Haakmat, André (Richard) (b. March 21, 1939), deputy prime minister (1980), minister of foreign affairs, justice, army, and police (1980-81), and vice president (1980-81) of Suriname.
Haakon (Magnus) (b. July 20, 1973, Oslo, Norway), crown prince of Norway. He was the son of Crown Prince Harald (later King Harald V) and Crown Princess Sonja. On Aug. 25, 2001, he married Mette-Marit Tjessem Hřiby (b. Aug. 19, 1973, Kristiansand). They have a daughter, Ingrid Alexandra (b. Jan. 21, 2004, Oslo), and a son, Sverre Magnus (b. Dec. 3, 2005, Oslo). Haakon formally took over the Skaugum estate in Asker (where King Harald formerly lived) on Jan. 1, 2002, and moved in after renovation work in December 2003. From Nov. 25, 2003, to April 13, 2004, Haakon was acting as regent during the king's treatment for cancer. He again was regent from March 29 to June 7, 2005.
Haakon VII, original name Christian Frederik Carl Georg Valdemar Axel (b. Aug. 3, 1872, Charlottenlund, Denmark - d. Sept. 21, 1957, Oslo), king of Norway (1905-57). The second son of the future king Frederik VIII of Denmark and of Princess Louise of Sweden and Norway, he was originally called Prince Carl of Denmark. As was customary with the second son in the Danish royal house, he was destined for the navy, which he entered at the age of 14. On July 22, 1896, he married at Buckingham Palace, in London, his cousin Princess Maud (1869-1938), daughter of the Prince of Wales (Britain's future king Edward VII) and Princess Alexandra of Denmark. Their only child, the future King Olav V, was born July 2, 1903. He was offered the Norwegian crown in 1905, after the dissolution of the Swedish-Norwegian union, and he agreed to accept it only if he were approved in a Norwegian plebiscite. Overwhelmingly approved on Nov. 12-13, 1905, he was elected king by the Storting (parliament) on November 18. He took the Old Norse name of Haakon and chose as his motto "All for Norway." He kept his country neutral in World War I and tried to do the same in World War II, but Germany invaded his kingdom on April 9, 1940. With his cabinet he fled Oslo to avoid capture and after a strenuous journey reached Molde, on the western coast, from where they sailed in a British cruiser to Tromsř, in the extreme north. On June 7 they sailed for England in the British cruiser Devonshire. His refusal to submit when a German-pressured Storting body asked him to abdicate inspired the Norwegians to resist the German occupation. After a five-year exile he returned to Norway on June 7, 1945, and continued in the high esteem of his people until his death.
Haarde, Geir H(ilmar) (b. April 8, 1951, Reykjavík, Iceland), finance minister (1998-2005), foreign minister (2005-06), and prime minister (2006-09) of Iceland.
Haarder, Bertel (Geismar) (b. Sept. 7, 1944, Rřnshoved Hřjskole, Denmark), interior minister of Denmark (2010-11). He was also minister of education (1982-93, 2005-10), research (1987-93), refugees, immigrants, and integration (2001-05), development aid (2004-05), ecclesiastical affairs (2005-07), Nordic cooperation (2007-10), and health (2010-11) and president of the Nordic Council (2011).
Habibie, B(acharuddin) J(usuf) (b. June 25, 1936, Parepare, South Sulawesi), president of Indonesia (1998-99). He became a government adviser and chief of a new aerospace company in 1976. Two years later he became research minister and head of the Agency for Technology Evaluation and Application. In 1990 he was also appointed head of the Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals Association to boost the influence of Muslims (about 90% of the population) in a government traditionally dominated by Christian technocrats. In 1993 he unveiled the first Indonesian-developed plane, which he helped design. He wanted Indonesia to climb the technology ladder, believing his enterprises would spawn high-tech ventures in the private sector. Indonesian technocrats and the World Bank expressed doubts; military brass resented having to buy equipment from his firms. But President Suharto's support helped him generally get his way. During the 1993 central-board elections of the ruling Golkar political organization, he helped the children and allies of Suharto rise to top positions, easing out long-standing military-backed power brokers. In 1994 a tabloid and two newsmagazines were closed after reporting cabinet disagreement over his plan to refurbish 39 vessels bought from the former East German navy at his initiative. The Finance Ministry balked at the cost and the military felt that its turf had been violated; he still got more than $400 million. Long viewed as a likely successor to Suharto, he became vice president in March 1998. In May 1998, rioting forced Suharto to resign and Habibie became president. He eased political and press restrictions, but in 1999 he lost a confidence vote in the new parliament and as a consequence withdrew from the presidential race.
Habibullah Khan (b. June 3, 1872, Samarkand, Russian Turkistan [now in Uzbekistan] - d. Feb. 20, 1919, Kalagosh, Afghanistan), emir of Afghanistan (1901-19). The eldest son of Abdor Rahman Khan, Habibullah succeeded peacefully to the throne after his father's death in October 1901. At the time, British India was deeply involved in Afghan affairs, and Habibullah agreed to accept British guidance in foreign affairs in return for an annual subsidy of Ł160,000. He was able to retain full control of his country's internal affairs. With the outbreak of World War I (1914-18), there was widespread support in Afghanistan of Ottoman Turkey against the British. Habibullah, however, was able to maintain a policy of noninvolvement throughout the war. He meanwhile moved to open Afghanistan to technology from the West, founding schools, a military academy, and a weekly newspaper. He also introduced electricity, automobiles, and Western medical methods to the country. Habibullah's antiwar policy was unpopular with the young anti-British elements in the population. In 1919 he was assassinated while on a hunting trip.
Habré, Hissčne, Hissčne also spelled Hissen or Hissein (b. 1942, Faya Largeau, northern Chad), president of Chad (1982-90). He was entrusted by Pres. N'Garta Tombalbaye with a confidential mission to Abba Siddick, leader of the rebel Chad National Liberation Front (Frolinat). He went over to Frolinat and became "leader of the Army of the North." In 1974 he first attracted international attention when he took hostage the French archaeologist Françoise Claustre, who was subsequently released on payment of a Fr 10 million ransom by the French government. He did not remain in command of Frolinat, however. In October 1976 he was ousted by another rebel leader, Goukouni Oueddei, with Libyan support. Habré, sometimes reported dead, escaped with some followers to The Sudan. He emerged in January 1978 as commander of part of Frolinat's forces, the Armed Forces of the North (FAN), and signed an accord with Pres. Félix Malloum at Khartoum, Sudan, leading to a ceasefire that was supported by Libya. However, this proved as ineffective as a ceasefire arranged in March between Oueddei and the Chad government, also with Libyan backing. On Aug. 29, 1978, he won sudden international respectability when Malloum appointed him premier of Chad. Habré resigned with Malloum in March 1979 after the Kano, Nigeria, agreement that put Oueddei at the head of a Transitional Government of National Union (GUNT). Habré was a minister in the GUNT until disagreement with Oueddei again forced him into exile in The Sudan. He returned at the head of the FAN in November 1981, when the final struggle for supremacy began. On June 7, 1982, the FAN entered the capital, N'Djamena; Habré was then in effective control of Chad, although the southern part of the country was not won over until September. He was overthrown in 1990 and went into exile in Senegal. In 2005 an investigating judge in Belgium charged Habré with crimes against humanity and torture and issued an international arrest warrant. He was arrested on November 15, but a Senegalese court disqualified itself from ruling on the Belgian government's request to extradite him on November 25; he was released and allowed to remain in Senegal until January 2006 when the African Union summit was to decide his fate. The summit set up a group of legal experts to consider the options for his trial; in July it was decided that he be tried in Senegal. A court in Chad sentenced him to death in absentia in 2008.
Habumuremyi, Pierre Damien (b. Feb. 21, 1961, Ruhondo, Musanze district, Rwanda), prime minister of Rwanda (2011- ). He was education minister in May-October 2011.
Haby, René (Jean) (b. Oct. 9, 1919, Dombasle, Meurthe-et-Moselle, France - d. Feb. 6, 2003), education minister of France (1974-78).
Habyarimana, Juvénal (b. March 8, 1937, Gasizi, Gisenyi province, Ruanda-Urundi - d. April 6, 1994, near Kigali, Rwanda), president of Rwanda (1973-94). In 1960 he began training for the National Guard in Kigali. Although he was a member of the Hutu majority ethnic group, he proved to be an effective officer against insurgents from both the Hutu and the Tutsi minority. He rapidly rose through the ranks, becoming chief of staff (1963-65) and then minister of defense and police chief of staff (1965-73). In April 1973 he was promoted to major general; three months later he led a group of disgruntled Hutu officers in the overthrow of Pres. Grégoire Kayibanda. Habyarimana initially banned all political activity. In 1975 he established the National Revolutionary Movement for Development, with himself as sole leader of the single-party state. He gradually allowed more civilian involvement, however, and after the country's first multiparty elections in 1992, he was forced to relinquish some power to the new Tutsi prime minister. Habyarimana and Pres. Cyprien Ntaryamira, the Hutu leader of neighbouring Burundi, were returning from ongoing peace talks between the two ethnic groups when their plane was shot down. The death of the two Hutu presidents under suspicious circumstances ignited the simmering tensions between the Hutu and Tutsi and led to the massacres and the mass exodus from Rwanda.
Hácha, Emil (b. July 17, 1872, Trhové Sviny, Austria-Hungary [now in Czech Republic] - d. June 27, 1945, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), president of Czechoslovakia (1938-39) and of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (1939-45).
Hachim, Said Hassane Said (b. Nov. 11, 1932, Foumbouni, Grande Comore, Comoros), foreign minister of the Comoros (1991-93); grandson of Hashimu bin Ahmed.
Haddacks, Sir Paul (Kenneth) (b. Oct. 27, 1946), lieutenant governor of the Isle of Man (2005-11); knighted 2000.
Haddad, Saad, Arabic Sa`d Haddad (b. c. 1936 - d. Jan. 14, 1984, Marj `Ayun, Lebanon), Lebanese militia leader. Haddad, an officer in the Lebanese Army, formed his own militia force from Christian and Shi`ah Muslim troops after the collapse of the government in 1976. His militia group controlled the southern part of Lebanon with Israeli support from 1978 to 1982. Israel considered him a useful ally against the Palestinians, and his militia group was responsible for helping to curb Palestinian guerrilla infiltration into northern Israel and serving as a network that informed Israel on activity in the area. After 1982 and the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, the "Free Republic of Lebanon" declined in importance as Israel realized Haddad's inability to guarantee the area against attack from Palestinian guerrillas. On Sept. 16, 1982, a massacre of hundreds of Palestinian men, women, and children occurred at Sabra and Shatila refugee camps in West Beirut. Haddad's military force was implicated but was cleared of responsibility in 1983. The same year the Israelis wanted Haddad's militia integrated into the Lebanese Army, and, though the Lebanese government agreed, they would not allow Haddad to serve as the ranking commander in southern Lebanon. Haddad was reinstated to the Lebanese Army in January 1984, shortly before his death.
Haddam, Tedjini, Arabic al-Tijani Haddam (b. Jan. 11, 1921, Tlemcen, Algeria - d. March 20, 2000), member of the High State Committee of Algeria (1992-94). He was also ambassador to Tunisia (1970-75) and Saudi Arabia (1982-86).
Haddon-Cave, Sir (Charles) Philip (b. July 6, 1925 - d. Sept. 27, 1999, Oxford, England), acting governor of Hong Kong (1982); knighted 1980.
Hadi, Abdu Rabu Mansour (b. May 1, 1945, Abyan governorate, Yemen), defense minister (1994), vice president (1994-2012), and president (2012- ) of Yemen.
Hadibroto, Yasir (b. Oct. 23, 1923, Kroya, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Tengah, Indonesia]), governor of Lampung (1978-88).
Hadithi, Murtada Said Abdel Baki al-, Arabic Murtada Sa`id `Abd al-Baki al-Hadithi (b. 1932 - d. [assassinated] June 1980, Baghdad, Iraq), foreign minister of Iraq (1971-74). In 1974-79 he was ambassador to the U.S.S.R.
Hadzic, Izet (b. May 18, 1963, Gornji Petrovici, near Kalesija [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), governor of Tuzla canton (1996).
Hadzipasic, Ahmet (b. June 1, 1952, Cazin, Bosnia and Hercegovia - d. July 23, 2008, Zenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina), prime minister of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2003-07).
Hadzivasilev, Mito (b. Dec. 21, 1921, Kavadar, Yugoslavia [now Kavadarci, Macedonia] - d. Aug. 1, 1968, Vrela, Dalmatian coast, Croatia, Yugoslavia), president of the People's Assembly of Macedonia (1967-68).
Hćkkerup, Hans (Erling) (b. Dec. 25, 1907, Ringsted, Denmark - d. July 30, 1974, Copenhagen, Denmark), justice minister (1953-64) and interior minister (1964-68) of Denmark.
Hćkkerup, Hans (b. Dec. 3, 1945, Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. Dec. 22, 2013), Danish politician; son of Per Hćkkerup. His political career started as an active member of the Social Democratic youth organization DSU in 1960, becoming chairman of the party district Ostbanekredsen (1972-74) and member of the Executive Committee of the Social Democratic Party (1974-79). He was elected member of parliament in 1979 and has held several committee memberships such as the Committee on Danish Security Policy, the Committee on Greenlandic Affairs, the Committee on Foreign Affairs, and the Committee of Foreign Policy. He has been member of the Defense Committee since 1987, and served as its chairman in 1991-93. He was a member of the board of the Danish Centre of Human Rights in 1987-93. He was defense minister from 1993 to 2000. On Dec. 8, 2000, he was appointed to succeed Bernard Kouchner as Kosovo administrator in January 2001; he resigned that post at the end of 2001.
Hćkkerup, Nick (b. April 3, 1968, Fredensborg, Denmark), defense minister of Denmark (2011-13); grandson of Per Hćkkerup.
Hćkkerup, Per (Christen) (b. Dec. 25, 1915, Ringsted, Denmark - d. March 13, 1979, Stubberup, Lolland, Denmark), Danish politician; brother of Hans Hćkkerup (1907-74). He was a member of the City Council of Copenhagen from 1946 to 1950. He entered the Folketing (parliament) in 1950 and served as an exceptionally industrious cabinet member in five Social Democrat governments: as foreign minister (1962-66), finance minister (1971-74), minister of economics and trade (1975-77), and minister without portfolio (1978).
Hafez, Amin (Ismail), Arabic Amin (Isma`il) al-Hafiz (b. 1926, Tripoli, Lebanon - d. July 13, 2009, Beirut, Lebanon), prime minister of Lebanon (1973). He was picked by Pres. Suleiman Franjieh to form a government in April 1973 (in which he took also the information and health portfolios), but Sunni religious leaders who opposed Franjieh refused to recognize the appointment, and Hafez was forced to resign in June. He served as member of parliament, representing his hometown of Tripoli, from 1960 to 1996.
Hafez, (Muhammad) Amin al-, Arabic (Muhammad) Amin al-Hafiz (b. 1921? - d. Dec. 17, 2009, Aleppo, Syria), head of state (1963-66) and prime minister (1963-64, 1964-65) of Syria. From the nationalist wing of the ruling Ba`th party, Hafez belonged to the military junta that took power in Damascus on March 8, 1963. He was forced out when radical Ba`thist military officers, led by Nureddin al-Atassi and Hafez al-Assad, toppled his government in a second coup on Feb. 23, 1966. He fled to Lebanon, moved his exile to Iraq in 1968, and was sentenced to death in absentia in 1971. In April 2003 it was reported that he was among some 2,000 Syrian political exiles stranded at the Syrian-Iraqi border after being expelled from their houses in Baghdad following the fall of their protégé, Iraqi Pres. Saddam Hussein. In November 2003 it was reported that he had been allowed to return to Syria.
Hafstein, Hannes (Thórdur Pétursson) (b. Dec. 4, 1861, Mödruvellir, Iceland - d. Dec. 13, 1922, Reykjavík, Iceland), minister of Iceland (1904-09, 1912-14). The son of a provincial governor, he was elected to the Althing in 1901 and soon became the leader of the Home Rule Party. It was chiefly because of his influence that Denmark consented in 1903 to the transfer of the residency of the minister for Icelandic affairs from Copenhagen to Reykjavík. Appointed to this office in 1904, he inaugurated a new era of practical reforms: Iceland's cable connections with abroad, internal telephone system, and first reafforestation and land-reclamation acts, as well as much educational progress, were due to him. Dissatisfaction over the union with Denmark led to his defeat at the general election of 1908, whereupon he resigned; but after the victory of the Home Rule Party in 1911, he again became minister in 1912. He had to resign again, however, in 1914, after new and fruitless efforts to achieve national unity over the union problem. Two years later he retired from public service. He was also noted as a poet.
Hafstein, Jóhann (Henning) (b. Sept. 19, 1915, Akureyri, Iceland - d. May 15, 1980), prime minister of Iceland (1970-71). He was also justice minister (1961 [acting], 1963-70).
Hagel, Chuck, byname of Charles Timothy Hagel (b. Oct. 4, 1946, North Platte, Neb.), U.S. defense secretary (2013- ). He was a Republican senator from Nebraska from 1997 to 2009.
Hagerman, Barbara (Anne), née Oliver (b. Feb. 9, 1943, Hartland, N.B.), lieutenant governor of Prince Edward Island (2006-11).
Haggar, Ahmat Abderahmane (b. Feb. 6, 1950), foreign minister of Chad (1994-96). He was also ambassador to Zaire (1992-94) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1998-2000).
Haglelgam, John (Richard) (b. Aug. 10, 1949, Eauripik island, Yap, Micronesia [now in Federated States of Micronesia]), president of the Federated States of Micronesia (1987-91).
Hague, Frank (b. Jan. 17, 1876, Jersey City, N.J. - d. Jan. 1, 1956, New York City), mayor of Jersey City (1917-47).
Hague, William (Jefferson) (b. March 26, 1961, Rotherham, Yorkshire), British politician. In February 1989 he was selected to contest a by-election in the "safe" Conservative seat of Richmond, North Yorkshire, and within two years he had become parliamentary private secretary to the chancellor of the exchequer, Norman Lamont. When Prime Minister John Major appointed him secretary of state for Wales in 1995, the 34-year-old Hague became Britain's youngest cabinet minister since Harold Wilson in 1947. In May 1997, following the party's heavy defeat by the revived Labour Party under Tony Blair, Major announced his resignation as Conservative Party leader. One of the men widely expected to take over, Michael Portillo, had lost his seat in the election and was out of the running, while other contenders from the party's right wing had their detractors. Hague stood on a centre-right, Euroskeptic platform and finally won on the third ballot on June 19. The 36-year-old Hague thus became the youngest leader of a major political party in the U.K. in 200 years. He embarked immediately on radical changes designed to reverse the fortunes of a party that had just suffered its worst election defeat since 1906. In October, at his first party conference as Conservative leader, he sought to soften the party's image by declaring his support for more compassionate policies. He also advocated "understanding and tolerance of people making their own decisions about how they lead their lives," including accepting the rights of people to have gay relationships or to bear and raise children outside marriage - a clear break with the strictly pro-family ethos of the Thatcher years. He resigned after the Conservatives suffered another crushing defeat in the 2001 election. Shadow foreign secretary under Conservative leader David Cameron since 2005, he became foreign secretary under Prime Minister Cameron in 2010.
