Social Security Reform (1981-83) and served on other advisory boards. When Paul Volcker resigned as chairman of the Federal Reserve Board on June 2, 1987, Pres. Ronald Reagan named Greenspan as the new chairman. Despite reservations on the part of some senators, he was confirmed almost unanimously on August 3. Shortly after he took command, the Dow Jones Industrial Average fell a record 508 points on October 19. He acted quickly to ensure liquidity in the markets, but he moved too slowly to prevent the U.S. from falling into a recession in 1990. When Asian countries underwent a financial crisis and an economic downturn beginning in 1997, he lowered U.S. interest rates in 1998 in order to cushion the economy. As the Asian economies recovered and the U.S. economy continued its solid expansion, he then began a series of interest-rate hikes in June 1999 that continued into 2000. On Jan. 4, 2000, Pres. Bill Clinton nominated Greenspan to a fourth four-year term.
Greenstock, Sir Jeremy (Quentin) (b. July 27, 1943, Harrow, England), British diplomat; knighted 1998. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1998-2003).
Gregg, Hugh (b. Nov. 22, 1917, Nashua, N.H. - d. Sept. 24, 2003, Lebanon, N.H.), governor of New Hampshire (1953-55). Rising from alderman-at-large to mayor of his hometown of Nashua, he became at age 35 New Hampshire's youngest governor. He was a moderate Republican who based his administration on the notion that only growth could keep New Hampshire's tax rates down. He did not seek reelection after his single term, but made a comeback attempt in 1960 and lost.
Gregg, Judd (Alan) (b. Feb. 14, 1947, Nashua, N.H.), governor of New Hampshire (1989-93); son of Hugh Gregg.
Gregh, François-Didier (b. March 26, 1906, Paris, France - d. 1992), minister of state of Monaco (1969-72).
Gregoire, Christine (O'Grady), née O'Grady (b. March 25, 1947, Adrian, Mich.), governor of Washington (2005-13).
Gregorio de Las Heras (y Ventura de la Gacha), Juan (Gualberto) (b. July 11, 1780, Buenos Aires - d. Feb. 6, 1866, Santiago, Chile), governor of Buenos Aires (1824-26).
Greguric, Franjo (b. Oct. 12, 1939), prime minister of Croatia (1991-92).
Greiser, Arthur (Karl) (b. Jan. 22, 1897, Schroda, near Posen, Germany [now Sroda, near Poznan, Poland] - d. [executed] July 21, 1946, Poznan, Poland), president of the Senate of Danzig (1934-39) and Reichsstatthalter of Posen/Wartheland (1939-45).
Grekov, Dimitur (Panayotov) (b. Sept. 14 [Sept. 2, O.S.], 1847, Bolgrad, Bessarabia, Russia [now Bolhrad, Ukraine] - d. May 8 [April 25, O.S.], 1901, Sofia, Bulgaria), foreign minister (1890-94, 1899) and prime minister (1899) of Bulgaria. He was also president of the Supreme Court (1879), justice minister (1879-80, 1882-83, 1891-92), and interior minister (1879).
Grekova, Nadezhda (Grigoryevna) (b. Sept. 17, 1910 - d. Jan. 6, 2001), chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Belorussian S.S.R. (1938-47, as such head of the republic for two days in 1938).
Grenfell, Georges (b. 1908, Basoko, Belgian Congo [now in Orientale province, Congo (Kinshasa)]), president of Haut-Congo (1963).
Gresham, Walter Q(uintin) (b. March 17, 1832, Harrison county, Ind. - d. May 28, 1895, Washington, D.C.), U.S. postmaster general (1883-84), secretary of the treasury (1884), and secretary of state (1893-95).
Gresser, Lawrence (b. Jan. 1, 1851, Bavaria - d. 19...), borough president of Queens (1908-11).
Grévy, (François) Jules (Paul) (b. Aug. 15, 1807, Mont-sous-Vaudrey, Jura, France - d. Sept. 9, 1891, Mont-sous-Vaudrey), president of France (1879-87). With the overthrow of Louis-Philippe in 1848, he was appointed commissary of the provisional government for his native département of Jura, and he subsequently served in the Constituent Assembly of 1848 and in the Legislative Assembly of 1849. Fearing the rise of Louis-Napoléon (later Emperor Napoléon III), he advocated a weak executive, a viewpoint he held throughout his career. He was out of office in 1851-68, practicing law but also engaging in Republican political activities. In 1868 he was elected to the Corps Législatif, where he quickly emerged as a leader of the liberal opposition. After the fall of the Second Empire in 1870, he served as president of the new National Assembly (1871-73) and as president of the Chamber of Deputies (1876-79). In January 1879 when Marshal Patrice de Mac-Mahon, president of the republic, resigned, Grévy was elected to the post. As president, he strove to minimize his powers, preferring a strong legislature. In his foreign policy he resisted nationalist demands for revenge against Germany in the aftermath of the disastrous Franco-German War (1870-71) and opposed colonial expansion, though Annam and Tonkin became French protectorates during his presidency. He was reelected in 1885 but was forced to resign in 1887 in a furor over the sale of decorations for the Légion d'Honneur by his son-in-law, although he himself was not implicated.
Grewal, Serla (b. 1927? - d. Jan. 29, 2002, Chandigarh), governor of Madhya Pradesh (1989-90).
Grey, Albert Henry George Grey, (4th) Earl, (4th) Viscount Howick (in the County of Northumberland), (4th) Baron Grey of Howick (in the County of Northumberland), (5th) Baronet (of Howick) (b. Nov. 28, 1851, St. James Palace, London, England - d. Aug. 29, 1917, Howick, Northumberland, England), governor-general of Canada (1904-11). A Liberal, he sat (1880-86) in the British House of Commons before succeeding to his earldom (1894). He also served (1896-97) as administrator of Mashonaland. In Canada, Grey was extremely popular as governor-general, and a Canadian football trophy, the Grey Cup, bears his name.
Grey, Charles Grey, (2nd) Earl, (2nd) Viscount Howick (in the County of Northumberland), (2nd) Baron Grey of Howick (in the County of Northumberland), (3rd) Baronet (of Howick), courtesy titles (1801-06) Baron Grey, (1806-07) Viscount Howick (b. March 13, 1764, Fallodon, Northumberland, England - d. July 17, 1845, Howick, Northumberland), British prime minister (1830-34). When only 22 he was elected member of Parliament for Northumberland. When the French Revolution of 1789 revived the political agitation caused by the American Revolution, Grey was one of the young Whig aristocrats who formed the Society of the Friends of the People (1792) to encourage lower and middle-class demands for parliamentary reform, but his reform bill of 1797 was heavily defeated. When in 1806 Lord Grenville formed the so-called government of All the Talents, Grey (now Lord Howick) became first lord of the Admiralty. When Charles James Fox died the same year, Grey took his place as foreign secretary and leader of the Foxite Whigs. The dismissal of the ministry the following year, the loss of his seat for Northumberland, followed by his removal in 1807 to the House of Lords, increased his political detachment. Between 1815 and 1830 Grey was patron, rather than leader, of the quarrelsome and divided Whig opposition. In 1830 his opportunity came at last. The collapse of the Duke of Wellington's ministry brought Grey into office with popular backing for a reform of the antiquated parliamentary representative system. Still, the extent of the changes proposed in his bill of 1831 staggered even his own supporters, and it needed a fresh general election and the coercion of the House of Lords before the bill ultimately passed into law in 1832. A wave of popular enthusiasm sustained him during the long battle and returned a vast liberal majority to the House of Commons in 1833. He retired from politics in 1834.
Grey, Sir Edward, (3rd) Baronet, also called (from 1916) (1st) Viscount Grey of Fallodon (b. April 25, 1862, London - d. Sept. 7, 1933, Fallodon, near Embleton, Northumberland, England), British foreign secretary (1905-16). A relative of the 2nd Earl Grey, a former prime minister, Edward Grey was reared in a strong Whig-Liberal tradition. He succeeded to his grandfather's baronetcy in 1882. From 1885 to 1916 he sat in the House of Commons. On Dec. 10, 1905, Grey began his service as foreign secretary, under the new Liberal prime minister, Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman. After the assassination of the Austrian archduke Francis Ferdinand at Sarajevo (June 28, 1914), Grey and the German emperor Wilhelm II independently proposed that Austria-Hungary, without resorting to war, obtain satisfaction from Serbia by occupying Belgrade, which the Serbian government had abandoned. When all peace moves failed, Grey won over a divided cabinet to accept the war by tying British intervention to Germany's invasion of neutral Belgium rather than to Britain's dubious alliance with France. His comment about the war became proverbial: "The lamps are going out all over Europe; we shall not see them lit again in our lifetime." He was responsible for the secret Treaty of London (April 26, 1915), by which Italy joined Great Britain and her allies, and tried to solicit U.S. support for the Allied cause. In July 1916 he was awarded a viscountcy. On Dec. 5, 1916, he retired as foreign secretary after the longest uninterrupted tenure of that office in history. In 1919 he was sent on a special mission to the United States in a futile attempt to secure U.S. entry into the League of Nations. In 1923-24, despite increasing blindness, he led the Liberal opposition in the House of Lords.
Grey, Henry George Grey, (3rd) Earl, (3rd) Viscount Howick (in the County of Northumberland), (3rd) Baron Grey of Howick (in the County of Northumberland), (4th) Baronet (of Howick), courtesy title (1807-45) Viscount Howick (b. Dec. 28, 1802, Howick, Northumberland, England - d. Oct. 9, 1894, Howick), British politician. A member of the House of Commons from 1826 to 1845, he subsequently was Whig leader in the House of Lords. During the prime ministry of his father, the 2nd Earl Grey, he served as undersecretary of state for the colonies (1830-33) and resigned when the cabinet refused to bind itself to undertake the immediate abolition of slavery. He was appointed undersecretary for home affairs and became secretary at war (1835-39) in the administration of Lord Melbourne. In 1841 he was celebrated for his debates in opposition to the protectionist policy of Sir Robert Peel's administration. He became secretary of state for war and the colonies in 1846 and six years later resigned with his associates; he never again held office. He opposed Lord Aberdeen's policy in declaring war against Russia. Striving to introduce free trade into relations between Great Britain and her colonies, Grey was mainly successful in Canada, where his appointment of the 8th Earl of Elgin as governor general (an office later held by his nephew, the 4th Earl Grey), and his subsequent support of Elgin's policies, led to the first British recognition (in the late 1840s) of local self-government. His constitution for New Zealand, however, proved unworkable, as did his attempt to settle convicts in the Cape Colony (South Africa).
Grey-Johnson, Crispin (b. Dec. 7, 1946, Bathurst [now Banjul], Gambia), foreign minister of The Gambia (2007-08). In 1997-99 he was ambassador to the United States, Brazil, and Venezuela and high commissioner to Canada, and in 1999-2002 high commissioner to Sierra Leone and ambassador to Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia. In 2002-06 he was permanent representative to the United Nations. He was also minister of higher education, research, science, and technology (2007, 2008-09).
Grey of Naunton, Ralph Francis Alnwick Grey, Baron (b. April 15, 1910, Wellington, New Zealand - d. Oct. 17, 1999), British colonial administrator. Grey, who was knighted in 1956, was appointed deputy governor-general in Nigeria in 1957, serving until 1959. From 1959 to 1964 he was governor of British Guiana, then was governor of the Bahamas from 1964 to 1968. After his appointment to the House of Lords in 1968 he became Baron Grey of Naunton. He served as governor of Northern Ireland from 1968 until 1973, when that title was abolished. Subsequently, many of those powers were assumed by the Northern Ireland secretary, a member of the cabinet. He was deputy chairman of the Commonwealth Development Corporation from 1973 to 1979, and president of the Britain-Nigeria Association from 1983 to 1989.
