Jaafar Mohamed, Datuk (b. 1838 - d. 1919), chief minister of Johor (1886-90).
Jaafari (al-Eshaiker), Ibrahim al- (Arabic in full Ibrahim `Abd al-Karim Hamza al-Ja`fari al-A`shayqir), original name Ibrahim al-Eshaiker (b. 1947, Karbala, Iraq), president of the Governing Council (2003), vice president (2004-05), prime minister (2005-06), and foreign minister (2014- ) of Iraq. In 1980 he fled to Iran and, to protect his family from retribution by the Iraqi regime, adopted the name al-Jaafari. He was chosen prime minister by the United Iraqi Alliance, a coalition of Shi`ite parties which won the 2005 elections.
Jäätteenmäki, Anneli (Tuulikki) (b. Feb. 11, 1955, Lapua, Finland), prime minister of Finland (2003). She was justice minister (1994-95), leader of the Centre Party (2000-03), and speaker of parliament (2003). She guided the Centre Party to victory in the 2003 elections but resigned after only two months in office due to what was dubbed the "Iraqgate" scandal. In March 2004 she was acquitted of any wrongdoing in the affair. She had been accused of asking a presidential advisor, Martti Manninen, to hand over secret papers about the Finnish involvement in the Iraq war during the election campaign. The court found that although she was not entitled to the documents, the request she made to Manninen did not constitute incitement to a crime. Manninen, however, was fined for handing over the material. Jäätteenmäki, who remained a popular politician, was elected to the European Parliament in the June 2004 elections as the leading candidate of the Centre Party.
Jabir Al Ahmad Al Jabir Al Sabah, Sheikh (b. June 29, 1926, Kuwait city - d. Jan. 15, 2006, Kuwait city), emir of Kuwait (1977-2006). The third son of Sheikh Ahmad Al Jabir Al Sabah (ruler 1921-50), he played a leading role in Kuwait's administration from an early age. After Iraq claimed sovereignty over newly independent Kuwait in 1961, he led a six-man mission to an Arab League council meeting in Cairo to negotiate a settlement. He became prime minister and minister of finance and economy (1962-63) and minister of finance and industry (1963-65). In 1965 he again became prime minister and the following year he was formally designated crown prince by agreement among members of the ruling family whereby his own Jabir Al Sabah branch of Kuwait's ruling family divides the highest authority in the state with the Salim Al Sabah branch. By the early 1970s the emir, his cousin Sheikh Sabah Al Salim Al Sabah, suffering from poor health, had left most of the government operations to Sheikh Jabir, and on Dec. 31, 1977, Sheikh Sabah died and Jabir became emir. In May 1985 he narrowly escaped after an Islamic extremist drove a car bomb into a royal motorcade. During the middle of the night on Aug. 2, 1990, he was awakened by a phone call from army headquarters. He was told that Iraqi troops were pouring over the Kuwaiti border by the thousands - a massive surprise attack for which the Kuwaiti military could not have prepared. Not five minutes after the emir was taken to safety, Iraqi helicopters and ground troops attacked the building. He resided in exile at a luxury hotel complex in at-Ta´if, Saudi Arabia. At a press conference he told reporters, "We have to liberate Kuwait. Whatever it takes, we would like to have it done." It was done by a U.S.-led international force in early 1991, and he returned to Kuwait on March 14. He was seldom seen in public after suffering a minor stroke in 2001.
Jabir Mubarak Al Hamad Al Sabah, Sheikh (b. Jan. 4, 1942), interior minister (2006-07), defense minister (2006-11), and prime minister (2011- ) of Kuwait.
Jabiri, Saadallah al-, Arabic Sa`d Allah al-Jabiri (b. 1893 - d. June 20, 1947, Aleppo, Syria), foreign minister (1936-39, 1945-46), prime minister (1943-44, 1945-46), and speaker of parliament (1944-45) of Syria.
Jablonski, Henryk (b. Dec. 27, 1909, Waliszew, near Lowicz, Poland - d. Jan. 27, 2003, Warsaw, Poland), chairman of the Council of State of Poland (1972-85). He was also minister of higher education (1965-72) and education (1966-72).
Jack, Sir David (Emmanuel) (b. July 16, 1918 - d. July 18, 1998, New Montrose, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), governor-general of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1989-96); knighted 1991. Earlier he was minister of housing, labour, and community development (1984-86) and minister of health (1986-89).