Haidalla, Mohamed Khouna Ould, Arabic Muhammad Khuna walad Hayd Allah (b. 1940, Western Sahara), president of Mauritania (1980-84). He joined the army in 1962 and served in different parts of Mauritania, notably in Bir Moghrein where he was appointed chief of general staff following the coup on July 10, 1978, which overthrew the civilian regime of Pres. Moktar Ould Daddah. He became premier in succession to Lieut.Col. Ahmed Ould Bouceif, who died in a plane crash in May 1979. Haidalla was considered to be at the same time a progressive, a fervent nationalist, and the supporter of a form of rapprochement with Algeria, where he went on an official visit in October 1980. When Lieut.Col. Mohamed Mahmoud Ould Louly took over as head of state in June 1979, replacing Col. Mustafa Ould Salek, Haidalla, who became defense minister, was already seen as the "strong man" of the military government, and he played a crucial role in the reestablishment of diplomatic relations between Algiers and Nouakchott in August 1979. Visiting France in September 1979, he strove to win increased support for Mauritania's independence and sovereignty. In a palace revolution on Jan. 4, 1980, Haidalla seized power from Louly, replacing him as head of state and of the Military Committee for National Salvation. He retained the posts of premier and defense minister. In June 1980 he expressed his support for recognition of the Saharan Arab Democratic Republic (Western Sahara) by the Organization of African Unity, and in September he welcomed a delegation of the Saharan Polisario Front to Nouakchott. On July 5, he officially abolished slavery. In 1984, while Haidalla was out of the country, Lieut.Col. Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya seized power in a coup. Haidalla was a presidential candidate in the Nov. 7, 2003, elections. He was arrested on November 9, on suspicion of plotting a coup, and released after receiving a suspended five-year prison sentence on December 28.
Haider, Jörg (b. Jan. 26, 1950, Bad Goisern, Oberösterreich, Austria - d. Oct. 11, 2008, Klagenfurt, Kärnten, Austria), Austrian politician. He became chairman of the youth organization of the Freedom Party (FPÖ) in 1970, chairman of the party in Kärnten in 1983, and in 1986 chairman of the national FPÖ, which under his leadership steadily gained ground at the expense of the traditional parties - the Social Democrats (SPÖ) and the People's Party (ÖVP) - to become Europe's most successful far-right group. In 1989, the FPÖ formed a coalition with the ÖVP in Kärnten, and he became premier of the state. Forced to resign in 1991 after he made several controversial statements including praising the "decent employment policies" in Nazi Germany, he bounced back to make a strong showing in national and European elections. He virulently denounced immigration, but his most controversial views involved statements about Hitler and the Nazis. In 1995, for example, he praised members of the Waffen-SS, calling them "decent people of good character." At times in 1998 he was almost a figure of fun as the party became enmeshed in scandal, but he again confounded the skeptics when his party came first in elections in Kärnten in March 1999, and he became premier again. In national elections held on Oct. 3, 1999, the FPÖ (27%) edged the ÖVP for second place. After attempts to renew the SPÖ-ÖVP coalition failed, on Feb. 4, 2000, an ÖVP-FPÖ coalition took office. Although ÖVP leader Wolfgang Schüssel became chancellor and Haider stayed in Kärnten, the inclusion of the FPÖ in the government resulted in Austria being ostracized in the EU for months. Haider announced his resignation as party chairman on Feb. 28, 2000, allegedly in order to fully apply himself to his work as premier of Kärnten. On April 4, 2005, he announced the formation a new party, Alliance for the Future of Austria (BZÖ), which was launched on April 17 with him as chairman. In November he again announced he would leave federal politics; after a two-year break (2006-08) he returned as BZÖ chairman but six weeks later died in a car accident.
Haig, Alexander (Meigs, Jr.) (b. Dec. 2, 1924, Bala Cynwyd, near Philadelphia, Pa. - d. Feb. 20, 2010, Baltimore, Md.), U.S. secretary of state (1981-82). In 1947 he entered the U.S. Army as a second lieutenant, and in 1966-67 he commanded a battalion and brigade in the war in Vietnam. He served as supreme allied commander in Europe from 1974 to 1979. When U.S. Pres. Ronald Reagan named Haig to be his secretary of state, he chose a man who seemed admirably qualified by training and temperament. He previously served as assistant to Henry Kissinger on the National Security Council and as White House chief of staff in the final 20 months of the Nixon administration. But in spite of this previous top-level experience, Haig's time at the Department of State was marked more by tension than by triumph. Tension between the White House, Haig, and the Department of State built up in a series of incidents that began on inauguration day, when Haig submitted a plan to organize decision-making with regard to foreign policy. To longtime Reagan loyalists this looked like a naked power play, and Haig received a setback when the president named Vice-Pres. George Bush to be the foreign policy "crisis manager." Haig reportedly was ready to resign but then proclaimed his willingness to be a team player on the Reagan squad. A major flap occurred when Haig announced on television that he was "in control" of the government while Bush was flying back to Washington after President Reagan was wounded in an assassination attempt. Within the cabinet there was occasional disagreement between Haig and Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger on a number of issues.
Haile Selassie (also spelled Hayle Selasse), "common" name Tafari Makonnen (or Tafari Makwannen) (b. July 23, 1892, Ejarsagoro, near Harer, Ethiopia - d. Aug. 27, 1975, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia), emperor of Ethiopia (1930-74). He was a great-grandson of Sahle Selassie of Shewa and a son of Ras Makonnen, a chief adviser to Emperor Menelik II. Tafari at an early age impressed the emperor with his intellectual abilities and was promoted accordingly. As governor of Sidamo and then of Harer provinces, he followed progressive policies, seeking to break the feudal power of the local nobility by increasing the authority of the central government. In 1917-30 he was also foreign minister. In 1928 he assumed the title of negus ("king"), and two years later, when Empress Zauditu died, he was crowned emperor and took the throne name of Haile Selassie ("Might of the Trinity"), which was also his baptismal name. In 1931 he promulgated a new constitution, which strictly limited the powers of Parliament. When Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1935, he led the resistance to the invaders, but in May 1936 he was forced into exile. In 1941 British and Ethiopian forces invaded Ethiopia and recaptured Addis Ababa. Reinstated as emperor, he once again began to implement social, economic, and educational reforms in an attempt to modernize Ethiopia on a slow and gradual basis. He played a major role in the establishment of the Organization of African Unity in 1963. In 1974 famine, worsening unemployment, and the political stagnation of his government prompted segments of the army to mutiny. They deposed Haile Selassie, who spent the remainder of his life a prisoner in his own palace. The official report of his death, which claimed natural causes, was without medical or legal confirmation and led some political observers to suspect foul play.
Hailemariam Desalegn (b. July 19, 1965), foreign minister (2010-12) and prime minister (2012- ) of Ethiopia. He was chairman of the African Union in 2013-14.
Hailsham, Douglas McGarel Hogg, (1st) Viscount (b. Feb. 28, 1872, London - d. Aug. 16, 1950, Carter's Corner Place, Sussex, England), British politician. He served as attorney general (1922-24, 1924-28), lord chancellor (1928-29, 1935-38), secretary of state for war (1931-35), and lord president of the council (1938).
Hailsham (of St. Marylebone), Quintin McGarel Hogg, Baron (b. Oct. 9, 1907, London - d. Oct. 12, 2001, London), British politician. He was the elder son of Viscount Hailsham. In 1938 he was elected to represent Oxford in the House of Commons. He fought in World War II until he was wounded in the leg and returned to Parliament. When his father died in 1950, he inherited the title, which consigned him to what he called the "political ghetto" of the House of Lords, the unelected upper house. He served as first lord of the Admiralty (1956-57) in Anthony Eden's government during the Suez crisis. He renounced his title in 1963 when he had a chance of succeeding Harold Macmillan as prime minister, but lost out to Alec Douglas-Home. He served in both their governments. In 1970, he became Edward Heath's lord chancellor (chief of the judiciary) and became Lord Hailsham again, when he was made a life baron. He kept the office until 1974, but when Margaret Thatcher took power in 1979 she made him again lord chancellor and he served in the post a total of 12 years. He retired from the cabinet in 1987 with a kiss on the cheek from Thatcher at the door of 10 Downing Street. She told him "you have graced every office that you have held with supreme distinction and style." But he remained an active and colourful member of the House of Lords, and was reprimanded for "intervening from a sedentary position in a loud and boisterous way" during a 1993 debate. Apparently unabashed by the rebuke, he was said to have gone about the chamber the next day singing "Land of Hope and Glory" in a loud and sarcastic manner. One of Britain's unforgettable political figures, he seemed to enjoy defying convention, dressing in old-fashioned buttoned boots and a bowler hat, and riding a bicycle around London.
Hailu Yimenu (d. June 2, 1991, Addis Ababa), acting prime minister of Ethiopia (1989-91). He committed suicide after staying a few days at the Italian embassy following the fall of Pres. Mengistu Haile Mariam's regime.
Haines, Janine (b. May 8, 1945, Tanunda, South Australia - d. Nov. 20, 2004, Adelaide, South Australia), Australian politician. She became the first member of the Australian Democrats represented in Canberra when she was chosen by the South Australian parliament to fill a Liberal Movement casual Senate vacancy from December 1977. (The Australian Democrats had been founded that year following the demise of the Liberal Movement.) She was elected as the second leader of the Australian Democrats in 1986, becoming the first woman in Australia to lead a significant political party and the first of five women to lead the Democrats. Her trademark glasses and commonsense approach made her a popular and admired leader, and she made a bid to shift to the House of Representatives in the environment-dominated election of 1990, risking everything to contest Kingston, a marginal Labor seat in South Australia. The Democrats polled their highest vote ever, but Haines lost. Having pledged to not seek to return to the Senate, her parliamentary career ended. Her position in the Senate was taken by Meg Lees and Janet Powell was elected to the party leadership.
Hainisch, Michael (Arthur Josef Jakob) (b. Aug. 15, 1858, Aue, near Gloggnitz, Austria - d. Feb. 26, 1940, Vienna), president of Austria (1920-28). A liberal scholar and political-social activist with many public interests, he became a member of the Austrian parliament in 1909. He vigorously supported universal and female suffrage and popular education during the last years of the Habsburg empire. Throughout World War I and thereafter, he also advocated Anschluss (the incorporation of German Austria into a greater Germany). Despite his sombre postwar hopes for the fledgling Austrian republic, Hainisch, who was not concerned with party politics, was elected its first federal president in December 1920, as a compromise candidate who might be able to reconcile the hostile groups. He applied himself chiefly to the economic problem facing Austria. He incurred the wrath of his Anschluss co-supporters for his part in the negotiation of the Treaty of Lana with Czechoslovakia (1922), an agreement primarily directed against the possibilities of a Habsburg restoration but that also was seen as a barrier to Austrian-German union. He was reelected in 1924. Prohibited constitutionally from seeking a third presidential term in 1928, he subsequently served briefly (1929-30) as federal minister of commerce. He endorsed the Anschluss when it finally occurred in 1938.
Haitham, Muhammad Ali (b. 1940, Dathina state, Western Aden Protectorate [now in Yemen] - d. July 10, 1993), prime minister (1969-71) and foreign minister (1971) of Yemen (Aden).
Hajdaraga, Luan (Reshat) (b. Aug. 2, 1948, Tiranë), defense minister (1998-2000) and acting foreign minister (2003) of Albania.
Hájek, Jirí (b. June 6, 1913, Krhanice, Austria-Hungary [now in Czech Republic] - d. Oct. 22, 1993, Prague, Czech Republic), Czech politician. He joined the youth branch of the Social Democratic Party (SDP) and organized an antifascist group. These activities led to his arrest in 1939; he was interned in German camps during World War II. After the war, he served as SDP deputy to the National Assembly until 1948, when the SDP merged with the Communist Party. As a member of that party, Hájek continued to serve in the assembly (1948-58) and was promoted to various governmental and academic posts. He served as professor of international relations at Charles University (1953-55), ambassador to Britain (1955-58), deputy foreign minister (1958-62), representative to the UN (1962-65), and education minister (1965-68). In the Prague Spring of 1968, Hájek supported the reformist forces that came to power, and that year he was appointed foreign minister. When a Warsaw Pact army invaded in August, Hájek was on vacation in Yugoslavia. He traveled to the UN and denounced the invasion but resisted Western involvement. After returning to Prague he was forced to resign. In 1970 he was purged from the party. In 1977 he was one of the original signatories of the human rights appeal known as Charter 77 and emerged as one of the group's leading spokespersons. He later formed (1988) a group to monitor the country's compliance with human rights laws. Hájek was awarded the French Legion of Honor in 1993.
Hajri, Qadi Abdullah al- (b. 1911/12 - d. [assassinated] April 10, 1977, London), prime minister of Yemen (Sana) (1972-74).
Hakim, (Sayyed) Abdul Aziz al-, Arabic Sayyid `Abd al-`Aziz al-Hakim (b. 1959, Najaf, Iraq - d. Aug. 26, 2009, Tehran, Iran), president of the Governing Council of Iraq (2003).
Hakim, Georges (b. April 19, 1913, Tripoli, Lebanon), finance and agriculture minister (1952-53) and foreign minister (1953, 1965-66, 1966-68) of Lebanon.
Halaby, Najeeb E(lias) (b. Sept. 19, 1915, Dallas, Texas - d. July 2, 2003, McLean, Va.), administrator of the Federal Aviation Agency (1961-65); father-in-law of King Hussein of Jordan. He worked for the Office of Research and Intelligence under Pres. Harry S. Truman and as deputy assistant secretary of defense in the Dwight D. Eisenhower administration. Pres. John F. Kennedy appointed him to head the FAA. In this post he took a parachute jump before deciding that sky diving should be regulated, desegregated all U.S. air terminals, and championed development of the SST (supersonic transport) program. In 1969, he began a stormy four-year tenure as chief executive of Pan American World Airways. He introduced the first fleet of Boeing 747s, but the company lost money and he clashed with founder Juan Trippe before his ouster in 1973. Halaby secured the election of the first minority director to an airline board and insisted on equal opportunity for Hispanic and African Americans. After leaving Pan Am, he advised Jordan's airlines and helped create an Arab Air Academy to train aviation workers, including pilots and mechanics. His daughter Lisa, who graduated from Princeton with a degree in urban planning and architecture, was hired to help design Amman International Airport, where she met King Hussein. Though Halaby, known as Jeeb, had a distinguished career in business and government, he was best known in his later years for Lisa's marriage to Hussein in 1978. Three months after they began dating, the king called Halaby and said, "Sir, I wish to ask you for the hand of your daughter in marriage." She became known as Queen Noor.
Haldeman, H(arry) R(obbins), byname Bob Haldeman (b. Oct. 27, 1926, Los Angeles, Calif. - d. Nov. 12, 1993, Santa Barbara, Calif.), U.S. politician. He became impressed with Richard M. Nixon during the House Un-American Activities Committee hearings in 1948 and offered his assistance on Nixon's 1952 vice presidential election campaign on the Republican Party ticket. Nixon refused the offer, but Haldeman finally managed to get hired for the 1956 election campaign and became a trusted aide. He managed Nixon's ill-fated attempt to become governor of California in 1962 and Nixon's second campaign for the presidency in 1968. During Nixon's first term, Haldeman served as chief of staff, determining access to the president and running the White House in such an efficient manner as to be often referred to as "the keeper of the gate" and "the Iron Chancellor." Following the June 17, 1972, break-in at Democratic National Headquarters at the Watergate complex, Haldeman participated in the White House cover-up of official involvement in that event as well as other "dirty tricks" employed during the 1972 campaign. On April 30, 1973, after his role in the cover-up had been revealed, Haldeman was forced to resign. He returned to his home in California but in 1975 was convicted of perjury, conspiracy, and obstruction of justice for his role in the scandal. Sentenced to 2˝ to 8 years in jail, Haldeman actually served 18 months at a federal minimum security facility. He was released in late 1978.
Haldipur, R(amdas) N(arayan) (b. Feb. 8, 1921, Siddapur, Mysore [now Karnataka], India - d. November 2003), principal administrative officer of Sikkim (1963-69), chief commissioner of Arunachal Pradesh (1979-81), and lieutenant governor of Pondicherry (1981-82).
Hale, John Parker (b. March 31, 1806, Rochester, N.H. - d. Nov. 19, 1873, Dover, N.H.), U.S. politician. After a term in the New Hampshire state legislature, he was in 1834 appointed U.S. district attorney, a position he held until 1841. The following year the Democrats elected him to the U.S. House of Representatives, where he took sides with the opponents of slavery. The Democrats nominated another candidate in 1846, and he returned to the state legislature, where he was chosen speaker, and his bold defiance of the party leaders attached to him so many independents that he was chosen U.S. senator. He took his seat as the first, and at that time the only, senator elected on the antislavery platform. His major achievement as a senator was the passage of a bill abolishing flogging in the Navy. His prominence in the antislavery movement led to his receiving the presidential nomination of the Liberty Party in 1847. Hale withdrew his candidacy the following year, when the Free Soil Party absorbed the Liberty Party and ran Martin Van Buren for president. In 1852, however, Hale was the Free Soil candidate and garnered over 150,000 votes, of which 440 were from the slave states. At the expiration of his senatorial term in 1853, the Democrats, who had gained control of the New Hampshire legislature, replaced him. In 1855 he was elected to fill the unexpired term of a deceased New Hampshire senator, and in 1858 he won reelection to a full term in the Senate. By this time he had switched to the new Republican Party and was regarded as one of its leaders. In 1865 Pres. Abraham Lincoln, shortly before his assassination, appointed Hale minister to Spain. Hale did not do well as a diplomat, however, and he was recalled in 1869.
Haleva, Isak (b. 1940, Istanbul, Turkey), chief rabbi of Turkey (2002- ).
Haley, Nikki, byname of Nimrata Randhawa Haley, née Randhawa (b. Jan. 20, 1972, Bamberg, S.C.), governor of South Carolina (2011- ). The daughter of Sikh immigrants from India, she is the first female and first non-white governor of the state.
Halgan, Emmanuel (b. Dec. 31, 1771, Donges [now in Loire-Atlantique département], France - d. April 20, 1852, Paris), governor of Martinique (1834-36).
Halidi, Dhoihirou (b. 1964?), interim president of Anjouan (2007).
Halidi (Abderemane), Ibrahim (b. 1954, Anjouan, Comoros), prime minister of the Comoros (1993). He was a presidential candidate in 2002 and 2006.
Halilovic, Safet (b. April 3, 1951, Sarajevo), president of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2002-03).
Halilovic, Salem (b. 1962, Gorazde [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), governor (2001-02) and premier (2007-08) of Bosnian Podrinje-Gorazde.
Halim, Abdul (b. Dec. 27, 1911, Bukittinggi, Netherlands East Indies [now Indonesia] - d. July 4, 1987, Jakarta, Indonesia), prime minister (1950) and defense minister (1950-51) of Indonesia.
Halkett, John (b. 1768 - d. Nov. 12, 1852), governor of the Bahamas (1801-04) and Tobago (1804-07).
Halki, Wael (Nader) al- (b. 1964, Daraa governorate, Syria), prime minister of Syria (2012- ). He was also minister of health (2011-12).
Hall, Barbara (b. May 9, 1946, Ottawa, Ont.), mayor of Toronto (1994-98).
Hall, Sir Douglas (Basil) (b. Feb. 1, 1909 - d. April 8, 2004), governor of British Somaliland (1959-60). He joined the Colonial Administrative Service in 1930 and was soon sent to Northern Rhodesia, where he became a district officer in 1932, was promoted to senior district officer in 1950, and in 1952 became the first officer-in-charge of the North-Western Province, which had been created in consequence of a report that he himself had produced. He was promoted provincial commissioner in 1953 and administrative secretary in 1954. He was then secretary for native affairs to the government of Northern Rhodesia from 1956 to 1959, working in the central administration in Lusaka. He proved an able speaker in the Legislative Council and later an important contributor within the Executive Council. He then became the last governor of the Somaliland protectorate; he flew out of the territory on June 26, 1960, a few hours prior to the ceremony that concluded the transfer of power to the new self-governing authority. The time scale had been set by the approaching end of the Italian trusteeship of Somalia to the south on July 1, 1960, when both territories united into one independent Somalia. Hall became a magistrate and then chairman of the Kingsbridge bench, and was a member of the Devon and Cornwall Police Authority from 1971 to 1979. He was knighted (K.C.M.G.) in 1959 and succeeded as 14th baronet of Dunglass in 1978.