Grice, Norman (b. 1893, Bradford, Yorkshire, England - d. ...), resident commissioner of Penang (1946).
Griffith, Arthur, Irish Art Ó Gríobhtha (b. March 31, 1872, Dublin, Ireland - d. Aug. 12, 1922, Dublin), president of the Irish Republic (1922). He sought to divert the Irish from their attempt to win self-government through legislative action in the British House of Commons. Instead, he urged passive resistance. At a meeting in Dublin (October 1902), the Cumann nan Gaedheal (Society of Gaels) announced this policy, which was called Sinn Féin (We Ourselves). By 1905 the name had been transferred from the policy to its adherents. British authorities incarcerated him with other Sinn Féin members in Frongoch, a detention camp in Merioneth, Wales (May-December 1916). After their release, Eamon de Valera was elected leader. Griffith was jailed twice more for his anti-British journalism. After the Sinn Féin electoral victory in December 1918, the Irish members of the House of Commons met as the Dáil Éireann (Assembly of Ireland). They went beyond Griffith's plan, however, and declared for a republic with de Valera as president and Griffith as vice president. During de Valera's long absence in North America (1919-20), Griffith acted as head of the Irish Republic and carried out his own program of civil disobedience. In the fall of 1921, Griffith unwillingly went to London as leader of the Irish delegation to the self-government treaty conference. Finally agreeing to exclude six Ulster counties from the republic, he was the first Irish delegate to accept the British terms, later embodied in the Anglo-Irish Treaty (Dec. 6, 1921). When the Dáil narrowly approved the treaty (Jan. 8, 1922), de Valera resigned, and Griffith was elected president of the Irish Republic. Opposition to the treaty led to the outbreak of civil war in Ireland (June 28, 1922). Exhausted from overwork, Griffith died soon afterward.
Griffith, Sir William Brandford (b. Aug. 11, 1821, Barbados - d. Sept. 17, 1897, Barbados), administrator (1880) and lieutenant governor (1883-84) of Lagos and acting governor (1880-81) and governor (1885-95) of Gold Coast; knighted 1887.
Griffiths, Thomas (b. Sept. 29, 1865, Presteigne, Wales - d. Nov. 16, 1947), administrator of New Guinea (1920-21, 1933-34) and Nauru (1921-27).
Griggs, John W(illiam) (b. July 10, 1849, Newton, N.J. - d. Nov. 28, 1927, Paterson, N.J.), governor of New Jersey (1896-98) and U.S. attorney general (1898-1901).
Grignon, Gérard (b. April 16, 1943, Saint-Pierre, Saint-Pierre and Miquelon), president of the General Council of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1994-96).
Grigsby, Sylvester (M.), acting foreign minister of Liberia (2010).
Grimald, Aimé (Marius Louis) (b. March 31, 1903 - d. May 2000), governor of Oubangui-Chari (1951-54), New Caledonia (1956-58), and French Polynesia (1961-65).
Grimaud, Maurice (Albert Marie) (b. Nov. 11, 1913, Annonay, Ardèche, France - d. July 16, 2009, Paris, France), prefect of police of Paris (1967-71). He was also prefect of the départements of Landes (1955-57), Savoie (1957-61), and Loire (1961-63).
Grimble, Sir Arthur (Francis) (b. June 11, 1888, Hong Kong - d. Dec. 13, 1956, London), resident commissioner of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands (1926-33), administrator of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1933-36), and governor of Seychelles (1936-42) and of the Windward Islands (1942-48); knighted 1938.
Grimes, Joseph Rudolph (b. Oct. 31, 1923, Monrovia, Liberia - d. Sept. 7, 2007, Guttenberg, N.J.), foreign minister of Liberia (1960-72); son of Louis Arthur Grimes. He was living in exile in the U.S. since the late 1980s.
Grimes, Louis Arthur (b. Sept. 8, 1883, Monrovia, Liberia - d. 1948, Monrovia), foreign minister of Liberia (1930-34).
Grimes, Roger (b. May 2, 1950, Grand Falls-Windsor, Newfoundland, Canada), premier of Newfoundland and Labrador (2001-03).
Grimond of Firth, Jo(seph) Grimond, Baron (b. July 29, 1913, St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland - d. Oct. 24, 1993, Kirkwall, Orkney Islands, Scotland), British politician. After serving in a Scottish infantry regiment from 1939 to 1947, he was appointed secretary of the Scottish National Trust, which was concerned with the preservation of historic buildings. In 1945 he was asked to stand as the Liberal Party's candidate for Orkney and Shetland islands, Britain's northernmost constituency, but he lost by a narrow margin. In 1950 he ran again, but this time he won and was soon chosen Liberal whip. In 1956 he was elected leader of the parliamentary Liberal Party and set out to revitalize the party. He attacked the 1957 Suez invasion and set the Liberals in opposition to an independent British nuclear deterrent. The Liberals had been the first party to favour entry into the European Economic Community in 1955, and he was vigorous in promoting the policy. He offered proposals for greater social and educational expenditure and called for "co-partnership in industry" between management and labour. His innovative approach and telegenic personality brought early success in 1958 with a major upset by-election victory for himself and increased support for the Liberals in other by-elections. In 1959 the Liberals more than doubled their vote of 1955, though they won only 6 seats. They carried 9 constituencies in 1964. Though the party won 12 seats in 1966, Grimond, dissatisfied with the rate of progress, relinquished the leadership in January 1967 but continued to represent his constituency. Briefly, for two months in 1976, he assumed a caretaker's role until David Steel replaced Jeremy Thorpe as party leader. In 1983 he moved to the House of Lords on becoming Baron Grimond.
Grímsson, Ólafur Ragnar (b. May 14, 1943, Ísafjördur, northwestern Iceland), president of Iceland (1996- ). His political career began in 1966 when he joined the youth federation of the Progressive Party. He was board chairman of the Society of Liberals and Leftists from 1974 until he left the party and joined the People's Alliance (Althýdubandalagid). He held a seat in parliament in 1978-83 and again in 1991-96. In 1983-85 he was editor of the party newspaper and he was party chairman in 1987-95. From 1988 to 1991 he was finance minister. He was president of the international organization Parliamentarians for Global Action in 1984-90 and chairman of its international council in 1992-96. He was elected president in 1996 and reelected in 2000 (unopposed), 2004, 2008 (unopposed), and 2012 (to a record fifth term).
Griñán (Martínez), José Antonio (b. June 7, 1946, Madrid, Spain), president of the Junta of Andalucía (2009-13).
Grinius, Kazys (V.) (b. Dec. 17, 1866, Salema, near Marijampole, Lithuania, Russian Empire - d. June 4, 1950, Chicago, Ill.), prime minister (1920-22) and president (1926) of Lithuania. He contributed articles to the clandestine patriotic and liberal publication Varpas (1889-1905; "The Bell") and was one of the founders of the Lithuanian Democrat (Liberal) Party in 1902. Before World War I his house at Marijampole was a gathering place for Lithuanian democrats, and he was persecuted by the tsarist Russian government. After World War I, as a leader of the Lithuanian Peasant Populist Party, Grinius was a member of the Lithuanian constituent assembly. On June 8, 1920, he formed a cabinet that on June 12 signed a peace treaty with the Soviet Union. He resigned as prime minister on Feb. 1, 1922. On June 7, 1926, he was elected president of Lithuania but after only six months in office was faced with internal trouble when the founder of the Lithuanian republic, Antanas Smetona, staged a coup in order to thwart an alleged Communist plot. When the Germans invaded Lithuania in 1941, Grinius was asked to help establish a Nazi-controlled government. He refused, saying he would not sanction the shooting of Lithuanian Jews, deportation of Lithuanians to Germany, and colonization of Lithuania by Germans. When Soviet troops moved in to occupy Lithuania in 1944, he fled to Germany. He went to the United States in 1947.
Grivas, Ioannis (b. 1923, Kato Tithorea, Lokrida province, Greece), prime minister of Greece (1989). In 1979 he was elected to the Supreme Court and became its vice-president in 1986 and eventually its president (1989-90). Grivas was a member of the Court that tried the leaders of the 1967 dictatorship and also the president of the special court that was formed for the trial of a vice minister of the 1985-87 PASOK governments who was accused of participating in an economic scandal. He became the prime minister of a caretaker government that was formed on Oct. 12, 1989, in order to carry out the elections of November 5. After the elections he turned over his office to Xenophon Zolotas, leader of the coalition government.
Grivel, (Louis Antoine) Richild, baron (b. Jan. 30, 1827, Brest, France - d. Jan. 24, 1883, aboard La Pallas in the harbour of Dakar, Senegal), commandant of the Naval Division of the Western Coasts of Africa (1881-83).
Grlichkov, Aleksandar (b. 1923 - d. July 26, 1989, Struga, Macedonia), chairman of the Executive Council of Macedonia (1960-65).
Grobet, Christian (b. July 26, 1941, New York City), president of the Council of State of Genève (1985-86, 1992-93).
Grodet, (Louis) Albert (b. May 4, 1853, Saint-Fargeau, Yonne, France - d. Jan. 30, 1933, Paris), governor of Martinique (1887-89) and French Guiana (1891-93 [acting], 1903-04) and acting commissioner-general of French Congo (1900-02).
Grol, Milan (b. Aug. 31, 1876, Belgrade, Serbia - d. Dec. 3, 1952, Belgrade), foreign minister of Yugoslavia in exile (1943). He was also minister of education (1928-29), social policy and national health (1941-42), and transport (1942-43).
Groleau, (Élie) Jean-Henri (b. 1859 - d. 19...), resident-superior of Tonkin (1905-07) and Annam (1908-10).
Grollemund, Michel (b. Sept. 6, 1914, Saint-Ursanne, Bern [now in Jura], Switzerland - d. 2001), prefect of Martinique (1961-63). He was also prefect of the départements of Gard (1964-68), Hérault (1968), and Loire-Atlantique (1971-73).
Gromov, Boris (Vsevolodovich) (b. Nov. 7, 1943, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Moscow oblast (2000-12).
Gromyko, Andrey (Andreyevich) (b. July 18 [July 5, Old Style], 1909, Starye Gromyki, Russian Empire [now in Belarus] - d. July 2, 1989, Moscow, U.S.S.R.), foreign minister of the Soviet Union (1957-85) and president of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1985-88). In 1931 he joined the Communist Party. In the wake of Iosif Stalin's purges, which depleted the foreign service, he was appointed chief of the U.S. division of the People's Commissariat of Foreign Affairs in 1939. While yet learning English, he was appointed counselor at the Soviet Embassy in Washington, D.C. From 1943 to 1946 he was simultaneously the Soviet envoy to Cuba and ambassador to the United States. As permanent representative (1946-48) to the UN Security Council, the taciturn Gromyko wielded the powerful Soviet veto 25 times, earning him the nickname "Mr. Nyet." In 1952 he became a candidate member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and was appointed ambassador to the United Kingdom. In 1956 he attained full membership on the Central Committee. In February 1957 he began his long tenure as foreign minister. He became a member of the Politburo in April 1973 and was named a first deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers in March 1983. In March 1985 he put his considerable political weight behind Mikhail Gorbachev's candidacy for general secretary of the Communist Party. Four months later, Gromyko was promoted to the presidency, a position that carried great prestige but little power. Gromyko gave up his Politburo seat and the presidency of the Supreme Soviet on Sept. 30, 1988, in the midst of Gorbachev's shake-up of the Politburo. A further party purge in April 1989 resulted in Gromyko's removal from the Central Committee as well.