Jack, Hulan (Edwin) (b. Dec. 29, 1906, Saint Lucia, West Indies - d. Dec. 19, 1986, New York City), borough president of Manhattan (1954-61). He came to the United States at the age of sixteen. He was Harlem representative in the New York State Assembly (1941-53) before becoming the first black borough president in New York City. His trial and suspended sentence on conflict of interest charges forced him out of his office in 1961. He was convicted of having accepted a $4,500 renovation of his apartment from a real-estate operator. He later served again in the State Assembly (1969-73).
Jack, Stuart (Duncan Macdonald) (b. June 8, 1949), governor of the Cayman Islands (2005-09).
Jacklick, Alvin (T.) (b. Aug. 3, 1949, Ebeye, Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands), foreign minister of the Marshall Islands (2000-01). From 1980 to 1982, he worked as a legislative assistant for the parliamentary delegation of Kwajalein. In 1983, he became the first mayor of Kwajalein Atoll, a post he held for the next eight years. He first joined the parliament in 1991 as a senator representing Kwajalein Atoll and in 1995 was elected as senator representing Jaluit Atoll. In 2009 he became speaker of the Nitijela.
Jackman, Henry N(ewton) R(owell), also called Hal Jackman (b. June 10, 1932, Toronto), lieutenant governor of Ontario (1991-97).
Jackson, Alphonso (Roy) (b. Sept. 9, 1945, Marshall, Texas), U.S. secretary of housing and urban development (2004-08). He resigned while under pressure by Congress to answer questions about charges of political favouritism. A federal lawsuit accused Jackson, the former head of the housing authority in Dallas, of using his influence at HUD to punish the Philadelphia Housing Authority after it refused to transfer a $2 million property to one of Jackson's business friends. He was also reported to be under investigation by the FBI, Justice Department, and a federal grand jury for making comments in 2006 in which he said he arranged the firing of a contractor who did not like Pres. George W. Bush.
Jackson, Andrew, byname Old Hickory (b. March 15, 1767, Waxhaws region, S.C. - d. June 8, 1845, the Hermitage, near Nashville, Tenn., U.S.), president of the United States (1829-37). In 1796 he became a member of the convention that drafted a constitution for the new state of Tennessee. In the same year he was elected as the first representative from Tennessee to the national House of Representatives. He refused to seek reelection and served only until March 4, 1797. Jackson returned to Tennessee, vowing never to enter public life again, but before the end of the year he was elected to the U.S. Senate. He resigned from the Senate in 1798 after an uneventful year, though. Soon after his return to Nashville he was appointed a judge of the Superior Court (in effect, the supreme court) of the state and served in that post until 1804. During the War of 1812 (1812-15), he crushed the Creek Indians, who were allied with the British, and decimated an invading British army in the Battle of New Orleans. Further military triumphs led to suggestions that he become a candidate for president, but he at first disavowed any interest. In 1823 the Tennessee legislature elected him to the U.S. Senate. In the election of 1824 Jackson received the highest number of votes, but no majority of the electoral votes, and the House of Representatives chose John Quincy Adams. In 1828 Jackson defeated Adams by an electoral vote of 178 to 83 after a campaign in which personalities and slander played a larger part than in any previous national election in the history of the United States. He was the first U.S. president to come from the area west of the Appalachians and the first to gain office by a direct appeal to the mass of voters. He was reelected in 1832.
Jackson, Henry M(artin), byname Scoop (b. May 31, 1912, Everett, Wash. - d. Sept. 1, 1983, Everett), U.S. politician. A powerful and influential Democratic representative (1941-53) and senator (1953-83) from Washington, he became an outspoken supporter of military preparedness, organized labour, and civil rights. A titan in the Senate, Jackson won six elections decisively and was regarded as the nucleus of those Democrats who viewed themselves as neoconservatives (liberals in domestic policy but hawkish in foreign policy). Because he persisted in trying to win military contracts for Boeing (his state's largest employer), Jackson was dubbed "the senator from Boeing." Despite two unsuccessful bids for the presidency, first in 1972 and again in 1976, Jackson's political strength was great and undisputed. He served as a senator under seven presidents. He took part in the Army-McCarthy hearings in 1954, and sharply criticized the "witch hunts" of that era. He was selected by Pres. John F. Kennedy to head the Democratic National Committee (1960-61), forced the Nixon administration to alter the SALT I agreement, forced through legislation in 1974 that pressured the Soviet Union into allowing Jews to emigrate, and was one of the major architects of the landmark 1969 National Environmental Policy Act. Jackson, who was the ranking Democrat on the Senate Armed Services Committee, was perhaps best known as the most vocal Democratic skeptic with regard to the Soviet Union. Hours before his death from a massive heart attack, Jackson had denounced the Soviet Union for downing a commercial airliner carrying 269 civilians.