Hall, Gus, original name Arvo Kusta Halberg (b. Oct. 8, 1910, Virginia, Minn. - d. Oct. 13, 2000, Manhattan, N.Y.), U.S. politician. He joined the Communist Party at 16. At 17, he ran for mayor of Youngstown, Ohio, on the Communist Party ticket under his birth name. Later, when he sought a job in the steel mills, he changed his name to Gus Hall, fearing he would not be hired because of his communist affiliation. He helped organize the United Steelworkers of America in the 1930s, when the Communist Party was at its height in the United States. He organized worker protests in Ohio and Minnesota, and was frequently arrested on charges such as inciting riots. He volunteered for the U.S. Navy when World War II broke out. In 1949, he was convicted under the Smith Act on false charges of "conspiracy to teach and advocate the overthrow of the U.S. government by force and violence." He jumped bail after his arrest and fled to Mexico, where he was arrested and sent back. He spent 8˝ years, most of the 1950s, in jail. He was elected Communist Party general secretary in 1959 after his release from prison. He was the party's presidential candidate in 1972, 1976, 1980, and 1984; he never even garnered 1% of the vote, which he blamed on election law requirements which kept him off the ballot in half the states in 1984. He bitterly lamented the dissolution of Communist societies in eastern Europe and the dismantling of the Soviet Union, calling Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and Russian president Boris Yeltsin "a wrecking crew." But he never repudiated his beliefs. Hall was general secretary of the party until 1987, when the party reorganized and made him chairman. He served in that capacity until March 2000, when he was named senior chairman.
Hall, Sir Kenneth (Octavius) (b. April 24, 1941, Lucea, Hanover parish, Jamaica), governor-general of Jamaica (2006-09); knighted 2007.
Hall, Sir Robert de Zouche (b. April 27, 1904 - d. March 1995), governor of Sierra Leone (1953-56); knighted 1953.
Hallgrímsson, Geir (b. Dec. 16, 1925, Reykjavík, Iceland - d. Sept. 1, 1990, Reykjavík), prime minister (1974-78) and foreign minister (1983-86) of Iceland. He was also mayor of Reykjavík (1959-72).
Hallstein, Walter (b. Nov. 17, 1901, Mainz, Germany - d. March 29, 1982, Stuttgart, West Germany), West German politician. In 1948 he met Konrad Adenauer, who in 1951 appointed him to the Foreign Ministry, where he worked for the improvement of Franco-German relations. He led the West German delegation to the talks that set up the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), a forerunner of the Common Market. His name was associated with the "Hallstein Doctrine," which called for the breaking of diplomatic relations with any country other than the U.S.S.R. that recognized East Germany. He also headed the German delegation at the Messina Conference of 1955, which led directly to the formation of the European Economic Community (EEC) three years later. As the first president of the EEC Commission (1958-67) he found himself in confrontation with French Pres. Charles de Gaulle, who had come to power only months after the Community was formed. De Gaulle, a nationalist determined to establish French supremacy in the EEC, was firmly opposed to any move toward political unity among its members and despised the Commission's "technocrats." In 1965 Hallstein attempted to persuade France to agree to the strengthening of the Community institutions, and in protest the French withdrew from most EEC activities for several months, causing the most serious crisis in the Community since its creation. When the previously separate bodies of the EEC, ECSC, and Euratom were merged in a single EC Commission in 1967, he anticipated French opposition and resigned. He served as a member of the Bundestag (West German parliament; 1969-72) and was president of the European Movement (1968-74).
Halonen, Tarja (Kaarina) (b. Dec. 24, 1943, Helsinki, Finland), president of Finland (2000-12). She is a former 1960s radical and a leading figure on the left of the Social Democratic Party. In the early 1980s she was chairwoman of the gay-rights organization SETA. A member of parliament since 1979, she was minister of justice in 1990-91 and became Finland's first female foreign minister in 1995. Halonen won a cliffhanger election against opposition leader Esko Aho on Feb. 6, 2000, to become Finland's first woman president. She promised to work for increased equality between the sexes. She refused during the campaign to marry her long-time male companion (she did so in August 2000) or mend fences with the church to please conservative voters. Halonen became head of state just as the country adopted a new constitution clipping the president's powers, especially in domestic affairs, where parliament's role was bolstered. The president remained in charge of foreign policy, but now was obliged by the constitution to conduct foreign affairs in close cooperation with the cabinet. Analysts said Halonen had the experience and personal political clout to use even the pared-down presidential powers effectively and not be a mere figurehead. She was reelected in 2006.
Hamad, (Maalim) Seif Sharif, Sharif also spelled Shariff (b. Oct. 22, 1943, Pemba island, Zanzibar [now in Tanzania]), chief minister of Zanzibar (1984-88). He was presidential candidate for the Civic United Front in 2000, 2005, and 2010.
Hamad ibn `Isa Al Khalifah, Sheikh (b. Jan. 28, 1950, Rifa`a, Bahrain), emir (1999-2002) and king (2002- ) of Bahrain. The eldest son of Sheikh `Isa, Sheikh Hamad studied in Bahrain and abroad and became a qualified helicopter pilot in 1978. He had been a permanent member of the Helicopter Club of Great Britain. He built a well-trained army in Bahrain despite the Gulf Arab island's limited financial resources and small population. Crown prince since 1964, he was commander of Bahrain's national guard before the creation of an army force after the island gained independence in 1971 from Britain. He then became Bahrain's first defense minister (1971-88). Bahrain's armed forces - under his command - joined an international alliance led by the United States to help drive Iraqi forces out of Kuwait in 1991. But other than that Bahrain's 8,000-strong army has never been engaged in a war. Even when Qatari troops landed on a small disputed Gulf island in 1986, Saudi Arabia stepped in to defuse the crisis. Bahrain and Qatar are locked in a long-standing border dispute over small but potentially oil- and gas-rich islands, including Hawar island, located near Qatar's northwestern coast and controlled by Bahrain since the 1930s. Sheikh Hamad is committed to the alliance with five other Gulf Arab states grouped together under the Gulf Cooperation Council. In 2002 he proclaimed himself king and his state a constitutional monarchy, and called for legislative elections, the first since the parliament was dissolved in 1975; women would be allowed to vote and run for office. Sheikh Hamad has three sons (the eldest, Sheikh Sulman, who was appointed deputy defense minister in 1995; Abdullah; and Khalifah) and two daughters.
Hamad ibn `Isa
Hamad ibn Khalifah Al Thani, Sheikh (b. 1952, Doha, Qatar), defense minister (1977-95) and emir (1995-2013) of Qatar; son of Sheikh Khalifah ibn Hamad Al Thani.
Hamada, Keizo (b. Jan. 10, 1952), governor of Kagawa (2010- ).
Hamadi, Hamadi (Ould Baba) Ould (b. Dec. 31, 1948, Moudjéria, Mauritania), defense minister (2009-11) and foreign minister (2011-13) of Mauritania. In 2013 he became minister of fishing.
Hamadi, Ibrahim Muhammad al- (b. 1943 - d. [assassinated] Oct. 11, 1977, Sana, Yemen), president of Yemen (Sana) (1974-77).
Hamadou, Barkat Gourad, Arabic Barkat Ghurad Hamadu (b. Jan. 1, 1930, Hanlé, Dikhil district, French Somaliland [now Djibouti]), prime minister of Djibouti (1978-2001). He was also minister of education (1960-63) and health (1963-66) of French Somaliland.
Hamaguchi, Osachi, also called Yuko Hamaguchi (b. May 1, 1870, Kochi, Tosa province, Japan - d. Aug. 26, 1931, Tokyo, Japan), prime minister of Japan (1929-31). He joined the Finance Ministry in 1895, where his abilities were soon recognized. In Taro Katsura's third cabinet he was vice-minister of communications and in the Shigenobu Okuma cabinet of 1914 he was vice-minister of finance. In 1914 he was also elected to the Diet (parliament), rising rapidly in the prominence of the Kensikai (later Minseito) party. In 1924 he became finance minister in the government of Takaaki Kato and then minister of home affairs. Soon he was elected president of the Minseito (Democratic Party), and in July 1929 he was made prime minister. He returned Japan to the gold standard at the beginning of 1930, and won reelection in February in one of the cleanest contests in the history of Japanese politics. But the world depression did not spare Japan and his policies became unpopular. In order to combat rising inflation, he promoted mechanization and rationalization of industry. The effects of the depression, however, deflated the Japanese economy even further than he had intended, and his measures led to great social unrest. Moreover, his plan to cut civil-service salaries was bitterly resisted. Finally, his attempts to force the military to yield to civilian leadership aroused right-wing disapproval. His acceptance of the terms of the London Naval Treaty limiting armaments was especially resented, and he was shot in the Tokyo Railway Station by a right-wing youth on Nov. 14, 1930. He at first survived, but had a relapse in April 1931, causing him to resign the office of prime minister, and died later that year.
Hambro, Carl Joachim (b. Jan. 5, 1885, Bergen, Norway - d. Dec. 15, 1964, Oslo, Norway), Norwegian politician. He was elected to the Storting (parliament) in 1919 and was the president of the Storting from 1926. He was president of the League of Nations from 1939 to its abolition in 1946. When the air alarm sounded just after midnight April 9, 1940, Hambro took the initiative to transport the royal family, the government and all members of the Storting by a special train leaving Oslo at 7:30 AM. Just 3 hours before the train departed, the Norwegian foreign minister, Halvdan Koht, had told German ambassador Curt Bräuer that Norway would fight the German invasion. Thanks to Hambro's quick action he could chair the meetings of the Storting at Hamar at 12:30 PM the same day and Elverum at 9:20 PM the same evening. At this meeting Hambro suggested the "Elverum Authorization" whereby the Government was empowered to make such decisions as were deemed necessary for the sake of the future and safety of the country. This enabled Norway - even after its capitulation in Tromsř two months later - to continue the war against Germany from the refuge of the government and royal family in England and Canada. Hambro followed the government during its transfer to London on June 7, 1940, and continued himself to the U.S. on July 12, 1940, as the representative of Norway to the U.S. During his stay in the U.S. he was a delegate to the statutory general meeting of the United Nations in London in January 1946 and the General Assembly in New York in the fall of 1946.
Hambro, Edvard (Isak) (b. Aug. 22, 1911, Kristiania [now Oslo], Norway - d. Feb. 1, 1977, Oslo), president of the UN General Assembly (1970-71); son of Carl Joachim Hambro. He was Norwegian permanent representative to the United Nations (1966-71) and ambassador to France (1976-77).
Hamdallah, Rami (b. Aug. 10, 1958, Anabta, West Bank), prime minister of the Palestinian Authority (2013- ).
Hamdan (bin) Sheikh Tahir, Tun (Datuk Haji) (b. April 27, 1921, Kampong Jawa village, Penang, Straits Settlements [now in Malaysia] - d. Jan. 20, 2005, Georgetown, Penang, Malaysia), head of state of Penang (1989-2001). He acquired the titles of Tan Sri (1974), Dato' (1977), Tun (June 7, 1989), and Datuk Patinggi (1991).
Hamdani, Smail, Arabic Isma`il Hamdani (b. March 11, 1930, Guenzet, Bordj Bou-Arreridj region, eastern Kabylie, Algeria), prime minister of Algeria (1998-99). He joined the National Liberation Front (FLN) and, at the independence in 1962, he held the position of chief of staff (chef de cabinet) of the provisional government headquartered in Boumerdes in the eastern suburbs of Algiers. The provisional government was then led by Abderrahmane Farčs. When Ahmed Ben Bella became the first Algerian president (1962-65), Hamdani was appointed counselor to the Algerian ambassador to Brussels, Belgium. He later held the position of the foreign ministry's top information and press officer before becoming director of legal and consular affairs at the same ministry. In 1970, Pres. Houari Boumedienne appointed him advisor and then assistant secretary. In 1977 he became chief of staff (secrétaire général), a position that he continued to hold under the Chadli Bendjedid regime in 1979 following the death of Boumedienne. In 1980 he became advisor to the president and was later named ambassador (from 1983) to Sweden, Spain, and France. Hamdani was appointed by Pres. Liamine Zéroual as a senator at the Council of the Nation, Algeria's upper chamber of Parliament controlled by the president who appoints two thirds of the chamber's MPs. Hamdani was appointed as prime minister after Ahmed Ouyahia resigned.
Hamdi, Mongi (b. April 23, 1959, Sidi Bouzid, Tunisia), foreign minister of Tunisia (2014- ).
Hamed (Franco), Alejandro (b. Feb. 26, 1934, Asunción, Paraguay), foreign minister of Paraguay (2008-09). He was ambassador to Lebanon in 2005-08.
Hameed, Abdul Cader Shahul (b. April 10, 1928, Kurugoda, Ceylon - d. Sept. 3, 1999, Colombo), foreign minister of Sri Lanka (1977-89, 1993-94). He was foreign minister in the United National Party (UNP) government of Pres. Junius Jayewardene and then minister for higher education (1989-93) in the UNP government of Pres. Ranasinghe Premadasa. In 1993 he was again appointed foreign minister. The UNP lost power in the 1994 general elections, but Hameed was a key player for the party in efforts to find a solution to end the ethnic crisis in the war-ravaged country. He earlier led the government side in peace talks with the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) after Premadasa became president in 1989. The talks broke down and the war between the government troops and the LTTE, who demand a separate homeland for minority Tamils in Sri Lanka's north and east, continued.
Hamengku Buwono IX (b. April 12, 1912, Yogyakarta, Java, Netherlands East Indies [now Indonesia] - d. Oct. 2, 1988, Washington, D.C.), sultan of Yogyakarta (1940-88). Succeeding his father, he became ruler of the cultural capital of Java and, as governor of the special district of Yogyakarta, the head of its civil administration. In 1942 Hamengku Buwono actively opposed the Japanese when they invaded what was then called the Netherlands East Indies. After Japan's surrender and Indonesia's declaration of independence from Dutch rule in 1945, he played a pivotal role in establishing the new republic. He and others fought the Dutch until 1949, when they gave up hope of reestablishing control and acknowledged Indonesia's independence. After the war he served under President Sukarno as minister of state (1946-49), defense minister (1949-53), and deputy prime minister (1950-51), and from 1973 to 1978 he held the office of vice-president under President Suharto. After retiring from national politics in 1978, he continued to serve as governor of Yogyakarta. Because Hamengku Buwono did not designate a hereditary successor, elders of a special court chose one of his children.
Hamer, Sir Rupert (James), byname (before knighthood) Dick Hamer (b. July 29, 1916, Kew, near Melbourne - d. March 23, 2004, Kew), premier of Victoria (1972-81). In World War II he was among the "Rats of Tobruk" in North Africa, was mentioned in the despatches for bravery in New Guinea, and was an instructor for amphibious landings in Normandy. After the war he soon joined the Liberal Party and was elected to the Victoria Legislative Council as the member for East Yarra in 1958. He joined Sir Henry Bolte's ministry in 1962 and became deputy premier and chief secretary in 1971. The following year he succeeded Bolte on his retirement. On becoming premier, he also appointed himself arts minister, the first such portfolio created by a state leader. His lasting legacy was making promotion of the arts part of the business of government. Hamer's government followed a reformist and liberalizing course in local government reform, consumer protection, and conservation. But by the end of the 1970s, it had run out of steam and had been damaged by several scandals, including one that touched the premier himself. By 1981, when he made the mistake of leading an investment mission overseas, the Liberals were in a state of near panic and he had little choice but to resign on his return. He was knighted in 1982.
Hamid, (Mohammad) Abdul (b. Jan. 1, 1944, Kamalpur village, Bengal, India [now in Kishoreganj district, Bangladesh]), president of Bangladesh (2013- ).
Hamid (bin Syed Jaafar) Albar, Datuk Seri Syed (b. Jan. 15, 1944, Kampong Malayu Air Hitam, Penang [now in Malaysia]), Malaysian politician. His involvement in politics dates back to his student days. He was instrumental in setting-up the London United Malays National Organization (UMNO) Club of which he was the first president. He returned to active politics as a member of the UMNO Supreme Council in 1986. Before his appointment as foreign minister in January 1999, he was defense minister since May 1995. Prior to that he was a minister in the prime minister's department responsible for oil and gas and also the minister of law. In 2008-09 he was internal security and home affairs minister. He received the titles Dato' (April 1992), Datuk Seri Panglima (Sept. 16, 1997), and Dato' Seri (July 11, 2004).
Hamilton, Alexander Mark Kerr (b. May 16, 1767 - d. Feb. 20, 1842), superintendent of British Honduras (1806-09).
Hamilton, Francis Alvin George (b. March 30, 1912, Kenora, Ont. - d. June 30, 2004, Manotick, Ont.), minister of northern affairs and national resources (1957-60) and agriculture minister (1960-63) of Canada.
Hamlin, Charles S(umner) (b. 1861 - d. 1938), governor of the Federal Reserve System (1914-16).
Hamm, John (Frederick) (b. April 8, 1938, New Glasgow, Nova Scotia), premier of Nova Scotia (1999-2006). He was first elected MLA for Pictou Centre on May 25, 1993. On Oct. 28, 1995, he was elected leader of the provincial Progressive Conservative Party. He was re-elected MLA for Pictou Centre on March 24, 1998, and, under his leadership, increased the number of Progressive Conservative MLAs from 9 to 14. On Feb. 7, 1999, over 94% of Progressive Conservative delegates at the party's annual meeting endorsed Hamm as leader. Following the election of a Progressive Conservative majority government on July 27, 1999, Hamm was sworn in as Nova Scotia's 25th premier on August 16. His government was reelected on Aug. 5, 2003. He retired in 2006.
Hammadi, Saadun, Arabic Sa`dun Hammadi (b. June 22, 1930, Karbala, Iraq - d. March 14, 2007, Germany), foreign minister (1974-83), speaker of the National Assembly (1984-89, 1995-2003), and prime minister (1991) of Iraq. He joined the Ba`th party in his Shi`ite home town Karbala in the mid-1940s, climbing the party ladder steadily. In 1991 Pres. Saddam Hussein, in his drive to stay in power following the defeat in Kuwait, sought to portray himself as more politically flexible and relinquished the prime minister's post to install Hammadi in it. But within six months Saddam had sacked Hammadi, after the new prime minister spoke up for reforms and democracy, and also publicly humiliated him by demoting him to the lowest party ranks. Hammadi accepted the move without complaint and continued to be loyal. Four years later, he was brought back to the limelight as parliament speaker, serving in that post until the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq. Troops of the occupying coalition arrested him at his home in Baghdad on May 29, 2003. He was released on Feb. 14, 2004. He left Iraq for medical treatment in Jordan, Lebanon, and Germany, but settled in Qatar in early 2005.
Hammarskjöld, Bo (Gustaf Hjalmar) (b. 1891, Uppsala, Sweden - d. Aug. 4, 1974), governor of Södermanland (1935-58); son of Hjalmar Hammarskjöld; brother of Dag Hammarskjöld.