Gronchi, Giovanni (b. Sept. 10, 1887, Pontedera, Italy - d. Oct. 17, 1978, Rome), president of Italy (1955-62). He strongly supported Italy's entry into World War I in 1915 and immediately volunteered as an infantry officer. In 1919 he helped found the Popular Party, the first officially Catholic party to be represented in parliament. He was elected deputy at Pisa (1919) and served for a few months in Benito Mussolini's first government as undersecretary for industry and commerce but resigned when the Popular Party decided to withdraw its support from Mussolini. He became a leader in the Aventine Secession (1924), which formed an opposition rump parliament. When this body was suppressed, he retired from political life. After World War II he was again a deputy and served as minister of commerce and industry in four cabinets (June 1944-June 1946). Later he was elected to the Constitutional Assembly (1946) and to the Chamber of Deputies (1948), of which he became the speaker. His support of an "opening to the left," which indicated a willingness to include Socialists in a coalition government, made him controversial but did not prevent him from being elected president. In the presidency, primarily a figurehead position, he was much-criticized for interfering in diplomacy as well as domestic affairs. He made many state visits, including a trip to the Soviet Union (1960), which brought down on him a heavy attack from the Vatican. He did not achieve his goal of installing a centre-left government, though this came about under his successor. He became a senator in 1962.
Gröndal, Benedikt (Sigurdsson) (b. July 7, 1924, Hvilft í Önundarfirdi, Iceland - d. July 20, 2010), foreign minister (1978-80) and prime minister (1979-80) of Iceland. He was also ambassador to Sweden and Finland (1982-87), Yugoslavia and Albania (1983-88), China (1988-91), Japan (1988-90), Australia (1988), South Korea (1988-89), and Thailand (1988-89) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1989-91).
Gröning, Georg (b. Aug. 23, 1745, Bremen - d. Aug. 1, 1825), joint mayor of Bremen (1814-21).
Gronkiewicz-Waltz, Hanna (Beata), née Gronkiewicz (b. Nov. 4, 1952, Warsaw, Poland), Polish politician. She became head of the central bank in March 1992, when she was an academic lawyer without banking experience. She oversaw the birth and growth of Polish financial markets, enforced cautious monetary policy to curb inflation, defended the central bank's independence, and oversaw a complex redenomination of the zloty currency. She won a wide respect for radically cutting inflation during her first term, from around 40% in 1992 to 13% in 1997, and successfully steering the banking system out of crisis in 1992 and 1993. Many analysts said her monetary policy in 1997 helped Poland avoid a currency crisis experienced on some other emerging markets. She earned criticism in 1995, when she stood as a right-wing candidate for Poland's presidency, challenging the incumbent Lech Walesa who had backed her for the bank post and who later partly blamed her for his ultimate defeat by the ex-communist Aleksander Kwasniewski. She received 2.8% of the vote. Appointed to a second term as head of the central bank in 1998, she resigned in December 2000 to become vice president of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. In 2006, she was the Civic Platform candidate for mayor of Warsaw; coming second in the first round on November 12, she won the November 26 runoff with 53.2% of the vote against 46.8% for Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz of Law and Justice.
Groom, Ray(mond John) (b. Sept. 3, 1944, Elsternwick, Victoria, Australia), premier of Tasmania (1992-96). He was also deputy premier (1988-89) and justice and tourism minister (1996-98).
Gros Espiell, Héctor (b. Sept. 17, 1926, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. Nov. 30, 2009, Montevideo), foreign minister of Uruguay (1990-93). He was also special UN representative for Western Sahara (1988-90) and ambassador to France (2005-08).
Grosjean, Carlos (b. Jan. 14, 1929, Barcelona, Spain - d. May 28, 2004, Auvernier, Neuchâtel, Switzerland), president of the Council of State of Neuchâtel (1968-69, 1970-71, 1974-75).
Gross, Stanislav (b. Oct. 30, 1969, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic] - d. April 16, 2015), interior minister (2000-04), deputy prime minister (2002-04), and prime minister (2004-05) of the Czech Republic.
Grossman, Steve(n) (b. Feb. 17, 1946, Newton, Mass.), national chairman of the Democratic National Committee (1997-99).
Grósz, Károly (b. Aug. 1, 1930, Miskolc, Hungary - d. Jan. 7, 1996, Gödöllö, Hungary), Hungarian politician. In 1945 he joined the Hungarian Communist Party. He joined the party's central organization under Mátyás Rákosi, first secretary of the reconstructed Hungarian Workers' Party (HWP), in 1950. In 1954 he became head of the agitation and propaganda department of the party committee in his native county, Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén. In 1968-73 he was deputy head and in 1974-79 head of the agitation and propaganda department of the Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party (HSWP), as the HWP was renamed in 1956. In that position he supervised most of the Hungarian media. In 1973 he was elected first secretary of Fejér county. His rapid promotions having stopped, following disagreements with party leader János Kádár, he was sent back to Miskolc in 1979 as first secretary of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén. By December 1984, however, he was back in favour and had returned to Budapest to run the capital's party organization. He was elected to the Politburo in 1985. The appointment of Grósz as prime minister on June 25, 1987, was seen by many as a move designed to eliminate him as a successor to Kádár, who had led the country for 31 years. But Grósz wrestled power from the veteran Communist leader at a party conference on May 22, 1988. He remained prime minister until November 1988 and leader of the HSWP until June 1989, when he, while keeping the title of general secretary, became a member of a four-man party presidium (with Rezsö Nyers, Miklós Németh, and Imre Pozsgay). With Grósz showing increasing disapproval of the pace of reform, he was finally ousted at a party congress in October 1989 which transformed the HSWP into a Western-style Hungarian Socialist Party. His hard-core splinter group was soundly defeated in the elections of 1990.
Grotewohl, Otto (b. March 11, 1894, Braunschweig, Germany - d. Sept. 21, 1964, East Berlin), premier of East Germany (1949-64).
Groth, Leif (b. April 9, 1930, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. March 2009), high commissioner of the Faeroe Islands (1972-81).
Groza, Petru (Adam) (b. Dec. 7, 1884, Bacia, near Deva, Transylvania, Hungary [now in Romania] - d. Jan. 7, 1958, Bucharest, Romania), Romanian politician. In 1918 he was elected a member of the grand council of Transylvania which proclaimed the union of this province with Romania. The following year he was elected as a Progressive Peasants' Party member of the first Chamber of Deputies of united Romania and he served as a minister in two Alexandru Averescu cabinets (1920-21 and 1926-27), but in 1927 withdrew from active politics. He emerged into political life again in 1933 when he founded the Frontul Plugarilor (Ploughmen's Front), a political group which became useful to him only after World War II. On March 6, 1945, Andrey Vyshinsky, on a special mission from the U.S.S.R., forced King Mihai to accept Groza as prime minister. On Dec. 30, 1947, the king was obliged to abdicate. Groza remained prime minister until June 2, 1952, when he was elected chairman of the Presidium of the Grand National Assembly (head of state). He was reelected to that post in March 1957 and died in office.
Gruber, Karl (b. May 3, 1909, Innsbruck - d. Feb. 1, 1995, Innsbruck), premier of Tirol (1945) and foreign minister of Austria (1945-53).
Gruening, Ernest (Henry) (b. Feb. 6, 1887, New York City - d. June 26, 1974, Washington, D.C.), governor of Alaska (1939-53). After his governorship he spent considerable time in Washington, D.C., in a quest to have Alaska admitted to the union as a state. In 1956 the territory elected an official delegation, comprising two senators and one representative, to appear before Congress and press the statehood issue. To help further their cause, Gruening and his two associates voluntarily agreed to stand for election again in the event Alaska was made a state. In November 1958 the people of Alaska, for the second time, elected Gruening U.S. senator. A Democrat, he was an early opponent of the Vietnam War, voting with Wayne Morse of Oregon against the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution in August 1964. He was defeated in the 1968 senatorial primary.
Gruevski, Nikola (b. Aug. 31, 1970, Skopje), finance minister (1999-2002) and prime minister (2006- ) of Macedonia. Earlier, he was minister without portfolio (November 1998 to January 1999) and trade minister (January-December 1999).
Grujic, Sava (b. Nov. 25, 1840, Kolari, Smederevo, Serbia - d. Nov. 25, 1913, Belgrade, Serbia), prime minister (1887-88, 1891-92, 1893-94, 1903-04, 1906) and foreign minister (1889-91, 1893-94 [acting]) of Serbia. He was also minister of war (1876-78, 1887-88, 1890-91 [acting], 1893-94, 1906), diplomatic agent in Bulgaria (1879-82), minister to Greece (1882-85), Russia (1885-87, 1897-99), and the Ottoman Empire (1891-93, 1900-03), and president of the State Council (1903, 1906-10).
Grünberger, Alfred (b. Oct. 15, 1875, Karlsbad, Austria [now Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic] - d. April 25, 1935, Paris, France), foreign minister of Austria (1922-24). He was also minister of food (1920-22) and trade, industry, and construction (1921-22) and minister to France and Spain (1925-32).
Grunitzky, Nicolas (b. April 5, 1913, Atakpamé, Togo - d. [following a car crash in the Ivory Coast] Sept. 27, 1969, Paris, France), president of Togo (1963-67); brother-in-law of Sylvanus Olympio.
Gruzdev, Vladimir (Sergeyevich) (b. Feb. 6, 1967, Bolshevo, Moscow oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Tula oblast (2011- ).
Grybauskaite, Dalia (b. March 1, 1956, Vilnius, Lithuanian S.S.R.), finance minister (2001-04) and president (2009- ) of Lithuania. She was Lithuania's first EU commissioner (2004-09).
Gryshchenko, Kostyantyn (Ivanovych) (b. Oct. 28, 1953, Kiev, Ukrainian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Ukraine (2003-05, 2010-12). He was also ambassador to Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands (1998-2000), the United States (2000-03), and Russia (2008-10).
Gryzlov, Boris (Vyacheslavovich) (b. Dec. 15, 1950, Vladivostok, Russian S.F.S.R.), interior minister of Russia (2001-03). In 2003-11 he was chairman of the State Duma.
Gu Pinzhen (b. 1883, Kunming, Yunnan, China - d. March 26, 1922), governor of Yunnan (1921-22). Having graduated from the Japanese College of Army Commanders, he became the commander of the 1st Division of the Yunnan Army after the founding of the republic, later becoming commander of the 1st Army. He was also the president of the Army College in Yunnan province. Expelling Gen. Tang Jiyao, who had governed Yunnan for several years, he became the commander-in-chief of the Yunnan provincial army and military governor of Yunnan. He was made the commander-in-chief of the Yunnan northbound army by Sun Yat-sen. But his army crossed over to Tang Jiyao, making him a commander without an army. He stepped down on March 25, 1922, and was soon after killed by Wu Xuexian, head of a group of bandits in Yunnan.