Jackson, Jesse (Louis) (b. Oct. 8, 1941, Greenville, S.C.), U.S. politician. Becoming involved in the black civil-rights movement, he went to Selma, Alabama, in 1965 to march with Martin Luther King, Jr., and became a worker in King's Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). In 1966 he helped found the Chicago branch of Operation Breadbasket, the economic arm of the SCLC, and served as the organization's national director from 1967 to 1971. In 1971 he founded Operation PUSH (People United to Save [later Serve] Humanity), a Chicago-based organization in which he advocated black self-help and achieved a broad audience for his liberal views. He became a leading spokesman and advocate for black Americans in the 1980s. His voter-registration drive was a key factor in the election of Chicago's first black mayor, Harold Washington, in April 1983. In late 1983 he became the first black man to make a serious bid for the U.S. presidency. After calling for the creation of a "Rainbow Coalition" of Americans of all colours to unite against the Reagan administration, Jackson was overheard calling Jews "Hymies" and New York City "Hymietown." The slur, and his failure for nearly two weeks to acknowledge it, virtually ruined his ability to appeal beyond black voters. He won about 3.2 million votes during the Democratic primaries. He made another unsuccessful attempt for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1987-88. In 1989 he took residency in Washington, D.C., and in 1990, when the Washington City Council created two unpaid offices of "statehood senator" - popularly called "shadow senator" - to lobby the U.S. Congress for statehood for the District of Columbia, Jackson won election to one of the posts, his first elective office.
Jackson, Lisa P(erez) (b. Feb. 8, 1962, Philadelphia, Pa.), administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2009- ).
Jackson, Maynard (Holbrook, Jr.) (b. March 23, 1938, Dallas, Texas - d. June 23, 2003, Arlington, Va.), mayor of Atlanta (1974-82, 1990-94). In 1968, largely on impulse and admittedly as a kind of protest, he unsuccessfully challenged Herman Talmadge, Georgia's incumbent U.S. senator, in the Democratic primary. A year later he organized a serious and victorious campaign for vice-mayor of Atlanta. In 1973 he ran for the office of mayor and won (defeating Sam Massell), becoming the first black man to hold office as chief executive of a major southern U.S. city. He challenged Atlanta's white leadership establishment and often clashed with the business community. He was reelected to a second term in 1977. A series of 28 unsolved murders and disappearances of young blacks in Atlanta, beginning in 1979, brought the city worldwide publicity. Since the victims were all black, the murders became a racial issue with some blacks convinced that the killer was white. Jackson tried to keep Atlanta calm while the police hunted for the killer. On June 21, 1981, Wayne Williams, a 23-year-old black freelance photographer, was arrested and charged with the murder of Nathaniel Carter, 27, one of the 28 victims. Jackson, who could not by law seek a third consecutive term, backed Andrew Young, also black, who won a runoff election for mayor in 1981. Jackson returned to seek a third term in 1989. He was elected with 80% of the vote and was instrumental in Atlanta's successful effort to host the 1996 Summer Olympic Games. In 2001, he made a bid for the chairmanship of the Democratic National Committee, but withdrew from the race against Terry McAuliffe. He was then named chairman of the DNC's Voting Rights Institute and was heavily involved in the fight for election reform.
Jackson, Rashleigh E(smond) (b. Jan. 12, 1929, New Amsterdam, British Guiana [now Guyana]), foreign minister of Guyana (1978-90). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1973-78).
Jackson, Sir Richard (Leofric) (b. July 12, 1902, India - d. Feb. 17, 1975), president of the International Criminal Police Organization (1960-63); knighted 1963.