Hammarskjöld, Dag (Hjalmar Agne Carl) (b. July 29, 1905, Jönköping, Sweden - d. Sept. 18, 1961, near Ndola, Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia]), secretary-general of the United Nations (1953-61); son of Hjalmar Hammarskjöld. He joined the Swedish civil service as permanent under secretary in the Ministry of Finance and subsequently became president of the board of the Bank of Sweden. From 1947 he served in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In 1951 he was chosen vice chairman of Sweden's delegation to the UN General Assembly, of which he became chairman in 1952. On April 10, 1953, five months after the resignation of Trygve Lie of Norway as secretary-general, Hammarskjöld was elected to the office for a term of five years. In September 1957 he was reelected to another five-year term. For several years he was most concerned with fighting and threats of fighting in the Middle East between Israel and the Arab states; he and the Canadian statesman Lester Pearson participated in the resolution of the Suez Canal crisis that arose in 1956. Hammarskjöld also played a prominent role in the 1958 crisis in Lebanon and Jordan. The Belgian Congo became the independent Republic of the Congo on June 30, 1960, and Hammarskjöld sent a UN force to suppress the civil strife that began there soon afterward. In September 1960 his action was denounced by the Soviet Union, which demanded that he resign and that the office of secretary general be replaced by a three-man board (troika) comprising representatives of the Western, communist, and neutral nations. Soon after, while on a peace mission to President Moise Tshombe of the Congolese province of Katanga, he was killed in an airplane crash. He was posthumously awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for 1961. Evidence later emerged that his plane may have been shot down in an operation by U.S., British, and South African intelligence services.
Hammarskjöld, (Knut) Hjalmar (Leonard) (b. Feb. 4, 1862, Tuna, Sweden - d. Oct. 12, 1953, Stockholm), prime minister of Sweden (1914-17). In 1895 he became head of the legislation section of the Ministry of Justice and he headed the ministry for a brief period in 1901-02. He was then appointed president of the Court of Appeal at Göta and in 1904 became a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague, where he served until 1946. He was minister of education in Christian Lundeberg's ministry of 1905 which negotiated the Treaty of Karlstad, whereby the union of Sweden and Norway was dissolved. After serving as Swedish minister to Denmark (1905-07), he became governor of Uppsala county, a position he held until 1930. He attained prominence in international diplomacy in the years before World War I, serving as Sweden's chief delegate to the Hague Peace Conference (1907) and presiding over the Franco-Italian arbitration court (1913) dealing with seizure of vessels during the Italo-Turkish War (1911-12). He became prime minister in 1914 after the Liberal ministry had resigned in protest over the proposed comprehensive national defense plan which Hammarskjöld, who also took the defense portfolio, soon implemented. There were protests over food shortages, but his priority was to keep Sweden out of World War I and he only resigned in 1917 when he felt that the worst dangers were over and the threat of invasion had receded. In 1923 he became a member of the upper chamber of the parliament and served there until 1938. He also served as curator of the Académie de Droit International (Academy of International Law) at The Hague, president of the Institut de Droit International (1924-38), and chairman of the Nobel Prize foundation (1929-47).
Hammer, (Johann) Bernhard (b. March 3, 1822, Olten, Solothurn - d. April 6, 1907, Solothurn), finance and customs minister (1876-78, 1880-90) and president (1879, 1889) of Switzerland.
Hammond, Aleqa (b. Sept. 23, 1965, Narsaq, Greenland), foreign minister (2007-08, 2013- ), finance minister (2007-08), and prime minister (2013- ) of Greenland.
Hammond, Jay S(terner) (b. July 21, 1922, Troy, N.Y. - d. Aug. 2, 2005, Lake Clark, Alaska), governor of Alaska (1974-82). Hammond, a Republican, was in office during the two-year construction, ending in 1977, of the 800-mile Trans-Alaska pipeline. He persuaded voters to approve the establishment of a permanent fund to handle the state's petroleum royalties. Interest from the fund pays annual dividends to each person with at least a year's residency in the state. During Hammond's term, federal land reserves in Alaska grew sharply, fishery stocks revived, and a broad-based tourism industry was established. He became known for balancing his strong advocacy of environmental conservation with political conservatism.
Hammond, Michael (Peter) (b. June 13, 1932, Kenosha, Wis. - d. Jan. 29, 2002, Washington, D.C.), chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts (2002). The conductor and composer had been dean of the School of Music at Rice University in Houston (since 1986) when Pres. George W. Bush nominated him to lead the federal agency that decides grants for the arts. After being confirmed by the Senate on Dec. 20, 2001, Hammond assumed the post Jan. 22, 2002, but died a week later.
Hammoud, Mahmoud (b. 1935, Kfarkila, Marjayoun district, southern Lebanon), foreign minister (2000-03, 2004-05) and defense minister (2003-04) of Lebanon. He is a Shi`ite who earlier was Lebanese ambassador to the United Arab Emirates (1978-83), West Germany (1983-85), the Soviet Union and Finland (1986-90), and the United Kingdom (1990-99).
Hammuda, (Abu Muhammad), byname of Sayyidi Muhammad ibn `Ali (b. Dec. 9, 1759 - d. [probably poisoned] Sept. 15, 1814, Bardo palace, near Tunis, Tunisia), bey of Tunisia (1777-1814).
Hamrouche, Mouloud, Arabic Mulud Hamrush (b. Jan. 3, 1943, Constantine, Algeria), prime minister of Algeria (1989-91). Hamrouche ran as an independent presidential candidate in 1999, but he claimed the support of National Liberation Front (FLN) grass-roots members he said had deserted the party leadership seen as too close to the army. He was a leading figure in the FLN but he fell out with its leaders over policy. He pledged to overhaul the government to regain popular confidence and to promote a free market economy.
Hamsyah, Junaidi (b. Feb. 4, 1970, Tebat Pacur, Bengkulu, Indonesia), governor of Bengkulu (2012- ).
Hamutenya, Hidipo (Livius) (b. June 17, 1939, Odibo, Ohangwena region, South West Africa [now Namibia]), foreign minister of Namibia (2002-04). He was minister of information and broadcasting (1990-93) and trade and industry (1993-2002) and a presidential candidate in 2009.
Hamzah (ibn Hussein al-Hashimi), Arabic Hamza (ibn al-Husayn al-Hashimi) (b. March 29, 1980, Amman, Jordan), crown prince of Jordan (1999-2004). He is the eldest son of King Hussein's fourth wife, the American-born Queen Noor. His early schooling was in Jordan but he moved to England to attend Harrow boarding school and Sandhurst military academy and later enrolled in a U.S. college. He was appointed crown prince by his half-brother King Abdullah, after the death of their father, King Hussein, in 1999. But in 2004 Abdullah relieved him of his duties as crown prince saying his "symbolic" duties as heir were holding him back from assuming wider public and royal responsibilities.
Hamzík, Pavol (b. Aug. 20, 1954, Trencín, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia]), foreign minister (1996-97) and deputy prime minister (1998-2001) of Slovakia.
Han Duck Soo, Revised Romanization Han Deok-su (b. June 18, 1949, Chonju, North Cholla province, South Korea), finance minister (2005-06), acting prime minister (2006), and prime minister (2007-08) of South Korea.
Han Fuju (b. 1890, Ba county, Hebei, China - d. Jan. 24, 1938, Hankou [now part of Wuhan], Hubei, China), chairman of the government of Henan (1928-30) and Shandong (1930-38). Being an army commander of Gen. Feng Yuxiang's forces, he turned to Chiang Kai-shek under the temptation of the latter, when Feng, associated with Yan Xishan, was fighting against Chiang. He was then named the 3rd Army commander. In his term as governor in Shandong, he declared war against "King of Shandong East" Liu Zhennian, drove out Liu, and thus "unified" the province. During the Sino-Japanese war, he fled from his office in Jinan without even exchanging fire with the Japanese forces. His provincial government moved to Taian and he fled to Cao county in the southwesternmost edge of Shandong. In the beginning of 1938, he abandoned Shandong and retreated to Henan, while Chiang held a military conference in Hankou, during which Han was arrested and executed.
Han Guojun (b. 1857, Taizhou, Jiangsu, China - d. January 1942), civil governor of Jiangsu (1913-14, 1922-25), Anhui (1914-15), Hunan (1915), and Shandong (1922) and military governor of Jiangsu (1924-25). At the end of the Qing dynasty, he was promoted from a magistrate to director of the Zhili Mineral Bureau. He held the mayor post of Huludao city (now in Liaoning province) on the eve of the republic. He was also taking over the Bureau of Canal Engineering as governor of Jiangsu, a province along the Grand Canal. He lived in the countryside, vowing to fight against Japanese invaders, in his later years, keeping a close relationship with the Communist armed forces. He was assassinated by Japanese in 1942.
Han Myung Sook, Revised Romanization Han Myeong-suk (b. March 24, 1944, P'yongyang, Korea [now in North Korea]), prime minister of South Korea (2006-07). She was jailed in 1979-81 for her role in the South Korea Christian Academy, which was dedicated to promoting democracy in South Korea. She was elected to the National Assembly in 2000 and 2004, was appointed as the first minister of gender equality in 2001 by Pres. Kim Dae Jung, and served as minister of environment in 2003-04 under Pres. Roh Moo Hyun, before becoming the country's first female prime minister. She resigned after less than a year, saying she was considering a run for the presidency.
Han Myung Sook
Han Seung Soo, Revised Romanization Han Seung-su (b. Dec. 28, 1936, Chuncheon, Gangwon province, Korea [now in South Korea]), foreign minister (2001-02) and prime minister (2008-09) of South Korea and president of the UN General Assembly (2001-02). He was first elected to the National Assembly in 1988 and was minister of trade and industry in 1988-90. In 1993-94, he was ambassador to the United States. He served as chief of staff to Pres. Kim Young Sam in 1994-95. In 1996-97, he was deputy prime minister and minister of finance and economy.
Han Seung Soo
Han Sung Joo, Revised Romanization Han Sung-ju (b. Sept. 13, 1940), foreign minister of South Korea (1993-94).
Hancock, John (b. Jan. 12, 1737, Braintree, Mass. - d. Oct. 8, 1793, Quincy, Mass., U.S.), American politician. From 1769 to 1774 he was a member of the Massachusetts General Court. He was chairman of the Boston town committee formed immediately after the "Boston Massacre" in 1770 to demand the removal of British troops from the city. In 1774 and 1775 he was president of the first and second provincial congresses, and he shared with Samuel Adams the leadership of the Massachusetts Patriots. With Adams he was forced to flee Lexington for Philadelphia when warned in April 1775 that he was being sought by Gen. Thomas Gage's troops, approaching from Boston. Hancock was a member of the Continental Congress from 1775 to 1780; he served as its president from May 1775 to October 1777. He was the first signer of the Declaration of Independence. He hoped to become commander in chief of the Continental Army, but George Washington was selected instead. Hancock was a member of the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention of 1780 and in the same year was elected governor of the state. He served in the Congress under the Articles of Confederation in 1785-86 and then returned to the governorship. He presided over the Massachusetts Convention of 1788 that ratified the Federal Constitution, although he had been unfriendly at first toward the document. Hancock died while serving his ninth term as governor.
Hancock, Winfield Scott (b. Feb. 14, 1824, Montgomery County, Pa. - d. Feb. 9, 1886, Governor's Island, N.Y.), U.S. politician. A West Point graduate (1844), he served with distinction in the Mexican War (1846-48). Hancock was appointed a brigadier general of volunteers on the outbreak of the Civil War and served in the Peninsular campaign of 1862. In May 1863 he was made head of the II Corps, Army of the Potomac, which he led for most of the remaining two years of the war. He served with distinction at the Battle of Gettysburg (July 1863) and participated in the drive on Richmond, Va., the following spring. As a major general after the war, he commanded (1866-68) various army departments, including the military division composed of Louisiana and Texas. Although great discretionary power had been conferred upon him, Hancock insisted on the maintenance of the civil authorities in their "natural and rightful dominion." This stand enraged some Republicans, who were counting on military power to protect black and white Republicans in the South, but his policy won him the support of the Democrats, who nominated him for the presidency in 1880. After narrowly losing the election to the Republican candidate, James A. Garfield, he returned to military life.
Hándal (Hándal), Schafik (Jorge) (b. Oct. 14, 1930, Usulután, El Salvador - d. Jan. 24, 2006, San Salvador, El Salvador), Salvadoran presidential candidate (2004).
Handley, Joe, byname of Joseph Handley (b. Aug. 9, 1943, Meadow Lake, Sask.), premier of the Northwest Territories (2003-07).
Handziski, Blagoj (b. June 6, 1948, Vladimirovo village, eastern Macedonia), defense minister (1994-97) and foreign minister (1997-98) of Macedonia.
Hanet-Cléry, Jules Émile (b. June 26, 1833, Bordeaux, France - d. Jan. 4, 1890), commandant-particular of Gabon (1880-81).
Hang Thun Hak (b. Aug. 2, 1926, Prek Kak, Stoeung Trang district, Kompong Cham province, eastern Cambodia - d. [killed] April 17?, 1975, Phnom Penh, Cambodia), prime minister of Cambodia (1972-73).
Hani, Chris, byname of Martin Thembisile Hani (b. June 28, 1942, Cofimvaba district, Cape province [now in Eastern Cape], South Africa - d. April 10, 1993, Boksburg, Transvaal [now in Gauteng], South Africa), South African politician. Hani, whose father was an African National Congress (ANC) member, joined the ANC Youth League in 1957. From 1962 he was involved in Umkhonto we Sizwe ("Spear of the Nation," the military wing of the ANC) and the South African Communist Party (SACP). He underwent military training, fought with black nationalists in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), and directed guerrilla operations against South Africa from Lesotho and Zambia. Hani was elected to the ANC executive council in 1974 and was named deputy commander of Umkhonto in 1982. He became Umkhonto chief of staff in 1987, a position he resigned in 1991 when he succeeded Joe Slovo as SACP secretary-general. Hani was foremost among the so-called Young Lions, ANC members who endorsed using violence against civilian targets, as opposed to the somewhat more moderate tactics of older leaders, such as Nelson Mandela and Oliver Tambo. After the ban on the ANC was lifted in 1990, however, he participated in the negotiations for a peaceful transfer to majority rule. Hani, who had survived previous assassination attempts, was gunned down outside his home in a quiet, racially integrated suburb outside Johannesburg.
Hani, Nasser al- (b. 1920, Amah - d. [found dumped in a ditch] Nov. 11, 1968, Baghdad), foreign minister of Iraq (1968).
Hanif Khan, Rana Mohammad (d. Jan. 4, 2005, Chichawatni, Pakistan), finance minister of Pakistan (1974-77).
Hanin, Charles (Émile) (b. June 18, 1895, Hussein Dey, Algiers, Algeria - d. Sept. 23, 1964, Prats de Mollo, Pyrénées-Orientales, France), acting governor of Chad (1951) and Gabon (1951-52).
Hanisi, Setefano (b. June 14, 1960, Hahake, Wallis island), prime minister of `Uvea (1996-98, 2011- ).
Haniya, Ismail, Haniya also spelled Haniyeh, Arabic Isma`il Haniyya (b. January 1963, Shati refugee camp, Gaza Strip), prime minister of the Palestinian Authority (2006-07, continuing in the Gaza Strip 2007- ).
Hank González, Carlos (b. Aug. 28, 1927, Santiago Tianguistenco, México state, Mexico - d. Aug. 11, 2001, Santiago Tianguistenco), Mexican politician. Hank González, famous for coining the phrase "A politician who is poor is a poor politician," was a behind-the-scenes force in the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), which ruled Mexico from 1929 to 2000. He first won public office in Atacomulco, a municipality in México state. He later founded the Atacomulco political movement, committed to furthering the PRI's goals. In the 1950s he was mayor of Toluca, capital of the state of México, and a national congressman. One of his most controversial political posts was at Conasupo, Mexico's staples agency that had the role of subsidizing production of corn, beans, milk, and other basic foods. As director of the agency in 1964-69 he oversaw the building of hundreds of silos that have never been used. He served as governor of México state in 1969-75, chief of government of the Distrito Federal (i.e., Mexico City's mayor) in 1976-82, tourism minister in 1988-89, and agriculture minister in 1990-94. He exemplified Mexico's old-guard political leaders, who built careers on doing small favours for supporters in rural areas. A successful businessman whose holdings included a large share of Mercedes-Benz of Mexico, Hank González used his fame as a lifetime public servant to bolster his private ventures and amass a fortune that made his family one of the richest in Mexico. Though he left public life in 1994, Hank González was still a major power behind the scenes, reportedly supporting fellow hardliner Roberto Madrazo, who failed to win the PRI presidential primary in 2000.
Hanks, Nancy (b. Dec. 31, 1927, Miami Beach, Fla. - d. Jan. 7, 1983, New York City), chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts (1969-77).
Hanna, Arthur Dion (b. March 7, 1928, Pompey Bay, Acklins island, Bahamas), governor-general of The Bahamas (2006-10). He joined the Progressive Liberal Party (PLP) in March 1956 and served as member of parliament for Ann's Town from 1960 until he lost the seat in the 1992 general elections. Under the PLP government, his cabinet posts included deputy prime minister (1967-84) and minister of education, trade and industry, home affairs, and finance.
Hannemann, Mufi, byname of Muliufi Francis Hannemann (b. July 16, 1954, Honolulu, Hawaii), mayor of Honolulu (2005-10).
Hannibalsson, Jón Baldvin (b. Feb. 21, 1939, Ísafjördur, Iceland), finance minister (1987-88) and foreign minister (1988-95) of Iceland. He was also ambassador to the United States (1998-2002; also accredited to Mexico, Canada [to 2001], Argentina [from 1999], Brazil [from 1999], and Chile [from 2001]) and Finland (2003-05; also accredited to Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and [from 2004] Ukraine).
Hans-Adam II, in full Johannes Adam Pius Ferdinand Alois Josef Maria Marko d'Aviano Pius (b. Feb. 14, 1945, Zürich, Switzerland), prince of Liechtenstein (1989- ). He was the eldest son of Franz Josef II, the reigning monarch since 1938, and Princess Gina. He spent his early youth in the castle of Vaduz, but he was not isolated from everyday life among the principality's approximately 26,000 citizens; he attended primary school in the town and as a boy scout took part in camp life and other activities. Like his father before him, he underwent his secondary education at Vienna's Schottengymnasium and at Zuoz, Graubünden, Switzerland, where he matriculated in the spring of 1965. After a period as a trainee assistant in a London bank, in the fall of 1965 he entered the Sankt Gallen (Switzerland) School of Economics and Social Sciences, from which he was graduated in 1969. On July 30, 1967, he had married Countess Marie Aglae Kinsky von Wchinitz und Tettau (b. April 14, 1940, Prague). The couple had three sons and a daughter: Prince Alois (b. June 11, 1968), Prince Maximilian (b. May 16, 1969), Prince Constantin (b. March 15, 1972), and Princess Tatjana (b. April 10, 1973). Hans-Adam took a keen interest in economic and financial matters and foreign relations. He was a firm believer in European unity. In 1972 his father entrusted him with the financial management of the princely estate, a task he performed with considerable success. On Aug. 26, 1984, Franz Joseph handed over the greater part of his executive authority to Hans-Adam. On Nov. 13, 1989, Franz Joseph died and Hans-Adam became sovereign prince. In March 2003 a referendum endorsed constitutional changes which effectively gave him more powers than any other European monarch. In August 2004 he transferred power to his son, but said he had no intention of abdicating.
Hänsch, Klaus (b. Dec. 15, 1938, Sprottau, Germany), president of the European Parliament (1994-97).