Gu Xiulian (b. December 1936, Nantong, Jiangsu, China), Chinese politician. She was the first woman to become a provincial governor (Jiangsu, 1983-89). Later she was minister of chemical industry (1989-98). In 2003 she was elected president of the All-China Women's Federation.
Gu Zhenglun (b. Sept. 23, 1890, Anshun, Guizhou, China - d. Nov. 3, 1953, Taipei, Taiwan), chairman of the Provincial Council of Gansu (1940-46) and chairman of the government of Guizhou (1948-49). Having joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance in 1908 while studying in Japan, he returned to participate in the Revolution in 1911, and continued his study in Japan in 1913. He was back again two years later, commanding a regiment of the Yunnan Provincial Army, thus having the opportunity to take part in the "Constitution Salvation War" launched by Sun Yat-sen in 1917. He was also a participant of the Northern Expedition, holding the post of commander of the 2nd Division. He started to conduct the Nanjing Capital Garrison in 1927, and later became commander-in-chief of the Gendarmerie, being called "Father of the Chinese Gendarmerie." During World War II, he was named commander of the Air Defense Forces, while maintaining his post of the Nanjing Capital Garrison. He was also nominated as minister of the food program in the central government after 1945. He fled to Hong Kong when the Communists won control of Guizhou province in November 1949 and went to Taiwan in 1952.
Guadalupe Zuno (Hernández), José (b. April 18, 1891, San Agustín hacienda, Jamay municipality, Jalisco, Mexico - d. March 16, 1980, Guadalajara, Jalisco), governor of Jalisco (1924-26). He was also mayor of Guadalajara (1922).
Gualco, Giacomo (b. Dec. 30, 1936, Serravalle Scrivia, Piemonte, Italy - d. Nov. 6, 2011), president of Liguria (1990-92).
Guangxu (Pinyin; Wade-Giles: Kuang-hsü) (reign name), personal name Zaitian (Tsai-t'ien), posthumous name Jing huangdi (Ching huang-ti), temple name Dezong (Te-tsung) (b. Aug. 14, 1871, Beijing, China - d. Nov. 14, 1908, Beijing), emperor of China (1875-1908). When the previous emperor died, his mother, the empress dowager Cixi, chose her four-year-old nephew as emperor. She adopted the boy as her son so that she could act as regent and dominate the government as she had since 1861. Although this action broke the sacred dynastic law of succession, opposition to the move was squelched, and on Feb. 25, 1875, the young prince ascended the throne, taking the reign name of Guangxu. Although the emperor came of age in 1887, he had to wait two more years before taking over the government from Cixi, who continued to influence policy. In 1898, at the age of 27, he finally tried to assert himself. During what has come to be known as the "Hundred Days of Reform," he collected a group of progressively oriented officials around him and issued a broad series of reform edicts. Conservative officials were outraged. With the aid of the top imperial military commander, Jung-lu, Cixi returned to the capital, confined the emperor to his palace, and spread rumours that he was deathly ill. Foreign powers, who let it be known that they would not take kindly to the emperor's death or dethronement, saved his life, but thereafter he had no power over the government. On Nov. 15, 1908, Cixi died, and, under highly suspicious circumstances, the theretofore healthy Guangxu emperor was announced as having died the previous day. Cixi's final decree passed the throne to the emperor's three-year-old nephew, who reigned as the Xuantong emperor.
Guarasci, Antonio (b. May 7, 1918, Rogliano, Calabria, Italy - d. [car crash] Oct. 2, 1974, Salerno-Reggio Calabria highway), president of Calabria (1970-74).
Guardado, Facundo (b. Nov. 27, 1954, Arcatao, Chalatenango), Salvadoran presidential candidate (1999) of the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front.
Guarderas (Pérez), Francisco (b. 1889, Quito, Ecuador - d. Aug. 25, 1967), foreign minister of Ecuador (1933, 1942-44). He was also chargé d'affaires in Italy (1926-27), minister to Brazil (1927-30, 1935-37), Argentina (1938-41), and Uruguay (1939-41), and ambassador to Chile (1941-42).
Guardia Navarro, Ernesto de la, also called Ernesto de la Guardia, Jr. (b. May 30, 1904, Panama City, Panama - d. May 2, 1983, Panama City), president of Panama (1956-60). De la Guardia, who assumed the presidency during a turbulent period in Panamanian politics, became embroiled in controversies with the U.S. over interpretations of the 1955 Canal Zone treaty. He also faced an attack in 1959 by a band of invaders, sponsored by Fidel Castro, who were attempting to overthrow the government. The alleged conspiracy was led by Roberto Arias, son of former president Harmodio Arias Madrid, and his wife, Dame Margot Fonteyn, a well-known British ballerina. De la Guardia invoked the Rio Treaty and, with help from the U.S. and 19 other American republics, the coup was squelched. Arias escaped, but Fonteyn and three others who were captured named Cuba as their point of departure, though Castro denied any complicity. The mercenaries were taken into custody and returned to Cuba for trial.
Guariglia, Raffaele (b. Feb. 19, 1889, Naples, Italy - d. April 25, 1970, Rome, Italy), foreign minister of Italy (1943). He was also ambassador to Spain (1932-35), Argentina (1936-38), France (1938-40), and the Vatican (1942-43).
Guazzelli, Sinval Sebastião Duarte (b. Jan. 24, 1930 - d. April 11, 2001), governor of Rio Grande do Sul (1975-79, 1990-91). He was also Brazilian minister of agriculture (1994-95).
Gubin, Gennady (Sergeyevich) (b. July 6, 1944, Novomoskovsk, Tula oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Kabardino-Balkariya (2004-06). He was vice president of Kabardino-Balkariya from January 1992.
Gudmundsson, Gudmundur Í(varsson) (b. July 17, 1909, Hafnarfjördur, Iceland - d. Dec. 19, 1987), foreign minister (1956, 1956-65) and finance minister (1958-59) of Iceland.
Guebuza, Armando (Emílio) (b. Jan. 20, 1943, Murrupula, Nampula province, northern Mozambique), president of Mozambique (2005-15). He joined Frelimo in 1963 and was elected to its Central Committee in 1966. Prior to independence in 1975, he was involved in active guerrilla fighting against the Portuguese administration. He was interior minister in 1974-77 and 1983-84 and minister of transport in 1987-94. During his first stint as interior minister, he was responsible for the ill-famed "20-24" decree, which gave Portuguese settlers just 24 hours to leave the country carrying a maximum of 20 kilograms of luggage. In the late 1980s he was one of the first Mozambican leaders to advocate the switch to a free-market system. He was elected head of the Frelimo parliamentary group in late 1994. In the elections held at Frelimo's seventh congress in 1997, his popularity was exceeded only by Pres. Joaquim Chissano. He was elected secretary-general of Frelimo on June 18, 2002, and was the successful candidate of the party in the 2004 and 2009 presidential elections.
Guédès, Auguste (André Marius) (b. Aug. 3, 1871, Toulon, France - d. 19...), governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1921).
Guédira, Ahmed Réda (b. Jan. 22, 1922, Rabat, Morocco - d. Dec. 14, 1995, Paris, France), defense minister (1956) and foreign minister (1963-64) of Morocco. He was also minister of information and tourism (1956-58) and interior and agriculture (1961-63).
Guéi, Robert, also spelled Gueï (b. March 16, 1941, Kabacouma, Ivory Coast - d. Sept. 19, 2002, Abidjan), president of Côte d'Ivoire (1999-2000). He was a Yakouba from the western region of Man. Pres. Félix Houphouët-Boigny appointed him in 1990 as army commander to restore order to his army after a mutiny. On his death in 1993, Houphouët-Boigny was succeeded by Henri Konan Bédié, who sacked Guéi in 1995 after he refused to put troops on the streets to curb opposition protests during that year's multiparty presidential election. There was talk but little firm evidence of a plot to oust Bédié. Guéi was placed under house arrest, freed, and named civic service minister and then youth and sports minister. He was sacked once again in August 1996. In January 1997, Bédié signed a decree ejecting him from the armed forces on charges of serious misconduct. In a spirit of reconciliation, Bédié invited Guéi to talks in France in 1998. Guéi asked for the rehabilitation of soldiers accused of plotting a coup. Parliament approved an amnesty in September 1999. On Dec. 24, 1999, Guéi told the nation on state television that army mutineers had toppled Bédié, and he took over as president. In the October 2000 presidential elections, early results showed Laurent Gbagbo with a clear lead but Guéi silenced the election commission, going on to declare himself the winner and invoking a nationwide start of emergency. Following public protests he was believed to have fled the country, and Gbagbo was sworn in as president. He emerged from hiding in mid-November and declared his support for Gbagbo's government. After a surprise meeting with the new president, he ordered all soldiers still at large to return to barracks and announced he would return to his home village in the west of the country. In 2002 he was shot and killed during a mutiny of troops, though it was not clear what role, if any, Guéi had played in the uprising.
Gueiler Tejada, Lidia (b. Aug. 28, 1921, Cochabamba, Bolivia - d. May 9, 2011, La Paz, Bolivia), interim president of Bolivia (1979-80). She was a member of parliament in 1956-64 and again entered the Chamber of Deputies in 1979, becoming its president. After Wálter Guevara Arze was overthrown by a military coup, the Congress, with the approval of the nation's generals, turned to Gueiler as interim president, making her Bolivia's first female head of state. She oversaw a new presidential election, in which no candidate won an absolute majority, so that Congress would have to decide the winner, but before this could happen, Gueiler was overthrown in a bloody military coup on July 17, 1980, and the election was cancelled. After only eight months in office, she was forced to live in exile until the dictatorship that had replaced her was itself toppled in 1982. Subsequently, she served as Bolivia's ambassador to Colombia (1983-86) and Venezuela (1990-93) before retiring from public life.
Güell y Morales de los Ríos, Gonzalo (b. Feb. 16, 1895 - d. Sept. 2, 1985, Coral Gables, Fla.), foreign minister (1956-59) and prime minister (1958-59) of Cuba. Earlier he had served under several Cuban administrations as ambassador to Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, and the Organization of American States in Washington, D.C. He was close to the U.S. ambassador in Havana who was instrumental in negotiating Pres. Fulgencio Batista's peaceful departure when Fidel Castro took over at the beginning of 1959. Güell was among 40 people who accompanied Batista to safety in the Dominican Republic. He lived in the Dominican Republic and Spain, then settled in Florida.
Guelleh, Ismail Omar, Arabic Isma`il `Umar Jilih, Somali Ismaaciil Cumar Geele (b. Nov. 27, 1947, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia), president of Djibouti (1999- ); nephew of Hassan Gouled Aptidon. He worked for two decades as cabinet director in President Gouled's office and was also the head of the security services. He cast himself as a man of the people, yet his opponents described a far different leader, charging that Guelleh snuffed out political opposition for two decades by directing the harassment and killing of government opponents.
Guéna, Yves (René Henri) (b. July 6, 1922, Brest, France), high commissioner of Ivory Coast (1959-60) and minister of posts and telecommunications (1967-68, 1968-69), information (1968), transports (1973-74), and industry and commerce (1974) and president of the Constitutional Council (1999-2004) of France. He was general secretary of the Union of Democrats for the Republic in 1976.
Guerra (Olivares), Alfonso (b. May 5, 1895, Navojoa, Sonora, Mexico - d. Oct. 11, 1967, Mexico City, Mexico), acting foreign minister of Mexico (1951). He was also ambassador to West Germany (1953-64).