Jackson, Sir William (Godfrey Fothergill) (b. Aug. 28, 1917, Blackpool, England - d. March 12, 1999), governor of Gibraltar (1978-82). He was commissioned into the Royal Engineers in 1937. In World War II he served in Norway, North Africa, and Italy. After the war he was posted to the Far East. From 1948 to 1950, he was an instructor at the Staff College, Camberley, after which he became a company commander at Sandhurst (1951-53). Next came a posting as second-in-command of the Royal Engineers 7th Armoured Division in Germany, and a spell at the War Office where he helped plan the Suez invasion. From 1958 to 1960, he commanded the Gurkha Engineers in Malaya. From 1973 to 1976 he was quartermaster general. As governor, he proved a doughty defender of the Gibraltarians' interests, invariably referring to the Rock's inhabitants as "we." While he could not prevent Lord Carrington concluding an agreement with the Spaniards in 1980, which opened the door to talks about the colony's future, he was delighted the next year to welcome the prince and princess of Wales to Gibraltar on their honeymoon - a plan which had caused King Juan Carlos to boycott the royal wedding. During the Falklands War, Jackson had the delicate task of misleading the Spanish authorities about British strength and intentions, knowing that the Spaniards were in contact with the Argentine government. This did not prevent him, later in 1982, from stamping firmly on the notion that a Spanish admiral might be allowed to fly his flag in Gibraltar after Spain had joined NATO. After retiring from the governorship, Jackson continued to defend Gibraltar's cause in the press. "It will take several generations," he wrote, "to expunge the depth of anti-Spanish feeling generated over the last half a century." He was knighted in 1971.
Jackson-Nelson, Marjorie, née Jackson (b. Sept. 13, 1931, Coffs Harbour, New South Wales), governor of South Australia (2001-07). Dubbed the Lithgow Flash, she became the first Australian woman to win an Olympic track and field gold medal, winning the 100 m and 200 m at the 1952 Helsinki Games. She broke 10 world sprint records during her career, was inducted into the International Hall of Fame for Women in 2000, and was named as one of the 200 greatest Australians during the 1988 Bicentenary year.
Jacob, Eduard Herman s' (b. Aug. 4, 1827, The Hague - d. April 15, 1912, The Hague), king's commissioner of Utrecht (1882-88).
Jacob, J(ack) F(rederick) R(alph) (b. 1921, Calcutta, Bengal [now Kolkata, West Bengal], India), governor of Goa (1998-99) and of Punjab (1999-2003).
Jacob, Louis Léon, comte (b. Nov. 11, 1768, Tonnay-Charente [now in Charente-Maritime département], France - d. March 14, 1854, Clichy-sous-Bois, Seine-Saint-Denis, France), governor of Guadeloupe (1823-26).
Jacob, M(undakkal) M(atthew) (b. Aug. 9, 1928, Ramapuram [now in Kottayam district, Kerala state], India), governor of Meghalaya (1995-2007).
Jacobs, Sir Wilfred E(benezer) (b. Oct. 19, 1919 - d. March 11, 1995), governor of Antigua (1967-81) and governor-general of Antigua and Barbuda (1981-93); knighted 1967.
Jacomet, Arnaud (Marie Pierre André) (b. Oct. 20, 1946, Paris, France - d. Oct. 14, 2011, Brussels, Belgium), secretary-general of the Western European Union (2009-11).
Jadid, Salah (b. 1926, Duwayr B`abda, near Jablah, Syria - d. Aug. 19, 1993, Damascus, Syria), Syrian politician. In the 1950s, by then an army officer, he joined the Ba`th Party, which was banned at the time. He was promoted to major general in 1963 and named chief of staff of the Syrian armed forces. With Hafez al-Assad, he led a coup in February 1966 that ousted the more moderate Ba`th leadership. For the next four years, although he held only a party post, Jadid was the effective leader of Syria. In September 1970 he sent armoured troops to Jordan in support of Palestinians fighting King Hussein and unsuccessfully tried to persuade Assad, who commanded the air force, to provide cover. When the Syrian forces suffered defeat, Assad had Jadid arrested. A man of strict principle, Jadid remained defiant, and he spent the remaining 23 years of his life under arrest, making him one of the world's longest-held political prisoners.
Ja'far, Usman (b. Sept. 10, 1951, Sekadau, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia), governor of Kalimantan Barat (2003-08).