Hanselmann, Johannes (b. March 9, 1927, Ehingen am Ries, Bayern, Germany - d. Oct. 2, 1999, Rotthalmünster, Bayern), president of the Lutheran World Federation (1987-90).
Hansen, Glenna F(anny) (b. Aug. 10, 1956, Aklavik, N.W.T.), commissioner of the Northwest Territories (2000-05).
Hansen, Hans Christian (Svane) (b. Nov. 8, 1906, Aarhus, Denmark - d. Feb. 19, 1960, Copenhagen), prime minister of Denmark (1955-60). He became secretary of the Social Democratic Party's youth organization in 1929 and its chairman four years later. Elected to parliament in 1936, he gave up his seat in the early 1940s, during the German occupation of Denmark in World War II. Becoming secretary of the Social Democratic Party, he joined the Danish resistance movement, for which he published an underground newspaper. Hansen served effectively as finance minister in the minority Social Democratic government of Hans Hedtoft (1947-50), having earlier served in that post in May-November 1945. When the next Hedtoft government took office in 1953, Hansen was minister of foreign affairs (until 1958). Named prime minister after Hedtoft's death in 1955, he served until his own death. With his predecessor he championed a strong defense policy and active membership in NATO. After the elections of 1957 he headed a coalition government that ended Denmark's critical economic instability.
Hanson, Aline (b. Oct. 9, 1949), president of the Territorial Council of Saint-Martin (2013- ).
Hanson, Ann Meekitjuk (b. May 22, 1946, Qakutut island, Northwest Territories [now in Nunavut], Canada), commissioner of Nunavut (2005-10).
Hanson, Margus (b. Jan. 6, 1958, Tartu, Estonian S.S.R.), defense minister of Estonia (2003-04). He resigned after security police began an investigation into the theft of a briefcase containing classified documents from his home while he slept.
Hanson, Pauline (Lee), née Seccombe (b. May 27, 1954, Brisbane, Queensland), Australian politician. She was elected to the Ipswich, Queensland, city council in 1994 but was defeated the following year. She ran successfully for parliament in the March 1996 general election, officially for the Liberal Party, which however disowned her for her extremist views shortly before the election. She shocked Australia in September 1996 with her maiden speech to parliament, in which she blamed Aborigines, Asian immigrants, and public policy regarding them for many of the country's problems. In April 1997 she formed a new political party, One Nation. She had developed a large following among some groups of Australians, and membership in and support for One Nation grew rapidly. In August the Australian Electoral Commission redrew federal electoral boundaries in Queensland in order to create another seat for the growing population. Hanson's electorate, Oxley, was redistributed, the newly drawn district containing a significant population of Asian immigrants. She was not returned in the 1998 national elections, in which her party did not win any seats in the House and only one in the Senate, though it took over 8% of the vote (and about 23% in a Queensland state election earlier that year). Her popularity declined, and she failed to win a seat in the Senate in the 2001 elections. Her party broke up acrimoniously amid allegations of wrongdoing and internal bickering. She resigned as party president in January 2002. On Aug. 20, 2003, she was sentenced to three years in jail for fraudulently setting up her One Nation party and illegally using electoral funds, but on November 6 this conviction was overturned and she was released after serving 11 weeks in jail.
Hansson, Per Albin (b. Oct. 28, 1885, Fosie, near Malmö, Sweden - d. Oct. 6, 1946, Stockholm), prime minister of Sweden (1932-46). He joined the Social Democratic Youth Association in 1903. As a member of the Riksdag (parliament) after 1918, he argued for disarmament and reduction of the armed forces. With a few brief interruptions, he served as minister of defense under Karl Hjalmar Branting (1920-25) and Rickard Sandler (1925-26) and on Branting's death in 1925 became leader of the Social Democrat Party. He led the Social Democrats in gaining a sharp reduction of the nation's military expenditures in 1925 but supported funds for new battleships and in 1928 and 1932 opposed his party's plan of total disarmament. After serving on the government's Public Debt Commission (1929-32), he became prime minister in 1932 and effected with the Farmers' Party an agreement that enabled passage of his administration's strong anti-depression program. His administration implemented measures for public-works construction, support for agriculture, and financial expansion, and later for unemployment insurance (1934) and old age pensions (1935, 1937). By 1936 wages had reached their pre-depression level, and unemployment dipped sharply by the end of the decade. After 1936 he sponsored an expansion of Sweden's defenses, refused Germany's offer of a nonaggression pact, and worked for cooperative security arrangements among the Scandinavian countries. With the outbreak of the Winter War between Soviet Russia and Finland in December 1939, he formed a coalition government that lasted for the duration of World War II and maintained Sweden's neutrality. At the end of World War II (1945), he formed a Social Democrat administration but died the following year.
Hanzekovic, Marijan (b. April 15, 1915, Slavonska Pozega, Austria-Hungary [now in Croatia] - d. 1993, Zagreb, Croatia), finance minister of Croatia (1990-91).
Haomae, William (Ni'i) (b. Nov. 26, 1960, Mou village, Small Malaita, Solomon Islands), foreign minister of the Solomon Islands (2007-10). He was also minister for culture, tourism, and aviation (1994-97), minister for police (2000-01, 2006), and deputy prime minister (2001).
Haq, Abdul, original name Humayoun Arsala (b. 1958, Nangarhar province, Afghanistan - d. Oct. 26, 2001, Kabul), Afghan resistance leader. Already as a teenager, he participated in attempts to overthrow the Soviet-backed government of Mohammad Daud. He was an audacious guerrilla commander in Afghanistan's war against the Soviet Union and later became an internationally known English-language spokesman for the anti-Taliban resistance. He was a strong supporter of Afghanistan's exiled king, Mohammad Zahir Shah, and served in Prime Minister Gulbuddin Hekmatyar's interim government in the mid-1990s. When war again broke out among the Afghan warlords, Haq left the country and became a successful businessman in Pakistan and the United Arab Emirates. In September 2001, after the assassination of Northern Alliance leader Ahmad Shah Masood, a political and military rival, and the terrorist attacks in the U.S., Haq tried to dissuade the Western allies from bombing Afghanistan. He reportedly was attempting to negotiate with anti-Taliban supporters when he was captured by Taliban forces and, within hours, executed as a spy.
Haq, Fazle (d. [gunned down by unidentified assailants] Oct. 30, 1991, Peshawar, North-West Frontier Province [now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa], Pakistan), governor (1978-85) and acting chief minister (1988) of North-West Frontier Province.
Haque, (Mohammad) Fazlul (b. June 30, 1938), acting chief adviser of Bangladesh (2007).
Hara, Takashi, also called Kei Hara (b. March 15, 1856, Morioka, Japan - d. Nov. 4, 1921, Tokyo), prime minister of Japan (1918-21). In 1882 he entered the diplomatic service, was appointed consul at Tianjin, and in 1886 became secretary and chargé d'affaires at Paris. In 1892 he was appointed director of the Commercial Bureau at the Foreign Office, and in 1895 he was promoted to be vice-minister of the department. He was sent as minister to Korea in 1896-97. He was one of the right-hand men of Hirobumi Ito when the latter founded the Rikken Seiyukai (Friends of Constitutional Government Party) in August 1900. Hara became the Seiyukai's secretary-general that year and was a principal leader of the party from then on, serving as its president after 1914. Elected to the Diet (parliament) in 1900 and reelected eight times thereafter, he was minister of communications in 1901-02 and home minister in 1906-08, 1911-12, and 1913-14. He built the Seiyukai into a U.S.-style party whose popular support came from the patronage it dispensed and the regional economic development it sought to promote. On Sept. 29, 1918, he obtained the premiership, ushering in almost two decades in which the Seiyukai machine and its business and agricultural allies dominated civilian politics. Hara lowered the property qualifications for voting, thus enlarging the electorate to include the small landholders among whom Seiyukai strength lay. He refused, however, to use the absolute majority the Seiyukai commanded in the lower house of the Diet to institute universal male suffrage in Japan. Hara also attempted to reduce the power of the military, and he opposed the use of Japanese soldiers in Siberia. In 1921 he was stabbed to death at Tokyo's Central Railway Station by a young rightist fanatic.
Haracic, Midhat (b. 1945, Sarajevo), governor of Sarajevo canton (1996-98).
Haradinaj, Ramush (b. July 3, 1968, Glodjane village, Decani municipality, Kosovo), prime minister of Kosovo (2004-05). During the 1998-99 war he commanded the guerrillas in Kosovo's western part, a scene of bitter clashes with Serb forces. He resigned as prime minister in March 2005 when he was charged with war crimes by the UN tribunal in The Hague. He returned to Kosovo in June pending his trial, but a permission to take part in politics was suspended following objections by Carla Del Ponte, the tribunal's chief prosecutor. On March 10, 2006, he was allowed to resume political activities to a limited degree and under strict control. It was thought that he remained the most influential figure behind the government. His trial began in March 2007. He was acquitted in April 2008 and returned to Kosovo, where his party had slid from power in his absence. His former comrade-in-arms - but now bitter political rival - Hashim Thaçi was leading a government that had been lauded at home for declaring Kosovo's independence in February 2008. Appeal judges ordered a partial retrial, but in November 2012 he was acquitted a second time.
Harahap, Burhanuddin (b. Feb. 12, 1917, Medan, Netherlands East Indies [now Indonesia] - d. June 14, 1987, Jakarta, Indonesia), prime minister and defense minister of Indonesia (1955-56). He was defense and justice minister in the rebel government of 1958-61.
Haralambie, Nicolae (Constantin) (b. Aug. 22, 1835, Bucharest, Walachia [now in Romania] - d. April 3, 1908, Bucharest), member of the Princely Lieutenancy of Romania (1866).
Harald V (b. Feb. 21, 1937, Skaugum, Asker, Norway), king of Norway (1991- ). In 1959, when the 22-year-old crown prince graduated from the national war college in Oslo, his guest at the graduation ball was a commoner, Sonja Haraldsen. The general assumption was, however, that when the prince decided to marry, he would pick his mate from among Europe's few remaining princesses. As rumours grew that the relationship with Haraldsen was serious and enduring, some politicians and journalists expressed the fear that Harald's marriage to a commoner could spell the end of the monarchy in Norway. This fear proved unfounded. King Olav's announcement in March 1968 that he had approved his son's engagement to Haraldsen was enthusiastically received by the public. When the marriage took place five months later, thousands lined the streets to cheer the bridal procession. The king's wedding gift to the young couple was the country estate of Skaugum, about 45 minutes' drive from Oslo. There they continued to live after Harald became king in 1991. At a news conference on November 28 - the first ever given by a Norwegian monarch - King Harald said that he and Queen Sonja had no plans to move permanently to the Royal Palace in the centre of Oslo. As his preference for country living indicated, King Harald was a lover of nature, much concerned with environmental issues. Significantly, he refused a request by Norway's Royal Automobile Club to succeed his father and grandfather as the club's patron - although the club would not be required to change its name. He had been president of the Norwegian branch of the World Wildlife Fund since its foundation in December 1970. The king and queen moved permanently to the newly renovated palace in the summer of 2001, however.
Harang, Bernard (b. June 19, 1947, Vienne-en-Val, Loiret, France), president of the Regional Council of Centre (1998).
Harbi Farah, Mahamoud, Somali Mahmuud Harbi Farrax, Arabic Mahmud al-Harbi Farrah (b. Jan. 1, 1921, Ali Sabieh, southwestern French Somaliland [now Djibouti] - d. [plane crash] March 1, 1960, Djibouti), vice president of the Government Council of French Somaliland (1957-58).
Harcourt, Sir Cecil (Halliday Jepson) (b. April 11, 1892 - d. Dec. 19, 1959), military governor of Hong Kong (1945-46); knighted 1945.
Harcourt, Michael (Franklin) (b. Jan. 6, 1943, Edmonton, Alberta), premier of British Columbia (1991-96). First elected as a Vancouver alderman in 1972, he became the city's mayor in 1980. As chief magistrate, he ran city hall with amiable pragmatism until he left to take over the provincial New Democratic Party (NDP) in 1986. In 1991, he led the party to a landslide victory over the Social Credit Party, in contrast to which Harcourt promised clean, open government and an end to British Columbia's history of poisonously partisan politics. His government's honeymoon lasted just seven months. In May 1992, The Vancouver Sun published the first allegations that the Nanaimo Commonwealth Holding Society (NCHS), an association founded in 1954 by a predecessor to the NDP, had diverted money raised at bingo games and supposedly meant for charity, to other purposes. Harcourt denied that any links existed between the society and his party - but ordered a provincial investigation into its affairs. Even as that investigation proceeded, the premier's credibility skidded badly on another front. In August 1992, his willingness to trade away future B.C. representation in the House of Commons as part of the Charlottetown constitutional accord won him the derisory nickname of "Premier Bonehead" - an unflattering tag he was never able to shake. Like a virus that the government could not shake off, the NCHS controversy - dubbed "Bingogate" by unsympathetic columnists - kept returning to public attention as a series of investigations shed an ever-more penetrating light on the Nanaimo society's activities. After resigning in 1996 he was appointed to a number of federal councils by the prime minister, and in 1999 he was appointed director of the Vancouver Port Authority.
Hardie, (James) Keir (b. Aug. 15, 1856, Legbrannock, Lanark, Scotland - d. Sept. 26, 1915, Glasgow), British politician. From 1881 he helped to form miners' unions on a county basis. In his own newspapers, The Miner (1887-89) and Labour Leader (from 1889), he expressed Christian socialist views on labour and on wider political issues. He founded the Scottish Labour Party in 1888, the year in which he was badly defeated in his first attempt at election to the House of Commons. Successful in the 1892 general election as an independent, he became the first to represent the workingman in Parliament. At Bradford, Yorkshire, in January 1893, he participated in organizing the Independent Labour Party (ILP). Following the loss of his Commons seat in 1895, he assisted in planning a Labour Party resembling the Liberals and the Conservatives in parliamentary organization. Delegates at a labour conference in London on Feb. 27-28, 1900, formed the Labour Representation Committee, forerunner of the Labour Party. In the same year, Hardie was returned to Parliament, and, in 1906, he was joined in the Commons by 28 other members of the committee, which then became a party organization with an elected leader (at first called the chairman) and party whips. Temperamentally unsuited to the routine administration of a group, Hardie ended his chairmanship in 1907. As World War I approached, he became primarily concerned with the role of labour in maintaining peace. He sought to bind the Second International to declaring a general strike in all countries in the event of war. His failure in this effort and the decision of a majority of the Labour Party to support British participation in the war caused Hardie to withdraw in disillusion from his colleagues.
Hardie Boys, Sir Michael (b. Oct. 6, 1931, Wellington), governor-general of New Zealand (1996-2001). He was appointed a judge of the High Court in 1980. In 1989 he became a judge of the Court of Appeal and a Privy Counsellor. In 1996 Sir Michael returned from the United Kingdom where in 1995 he was knighted by the queen, becoming a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. Michael and St. George (G.C.M.G.). He was sworn in as New Zealand's 17th governor-general on March 21, 1996.
Harding, Chester (b. Dec. 31, 1866, Enterprise, Miss. - d. Nov. 11, 1936), governor of the Panama Canal Zone (1917-21). He was appointed to the United States Military Academy at West Point, and upon graduation on June 12, 1889, was commissioned as an additional second lieutenant in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. He was made a second lieutenant of engineers Aug. 12, 1890, was promoted to first lieutenant Jan. 26, 1895, and was made captain July 5, 1898. Harding was appointed a Division Engineer of Gatun Locks Division in 1907, and then was promoted as Panama Canal maintenance engineer in 1915. As a Panama Canal engineer, Harding was responsible for many construction projects including terminal installations; operation of the building division including continuation of the Ancon Hospital group of buildings; the garbage incinerator at Balboa and the industrial plan for the Panama Railroad; the construction of pier no. 6 at Cristobal; and intermittent dredging work at Culebra Cut and Cucaracha because of slides, removing more than 5 million cubic yards in 5 years.
Harding, W(illiam) P(rocter) G(ould) (b. May 5, 1864, Greene county, Ala. - d. April 7, 1930, Boston, Mass.), governor of the Federal Reserve System (1916-22).
Harding, Warren G(amaliel) (b. Nov. 2, 1865, Blooming Grove, Ohio - d. Aug. 2, 1923, San Francisco, Calif.), president of the United States (1921-23). He participated in Republican Party campaigns, allying himself with the Ohio political machine. He was a state senator (1899-1902), lieutenant governor (1903-04), and U.S. senator (1915-21). When three outstanding presidential contenders became deadlocked at the 1920 Republican convention, powerful conservatives decided on Harding as a compromise candidate. The image of the unassuming Midwesterner who did not press for domestic reform or international involvement was a welcome relief to war-weary, disillusioned Americans. He was elected by the widest popular margin - 60.3% - recorded to that time. On his recommendation, Congress established a budget system for the federal government, passed the highly protective Fordney-McCumber Tariff, and approved an act restricting immigration. His administration convened the Washington Conference of 1922, at which treaties limiting naval strength among the world powers were negotiated. His greatest weakness lay in his largely unsupervised cabinet and in his lesser appointments, which included many patronage appointees and personal friends who were either unqualified or plainly dishonest. By the spring of 1923, rumours of corruption were circulating, and Sen. Thomas J. Walsh was gathering evidence to expose the Teapot Dome Scandal, in which federal oil reserves had been secretly leased by Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall to business associates. In the midst of the investigation, Harding set out (June 20) on a transcontinental tour. He arrived in San Francisco in a state of exhaustion and died amid conflicting rumours as to the cause of his illness.
Harding of Petherton, (Allan Francis) John Harding, Baron (b. Feb. 10, 1896, Somerset, England - d. Jan. 20, 1989, Nether Compton, Dorset, England), governor of Cyprus (1955-57). He was called to the regular army at the beginning of World War I and rose to the level of acting lieutenant colonel (a rank he lost after the war but officially regained in 1938) in command of a machine-gun battalion in the Middle East. At the outbreak of World War II, his regular posting was in India. He was transferred to the Middle East and in 1942 was chosen to head the 7th Armoured Division (the "Desert Rats"), which he commanded in its acclaimed victory at the Battle of el-Alamein. Harding was seriously wounded in January 1943, but he returned to the fighting in March 1944 as chief of staff under Gen. Sir Harold Alexander in the Italian campaign, crafting the plans for the Allied capture of Rome. After the war he succeeded Alexander as commander of the British forces in the Mediterranean. Harding, who was promoted to general in 1949 and field marshal in 1953, headed the British Far East Land Forces (1949-51) and the British Army of the Rhine (1951-52) before being named chief of the Imperial General Staff. He postponed his intended retirement in 1955 when he was appointed military governor and commander in chief in Cyprus. In 1956 he deported the Cypriot nationalist leader, Archbishop Makarios III. Harding was created a life peer soon after his retirement in 1958.
Hardjadinata, (Mohamad) Sanusi (b. June 24, 1914, Garut, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Barat, Indonesia] - d. Dec. 12, 1995), governor of Jawa Barat (1951-56).
Harinxma thoe Slooten, Binnert Philip baron van (b. Aug. 30, 1839, Drachten, Friesland, Netherlands - d. Nov. 2, 1923, Leeuwarden, Friesland), king's/queen's commissioner of Friesland (1878-1909).