Guerra Pastora, José Adán (b. Oct. 28, 1952, Managua, Nicaragua), acting foreign minister (2000) and defense minister (2000-05) of Nicaragua.
Guerreiro, Ramiro Elysio Saraiva (b. Dec. 2, 1918, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil - d. Jan. 19, 2011, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), foreign minister of Brazil (1979-85). He was also ambassador to France (1978-79) and Italy (1985-87).
Guerrero, Lorenzo I(glesias) De Leon (b. 1935 - d. Oct. 6, 2006, Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands), governor of the Northern Mariana Islands (1990-94). He was the first Senate president of the commonwealth legislature, in 1978-80, authoring some significant legislation. Prior to that, he was the president of the Northern Mariana Islands' constitutional convention in 1977. He won the election for governor in 1989 as a Republican, defeating Froilan C. Tenorio. Tenorio came back four years later and defeated Guerrero.
Guerrero, Manuel F(lores) L(eon) (b. Oct. 25, 1914, Agana, Guam - d. 1985), governor of Guam (1963-69).
Guerrero (Hurtado), Praxedis G(ilberto) (b. Aug. 28, 1882, Los Altos de Ibarra, Guanajuato, Mexico - d. Dec. 29, 1910, Janos, Chihuahua), Mexican anarchist. By 1903 he had become interested in the anti-Porfirio Díaz Liberal movement that had been founded two years before. In 1905 he began to publish Alba Roja ("Red Dawn") in San Francisco. In 1906 the first contact was made between him and the Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM), whose leading proponent was Ricardo Flores Magón. After initial setbacks, in June 1908 a PLM group crossed the border from the U.S. and took the town of Viesca, Coahuila. However, the population regarded the insurgents as bandits, and in the face of this public opinion they had no alternative other than to withdraw. Shortly afterward, a PLM group took Las Vacas (now Ciudad Acuña), but because of heavy losses decided to evacuate the town. Guerrero crossed back into the U.S. and on July 1, together with Flores and 9 other comrades, he crossed back into Mexico and attacked the town of Palomas, Chihuahua. In this ill-fated struggle Guerrero was wounded. At the beginning of 1909 he toured the central and southern states of Mexico, making contact with as many active groups as he could. In March he travelled through Kansas, Missouri, and Illinois enlisting support for the PLM from members of the Socialist Party. As the PLM learned that Francisco I. Madero was planning an uprising to begin on Nov. 20, 1910, they planned to time their own uprising with that of Madero. Guerrero was mortally wounded during an attack on the town of Janos. In November 1932 his remains were exhumed and taken to the state capital, Chihuahua, where they were reinterred with great pomp. In 1983 the town of San Ignacio, Chihuahua, was renamed Praxedis G. Guerrero.
Guerrero Gutiérrez, Lorenzo (b. Nov. 13, 1900, Granada, Nicaragua - d. April 15, 1981, Granada), vice president and interior minister (1963-66), president (1966-67), and foreign minister (1967-72) of Nicaragua. He was also minister of education (1934-37) and minister (1937-43) and ambassador (1944-46) to Mexico.
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F. Guerrero P.
Guerrero Prats, Frank, byname of Francisco Manuel Guerrero Prats (b. Aug. 8, 1951, Santo Domingo), foreign minister of the Dominican Republic (2003-04).
Guerrier, (Jean-Jacques Louis) Philippe (b. Dec. 19, 1757, Grande Rivière du Nord, Saint-Domingue [now Haiti] - d. April 15, 1845, Saint-Marc, Haiti), president of Haiti (1844-45).
Guevara, Che, byname of Ernesto Guevara de la Serna (b. May 14, 1928, Rosario, Argentina - d. Oct. 9, 1967, near Vallegrande, Bolivia), guerrilla leader. His observations of the great poverty of the masses in Latin America convinced him that the only solution lay in violent revolution. In 1953 he went to Guatemala, where Jacobo Arbenz headed a progressive regime that was attempting to bring about a social revolution. (Around this time Guevara acquired his nickname, from a verbal mannerism of Argentines who punctuate their speech with the interjection che.) The overthrow of Arbenz in a 1954 coup supported by the CIA persuaded Guevara that the U.S. would always oppose progressive leftist governments. He left Guatemala for Mexico, where he met the Cuban brothers Fidel and Raúl Castro, who were preparing an attempt to overthrow the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista in Cuba. He joined Castro's force, which landed in the Cuban province of Oriente in November 1956. After Castro's victorious troops entered Havana on Jan. 2, 1959, Guevara became a Cuban citizen and served as chief of the Industrial Department of the National Institute of Agrarian Reform, president of the National Bank of Cuba (1959-61), and minister of industry (1961-65). After April 1965 he dropped out of public life. His whereabouts for the next two years remained secret; it was later learned that he had spent some time in the Congo with other Cuban guerrilla fighters, helping to organize the Patrice Lumumba Battalion. In the autumn of 1966, he went to Bolivia, incognito, to create and lead a guerrilla group in the region of Santa Cruz. On Oct. 8, 1967, the group was almost annihilated by a special detachment of the Bolivian Army. Guevara was captured after being wounded and shot soon afterward.
Guevara (y Orihuela), Gabriel R. (b. March 13, 1887, Chilpancingo, Guerrero - d. 19...), governor of Guerrero (1933-35) and Quintana Roo (1940-44).
Guevara Arze, Wálter (b. March 11, 1912, Cochabamba, Bolivia - d. June 20, 1996, La Paz, Bolivia), president of Bolivia (1979). He was a founding member (1941) of the leftist Nationalist Revolutionary Movement, which instigated a 1952 revolution against a military-backed regime controlled by the country's tin barons. His party nationalized the tin mines and enacted universal suffrage and land reform legislation, giving a measure of political and economic power to the 90% of Bolivians who are of pure or mixed Indian descent. He was president for 85 days in 1979 until he was ousted in a violent military coup. He also served five times as a cabinet minister, including as foreign minister (1952-56, 1959-60, 1967-68).
Gueydon, Louis Henri, comte de (b. Nov. 22, 1809, Granville, Manche, France - d. Dec. 1, 1886, Kerlaran castle, near Landerneau, Finistère, France), governor of Martinique (1853-56) and governor-general of Algeria (1871-73).
Gugushvili, Bessarion (Paata dze) (b. May 6, 1945, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), prime minister of Georgia (1991-92).
Guibet, Gaston Camille (b. Oct. 6, 1881, Amiens, Somme, France - d. March 30, 1973, Nice, Alpes-Maritimes, France), acting commissioner of French Cameroons (1936-37).
Guicciardini, Conte Francesco (di Luigi) (b. Oct. 5, 1851, Florence, Tuscany [now in Italy] - d. Sept. 1, 1915, Florence), foreign minister of Italy (1906, 1909-10). He was also mayor of Florence (1889-90) and minister of agriculture, industry, and commerce (1896-97).
Guichard, Olivier (Marie Maurice, baron) (b. July 27, 1920, Néac, Gironde, France - d. Jan. 20, 2004, Paris), French politician. He won the Croix de Guerre for his service in World War II before teaming up with Charles de Gaulle. After the triumph of helping liberate France from the Nazi occupation, de Gaulle found himself in the political wilderness from 1946 until his accession to power in 1958 but Guichard never wavered in his support. He was rewarded with the post of key advisor to the general once he became president and was later Prime Minister Georges Pompidou's right-hand man, going on to serve as a minister, reponsible for industry (1967-68), national education (1969-72), equipment, housing, tourism, and regional planning (1972-74), and justice (1976-77). He was also mayor of the Atlantic resort of La Baule (1971-95) as well as president of the Regional Council of Pays de la Loire (1974-98).
Guichon, Judith (b. 1947, Montreal, Que.), lieutenant governor of British Columbia (2012- ).
Guien, Antoine Étienne (b. Nov. 2, 1829, Toulon, France - d. ...), commandant of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1877-79).
Guig, Mohamed Lemine (Ould Bah) Ould (b. July 1, 1959, Oualata, Mauritania), prime minister of Mauritania (1997-98).
Guigou, Élisabeth, née Vallier (b. Aug. 6, 1946, Marrakech, Morocco), French politician. She was a behind-the-scenes architect of France's European policy as personal adviser to Pres. François Mitterrand. She was catapulted to prominence as European affairs minister at the time of the Maastricht Treaty. A skilled technocrat, she found it hard to communicate with ordinary voters. She was justice minister in 1997-2000 and minister for employment and solidarity in 2000-02.
Guilbaud, Tertulien (Marcelin) (b. May 22, 1856, Port-de-Paix, Haiti - d. Sept. 19, 1937, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), member of the Council of Secretaries of Haiti (1912, 1913).
Guillabert, (Antoine Marie Roger) André (b. June 15, 1918, Saint-Louis, Senegal - d. Aug. 24, 2010, Saint-Louis), foreign minister (1962) and justice minister (1962-63) of Senegal.
Guillain, Charles (b. May 19, 1808, Lorient, Morbihan, France - d. Feb. 17, 1875, Lorient), governor of New Caledonia (1862-70).
Guillaume IV, in full Guillaume Alexandre, German Wilhelm Alexander (b. April 22, 1852, Biebrich, Nassau [Germany] - d. Feb. 25, 1912, Schloss Berg, near Luxembourg), grand duke of Luxembourg (1905-12). He was the eldest son of Grand Duke Adolphe, who earlier was duke of Nassau. Guillaume was heir presumptive of Nassau from his birth through Sept. 20, 1866, when that country was annexed by Prussia. On June 21, 1893, he married Marie Anne de Bragance (1861-1942), daughter of the former king Miguel I of Portugal. He served as lieutenant-représentant (regent) for his father from April 4, 1902, until his accession to the throne on Nov. 17, 1905. Falling severely ill soon after, he eventually on March 19, 1908, had Marie Anne named regent. Also, having no sons and wishing to secure the succession of his daughters Marie-Adélaïde and Charlotte, he had the Luxembourg parliament allow succession in the female line.
Guillaume, Augustin (Léon) (b. July 30, 1895, Guillestre, Hautes-Alpes, France - d. March 9, 1983, Guillestre), French resident-general of Morocco (1951-54).
Guillon, Armand (Joseph Marie) (b. Feb. 14, 1880, Guérande, Loire-Inférieure [now Loire-Atlantique], France - d. Nov. 11, 1968, Paris, France), resident-general of Tunisia (1936-38). He was also prefect of the French départements of Tarn-et-Garonne (1926-27), Haute-Garonne (1929-34), Seine-et-Oise (1934), and Nord (1934-36).
Guimarães, Algacyr (b. Jan. 2, 1909, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil - d. Sept. 24, 1988, São Paulo, Brazil), governor of Paraná (1965-66).
Guimarães, Isidoro Francisco, (from 1862) visconde da Praia Grande de Macau (b. 1808 - d. 1883), governor of Macau (1851-63).
Guimarães, Ulysses (Silveira) (b. Oct. 6, 1916, Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brazil - d. Oct. 12, 1992, near Angra dos Reis, Brazil), Brazilian politician. He was president of the Senate in 1956-58 and 1985-89 and presided over the 1987 convention that wrote a new constitution to replace the one written by the military. He possessed a sterling political reputation and was respected for his vigorous fight against political and economic corruption. When the military was obliged to call for democratic elections in 1989, Guimarães ran for president as the candidate of the Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement (PMDB), which he led from 1970 to 1990. Though he finished a distant fifth in the election, he initially supported the winning candidate, Fernando Collor de Mello, until it became evident in 1992 that Collor had apparently participated in such practices as influence peddling and embezzlement. Guimarães then led a campaign to impeach Collor. Guimarães and his wife were killed when the helicopter in which they were flying crashed into the Atlantic Ocean during a violent thunderstorm.