Jaffa, Henry N(aphtali) (b. 1846, Prussia - d. early January 1901, Albuquerque, N.M.), mayor of Albuquerque (1885-86).
Jaffar, Ahmed Ben Said (b. August 1966), foreign minister of the Comoros (2006-10).
Jaffar (al-Amjade), (Prince) Said Mohamed (b. April 14, 1918, Mutsamudu, Anjouan - d. Oct. 22, 1993), president of the Government Council (1972) and chairman of the National Executive Council and foreign minister (1975-76) of the Comoros; great-great-grandson of Ahmed bin Shekhe Ngome.
Jagan, Cheddi (Berret) (b. March 22, 1918, Plantation Port Mourant, British Guiana [now Guyana] - d. March 6, 1997, Washington, D.C.), president of Guyana (1992-97). He was elected to the British Guianan legislature in 1947. In 1946 he, his wife Janet, and other politicians had set up the Political Affairs Committee, which in early 1950 evolved into the People's Progressive Party (PPP), with himself as leader. In elections held in April 1953 under a new British-granted constitution, the party won 18 of the 24 seats in the colony's Legislative Council and Jagan became premier. His subsequent program of radical socioeconomic reforms led the British - acting at the behest of the United States - to dismiss him from office on Oct. 9, 1953, suspend the new constitution, and send in troops. Jagan and a number of prominent Guyanese were jailed, ostensibly for defying a colonial order restricting movement. In 1955 the PPP split along racial lines, with most of its black members seceding under Forbes Burnham to form the People's National Congress (PNC) and its members of East Indian descent, like Jagan, remaining in the ranks. The PPP won the 1957 elections, and Jagan pursued moderate policies of socioeconomic reform as the new government's minister of trade and industry (there was no prime ministerial position). In the 1961 elections the PPP emerged with a slim majority, and Jagan became premier. His term was marred by a long general strike and by serious rioting. He served as leader of the parliamentary opposition from 1964 and was the PPP's general secretary from 1970. After the PPP won general elections in 1992 he finally became president of Guyana. Long an outspoken Marxist, he now supported free-market economic policies. He died in office.
Jagan, Janet (Rosalie), née Rosenberg (b. Oct. 20, 1920, Chicago, Ill. - d. March 28, 2009, Georgetown, Guyana), president of Guyana (1997-99). In 1942, she met Cheddi Jagan in Chicago, where he was studying dentistry. The following year they were married and returned to Georgetown in what was then the colony of British Guiana. By 1950 they had both become active in politics, and during that year they joined with Forbes Burnham to found the People's Progressive Party. She became the party's first secretary general, a post she held for 20 years. During 1957-64, when Cheddi Jagan headed the government, Janet held several cabinet posts and served in the parliament. Having been stripped of her U.S. citizenship in 1947 (nominally because she had voted in local elections in British Guiana), Jagan in 1966 officially became a citizen of Guyana. Cheddi became president in 1992 and died in 1997. She then became prime minister. Hesitant at first to run for the presidency, she accepted her party's nomination on Aug. 31, 1997, in order to carry forward her late husband's agenda. Her main opposition came from People's National Congress leader Desmond Hoyte. When she was sworn in, she made history on two fronts - becoming the first elected female president in South America and the first white president of Guyana. Following the election, hundreds demonstrated in the capital, Georgetown, charging her with fraud and an inability to lead the country on the grounds that she was not a natural-born citizen and was too old. An independent audit of the results by a Caribbean Community team found no evidence to support the fraud charges, but Hoyte's supporters protested so vehemently that, in an effort to quell the unrest, Jagan and Hoyte reached an agreement to hold new elections in 2000. She resigned due to ill health in 1999.
Jagat, Gurbachan (b. June 1, 1942), governor of Manipur (2008-13) and Nagaland (2009).