Hariri, Rafiq (Bahaeddine), Rafiq also spelled Rafik or Rafic, Arabic Rafiq Baha´ al-Din al-Hariri (b. Nov. 1, 1944, Sidon, Lebanon - d. Feb. 14, 2005, Beirut, Lebanon), prime minister (1992-98, 2000-04) and finance minister (1992-98) of Lebanon. A construction tycoon, he appeared on the political arena during the 1989 Taif conference which helped end Lebanon's civil war. His fortune helped him in his initial foray into politics because most Lebanese saw the multibillionaire as too rich to be corrupted, and they also trusted that his business acumen would be brought to bear on a government renowned for its lack of efficient management. A week after taking office as prime minister, he signaled his sensitivity to Lebanon's rival religions by naming a cabinet that was equally composed of Christians and Muslims. His agenda included the rebuilding of Lebanon into the Middle East's financial and trading capital by implementing his $10 billion plan to repair the country's infrastructure, initialing a future peace treaty with Israel, and ending terrorism, both at home and abroad. He disbanded the militias that once terrorized the capital and launched his plan to "go down in history as the man who rebuilt Beirut." He was elected to parliament for the first time in 1996. In 1998 he turned down the prime minister's post because, he said, new president Émile Lahoud's consultations with members of parliament had breached the constitution. But politicians said Hariri was really enraged by Lahoud's attempts to influence his choice of cabinet. They said Hariri had also been irked because his majority in parliament depended on support from his archrival Nabih Berri. Hariri was back in power in 2000 after a landslide election victory but resigned in 2004 amid another rift with Lahoud. He was killed in a bomb attack.
Hariri, Saad(eddine Rafiq), Arabic Sa`d al-Din Rafiq al-Hariri (b. April 18, 1970, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia), prime minister of Lebanon (2009-11); son of Rafiq Hariri. He ran the family's business empire and entered politics after his father was assassinated.
Harlley, J(ohn) W(illie) K(ofi) (b. May 9, 1919, Akagla, Gold Coast [now Ghana] - d. early 1980s), foreign minister of Ghana (1967-68).
Harmel, Pierre (Charles José Marie) (b. March 16, 1911, Uccle, Belgium - d. Nov. 15, 2009, Brussels, Belgium), prime minister (1965-66) and foreign minister (1966-73) of Belgium. He was also justice minister (1958) and chairman of the Senate (1973-77).
Harnum, E(wart) John A(rlington) (b. Oct. 13, 1910, Sound Island, Placentia Bay, Newfoundland - d. Feb. 29, 1996, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada), lieutenant governor of Newfoundland (1969-74).
Haroon, Mahmood A(bdullah) (b. 1920, Karachi, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Nov. 6, 2008, Karachi), interior minister (1978-84) and defense minister (1988) of Pakistan and governor of Sindh (1990-93, 1994-95); brother of Yusuf Haroon.
Haroon, Yusuf (Abdullah) (b. Jan. 16, 1918, Karachi, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Feb. 12, 2011, New York), chief minister of Sindh (1949-50) and governor of West Pakistan (1969). He was also mayor of Karachi (1944-45).
Haroun, (Mohamed) Ali, Arabic (Muhammad) `Ali Harun (b. 1927, Birmandreis, Algeria), member of the High State Committee of Algeria (1992-94). In 1991-92 he was human rights minister.
Harousseau, Jean-Luc (b. June 1, 1948, Nantes), president of the Regional Council of Pays de la Loire (2002-04).
Harper, Stephen (Joseph) (b. April 30, 1959, Toronto, Ont.), prime minister of Canada (2006- ).
Harriman, (William) Averell (b. Nov. 15, 1891, New York City - d. July 26, 1986, Yorktown Heights, N.Y.), U.S. politician. Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt sent Harriman on a diplomatic mission to Britain and the Soviet Union to expedite U.S. lend-lease aid. He served as U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union (1943-46), ambassador to Great Britain (1946), and secretary of commerce (1947-48). He was credited with helping to maintain the uneasy alliance between Winston Churchill and Iosif Stalin during World War II. He served Pres. Harry S. Truman as European administrator of the Marshall Plan, a U.S.-sponsored program designed to revitalize the economies of post-World War II European nations. He then served as governor of New York (1955-58) but lost a reelection bid to the more charismatic Nelson Rockefeller. In 1963 he became Pres. John F. Kennedy's chief representative in negotiating the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty, which was signed by the U.S., Great Britain, and the Soviet Union. Under Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson, he served as ambassador at the Paris peace talks between the U.S. and North Vietnam (1968-69). He was called on again in 1976 by presidential candidate Jimmy Carter, who sent him to Moscow to reassure Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev on arms control. During his long diplomatic career he had more experience dealing with the Soviet Union than any other American, and at the age of 91 Harriman traveled there again at the invitation of Soviet leader Yury Andropov. His negotiating technique, described as "water torture," was deliberately tedious and plodding and designed to eventually wear down his opponent.
Harrington, Michael (b. Feb. 24, 1928, St. Louis, Mo. - d. July 31, 1989, Larchmont, N.Y.), U.S. politician. He served as a member of the national executive board of the Socialist Party from 1960 to 1968, and was named (1982) chairman and later co-chairman of the Democratic Socialists of America. He gained national attention as the author of The Other America: Poverty in the United States (1962), which sparked the War on Poverty, an initiative adopted by Pres. John F. Kennedy three days before his assassination in 1963 and later implemented by Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson. In his exhaustively researched book, Harrington contended that there existed an underclass of poor people who were unable to help themselves and were trapped in a "culture of poverty." His exposé led to the expansion of Social Security, Aid to Families with Dependent Children, and food stamps and the creation of programs for housing and medical care.
Harris, Lagumot (Gagiemem Nimidere) (b. Dec. 23, 1938, Nauru - d. Sept. 8, 1999, Melbourne, Australia), president of Nauru (1978, 1995-96); grandson of Timothy Detudamo. He was a member of parliament for many years. He was chairman of the Nauru Rehabilitation Corporation at the time of his death.
Harris, Mike, byname of Michael Deane Harris (b. Jan. 23, 1945, Toronto), premier of Ontario (1995-2002). He entered provincial politics in 1981, when he was first elected to the Ontario legislature to represent the riding of Nipissing. He served as parliamentary assistant to the minister of the environment and was chairman of public accounts. He sat on the General Government and the Resources Development committees. In 1985 he was appointed minister of natural resources and minister of energy. From 1985 to 1990 he was the leader of the Progressive Conservative Party (PCP) in the legislature. After the defeat of the Progressive Conservative government in 1987, he served as critic for the Revenue, Labour, Housing, Finance, and Northern Development ministries. It was as finance critic that he developed his party's fiscal policy. In May 1994 he released his Common Sense Revolution, a plan to cut taxes and reduce the size and the cost of government. On May 12, 1990, he was elected leader of the Ontario PCP. The PCP won a legislative majority in the provincial election of June 8, 1995. Harris' administration represented a sharp change from the socialism of the previous New Democratic Party government to conservatism. Having gained a reputation as a crusader for tax relief and for a smaller, less interventionist government, he began immediately to implement his "Common Sense Revolution," and his policy changes in the first months of his administration were significant. The government reduced welfare benefits payments by more than 20% and repealed the anti-scab labour legislation passed by the previous government. Harris centralized the administration of the government, and his 20-member cabinet was the smallest in modern Ontario history.
Harris, Patricia (Roberts), née Roberts (b. May 31, 1924, Mattoon, Ill. - d. March 23, 1985, Washington, D.C.), U.S. politician. Since 1943 she participated in civil rights sit-ins in Washington, and she became a political figure in 1965 when Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson appointed her ambassador to Luxembourg. She was the first black woman to serve as a U.S. ambassador and she also became the first black woman to hold a cabinet post when, during Pres. Jimmy Carter's administration, she served as secretary of housing and urban development (1977-79) and then as the secretary of health, education, and welfare (1979-80); she continued in the latter post (1980-81) after the department was renamed health and human services. She was characterized as a resolute administrator and an unwavering proponent of government intervention to solve social problems.
Harris, René (Reynaldo) (b. Nov. 11, 1947, Nauru - d. July 5, 2008), president of Nauru (1999-2000, 2001-03, 2003, 2003-04). Member of parliament for Aiwo from 1977, he was elected president in April 1999, defeating incumbent Bernard Dowiyogo in a no-confidence vote. He had some 20 years of hands-on experience of Nauru's leading industry, phosphate mining and export, and served as chairman of the Board of Directors of the Nauru Phosphate Corporation from 1992 to 1995. He also held the position of manager of the former Nauru Pacific Line. Nauru, which had been a special member of the Commonwealth since 1968, acceded to full membership of the association on May 1, 1999. Harris also won Nauru's admission to the United Nations on Sept. 14, 1999. Defeated by Dowiyogo after the April 2000 elections, Harris regained the presidency in March 2001, lost it again in January 2003, regained it in August 2003, and lost it in June 2004 in an increasingly volatile political climate. In 2001, he joined with Australian prime minister John Howard in initiating the so-called Pacific Solution which saw asylum seekers diverted to Nauru where they were held in detention centres for processing rather than being allowed into Australia where they were heading. After 31 years in parliament, he lost his seat in the elections of April 2008. He was amongst the politicians accused by critics of squandering the country's phosphate revenues, which had once given Nauru a high per capita income, and his governments were also alleged to have allowed Nauru's offshore banking facilities to be used for money laundering.
Harris, Robert (Malcolm) (b. Feb. 9, 1941), governor of Anguilla (1996-2000). Earlier he was British consul-general in Lyon.
Harris, Timothy (Sylvester) (b. 1964, Tabernacle, St. Kitts), foreign minister (2001-08) and finance minister (2008-10) of Saint Kitts and Nevis.
Harris (bin Mohamed) Salleh, Tan Sri (b. 1933), chief minister of Sabah (1976-85). He received the title Datuk Seri Panglima in 1968 but returned the award on Sept. 12, 1986. On June 4, 2011, he received the title Tan Sri.
Harrison, (William) Alistair (b. Nov. 14, 1954), governor of Anguilla (2009-13). He was British high commissioner to Zambia in 2005-08.
Harrison, Benjamin (b. April 5, 1726, Berkeley Plantation, Charles City county, Virginia [now in U.S.] - d. April 24, 1791, Berkeley Plantation), governor of Virginia (1781-84).
Harrison, Benjamin (b. Aug. 20, 1833, North Bend, Ohio - d. March 13, 1901, Indianapolis, Ind.), president of the United States (1889-93); grandson of William Henry Harrison. He found an inviting arena for his political ambitions in the newly formed Republican Party. Although he failed to win the governorship of Indiana in 1876, his energetic campaign brought him national prominence. Elected to the U.S. Senate in 1881, he was nominated for the presidency by the Republicans in 1888 and won the election by 233 electoral votes to Democrat Grover Cleveland's 168 while losing the popular vote by more than 90,000 to Cleveland. His administration was marked by an innovative foreign policy and expanding U.S. influence abroad. His domestic program was less successful, despite the fact that the Republicans controlled both houses of Congress. An economic depression in the agrarian West and South led to pressure for legislation that conservative Republicans would normally resist. The result was an accommodation in which the conservatives gained the McKinley Tariff Act (1890) but yielded to agrarians and reformers in such measures as the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and the Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890). In the 1890 elections, the Democrats recaptured the House of Representatives by a large majority, and during the remaining two years of his term he had little, if any, influence on legislation. He was renominated in 1892, but growing Populist discontent and several national strikes occurring late in his term largely accounted for his defeat by an electoral vote of 145 to 277 for his old rival, Cleveland. Harrison emerged briefly to serve as leading counsel for Venezuela in the arbitration of its boundary dispute with Great Britain (1898-99).
Harrison, Carter Henry, Sr. (b. Feb. 15, 1825, near Lexington, Fayette county, Ky. - d. [assassinated] Oct. 28, 1893, Chicago, Ill.), mayor of Chicago (1879-87, 1893).
Harrison, Carter Henry, Jr. (b. April 23, 1860, Chicago, Ill. - d. Dec. 25, 1953, Chicago), mayor of Chicago (1897-1905, 1911-15); son of Carter Henry Harrison, Sr.
Harrison, Conrad B(ullen) (b. July 15, 1911, Logan, Utah - d. Feb. 12, 2008, Salt Lake City, Utah), mayor of Salt Lake City (1975-76).
Harrison (Usoz), Faustino (b. 1900 - d. 1963), president of the National Council of Government of Uruguay (1962-63).
Harrison, William Henry (b. Feb. 9, 1773, Berkeley Plantation, Charles City county, Virginia [now in U.S.] - d. April 4, 1841, Washington, D.C., U.S.), president of the United States (1841); son of Benjamin Harrison (1726-91). He was named secretary of the Northwest Territory in 1798 and sent to Congress as a territorial delegate the following year. In May 1800 he was appointed governor of the newly created Indiana Territory, where, succumbing to the demands of land-hungry whites, he negotiated between 1802 and 1809 a number of treaties that stripped the Indians of that region of millions of acres of land. Resisting this expansionism, the Shawnee intertribal leader Tecumseh organized an Indian uprising. Harrison defeated the Indians at the Battle of Tippecanoe (Nov. 7, 1811), a victory that largely established his military reputation in the public mind. Troops under his command decisively defeated the British in the War of 1812. After the war he settled in Ohio, where he quickly became prominent in Whig politics. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1816-19), the Ohio Senate (1819-21), the U.S. Senate (1825-28), and as minister to Colombia (1828-29). In 1836 he was one of three presidential candidates of the splintered Whig Party, but lost the election to Democrat Martin Van Buren. In 1840 he received the regular Whig nomination, largely because of his military record and his noncommittal political views. To attract Southern Democrats, the Whigs nominated John Tyler of Virginia for vice president. The cry of "Tippecanoe and Tyler too" rang throughout the land. He won 234 electoral votes to his rival's 60. Inauguration ceremonies were held in a cold drizzle, and the old campaigner insisted on delivering his address without a hat or an overcoat. He contracted pneumonia and died a month later.
Harroy, Jean-Paul (b. May 4, 1909, Brussels, Belgium - d. July 1995), governor (1955-60) and resident-general (1960-62) of Ruanda-Urundi.
Hart, Gary (Warren), original name Gary Warren Hartpence (b. Nov. 28, 1936, Ottawa, Kan.), U.S. politician. He joined his parents and wife in changing their surname to "Hart" in 1961. In 1970 he organized George McGovern's successful campaign to become the Democratic candidate for president in the 1972 election. He was elected senator in 1974 and narrowly reelected in 1980. In 1984 he ran for the Democratic presidential nomination and proved to be the candidate whom Walter Mondale had to beat. But his vague slogan, "the candidate with new ideas," led to the damaging accusation that he campaigned on form rather than substance. Mondale ridiculed his "new ideas" with the barb "Where's the beef?," which came from a TV commercial criticizing hamburgers that were more bun than beef. In 1987 the "character issue" seemingly ended Hart's second campaign for the Democratic nomination. Exasperated with rumours that he was a womanizer, Hart invited New York Times reporters to "tail" him and see for themselves that he was not unfaithful to his wife. With his wife away in Colorado, Miami Herald reporters staked out Hart's Washington home and spotted him leaving it with model Donna Rice, who, they alleged, had stayed there overnight. The front-page story came at a time when Hart already faced public doubts about his character, thanks to his conflicting statements about his name change and age, the womanizing rumour, and his unpaid 1984 campaign debt of $1.3 million. For a week he continued campaigning despite the Rice story, but when the Washington Post threatened to release details about an affair between him and yet another woman, Hart quit the race. In December, however, Hart dramatically announced that he was back in the running for president.
Harten, Jan Dirk van der (b. May 13, 1918, Eindhoven - d. Aug. 23, 1998, Eindhoven), queen's commissioner of Noord-Brabant (1973-83).
Hartling, Poul (b. Aug. 14, 1914, Copenhagen - d. April 30, 2000, Copenhagen), prime minister of Denmark (1973-75). He was first elected to the Danish parliament in 1957. Hartling was a Liberal Party (Venstre) foreign minister from 1968 to 1971, then he became prime minister in a minority cabinet in 1973 after general elections. Following that vote, the number of parties in parliament doubled to 10 after the main parties split, leading to a period with political turmoil, weak minority governments, and frequent elections. At about the same time came the three-fold hike in world oil prices, and Denmark's economic situation grew worse throughout 1974. Early elections were held in 1975 which Hartling's Liberal Party won, but he was not able to form a new government because of a fragmented parliament. His government was dismissed and then replaced by a Social Democratic cabinet. Hartling, who later described his time as prime minister as "horrible," quit Danish politics in 1978 to become UN high commissioner for refugees and held the Geneva-based office during two consecutive periods to 1985. During his terms, he dealt mainly with refugees from Vietnam, Ethiopia, and Afghanistan. In 1981, UNHCR won the Nobel Peace Prize and Hartling made the trip to Oslo, Norway, to receive the award. Hartling also received Pakistan's Nishan award in recognition of his efforts to mobilize humanitarian assistance for the Afghan refugees in Pakistan.
Hartung Gomes, Paulo César (b. April 21, 1957, Guaçuí, Espírito Santo, Brazil), governor of Espírito Santo (2003- ).
Harun Al Rasyid (b. Dec. 27, 1942), governor of Nusa Tenggara Barat (1998-2003).
Harun (bin Haji) Idris, Dato' (Haji) (b. July 21, 1925, Petaling district, Selangor, Malaya [now in Malaysia] - d. Oct. 19, 2003, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), chief minister of Selangor (1964-76). He left his office following a conviction for corruption in 1976; he began to serve a 6-year prison sentence in March 1978 but was released in 1981 and given a full pardon on Aug. 30, 1982.
Haruna, Boni (b. July 12, 1958), governor of Adamawa (1999-2007).
Haruna, Lawal (Ningi) (b. 1957), administrator of Borno (1998-99).
Harvard, John (b. June 4, 1938, Glenboro, Manitoba, Canada), lieutenant governor of Manitoba (2004-09).
Harvey, Donald (Alfonse) (d. 1991), guardian of the Baha´is Under the Hereditary Guardianship (1974-91).
Harvey, George U(pton) (d. 1946), borough president of Queens (1929-41).
Harvey, Ron(ald George) (b. June 9, 1934), administrator of Christmas Island and Cocos Islands (1997-98).
Harwood, Peter (Andrew) (b. 1947, Guernsey), chief minister of Guernsey (2012- ).
Hasan, Abdul Moeis (b. June 2, 1924, Samarinda, Netherlands East Indies [now in Kalimantan Timur, Indonesia] - d. Nov. 21, 2005, Jakarta, Indonesia), governor of Kalimantan Timur (1962-66).
Hasan, Ibrahim (b. March 16, 1935, Lampoh Weng, Aceh, Netherlands East Indies [now Indonesia]), governor of Aceh (1986-93).
Hasan, (Syed) Nurul (b. Dec. 26, 1921, Lucknow, United Provinces [now in Uttar Pradesh], India - d. July 12, 1993, Calcutta [now Kolkata], West Bengal, India), governor of West Bengal (1986-89, 1990-93) and Orissa (1988-90, 1993). He was also India's ambassador to the U.S.S.R. in 1983-86.
Hasani, Shaykh Taj ad-Din al- (b. 1885, Damascus, Ottoman Empire [now in Syria] - d. Jan. 17, 1943), acting head of state (1928-31), prime minister (1934-36), and president (1941-43) of Syria.
Hasani, Sinan (b. May 14, 1922, Pozaranje, Yugoslavia [now in Kosovo] - d. Aug. 28, 2010, Belgrade, Serbia), secretary of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Kosovo (1982-83) and president of the Presidency of Yugoslavia (1986-87). He was Yugoslavia's ambassador to Denmark in 1971-74.
Hasanov, Hasan (Aziz oglu) (b. Oct. 20, 1940, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), prime minister (1990-92) and foreign minister (1993-98) of Azerbaijan.
Haseloff, Reiner (b. Feb. 19, 1954, Bülzig, East Germany [now part of Zahna, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany]), minister-president of Sachsen-Anhalt (2011- ).