Guingona, Teofisto (Tayko, Jr.), byname Tito Guingona (b. July 4, 1928, San Juan, Rizal province, Philippines), vice president (2001-04) and foreign secretary (2001-02) of the Philippines. He was also executive secretary (1993-95) and justice secretary (1995-98).
Guinn, Kenny, byname of Kenneth Carroll Guinn (b. Aug. 24, 1936, Garland, Ark. - d. July 22, 2010, Las Vegas, Nev.), governor of Nevada (1999-2007). He took an active role in campaigns for both GOP and Democratic candidates since working on Paul Laxalt's gubernatorial campaign in the early 1960s. He was first urged by fellow Republicans to run for governor himself in the late 1970s. But it wasn't until 1996 that he decided to run himself. He started right away, got early commitments for contributions and easily won the GOP primary in September 1998 after a rough-and-tumble campaign against former Hollywood film producer Aaron Russo and others. So many business leaders supported his race for governor that he became known as "the anointed one." His elevation became complete in November when 52% of voters picked Guinn over the Democratic nominee, Las Vegas mayor Jan Jones, who got 42%. Guinn drew large donations from business interests. He amassed a record $5.3 million in contributions, compared with Jones' $1.9 million. Guinn promised to investigate ways to shrink or restructure the state's bureaucracy. Without such an analysis, Guinn said, he wouldn't favour any new taxes for individuals or businesses. He won reelection in 2002, defeating Democrat Joe Neal in a 68%-22% landslide. He led the state with a pragmatic streak and fierce determination to do what he considered right rather than what more partisan elements in his party thought, causing some to label him a RINO (Republican in Name Only). He died after falling from the roof of his house.
Guiringaud, Louis (Marie Théodore) de (b. Oct. 12, 1911, Limoges, France - d. [suicide] April 15, 1982, Castelsarrasin, Tarn-et-Garonne, France), foreign minister of France (1976-78). He was also ambassador to Ghana (1957-61) and Japan (1966-72) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1972-76).
Guise, Sir John (Douglas) (b. Aug. 29, 1914, Gedulalara village, Papua [now in Milne Bay province, Papua New Guinea] - d. Feb. 7, 1991), governor-general of Papua New Guinea (1975-77); knighted 1975. He was speaker of the House of Assembly (1968-72) and deputy chief minister and interior minister (1972-75).
Guise, Robert (Paul Marie) de, acting governor-general of French Equatorial Africa (1923-24, 1924), governor of Martinique (1926-28), French India (1928-31), and French Guinea (1931-32), and commissioner of French Togo (1931-33).
Guissou, Basile (Laetare) (b. March 29, 1949), foreign minister of Burkina Faso (1984-86).
Guizot, François (Pierre Guillaume) (b. Oct. 4, 1787, Nîmes, France - d. Oct. 12, 1874, Le Val-Richer, Calvados, France), French politician. His father was executed by the Convention in 1794, and Guizot went into exile with his mother. In 1805, after six years in Geneva, he returned to Paris, where he studied law and frequented anti-Napoleonic literary circles. Joining the first Bourbon Restoration (1814), he emerged as an influential proponent of constitutional monarchy, a position that earned him the lasting hatred of ultraroyalist groups. In the July Monarchy (1830-48), Guizot, as a leader of the conservatives, and his liberal rival Adolphe Thiers set the pace for political life. In 1832-37 Guizot was minister of education and was responsible for the so-called Guizot law (1833), which established the principle that secular primary education should be accessible to all citizens. After brief service as ambassador to England (1840), he became foreign minister in Marshal Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult's ministry. This ministry proved to be the longest in Louis-Philippe's reign, and from the beginning Guizot was the real head of it. Indeed, Guizot succeeded Soult as premier in 1847. In foreign affairs Guizot's policies were rather successful, especially as they affected relations with England. Domestically, however, he and his associates were somewhat less successful. In 1846-47 a severe economic crisis, followed by political and financial scandals, led to growing antiregime demonstrations. He was forced to resign on Feb. 23, 1848. The next day the monarchy collapsed, and a new republic was proclaimed. Except for an abortive attempt to rally opposition to the republic in 1849, he spent the remainder of his life in relative political isolation.
Gujral, Inder Kumar (b. Dec. 4, 1919, Jhelum, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Nov. 30, 2012, Gurgaon, India), prime minister of India (1997-98). He was jailed in 1931 and 1942 for taking part in India's struggle for freedom from British rule. He entered parliament as a Congress party deputy in 1964 and held ministerial posts between 1967 and 1976 as a close ally of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. In 1976-80, he was India's ambassador to the Soviet Union. He later drifted away from the Congress party after personality differences and joined the socialist Janata Dal, which formed the largest constituent of the National Front (later United Front). He was the National Front government's foreign minister in 1989-90. As foreign minister under Prime Minister H.D. Deve Gowda (from June 1996), the established in a mere 10 months what diplomats refer to as the "Gujral Doctrine." Among his achievements were a landmark water-sharing pact with Bangladesh and the resumption of long-stalled peace talks with arch-foe Pakistan. His doctrine was based on the premise that India, as the largest nation in South Asia, could afford to offer concessions to its neighbours in the interests of regional harmony. In April 1997 the Congress forced a change in the United Front leadership, saying Gowda was soft on Hindu nationalists. In the wrangling that ensued, clashes linked to castes, regions, and personal ambitions cancelled each other out, leaving Gujral, with no power base to speak of, as the consensus choice to head a new government. The mild-mannered prime minister made a characteristic exit on Nov. 28, 1997, when he resigned without pressing for mid-term elections after a key ally withdrew its vital support. He had refused to accept the Congress party's demand to drop three ministers from a regional party.
Gukasyan, Arkady (Arshavirovich) (b. June 21 or 22, 1957, Stepanakert, Nagorno-Karabakh autonomous oblast, Azerbaijan S.S.R.), president of Nagorno-Karabakh (1997-2007). A former newspaper reporter, he was arrested by the enclave's Soviet administration and jailed for 30 days in 1990 for a series of articles advocating independence. From June 1993 he was the enclave's foreign minister. In 1997 he was elected president, winning more than 89% of the vote. He trounced two other candidates, Parliament Speaker Artur Tovmasyan and lawmaker Boris Arushanyan. Each received 5% of the vote.
Gül, Abdullah (b. Oct. 29, 1950, Kayseri, Turkey), prime minister (2002-03), foreign minister (2003-07), and president (2007- ) of Turkey.
Gul, Rakhman (d. June 15, 1998, Peshawar, North-West Frontier Province [now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa], Pakistan), governor of Sindh (1970-71).
Guldberg, Ove (b. Dec. 2, 1918, Nysted, Denmark - d. Feb. 28, 2008, Nexø, Denmark), foreign minister of Denmark (1973-75).
Guliyev, Fuad (Khalil ogly), Azeri Fuad (Halil oglu) Quliyev (b. June 6, 1941, Baku), prime minister of Azerbaijan (1994-96).
Guliyev, Vilayat (Mukhtar ogly), Azeri Vilayat (Muxtar oglu) Quliyev (b. Nov. 5, 1952, Agjabadi, central Azerbaijan S.S.R.), foreign minister of Azerbaijan (1999-2004). He was elected deputy to the Milli Mejlis (parliament) on Feb. 4, 1996.
Gulyamov, Kadyr (Gafurovich) (b. Feb. 17, 1945, Tashkent, Uzbek S.S.R.), defense minister of Uzbekistan (2000-05). He was one of 12 top Uzbek officials who in November 2005 were banned from entering EU states for one year for their role in suppressing an uprising in the town of Andijan on May 13, in which up to 500 people were killed.
Gulyan, Ashot (Vladimirovich) (b. Aug. 19, 1965, Nagorno-Karabakh), foreign minister of Nagorno-Karabakh (2002-04).
Gumbs, Sir Emile (Rudolph) (b. March 18, 1928), chief minister of Anguilla (1977-80, 1984-94); knighted 1994.
Gumbs, Frantz (b. Jan. 20, 1954), president of the Territorial Council of Saint-Martin (2008-09, 2009-12).
Gumbs, Marcel (Faustiano Augustin) (b. Feb. 26, 1953, Curaçao), prime minister of Sint Maarten (2014- ).
Gun-Munro, Sir Sydney (Douglas) (b. Nov. 29, 1916, Grenada - d. March 1, 2007, Bequia island, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), governor of Saint Vincent (1977-79) and governor-general of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1979-85); knighted 1977.
Gunell, Camilla (b. Sept. 7, 1970), lantråd of the Åland Islands (2011- ).
Gunnlaugsson, Sigmundur Davíd (b. March 12, 1975, Reykjavík, Iceland), prime minister (2013- ) and justice minister (2014- ) of Iceland.
Günthard, Alois (b. Oct. 10, 1913, Adliswil, near Zürich, Switzerland - d. Nov. 10, 1976, Zürich), president of the government of Zürich (1969-70, 1976).
Gupta, Chandra Bhanu (b. July 14, 1902, Bijoli village [now in Aligarh district, Uttar Pradesh], India - d. March 11, 1980), chief minister of Uttar Pradesh (1960-63, 1967, 1969-70).
Gupta, Ram Prakash (b. Oct. 26, 1923, Sukwan-Dhukwan village, Jhansi district, United Provinces [now Uttar Pradesh], India - d. May 1, 2004, New Delhi, India), chief minister of Uttar Pradesh (1999-2000) and governor of Madhya Pradesh (2003-04).
Gürel, Sükrü Sina (b. 1950, Izmir, Turkey), foreign minister of Turkey (2002).
Gurgenidze, Lado, byname of Vladimer (Iraklis dze) Gurgenidze (b. Dec. 7, 1970, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), prime minister of Georgia (2007-08).
Gurirab, Theo-Ben (b. Jan. 23, 1939, Usakos, South West Africa [now Namibia]), foreign minister (1990-2002) and prime minister (2002-05) of Namibia. His political career began in 1962 when he fled his homeland to Tanzania. In 1964, he was appointed one of the South West Africa People's Organization's troika of Associate Representatives to the United Nations and the Americas. He served for 14 years (1972-86) as SWAPO's chief representative to the UN and, later, as its permanent observer. In 1986-90, he was SWAPO's secretary for foreign affairs. Throughout these years, he played a major part in negotiations leading to Namibia's independence. SWAPO's political and diplomatic status grew from that of a petitioner on the sidelines of diplomacy to a mainstream negotiator and participant in the international arena. Through his efforts he made the struggle of the Namibian people a cause celèbre of the international community. The protracted negotiations that produced UN Security Council resolution 435 (1978), containing an internationally accepted plan to bring independence to Namibia, represented a high point of his career. He was one of the first SWAPO leaders to return home, in 1989, to help organize pre-independence elections. He was also one of the leading SWAPO negotiators of the ceasefire agreement, signed in March 1989, between South Africa's apartheid regime and SWAPO, which set the pace for elections in Namibia and its transition to independence. Elected in 1989 to Namibia's Constituent Assembly, he was a key drafter of the country's constitution. Among his major achievements as foreign minister, he led three years of negotiations over Walvis Bay, which resulted, in 1994, in its reintegration into Namibia. He was also president of the UN General Assembly (1999-2000). In 2005-15 he was speaker of the National Assembly.