Jagdeo, Bharrat (b. Jan. 23, 1964, Unity Village, East Coast Demerara, British Guiana [now Guyana]), president of Guyana (1999-2011). The Moscow-educated economist became finance minister in 1995. He was the architect of a key debt relief program granted to Guyana by multilateral organizations. He was sworn in as president, becoming the youngest head of state in the Americas, after Janet Jagan resigned because of poor health. The main opposition People's National Congress (PNC), which claimed Jagan's 1997 election was fraudulent, said it would not recognize Jagdeo's administration. The ruling People's Progressive Party (PPP), of which Jagdeo had been an activist for years, was generally supported by Guyanese of Indian descent. Guyanese of African descent traditionally backed the PNC. Jagdeo was expected to maintain the free-market economic policies of Jagan, who named him as her successor after suffering a mild heart attack. Describing himself as "an emissary of renewed hope," he said he brought to his office "no hang-ups from the past." Saying economic growth was one of his main goals, he promised to offer "a more confident environment for investors." His appointment required some unusual political manoeuvering. Under the Guyanese constitution, the prime minister is next in line when the president falls ill. Prime Minister Sam Hinds resigned to make way for Jagdeo - who could then become president and in turn reappointed Hinds as premier.
Jager, Michel (Jean Emile Marie) (b. Aug. 18, 1944, Helmond, Noord-Brabant), queen's commissioner of Flevoland (1996-2008).
Jagland, Thorbjørn (b. Nov. 5, 1950, Drammen, Norway), Norwegian politician. His first senior position came in 1977 as leader of the AUF, the Labour Party's youth league. In 1981, the year Gro Harlem Brundtland first became prime minister, Jagland was busy building a power base in the party. He turned down a golden chance to work in Brundtland's office in 1986 as a junior minister, saying he needed time with his children - a typical feature of Norway where eight out of 10 men use their right to take paid paternity leave. In 1992, he was voted in as party leader following Brundtland's resignation from the post after her son committed suicide. Brundtland had initially wanted Jens Stoltenberg as party leader and heir-apparent, but Jagland won out because he was supported by the trade unions, traditional and powerful allies of the Labour Party. The following year Jagland took over as parliamentary representative for the county of Buskerud. Brundtland announced in October 1996 that she was resigning as prime minister to give Jagland and the Labour Party time to prepare properly for the next election in September 1997. As prime minister, he argued for creation of a "Norwegian House" built on social justice, strong state participation in the economy, concern for the environment, and closer ties with international organizations. But at the 1997 elections, he said Labour was fed up with sniping and gave an ultimatum: Labour would quit unless it matched its 1993 result of 36.9% of the vote. Voters seized the chance and dumped Labour, giving it 35%. He quit as shadow premier in February 2000 in favour of Stoltenberg, causing Labour's popularity to leap from 30 to 38% in one opinion poll. He was foreign minister under Stoltenberg in 2000-01. In 2005-09 he was president of the Storting (parliament) and in 2009 he became secretary-general of the Council of Europe.
Jagne, Baboucarr-Blaise (Ismaila) (b. Feb. 11, 1955, Bathurst [now Banjul], Gambia), foreign minister of The Gambia (1995-97, 2001-04). He was permanent representative to the United Nations in 1998-2001.
Jagne, Mamour Alieu, foreign minister of The Gambia (2014).
Jahjaga, Atifete (b. April 20, 1975, Gjakovë [Djakovica], Kosovo), president of Kosovo (2011- ).
Jain, Milap Chand (b. 1929, Jodhpur [now in Rajasthan], India), acting governor of Rajasthan (1990).
Jain, Nirmal Chandra (b. Sept. 24, 1928, Jabalpur [now in Madhya Pradesh], India - d. Sept. 22, 2003, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India), governor of Rajasthan (2003).
Jakande, (Alhaji) Lateef (Kayode) (b. July 23, 1929), governor of Lagos (1979-83).
Jakes, Milos (b. Aug. 12, 1922, Ceské Chalupy, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), Czechoslovak politician. In 1945 he joined the Communist Party, which was rapidly signing up new members, and became a leader at the local level. He was an employee of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (1958-63), chairman of the Central Administration for the Development of a Communal Economy (1963-66), deputy minister of the interior (1966-68), and chairman of the party's Central Control and Auditing Commission (1968-77). After the Soviet invasion of 1968 ended the "Prague Spring," it was his commission that reviewed what party members had done during the "crisis period." Thousands were expelled. In 1977 he joined the Central Committee and became chairman of its Committee on Agriculture and Food. He increased food production by promoting entrepreneurship without ending planning. As chairman of the National Economic Committee (1981-87), by contrast, he supervised a stagnant national economy. On Dec. 17, 1987, the Central Committee elected Jakes to the most important job in the party, that of secretary-general. On Oct. 10, 1988, Jakes announced the resignation of Lubomír Strougal as prime minister and as a member of the Presidium, the inner circle of party leaders. Although Jakes had kind words for Strougal, Western observers believed that the two had been rivals for years. Both had achieved prominence after the Soviet invasion. Neither wanted anything like a repetition of the "Prague Spring" experiment, but Strougal, in 1987, had worked with economists on a policy of reduced economic planning and greater reliance on market forces. Jakes resisted Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring).