Haseth, Carel Pieter de (b. Oct. 20, 1882 - d. Nov. 8, 1928), administrator of Bonaire (1920-21).
Haseth, Willem George Shon Weis de (b. Oct. 12, 1915, Curaçao), administrator of Bonaire (1952-56, 1957-58) and acting administrator of Curaçao (1967-68).
Hasek, Michal (b. April 17, 1976), governor of Jihomoravský kraj (2008- ).
Hashidu, Abubakar (Habu) (b. April 10, 1944), governor of Gombe (1999-2003).
Hashim, Ibrahim, until 1952 Ibrahim Pasha Hashim (b. 1888 - d. [killed] July 14, 1958, Baghdad, Iraq), prime minister (1933-38, 1945-47, 1955-56, 1956, 1957-58) and member of the Regency Council (1952-53) of Jordan.
Hashim Khan, Sardar Mohammad (b. c. 1885 - d. Oct. 26, 1953, Kabul), prime minister of Afghanistan (1929-46); uncle of Mohammad Zahir Shah.
Hashimi, Taha (Pasha) al- (b. 1888 - d. 1961), prime minister of Iraq (1941).
Hashimi, Yasin (Pasha) al-, original name Yasin Hilmi Salman (b. 1894 - d. 1937, Damascus, Syria), prime minister (1924-25, 1935-36), defense minister (1924-25), and finance minister (1926-28, 1929-30, 1933) of Iraq.
Hashimoto, Daijiro (b. Jan. 12, 1947), governor of Kochi (1991-2007); brother of Ryutaro Hashimoto.
Hashimoto, Masaru (b. Nov. 19, 1945), governor of Ibaraki (1993- ).
Hashimoto, Ryutaro (b. July 29, 1937, Soja, Okayama prefecture, Japan - d. July 1, 2006, Tokyo, Japan), prime minister of Japan (1996-98). Campaigning from his father's constituency in Okayama prefecture, he was first elected to the House of Representatives for the Liberal-Democratic Party (LDP) in 1963, at the age of 26. Always part of the LDP's mainstream, he was named health and welfare minister in 1978 and subsequently held the portfolios of transport (1986-87) and finance (1989-91). As minister of international trade and industry (1994-95), he won national attention for his combative bargaining stance in an automobile trade dispute between Japan and the United States. He served as the LDP's secretary general (June-August 1989) and was chosen the party's president on Sept. 22, 1995. He was elected prime minister of Japan following the resignation of Social Democrat Tomiichi Murayama. He was thus heir to an unwieldy governing coalition between the LDP and the Social Democrats that had held power since 1994. As prime minister, he generally favoured the status quo but vowed to take measures to help stimulate the lagging Japanese economy. A politician highly respected for his knowledge of domestic affairs, he surprised his political friends and foes alike when he moved into foreign policy, announcing, days before U.S. Pres. Bill Clinton made a state visit to Tokyo in April 1996, that the U.S. had agreed to return the Marine Corps Air Station Futenma on Okinawa to Japan in five to seven years. Hashimoto was known outside Japan as a tough negotiator, but at home he was rated both high and low by those who knew him well. He was regarded as a man who looked after people who were junior to him, but he was also described as a loner who was arrogant, short-tempered, and politically hawkish. Hashimoto, whose last cabinet post was that of secretary of state charged with administrative reforms (2000-01), announced his retirement from politics on Aug. 18, 2005. He declared that he would not run in the September 11 parliamentary elections due to health reasons and that his son Gaku was to be the LDP candidate in his constituency.
Hashimoto, Toru (b. June 29, 1969), governor of Osaka (2008-11). In 2011 he was elected mayor of Osaka.
Hashimu bin Ahmed (d. 1889), sultan of Bajini (3 times in the 1880s).
Haskett, Dianne L(ouise) (b. March 4, 1955), mayor of London, Ontario (1995-2000).
Hasler, Adrian (b. Feb. 11, 1964), head of government of Liechtenstein (2013- ).
Hasler, Ernst (b. April 21, 1945, Langenthal, Bern, Switzerland), Landammann of Aargau (2002-03, 2007-08).
Hasler, Otmar (b. Sept. 28, 1953), head of government and finance minister of Liechtenstein (2001-09). He was also president of the Diet (1995).
Hasluck, Sir Paul (Meernaa Caedwalla) (b. April 1, 1905, Fremantle, Western Australia - d. Jan. 9, 1993, Perth, Western Australia), governor-general of Australia (1969-74). He joined the federal Department of External Affairs in 1941, represented his country at the 1945 conference in San Francisco that established the United Nations, and then led the first Australian UN delegation (1946). In 1949 he was elected to Parliament for the Liberal Party. As minister for territories (1951-63), Hasluck worked to prepare Papua New Guinea for self-rule and eventual independence. Later, as the head of the Ministries for Defense (1963-64) and External Affairs (1964-69), he supported Australian involvement in the war in Vietnam. In 1968 he was narrowly defeated in his bid to succeed the recently deceased prime minister, Harold Holt, as Liberal Party leader and head of government. Although his appointment as governor-general was controversial, he was widely respected, but in 1974 he refused a second five-year term. Hasluck was knighted (G.C.M.G.) in 1969.
Hassan (ibn Talal al-Hashimi) (b. March 20, 1947, Amman, Transjordan [now Jordan]), crown prince of Jordan (1965-99).
Hassan II, original name Mawlay Hassan ibn Muhammad ibn Yusuf (b. July 9, 1929, Rabat, Morocco - d. July 23, 1999, Rabat), king of Morocco (1961-99); son of Muhammad V. He was appointed commander of the Royal Armed Forces (1955) and deputy premier (1960). Shortly after ascending the throne, he led his nation in an inconclusive war with neighbouring Algeria over a dispute relating to their common border. He introduced a new constitution (1962) that provided for a popularly elected legislature but political unrest forced him to dissolve the parliament in 1965. He restored a limited parliamentary government under a new constitution in 1970 and instituted some socioeconomic reforms following attempted coups in 1971 and 1972. He was chairman of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) in 1972-73. In the struggle over Spanish (later Western) Sahara, he strongly promoted Morocco's claim to the territory, and on Nov. 6, 1975, he launched a "Green March" of 350,000 unarmed Moroccans into the territory to demonstrate popular support for its annexation. Western Sahara was in fact divided between Morocco and Mauritania (1976), but this victory proved to be hollow, since guerrillas of the Polisario Front, agitating for Saharan independence, tied down Moroccan troops and prevented the exploitation of the phosphate deposits. In 1979 Mauritania made peace with Polisario and relinquished its share of the Western Sahara, which Hassan's troops promptly occupied. When the OAU, at its July 1979 summit, supported (as the UN General Assembly did later) a plebiscite in the Western Sahara, King Hassan's delegation quit the assembly in protest. Later, Hassan withdrew from the OAU altogether when the latter recognized the Saharan Arab Democratic Republic that the Polisario Front had proclaimed.
Hassan, Abdiqasim Salad, Somali Cabdiqaasim Salaad Xasan (b. 1941, Dusamareb, Galguduud region, central Somalia), interior minister (1989-90) and president (2000-04) of Somalia.
Hassan, Sir Joshua (Abraham) (b. Aug. 21, 1915, Gibraltar - d. July 1, 1997, Gibraltar), chief minister of Gibraltar (1964-69, 1972-87). He volunteered in Britain's war effort on the colony during World War II. He became Gibraltar's first mayor (1945-50, 1953-69) and later its chief minister, and founded the colony's leading political party, the Gibraltar Association for Civil Rights, in 1942. He was especially noted for his leadership in resisting Spain's claims to the British colony and for instilling a sense of Gibraltarian identity in the colony's inhabitants. He frequently pressed the view that Gibraltar's residents alone had the right to decide their fate and that the vast majority wanted to remain under British control. He retired from politics in 1987, citing personal reasons, but remained an influential and often outspoken figure in the colony. He was knighted in 1963.
Hassan (Hamid al-Din) ibn Yahya (b. June 13, 1908, al-Qafla, near Khamir, northwest Yemen - d. June 13, 2003, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia), prime minister of Yemen (1948-55). The third oldest of the 14 sons of Imam Yahya, he played a prominent role in Yemeni affairs from the early 1930s. In 1938-48 he was governor of the southern province of Ibb. In 1948, he rallied the northern tribes, who held him in great esteem, to his brother Ahmad's cause. Ahmad was the crown prince who had proclaimed himself imam on the assassination of Yahya. Hassan entered Sana, and deposed the short-lived revolutionary government. Ahmad made Hassan prime minister and governor of Sana. But their relationship was soured in 1954 when Hassan publicly criticized Ahmad's promotion of his son Muhammad al-Badr as crown prince. The infuriated imam packed his brother off on a mission to Cairo. Hassan was therefore out of the country when another brother, Abdullah, launched an abortive coup in 1955, but the imam suspected Hassan - wrongly - of having had a hand in the conspiracy and dispatched him as Yemeni representative to the Bandung nonaligned conference before dismissing him as prime minister and appointing him head of Yemen's UN delegation. On Sept. 18, 1962, Imam Ahmad died, and Hassan was in New York when he heard the news of the September 26 revolution which established a republic, and of the supposed death of the new imam, Muhammad al-Badr. Hassan declared himself imam and set out for Saudi Arabia but, on learning that al-Badr was alive, he withdrew his claim and, together with the rest of the family's princes, backed al-Badr, who appointed him prime minister and his deputy. But health problems drove Hassan out of the civil war in 1968. He spent the rest of his life in the United States and Saudi Arabia.
Hassan Yunos, Tan Sri (b. 1907, Muar, Johor [now in Malaysia] - d. July 12, 1968), chief minister of Johor (1959-67).
Hassanali, Noor (Mohammed) (b. Aug. 13, 1918, San Fernando, Trinidad - d. Aug. 25, 2006, Westmoorings, Trinidad), president of Trinidad and Tobago (1987-97). He was appointed a magistrate in 1953 and a senior magistrate in January 1960 and in October 1960 was made senior crown counsel in the attorney general's chambers. In 1965 he was appointed assistant solicitor general and in 1966 a judge of the High Court. In 1978 he was appointed justice of appeal of the Supreme Court, retiring in 1985. He was elected president in 1987, following elections which brought the National Alliance for Reconstruction to government. He was the first Indo-Trinidadian to hold the office of president and the first Muslim head of state in the Americas. In 1989, unknown gunmen fired shots at his official car but he was not hurt. He was a popular president and was reelected by the People's National Movement administration in 1992.
Hassane, El-Anrif Said, foreign minister of the Comoros (2013- ).
Hassuna, (Muhammad) Abdel Khaliq (b. Oct. 28, 1898, Cairo, Egypt - d. Jan. 20, 1992, Cairo), secretary-general of the Arab League (1952-72). He spent most of his early career with the Egyptian Foreign Ministry and served in a variety of posts, including under secretary of state (1939), governor of the city of Alexandria (1942), minister of social affairs (1949), and foreign minister (1952). He was named to head the Arab League shortly after King Faruq I of Egypt was overthrown in 1952. Hassuna proved to be a persuasive and respected negotiator, mediating between Arab nations and between the league and countries outside the region, particularly during the international crisis that ensued after Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal in 1956. In 1961 he coordinated the creation of a league force to protect newly independent Kuwait from Iraqi invasion. When he retired in 1972, he was succeeded by another Egyptian, Mahmoud Riad. Hassuna's numerous awards included the French Legion of Honour.
Hastert, (John) Dennis (b. Jan. 2, 1942, Aurora, Ill.), speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives (1999-2007). He was a member of the Illinois House of Representatives in 1981-87. He was first elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1986. In 1998, when he was chief deputy whip for the GOP, he was chosen as speaker after Bob Livingston withdrew.
Hastie, William H(enry) (b. Nov. 17, 1904, Knoxville, Tenn. - d. April 14, 1976, East Norriton, Pa.), governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands (1946-49).
Hata, Tsutomu (b. Aug. 24, 1935, Tokyo, Japan), prime minister of Japan (1994). In 1969 he was chosen by the LDP to succeed his father as a member of the House of Representatives for a rural district in Nagano prefecture. He was reelected thereafter and eventually advanced to hold several cabinet posts before serving as minister of finance in the government of Kiichi Miyazawa in 1991-92. Frustrated with the slow pace of reform in the LDP, Hata, along with Ichiro Ozawa and 37 other members, left the LDP in June 1993 and formed the Japan Renewal Party (Shinseito). Their new party became the second largest in a seven-party coalition government formed by Morihiro Hosokawa in August 1993. Hata served as foreign minister and deputy prime minister in this government. When Hosokawa resigned on April 8, 1994, Hata was elected by the Diet (April 25) to succeed him as prime minister and head of the coalition. The next day, however, the Social Democratic Party of Japan (SDPJ) withdrew from the coalition, and Hata was left heading the first administration in 39 years that lacked voting majorities in both houses of the Diet. After less than two months in office, Hata resigned on June 25 and was succeeded by Tomiichi Murayama at the head of an LDP-SDPJ coalition government. Shinseito merged with other groups to form the New Frontier Party (Shinshinto) in late 1994 but Hata left that party in February 1997 to form the middle-of-the-road Taiyoto (Sun Party) with nine other members of parliament.
Hataman, Mujiv (Sabbihi) (b. Sept. 11, 1972, Buli-Buli, Basilan island, Philippines), officer-in-charge of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (2011- ).
Hatef, Abdul Rahim (b. 1926, Kandahar, Afghanistan - d. Aug. 19, 2013), acting president of Afghanistan (1992). He was a vice president in 1988-92.
Hatfield, Richard B(ennett) (b. April 9, 1931, Woodstock, New Brunswick - d. April 26, 1991, Ottawa, Ontario), premier of New Brunswick (1970-87). In 1961 he was elected to the provincial legislature, and in 1968 he was named House leader. The following year Hatfield became party leader, and in 1970 he became premier. He was instrumental in implementing bilingual legislation and in modernizing the province with improved health care, education, and communication and public services. Hatfield was involved in all the constitutional conferences after 1971. His Conservatives won reelection in 1974, 1978, and 1982. When marijuana was discovered in his suitcase in 1984, Hatfield denied ownership, but his leadership was challenged and his party lost all 58 House seats in the 1987 elections. Hatfield then resigned as party leader. He was named to the Senate in 1990 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney in an effort to overtake the Liberal majority opposed to the goods and services tax.
Hathaway, Stanley K(napp) (b. July 19, 1924, Osceola, Neb. - d. Oct. 4, 2005, Cheyenne, Wyo.), governor of Wyoming (1967-75). During his first term, the state approved the first environmental controls on its burgeoning minerals industry. He signed into law the state air quality act in 1967 and the state water quality act in 1968. After Hathaway, a Republican, won reelection in 1970, his administration supported creation of the Permanent Mineral Trust Fund with the taxes on extracted minerals. In 2004 the fund raised $98 million for the state. He also approved creation of the state Department of Environmental Quality, which enforces environmental regulations. Pres. Gerald Ford appointed him as secretary of the interior in June 1975, but he resigned the following month because of ill health.
Hathaway, Sybil (Mary Collins Beaumont) (b. Jan. 13, 1884 - d. July 14, 1974, London), dame of Sark (1927-74).
Hatoyama, Ichiro (b. Jan. 1, 1883, Tokyo, Japan - d. March 7, 1959, Tokyo), prime minister of Japan (1954-56). He was elected to the lower house of the Japanese Diet (parliament) in 1915 as a member of the dominant Seiyukai Party. He soon became a leading party official and in 1931 was named minister of education. His many Western habits, however, caused him to fall out of favour with the military, which began to dominate the government, and he was forced to resign from office. Although he spent most of the war years between 1937 and 1945 in retirement at his country estate, he was one of the few politicians running for the Diet in 1942 who opposed Prime Minister Hideki Tojo. Immediately following the end of the war, in September 1945, Hatoyama reorganized the Liberal Party as the successor to the Seiyukai. But in May 1946, just as he was about to assume the prime ministership, he was forbidden to hold any political office by the occupying American forces, who were suspicious of his association with the prewar Japanese government. It was not until April 1952, after the Japanese peace treaty with the Western nations went into effect, that he was permitted to take his seat in the Diet. He soon split with Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida and in November 1954 organized a new dissident Democratic party. After forcing Yoshida to resign as prime minister in December 1954, he succeeded him in office. Because he ruled without a clear majority in the Diet, Hatoyama helped merge the two conservative parties, the Liberals and the Democrats, into a new Liberal-Democratic Party, of which he was elected president in November 1955. As prime minister, Hatoyama was the first Japanese politician to utilize radio and television media in campaigning.
Hatoyama, Iichiro (b. Nov. 11, 1918, Tokyo, Japan - d. Dec. 19, 1993), foreign minister of Japan (1976-77); son of Ichiro Hatoyama.
Hatoyama, Yukio (b. Feb. 11, 1947, Tokyo, Japan), prime minister of Japan (2009-10); son of Iichiro Hatoyama.
Hatta, Mohammad (b. Aug. 12, 1902, Bukittinggi, Sumatra, Netherlands East Indies - d. March 14, 1980, Jakarta, Indonesia), Indonesian politician. Active in the struggle against Dutch rule, he was arrested, exiled, and then imprisoned (1935-42). Freed by the Japanese, Hatta joined Sukarno as a leader of the independence movement. He was one of the architects of independence (proclaimed in 1945 and recognized by the Netherlands in 1949). He was prime minister (1948-50) before serving as vice-president (1950-56). He resigned from the vice-presidency because of Sukarno's economic policies and growing Communist influence in the regime. After Sukarno's ouster in 1967, Hatta opposed many aspects of the new regime established by President Suharto. In 1970 he participated in a government commission on corruption and in 1976 signed a manifesto against the regime, which was used by others in a plot to overthrow Suharto.
Hattersley (of Sparkbrook in the County of West Midlands), Roy (Sydney George) Hattersley, Baron (b. Dec. 28, 1932), deputy leader of the British Labour Party (1983-92). He was made a life peer in 1997.
Hau Pei-tsun, Pinyin Hao Bocun (b. July 13, 1919, Yancheng county, Jiangsu province, China), premier of Taiwan (1990-93). In 1958 he was named commander of the 9th Infantry Division of Kinmen, a small island off the coast of China, and led his troops throughout a 44-day bombardment by the Chinese Communists. For his leadership in the Battle of the Taiwan Straits, he was awarded the Order of the Resplendent Banner, and his division received the Flag of Honour. Promoted to corps commander in 1960, Hau moved back to Taiwan. His major military commissions were as chief military aide to Pres. Chiang Kai-shek (1965-70), first field army commander (1970-73), deputy commander-in-chief of the Army (1975-77), and finally commander-in-chief (1978-81). In 1981 he was named chief of the general staff, and in 1984 he was selected to be a member of the ruling Kuomintang (KMT) Central Standing Committee. He was minister of national defense from 1989 until he was named premier in 1990. As an army official Hau modernized the military in terms of both management and weaponry. He instituted a new budget system and promoted research and development of weapons, resulting in such equipment as the Ching-kuo defense fighter, the M48H tank, and various missiles. As premier Hau gained a reputation as an energetic and determined leader. His initiatives included a crackdown on crime and the promotion of a multibillion-dollar economic development plan to bring Taiwan up to the level of advanced industrialized nations by the end of the century. Some observers expressed concern about Hau's strong leadership during Taiwan's transition from decades of authoritarian rule to democracy, but his public-approval rating remained high. In 1996 he ran for vice president on the New Party ticket of Lin Yang-kang.