Gurjar, Govind Singh (b. March 9, 1932, Balakanangal village [now in Rajasthan], India - d. April 6, 2009, New Delhi, India), lieutenant governor of Puducherry (2008-09).
Gurmani, (Mian) Mushtaq Ahmad (b. Oct. 25, 1905, Thatta Gurmani village, Muzaffargarh district, Punjab, India [now in Pakistan] - d. June 29, 1981, Lahore, Pakistan), interior minister of Pakistan (1951-54) and governor of Punjab (1954-55) and West Pakistan (1955-57).
Gurr, Andrew (Murray) (b. 1944), governor of Saint Helena (2007-11).
Gurría Ordóñez, Manuel (b. Oct. 31, 1931, Cunduacán, Tabasco, Mexico), governor of Tabasco (1992-94); nephew of Francisco Trujillo Gurría. He was also mayor of Centro municipality (Villahermosa) (1976-77).
Gurría Treviño, José Ángel (b. May 8, 1950, Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico), foreign minister (1994-98) and finance minister (1998-2000) of Mexico and secretary-general of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2006- ).
Gürsel, Cemal, original name Cemal bin Abidin Efendi (b. 1895, Erzurum, Ottoman Empire [now in Turkey] - d. Sept. 14, 1966, Ankara, Turkey), president of Turkey (1960-66).
Gurung, B(him) B(ahadur) (b. Oct. 11, 1929, Chakung, West Sikkim district, Sikkim [now in India]), chief minister of Sikkim (1984).
Gusenbauer, Alfred (b. Feb. 8, 1960, Sankt Pölten, Austria), chancellor of Austria (2007-08). He was chairman of the Socialist Youth (1984-90) and vice president of the International Union of Socialist Youth (1985-89). In 1991 he was elected to the federal parliament, where he served as chairman of the committee for development cooperation (1996-99). In 2000 he first became managing director, and then parliamentary leader and chairman, of the Social Democratic Party (SPÖ). In the 2006 elections his party somewhat surprisingly came out on top, and he formed a "grand coalition" with the Austrian People's Party. In June 2008 he quit as leader of the SPÖ following a series of regional election defeats and discontent in his ranks, but remained chancellor. However, in July the coalition collapsed, and he agreed not to run for chancellor in the new elections.
Guslyannikov, Vasily (Dmitriyevich) (b. April 21, 1949), president of Mordovia (1992-93).
Gusmão, (Kay Rala) Xanana, original name José Alexandre Gusmão (b. June 20, 1946, Manatuto, Portuguese Timor [now Timor-Leste]), president (2002-07) and prime minister (2007-15) of Timor-Leste. After an unsuccessful coup in August 1975, Portuguese administrators left East Timor, and for a short period Gusmão, a member of Fretilin (Revolutionary Front for the Independence of East Timor), helped administer the region. Indonesia invaded in December 1975 and in 1976 annexed East Timor as a province. A few years later he became the head of Falintil (Revolutionary Armed Forces for the National Liberation of East Timor), which operated from hiding places in the mountains. In 1992 he was captured, and in 1993 he was sentenced to life in prison for plotting against the Indonesian government and for the illegal possession of arms. The sentence was later shortened to 20 years and on Feb. 10, 1999, he was released to house arrest. He took part in talks with the Indonesian government, and a ceasefire was announced on June 18. By a majority of almost 80%, the people voted for independence in a referendum on August 30, and Indonesia began to withdraw its troops. Militias, remnants of the Indonesian army, then began a campaign of bloody and destructive vengeance, which had to be brought under control by international peacekeepers. On October 20 the Indonesian parliament accepted the referendum results, and two days later Gusmão returned from exile in Australia, where he had lived after being freed on September 7. After initially claiming that there were others better qualified to be president, he announced his candidature in August 2001 and was elected in April 2002. His relations with Fretilin became strained, and he was a divisive figure during violence that broke out in 2006; his appointment as prime minister in 2007, in a government that excluded Fretilin, caused new protests. In 2015 he became minister of planning and strategic investment.
Gustaf V, in full Oscar Gustaf Adolf (b. June 16, 1858, Drottningholm Castle, near Stockholm, Sweden - d. Oct. 29, 1950, Drottningholm Castle), king of Sweden (1907-50). The eldest son of King Oscar II and Sophie of Nassau, he was created duke of Värmland and from 1872 acted as crown prince. He entered the army, traveled widely, and on Sept. 20, 1881, married Victoria (1862-1930), daughter of the grand duke Friedrich I of Baden and granddaughter of Sophia, princess of Sweden; this marriage united the Bernadotte dynasty and the ancient Swedish royal house of Vasa. There were three sons, of whom the eldest was Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf. Succeeding on his father's death (Dec. 8, 1907), he took as his motto "With the people for the Fatherland" and proved a capable constitutional monarch in a period of expanding democracy within his country. During World Wars I and II he was a firm proponent of Swedish neutrality. Until his illness in 1942, he was a keen tennis player and traveller. Suffering from bronchitis, he was carried to the Riksdag on a stretcher when he opened the new parliamentary session on Jan. 11, 1949, but was able to walk to the throne supported by Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf. He was 49 when he ascended the throne, yet his reign was the longest in Swedish history.
Gustaf VI Adolf, in full Oscar Fredrik Vilhelm Olof Gustaf Adolf (b. Nov. 11, 1882, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Sept. 15, 1973, Helsingborg, Sweden), king of Sweden (1950-73). The son of the future king Gustaf V and Victoria of Baden (great-granddaughter of former king Gustaf IV Adolf), he entered the army in 1902 and by 1932 had risen to the rank of general. Through his first marriage (June 15, 1905) to Princess Margaret of Connaught (1882-1920), Gustaf had five children, the eldest of whom, Gustaf Adolf, duke of Västerbotten, died in an aircraft accident in 1947. On Nov. 3, 1923, Gustaf married Lady Louise Mountbatten (1889-1965), and in October 1950, at age 68, he succeeded to the throne after 43 years as crown prince. Gustaf promised to govern the country gently, with justice and integrity. "Duty before everything" would be his guiding motto. In 1965 the Riksdag raised to 25 the age at which a king could begin his rule, and in 1971 it enacted legislation, effective at Gustaf's death in 1973, stripping the monarchy of its most important political functions. The crown prince (his grandson Carl Gustaf, son of Gustaf Adolf) acceded to the largely ceremonial throne as Carl XVI Gustaf.
Gustov, Vadim (Anatolyevich) (b. Dec. 26, 1948), governor of Leningrad oblast (1996-98). He was a first deputy prime minister of Russia in 1998-99.
Guterres, António (Manuel de Oliveira) (b. April 30, 1949, Santos-o-Velho parish, Lisbon, Portugal), prime minister of Portugal (1995-2002). He joined the Socialist Party (PS) shortly after the 1974 revolution. He entered parliament in 1976 and helped to draft Socialist policy during the 1980s. He won the leadership of the PS from the intellectual Jorge Sampaio in 1992 after the Social Democratic Prime Minister Aníbal Cavaco Silva humiliated the party by taking more than 50% of the vote in 1991 for the second successive election. The Socialists won just 29%. Guterres modeled himself politically on Sweden's late Social Democrat leader Olof Palme. He had never been in government before he became prime minister following the PS victory in the 1995 election. In 2001 he resigned after a resounding defeat in local elections, and also resigned as party leader. He was president of the Socialist International in 1999-2006. In 2005 he became UN high commissioner for refugees.
Guterres, José Luís (b. Sept. 17, 1954, Viqueque, Portuguese Timor [now Timor-Leste]), foreign minister of Timor-Leste (2006-07, 2012-15).
Gutic, Bego (b. May 1, 1970, Banovici [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), premier of Tuzla canton (2015- ).
Gutierrez, Carl T(ommy) C(ruz) (b. Oct. 15, 1941, Agana Heights, Guam), governor of Guam (1995-2003). A Democrat, he was elected governor in November 1994, defeating Republican Tommy Tanaka, and again in November 1998, defeating Republican Joseph Ada. On Dec. 30, 2003, he was indicted on charges he used more than $64,000 worth of government materials and personnel to build his two-story cliffside ranch in Urunao, Dededo. He was acquitted on those charges, but in August 2004 a new indictment was unsealed, accusing him of conspiring with the director of the Guam Retirement Fund to alter his status in the fund so as to allow him to collect a larger retirement check than he was legally entitled to. In July 2005 those charges were dismissed as well. In December 2005 yet another indictment was handed down against Gutierrez, former Retirement Fund director John Rios, and Gutierrez's former chief of staff Gil Shinohara, on 20 felony and misdemeanour counts, including theft by deception, conspiracy to commit theft by deception, and official misconduct. In January 2006 he was further indicted on charges in connection with his role as administrator of the Guam Memorial Hospital. In June 2010 all remaining charges were dismissed. In November 2010 he was again a candidate for governor, but narrowly lost to Republican Eddie Calvo.
Gutiérrez (Reinel), Gonzalo (Alfonso) (b. 1955, Lima, Peru), foreign minister of Peru (2014-15). He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2009-11) and ambassador to China (2011-14).
Gutiérrez (Borbúa), Lucio (Edwin) (b. March 23, 1957, Tena, Ecuador), president of Ecuador (2000, 2003-05). He took part in an indigenous uprising and a subsequent coup that toppled Pres. Jamil Mahuad in 2000. In November 2002 he was elected president. He was supported by Ecuador's large indigenous population but allegations of cronyism cost him crucial support and his popularity dropped from 60% when first elected to below 5% in the end. In November 2004 he survived a drive by opponents to impeach him on allegations of misuse of public funds during preceding local elections. In December he asked the legislature to dismiss 27 of 31 Supreme Court justices, a move seen by opponents as an attempt to consolidate his power. Discontent spread rapidly in April 2005 over the new court's decisions not to put on trial former presidents Abdalá Bucaram and Gustavo Noboa, both allies of Gutiérrez, who were allowed to return to Ecuador from their exiles. After street protests in the capital Quito intensified, Congress voted to remove Gutiérrez from office on April 20 for "abandoning his post." He left the presidential palace by helicopter and, after reportedly flying to Quito's Mariscal Sucre Airport and trying to leave the country in a plane which demonstrators prevented from taking off, he took refuge in the Brazilian embassy. The Brazilian government granted him political asylum, and he arrived in Brazil on April 24. He left for the U.S. in June, and emerged in Tumbes, Peru, in July. A warrant for his arrest was issued in Ecuador in July on allegations that he breached national security by inciting rebellion against the new government. On September 21 he arrived in Bogotá, Colombia, where he was granted asylum on October 4; he renounced this status and decided to return to Ecuador, where he was arrested on October 14 immediately after his plane landed. He was released on March 3, 2006. He unsuccessfully ran for the presidency again in 2009 and 2013.
Gutiérrez Avendaño, Jaime Abdul (b. April 5, 1936, Sonsonate, El Salvador - d. Aug. 9, 2012), member of the Revolutionary Junta of El Salvador (1979-82).