Hauan, Ĺshild (b. April 20, 1941, Velfjord, Nordland, Norway), governor of Nordland (1991- ).
Haubner, Ursula (b. Dec. 22, 1945, Bad Goisern, Oberösterreich), acting chairwoman (2003-04) and chairwoman (2004-05) of the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ); sister of Jörg Haider. She was minister of social security, generations, and consumer protection in 2005-07. In April 2005 she left the FPÖ to join the new Alliance for the Future of Austria led by Haider.
Haughey, Charles (James), Irish Cathal (Séamus) Ó hEochaidh (b. Sept. 16, 1925, Castlebar, County Mayo, Ireland - d. June 13, 2006, Kinsealy, County Dublin, Ireland), prime minister of Ireland (1979-81, 1982, 1987-92); son-in-law of Sean F. Lemass. After two unsuccessful efforts, in 1954 and 1956, he entered the Dáil (parliament) in 1957. He was parliamentary secretary (1960-61) to the minister of justice and in 1961 became minister of justice himself. Three years later he was promoted to the major responsibility of agriculture and held this post until 1966 when he became finance minister. In 1970 he was dismissed from the government and twice tried for conspiracy to use government funds to smuggle arms into Ireland for the outlawed Irish Republican Army; the first trial was aborted, and he won acquittal in the second. Actually benefiting from the publicity of the trials, he eventually regained his seat in the Dáil (1973), became the minister for health and social welfare in 1977, and in November 1979 succeeded Jack Lynch as leader of the Fianna Fáil party and consequently prime minister in a closely fought contest with Lynch's deputy, George Colley. In June 1981 his government fell, but he returned to power for eight months in 1982. His first two terms in office were marked by deteriorating Anglo-Irish relations, a declining economy, and deep divisions within Fianna Fáil. After Garret FitzGerald's coalition government came to power in late 1982, he served as a formidable opposition leader in the Dáil. He returned to the prime ministry after elections in February 1987 and remained in office after indecisive elections in July 1989. During these latter terms, he mounted a fiscal austerity program to cope with continuing large budget deficits. In retirement, he fell from grace when it was disclosed he had received money from leading business figures during his political career.
Haukipuro, Erkki (Antero) (b. 1921 - d. 2001), governor of Oulu (1973-86).
Haultain, Sir Frederick W(illiam) A(plin) G(eorge) (b. Nov. 25, 1857, Borough of Woolwich [now part of Greater London], England - d. Jan. 30, 1942, Montreal, Quebec), premier of the Northwest Territories (1897-1905). He represented the electoral district of Macleod in the Northwest Territories Council during the years 1887-88 and in the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories which replaced it from 1888 to 1905. He was chairman of the Advisory Council of the Northwest Territories Council in 1888-89 and chairman of the Executive Committee from 1891 to 1897. Following the amendment of the Northwest Territories Act, he was appointed president of the Executive Council, or premier, in 1897. As well as serving as premier, he was also attorney general and commissioner of education. He thought that the area which now constitutes Alberta and Saskatchewan should be one province named "Buffalo" and that this province should be governed by a non-partisan administration. Because of his outstanding service to the Northwest Territories, many people felt that he should be the first premier of the new Province of Alberta or Saskatchewan. However, because of his conservative political leanings, this idea was not acceptable to the governing federal Liberal Party at that time. Following the formation of the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan on Sept. 1, 1905, he represented South Qu'Appelle in the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan as a member of the Provincial Rights Party and served as the leader of the official opposition in the Saskatchewan legislature. In 1912, he left politics when he was appointed chief justice of the Superior Court of Saskatchewan. In 1917, he was appointed chief justice of the Saskatchewan Court of Appeal. In 1939, he retired from public life.
Hauser, Balthasar Joseph (b. July 6, 1728, Näfels, Glarus, Switzerland - d. Jan. 26, 1794, Näfels), Landammann of Glarus (1774-76, 1784-86); son of Joseph Fridolin Hauser.
Hauser, Edwin (b. Jan. 26, 1864, Glarus, Glarus canton, Switzerland - d. Oct. 7, 1949, Glarus), Landammann of Glarus (1926-32) and president of the Council of States of Switzerland (1936-37).
Hauser, Fridolin Josef Alois von (b. Sept. 9, 1759, Näfels, Glarus, Switzerland - d. Dec. 15, 1832, Näfels), Landammann of Glarus (1826-28, 1831-32); son of Balthasar Joseph Hauser.
Hauser, Fridolin Joseph (b. April 22, 1713, Näfels, Glarus, Switzerland - d. July 9, 1783, Näfels), Landammann of Glarus (1749-51, 1754-56); brother of Kaspar Hauser.
Hauser, Johann Nepomuk (b. March 24, 1866, Kopfing, Oberösterreich - d. Feb. 8, 1927, Linz), Austrian politician. A member of the Christian Social Party, he was second president of the Provisional (1918-19) and of the Constituent (1919-20) National Assembly and premier of Oberösterreich (1918-27).
Hauser, Joseph Anton (Sebastian) (b. Feb. 25, 1761, Näfels, Glarus, Switzerland - d. March 23, 1811, Näfels), Landammann of Glarus (1806-08); son of Fridolin Joseph Hauser; brother of Kaspar Fridolin Joseph Anton Hauser.
Hauser, Joseph Fridolin (b. 1686 - d. 1760), Landammann of Glarus (1739-41).
Hauser, Kaspar (b. Nov. 30, 1709, Näfels, Glarus, Switzerland - d. May 1, 1752, Näfels), Landammann of Glarus (1744-46).
Hauser, Kaspar Fridolin Joseph Anton (b. May 8, 1757, Näfels, Glarus, Switzerland - d. Aug. 16, 1800, Näfels), Landammann of Glarus (1794-96); son of Fridolin Joseph Hauser.
Hausiku, Marco (Mukoso) (b. Nov. 25, 1953, Kapako, Okavango region, South West Africa [now Namibia]), foreign minister of Namibia (2004-10). He has also been minister of lands, resettlement, and rehabilitation (1990-92), works, transport, and communication (1992-95), prisons and correctional services (1995-2002), and labour (2002-04) and deputy prime minister (2010- ).
Hautala, Heidi (Anneli) (b. Nov. 14, 1955, Oulu, Finland), Finnish politician. She was chairwoman of the Green League in 1987-91, member of parliament in 1991-95 and from 2003, and member of the European Parliament in 1995-2003. She was a presidential candidate in 2000 and 2006.
Hauteclocque, Jean (Marie François, comte) de (b. Feb. 11, 1893, Fontainebleau, France - d. Sept. 27, 1957, Bermicourt, Pas-de-Calais, France), French resident-general of Tunisia (1952-53). A cousin of Marshal Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque, he served in many posts abroad before becoming secretary-general of the French High Commission in the Levant in 1940. Recalled to France by the Vichy government, he was placed at his own request en disponibilité in 1941, and was thereafter active in the Resistance. He was arrested in March 1944, but escaped after two months. Later that year he represented the provisional French government in Brussels and from there went to become ambassador in Canada in 1945; he returned to Brussels in December 1947, serving as ambassador to Belgium until 1952. He was resident-general in Tunisia at a time when lack of French policy at home and increasing nationalist feeling in Tunisia made it a difficult post. His last diplomatic post was that of ambassador in Lisbon. He was a Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour and held the Medal of the Resistance.
Havel, Václav (b. Oct. 5, 1936, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic] - d. Dec. 18, 2011, Hrádecek, Czech Republic), president of Czechoslovakia (1989-92) and of the Czech Republic (1993-2003). A noted playwright, he was a prominent participant in the liberal reforms of 1968 (known as the Prague Spring), and, after the Soviet clampdown on Czechoslovakia that year, his plays were banned, those already published were removed from libraries, and his passport was confiscated. He was repeatedly arrested for his dissident activities, the first time in 1977 after the formation of the human rights organization Charter 77, the last time in early 1989. When massive antigovernment demonstrations erupted in Prague in November 1989, Havel became the leading figure in the Civic Forum, which was a new coalition of noncommunist opposition groups pressing for democratic reforms. In early December the Communist Party capitulated and formed a coalition government with the Civic Forum. As a result of an agreement between the partners in this bloodless "Velvet Revolution," Havel was elected to the post of president of Czechoslovakia on Dec. 29, 1989, becoming the nation's first non-Communist president since 1948, and he was reelected in July 1990. As Czechoslovakia faced dissolution in 1992, however, he resigned from office. He was elected president of the new Czech Republic in January 1993. By 1998, for reasons ranging from his handling of a domestic political crisis to a nasty family wrangle over property and the clothes and manner of his second wife, actress Dagmar Veskrnova, he became the butt of criticism and jokes unthinkable a few years earlier. More and more Czechs feared that their president was becoming a haughty elitist who lost the clear focus he had as an anti-Communist dissident.
Haverschmidt, François (b. 1906, Utrecht, Netherlands - d. April 28, 1987), acting governor-general of Suriname (1964-65).
Haverstock, Lynda M(aureen) (b. Sept. 16, 1948, Swift Current, Sask.), lieutenant governor of Saskatchewan (2000-06). She was leader of the Liberal Party of Saskatchewan from 1989 to 1996, the first woman ever to be elected leader of a major political party in the province. She served as a member of the Legislative Assembly for Saskatoon-Greystone from 1991 to 1999.
Hawi, George, French Georges Haoui, Arabic Jurj Hawi (b. 1938, Bteghrin village, Metn district, Lebanon - d. June 21, 2005, Beirut, Lebanon), Lebanese politician. In 1955, he joined the Lebanese Communist Party (LCP), becoming one of the main leaders of the Student League by the end of the decade. In 1964 he was incarcerated for his implication in a strike against Lebanon's state-controlled tobacco manufacturer; in 1969 he was imprisoned for participation in the historic demonstration on April 23, in support of the Palestinian cause; and then, in 1970, for attacking the army. Despite being thrown out of the party in 1967 after calling for the group's independence from the Soviet Union, he rejoined the party a short while thereafter and was elected secretary general in 1979, a position he kept until 1993. As the Lebanese Civil War raged, he established the Popular Guard, a militia affiliated to the LCP which played a significant role in the war. After leaving the LCP in 2000, he took part in the national reconciliation process in an attempt to put an end to ethnic and sectarian divisions. In 2003, he proposed a broad-based national conference with Christian leaders Michel Aoun and Samir Geagea, whom Hawi once considered his mortal enemy. Once a strong Syria ally, Hawi opposed Syrian tutelage in later years, taking part in the main opposition alliance along with Rafiq Hariri and Walid Jumblatt. He also participated in the national independence movement that followed Hariri's assassination, and which led to the Syrian pullout. Hawi was himself assassinated in a car bombing.
Hawke, Albert (Redvers George) (b. Dec. 3, 1900, Kapunda, South Australia - d. Feb. 14, 1986, Adelaide, South Australia), premier of Western Australia (1953-59).
Hawke, Bob, byname of Robert James Lee Hawke (b. Dec. 9, 1929, Bordertown, South Australia), prime minister of Australia (1983-91); nephew of Albert Hawke. In 1958 he joined the Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU), the umbrella organization of the country's tightly organized labour movement. As president of the ACTU (1970-80), he proved to be a brilliant trade-union official, getting favourable settlements for the unions before Australia's arbitration commissions. He had also joined the Australian Labor Party (ALP) as a student, and he rose through the ranks to serve as the party's national president (1973-78). By the time he successfully ran for Parliament in 1980 as a Labor candidate, he already enjoyed immense national popularity. In March 1983 he led his party to a landslide victory over the Liberal Party and became prime minister. The ALP's victory was the result of miscalculations by the incumbent prime minister, Malcolm Fraser, who expected, when he sought an early election, to run against his old adversary Bill Hayden, ALP leader since 1977. However, in February, as soon as the ALP knew that an election was in the wind, Hayden was dropped as leader and replaced by the more charismatic Hawke, whose flamboyant, distinctively "Australian" personality exerted a powerful appeal. As prime minister, he achieved greater industrial harmony by instituting a unified wage accord among Australia's fractious labour unions. He also was able to lower the rate of inflation. He was reelected prime minister in the elections he had called for December 1984. The ALP maintained its majority in the 1987 elections, but because of a worsening economy his majority was considerably reduced in the 1990 election, and he resigned in December 1991.
Hawley, Sir Donald (Frederick) (b. May 22, 1921, Thorpe Bay, Essex, England - d. Jan. 31, 2008), British political agent in the Trucial States (1958-61); knighted 1978. He was also ambassador to Oman (1971-75) and high commissioner to Malaysia (1977-81).
Haxhinasto, Edmond (b. Nov. 16, 1966, Tiranë, Albania), foreign minister (2010-12) and deputy prime minister (2011- ) of Albania.
Hay, Alexandre (b. Oct. 29, 1919, Bern, Switzerland - d. Aug. 23, 1991, Geneva, Switzerland), president of the International Committee of the Red Cross (1976-87).
Hay, Sir David Osborne (b. Nov. 29, 1916, Corowa, N.S.W. - d. May 18, 2009, Melbourne, Vic.), administrator of Papua and New Guinea (1967-70); knighted 1979. He was also Australian ambassador to Thailand (1955-57), high commissioner to Canada (1961-64), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1964-65).
Hay, Sir (William) Rupert (b. Dec. 16, 1893 - d. April 3, 1962), chief political resident of the Persian Gulf (1946-53); knighted 1952.
Haya de la Torre, Víctor Raúl (b. Feb. 22, 1895, Trujillo, Peru - d. Aug. 2, 1979, Lima, Peru), Peruvian politician. In 1923 he was jailed by the dictatorial regime of Augusto Leguía and deported after staging a hunger strike. In exile in Mexico City, he founded (May 7, 1924) the Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (APRA), which steadily gained adherents. In 1931, after the fall of the Leguía regime, Haya returned to Peru to run for president. Peru's oligarchy threw its support behind Col. Luis M. Sánchez Cerro. After a hotly disputed election Sánchez was inaugurated, and Haya was jailed until Sánchez was assassinated in 1933. From 1934 to 1945 he lived in hiding in Peru but became widely known through his underground activities and writings. In 1945 APRA took the name People's Party and threw its support behind José Luis Bustamante y Rivero, who won the presidential election. In 1947 Bustamante outlawed the People's Party, and, after Gen. Manuel Odría overthrew Bustamante (1948), Haya took asylum in the Colombian embassy in Lima (1949-54) until he was allowed to go to Mexico. He remained there until 1957, when constitutional government in Peru was restored. In the 1962 presidential election Haya was the APRA candidate. After an indecisive electoral outcome, the contest was thrown to the Congress, in which APRA was the leading party. But the army was determined to prevent Haya's victory, and it took over the government and annulled the election. In new elections in June 1963, he was defeated by Fernando Belaúnde Terry. When a constituent assembly was elected in 1978 to write a new constitution, APRA was the largest party and on July 28 Haya was elected president of the assembly. Until his death, he was APRA's candidate for the election scheduled for 1980.
Hayat Khan, Sir Sikandar (b. June 5, 1892, Wah, Punjab, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Dec. 26, 1942), acting governor (1932, 1934) and premier (1937-42) of Punjab.
Hayatou, Sadou (b. 1942, Garoua, Cameroon), finance minister (1987-90) and prime minister (1991-92) of Cameroon.
Hayden, Bill, byname of William George Hayden (b. Jan. 23, 1933, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia), foreign minister (1983-88) and governor-general (1989-96) of Australia. He first entered the House of Representatives as a member for Oxley in 1961. He succeeded Gough Whitlam as leader of the Australian Labor Party in 1977. In October 1980 he narrowly failed to overturn Australia's conservative coalition government, which all pre-election opinion polls had predicted he would do. Hayden had mounted a carefully programmed series of personal appearances. He projected a likable, modest, low-profile, self-effacing image, and he expected to win votes from those who disapproved of his authoritarian-strong-man rival, Malcolm Fraser, leader of the Liberal Country Party government that had held office for five years. Some party members worried that Hayden had overdone the humble-origins, "struggle from the log cabin" image; in particular, they criticized his reminiscence that his earliest childhood memory was of being awakened by the crash of a body on the front verandah as his father came home drunk yet again. In 1983 he was succeeded as party leader by Bob Hawke.
Hayden, Michael (Vincent) (b. March 17, 1945, Pittsburgh, Pa.), director of the National Security Agency (1999-2005) and of the Central Intelligence Agency (2006-09).
Hayes, John B(riggs) (b. Aug. 30, 1924, Jamestown, N.Y. - d. Jan. 17, 2001, Tavernier, Fla.), U.S. Coast Guard commandant (1978-82). He graduated from the Coast Guard Academy in 1946. In the Vietnam War, he commanded a naval task force and a Coast Guard squadron. He returned to lead the Coast Guard Academy until 1973. Under his leadership, in 1980, the Coast Guard conducted the largest search and rescue mission in its history when 125,000 Cubans fled the port of Mariel in boats and rafts and 30,000 Haitians also crossed the Florida Straits. He also ordered a review of the Coast Guard's mission, leading to an increase in its battle against drug traffickers who use boats to bring their cargo into the United States. He died after being struck by a van while hiking in Key Largo.
Hayes, John F. (b. 1915? - d. Jan. 3, 2001, Manhattan, New York City), borough president of Brooklyn (1961).
Hayes, Joseph (Ferdinand) (b. March 19, 1814, Norfolk, U.S. - d. ...), commandant of Nossi-Bé (1866-68) and acting commandant-superior of Mayotte (1868-69).
Hayes, Peter (Richard) (b. April 11, 1963), commissioner of the British Indian Ocean Territory (2012- ). He was British high commissioner to Sri Lanka and (non-resident) to the Maldives in 2008-10.
Hayes, Rutherford B(irchard) (b. Oct. 4, 1822, Delaware, Ohio - d. Jan. 17, 1893, Fremont, Ohio), president of the United States (1877-81). After combat service with the Union Army during the Civil War he was elected to Congress (1865-67) and to the Ohio governorship (1868-76). In 1876 he became his state's favourite son at the national Republican nominating convention, where a shrewdly managed campaign won him the presidential nomination. An economic depression and Northern disenchantment with Radical Reconstruction in the South combined to give Hayes's Democratic opponent, Samuel J. Tilden, a popular majority. Early returns indicated a Democratic victory in the electoral college as well, but Hayes's campaign management challenged the validity of returns from South Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana, and as a result, two sets of ballots were submitted from the three states. The ensuing electoral dispute became known as the Hayes-Tilden affair. The eventual solution, which was not approved by Hayes, was the creation of a special 15-man Electoral Commission, of whom 8 were Republicans. In a vote along strict party lines, the commission awarded all the contested votes to Hayes, who was thus elected with 185 electoral votes to Tilden's 184. Honouring secret assurances made to moderate Southerners during the compromise negotiations, Hayes withdrew federal troops from those areas of the South still occupied, thus ending the era of Reconstruction (1865-77). In addition, he promised not to interfere with elections in the former Confederacy, thus ensuring a return there of traditional white Democratic supremacy. Hayes refused renomination by the Republican Party in 1880, contenting himself with one term as president.
Hayward, Sir Charles (William) (b. Sept. 3, 1892, Wolverhampton, England - d. Feb. 3, 1983, Jethou island, Guernsey), tenant of Jethou (1971-83); knighted 1974.
Haywood, Nigel (Robert) (b. March 17, 1955, Betchworth, Surrey, England), governor of the Falkland Islands (2010-14). He was British ambassador to Estonia in 2003-07.
Hazarika, Jogendra Nath (b. February 1924, Khangia village, Lakshmipur district, Assam, India - d. Sept. 30, 1997, Guwahati, Assam, India), chief minister of Assam (1979).