Gutiérrez Barrios, Fernando (b. Oct. 26, 1927, Veracruz, Mexico - d. Oct. 30, 2000, Mexico City, Mexico), Mexican politician. He was assistant secretary of the interior from 1970 to 1982 and served as interior secretary, the second-highest office in Mexico, for most of the 1988-94 term of Pres. Carlos Salinas de Gortari. But Gutiérrez Barrios was perhaps best known for his service with the Federal Security Directorate, a now-defunct federal police agency known for detaining, torturing, and killing those who opposed the government. After rising to the rank of captain in the army in the 1950s, he joined the agency, a branch of the Interior secretariat, at the age of 28. He was named director in 1964 and served in the post until 1970. Under his leadership, dozens of opposition activists are believed to have been killed. He also was linked to the massacre of hundreds of students by soldiers on Oct. 2, 1968, as well as to repression aimed at guerrilla and farmers movements in the 1970s and '80s. Gutiérrez Barrios was known for interrogating and then releasing Fidel Castro at the time Castro was preparing to invade Cuba. He also interrogated the brother of revolutionary Che Guevara. In addition to his other posts, Gutiérrez Barrios served as governor of Veracruz state in 1986-88. At the time of his death, he was a federal senator for the ruling Institutional Revolutionary Party.
Gutiérrez Cázares, Jesús (b. Oct. 28, 1895, Huatabampo, Sonora, Mexico - d. May 9, 1984, Ciudad Obregón, Sonora), governor of Sonora (1935-37).
Gutiérrez Gutiérrez, Carlos José (b. Feb. 26, 1927, Managua, Nicaragua - d. April 11, 1999, Miami, Fla.), foreign minister of Costa Rica (1984-86). He was also ambassador to West Germany (1975-76) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1986-90).
Gutiérrez Gutiérrez, Mario R(odolfo) (b. Oct. 19, 1917, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia - d. 1980, U.S.), foreign minister of Bolivia (1971-73). He was a presidential candidate in 1960, receiving 8% of the vote.
Gutiérrez Ortiz, Eulalio (Martín) (b. Feb. 2, 1881, Hacienda Santo Domingo, Ramos Arizpe municipality, Coahuila, Mexico - d. Aug. 12, 1939, Saltillo, Coahuila), provisional president of Mexico (1914-15); brother of Luis Gutiérrez Ortiz.
Gutiérrez Ortiz, Luis (b. 1870, Ramos Arizpe municipality, Coahuila, Mexico - d. March 14, 1936, Saltillo, Coahuila), governor of Coahuila (1920-21).
Gutiérrez Ruiz, David Gustavo (b. Dec. 25, 1939, Villahermosa, Tabasco), governor of Quintana Roo (1971-75).
Gutiérrez Treviño, Eulalio (b. Oct. 23, 1916, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico - d. Jan. 14, 1977, Saltillo), governor of Coahuila (1969-75); son of Eulalio Gutiérrez Ortiz. He was also mayor of Saltillo (1957-59).
Gutiérrez y Gutiérrez, José Luis (b. 1900, Guanajuato, Mexico - d. 1967, Mexico City, Mexico), interim governor of México (1942).
Gutt, Camille, original surname Guttenstein (b. Nov. 14, 1884, Brussels, Belgium - d. June 7, 1971, Brussels), finance minister of Belgium (1934-35, 1939-45).
Guttenberg, Karl-Theodor (Maria Nikolaus Johann Jakob Philipp Franz Joseph Sylvester Freiherr von und) zu (b. Dec. 5, 1971, Munich, West Germany), economy minister (2009) and defense minister (2009-11) of Germany. He was general secretary of the Christian Social Union in 2008-09. He resigned as defense minister in 2011 after he was stripped of his doctorate in law following the discovery that his doctoral dissertation was riddled with plagiarisms.
Guy, Camille (Lucien Xavier) (b. May 18, 1860, Saint-Vit, Doubs, France - d. May 20, 1929, Paris), governor of Senegal (1902-07), Réunion (1908-10), French Guinea (1910-12), and Martinique (1915-20).
Guy, Geoffrey Colin (b. Nov. 4, 1921 - d. Dec. 1, 2006), commissioner (1958-59) and administrator (1959-65) of the Turks and Caicos Islands, administrator (1965-67) and governor (1967) of Dominica, administrator of Ascension (1973-76), and governor of Saint Helena (1976-81).
Guyon, (Marie Casimir) Joseph (b. 1870 - d. 1942), lieutenant governor of Gabon (1914-17), acting governor-general of Madagascar (1919-20), and governor of New Caledonia (1925-32).
Guzhvin, Anatoly (Petrovich) (b. March 25, 1946, near Akhtubinsk, Astrakhan oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Aug. 17, 2004, Sochi, Krasnodar kray, Russia), head of the administration of Astrakhan oblast (1991-2004).
Guzmán (Reynoso), (Rubén) Abimael, nom de guerre Presidente Gonzalo (b. Dec. 3, 1934, Mollendo, near Arequipa, Peru), Peruvian rebel leader. He joined the Peruvian Communist Party (PCP) at the age of 15. At the height of the Cultural Revolution, he traveled to China and witnessed the revolutionary transformation occurring there. This experience profoundly influenced his decision to combat relentlessly revisionism (the abandonment of Marxist principles by self-professed Marxists). After an exhaustive research of Peruvian society, the PCP led by Guzmán concluded that Mao Zedong's strategy of surrounding the cities from the countryside was applicable to Peru and that the thesis of José Carlos Mariátegui that Peru was a semi-feudal and semi-colonial society was still valid. Guzmán led the Red faction of the PCP that dedicated itself to rebuilding the party with the goal of launching the armed struggle. In the mid-1960s, armed groups inspired by the Cuban revolution followed the strategy of attempting to trigger revolution through "foco" tactics (forming small guerrilla bands in focalized geographic areas). Guzmán opposed this because he realized that without building a mass-based revolutionary party, a revolution could not succeed. In the late 1970s, when most of the old left was engaged in building an electoral coalition for the scheduled "return to democracy" in 1980, the PCP launched the armed struggle, which Guzmán led until his capture on Sept. 12, 1992. On Sept. 24, 1992, he delivered a speech from a tiger cage calling on the party to continue the "people's war": "Some think this is a great defeat. ... It is simply a bend, nothing more, a bend in the road." He was tried by a secret military court and sentenced to life in prison; that verdict was ruled unconstitutional in 2003, but in a 2006 retrial he again received a life sentence.
Guzmán (Solórzano), Fernando, original full name Fernando Guzmán (b. May 30, 1812, Tipitapa, Managua, Nicaragua - d. Oct. 19, 1891, Granada, Nicaragua), president of Nicaragua (1867-71).
Guzmán Fernández, (Silvestre) Antonio (b. Feb. 12, 1911, La Vega, Dominican Republic - d. July 4, 1982, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic), president of the Dominican Republic (1978-82). After the death of dictator Rafael Trujillo, he joined the left-of-centre Dominican Revolutionary Party (PRD). When Juan Bosch, founder of the party, was elected president in December 1962, Guzmán was made secretary of agriculture, serving until Bosch was deposed in September 1963. In 1966 Guzmán was the unsuccessful candidate for vice president as the running mate of Bosch. The PRD boycotted subsequent elections, but by 1973, most members of the PRD wished to rejoin the political process. Bosch left the PRD to form a new party. José Francisco Peña Gómez and Guzmán inherited leadership of the PRD. In the 1974 election the PRD joined in a national front (called the Santiago Agreement) that opposed Pres. Joaquín Balaguer. Guzmán was the front's presidential candidate, but at the last moment the front decided to abstain from voting, charging the incumbent government with harassment and corruption. In 1978 he was again the PRD candidate. The election took place as scheduled on May 16, but one day later Balaguer's supporters in the military ordered the counting of the election vote halted when it appeared that Guzmán was winning. Warnings issued by Pres. Jimmy Carter made it clear that the U.S. would oppose a coup in favour of Balaguer, and Guzmán was declared winner on July 8. Late in his term, he discovered that some of his closest aides were skimming government funds and sending money abroad into personal bank accounts. This disclosure prompted Guzmán to shoot himself in the head to prove that he was "an honest and serious man."
Guzmán Soriano, Alberto (b. Feb. 19, 1923, Cochabamba, Bolivia - d. Nov. 11, 1989), foreign minister of Bolivia (1973-77). He was also ambassador to Argentina (1971-73, 1977-78).
Gvazava, Elguja, byname Gia Gvazava (b. Feb. 22, 1952), chairman of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia (pro-Georgian government) (2009- ).
Gvinjia, Maxim, Russian Maksim (Kharitonovich) Gvindzhiya (b. March 13, 1976, Sukhumi, Abkhaz A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Abkhazia (2010-11).
Gwadabe, Lawan (b. Nov. 22, 1949, Jos, Nigeria), governor of Niger state, Nigeria (1987-92).
Gwinnett, Button (b. c. 1735, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England - d. May 19, 1777, St. Catherine's Island, off Savannah, Ga., U.S.), American politician. He emigrated from England to Georgia sometime before 1765. In January 1776 he was elected a delegate from that colony to the Continental Congress and, as such, signed the Declaration of Independence. He is known chiefly because his autographs are of extreme rarity and collectors have forced their value to a high figure. (In 1927 one of his 36 autographs sold at public auction for $51,100.) Returning to Georgia, Gwinnett was a member of the convention to frame a new state constitution and served briefly as president of Georgia in 1777. In the election for governor under the new constitution, he lost to John Adam Treutlen (May 8). Shortly afterward (May 16) he fought a duel with Lachlan McIntosh, a Continental general whose brother he had arrested. Both men were wounded, and Gwinnett died three days later.
Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Deva (b. July 7, 1947, Kathmandu, Nepal), king of Nepal (1950-51, 2001-08).
Gylys, Povilas (b. Feb. 14, 1948, Didziokai village, Moletai region, Lithuanian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Lithuania (1992-96).
Gysi, Gregor (Florian) (b. Jan. 16, 1948, Berlin, Germany), German politician. As chairman (1990-93) and parliamentary leader (1990-2000) of the Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS), he single-handedly rescued the reform communists from oblivion with his quick wit and entertaining oratory. He helped steer the PDS, successors to Erich Honecker's Socialist Unity Party (SED), away from Marx towards free markets. Political analysts said the PDS probably would have slipped away into history in the early 1990s had it not been for the popular Gysi. Through a quirk in German law, the PDS could re-enter parliament in 1994, even though it fell short of the normal threshold of 5% of the vote (it won 4.4%), by winning at least three legislative districts outright (it won four). But Gysi wanted to win 5% and obtain parliamentary faction status; he achieved this in 1998, with 5.1%. In 2001 he was the PDS candidate for governing mayor of Berlin. The PDS won 22.6% in the Berlin election (6.9% in the west, 47.6% in the east) and joined a coalition government (sworn in Jan. 17, 2002) led by the Social Democrats, in which Gysi became senator (minister) for economy, labour, and women. He resigned on July 31 after admitting he wrongly used air miles from official flights when he was a national lawmaker. In the 2005 federal elections he was leading candidate, together with former Social Democrat leader Oskar Lafontaine, of the renamed Left Party, which included on its lists candidates from a new western Germany-based group called Election Alternative Labour and Social Justice. Winning 8.7% of the vote, the party returned in strength to the Bundestag (the PDS had failed the threshold in the 2002 election) where it was jointly led by Gysi and Lafontaine until 2009, when Gysi became sole leader.
Gyurcsány, Ferenc (b. June 4, 1961, Pápa, Hungary), prime minister of Hungary (2004-09). He was also minister of youth and sports (2003-04).