Jakhar, Balram (b. Aug. 23, 1923, Panjkosi village, Ferozepur district, Punjab, India), governor of Madhya Pradesh (2004-09) and Gujarat (2004). He was speaker of the Lok Sabha in 1980-89 and minister of agriculture in 1991-96.
Jalloud, Abdul Salam (Ahmed), Arabic `Abd al-Salam Ahmad Jallud (b. Dec. 15, 1944, Mizdah, south of Tripoli, Libya), interior minister (1970), finance minister (1970-72), and prime minister (1972-77) of Libya.
Jama, Jama Ali, president of Puntland (2001-02).
Jamakosmanovic, Sead (b. 1949, Sarajevo), governor of Tuzla canton (1996-98).
Jamali, Mir Zafarullah Khan (b. Jan. 1, 1944, Rojhan Jamali village, Nasirabad district, Balochistan, India [now in Pakistan]), acting chief minister of Balochistan (1988, 1996-97) and prime minister of Pakistan (2002-04).
Jamali, Muhammad Fadhel al-, Arabic Muhammad Fadil al-Jamali (b. April 20, 1903, Khadimiya, near Baghdad, Ottoman Empire [now in Iraq] - d. May 24, 1997, Tunis, Tunisia), prime minister (1953-54) and foreign minister (1946-48, 1949, 1952, 1954, 1958) of Iraq. He was one of the prominent politicians during the Hashemite monarchy that ruled Iraq from 1921 to 1958. He helped develop Iraq's first modern school system and signed the United Nations charter in 1945. As prime minister, he was involved in negotiations with Britain for a treaty to give Iraq more freedom under colonial rule, but was forced to resign when the treaty was rejected by most nationalist parties. After a military coup overthrew the monarchy in 1958, he was sentenced to be hanged on charges of collaboration with the West. His sentence was later commuted and he was freed after Morocco intervened and later became an adviser to Tunisian president Habib Bourguiba, who granted him Tunisian citizenship.
Jameel, Fathulla (b. Sept. 5, 1942 - d. March 1, 2012, Singapore), foreign minister of Maldives (1978-2005). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1977-78).
James, Edison (Chenfil) (b. Oct. 18, 1943, Marigot, Dominica), prime minister (1995-2000) and foreign minister (1995-98) of Dominica. He worked as a civil servant in both Dominica and the United Kingdom and served as an officer with the Caribbean Development Bank. He was for seven years chief executive officer of the Dominica Banana Marketing Corporation. A founding member of the United Workers Party, he became prime minister following the party's victory in a general election. For five years previously, from 1990 to 1995, he had served as leader of the opposition.
James, Forrest H(ood), Jr., byname Fob James (b. Sept. 15, 1934, Lanett, Chambers county, Ala.), governor of Alabama (1979-83, 1995-99). In 1978, following a switch from the Republican to the Democratic Party, James entered the gubernatorial race and won. He did not run for reelection in 1982, when George Wallace won his last term. He again switched parties on April 8, 1994, ran as a Republican and won reelection on Nov. 8, 1994. Even in Alabama, which has a reputation for electing controversial governors, James was a standout. He once did an ape imitation as a way of mocking the theory of evolution in an appearance before the state Board of Education. In 1997, he announced he would call out the National Guard if necessary to defend the right of a state judge to display a wooden tablet of the Ten Commandments on the wall of his courtroom. In a protest against federal court rulings prohibiting organized prayer in public schools, James argued that the U.S. Supreme Court had no jurisdiction over Alabama. James' stands prompted conservative business interests to back businessman Winton Blount in the Republican primary for governor in 1998. Blount branded James as an "embarrassment." James called Blount a "fat monkey" and handily won with 56% of the vote. James lost, however, to Democrat Don Siegelman in the general election. One single issue dominated the race - Siegelman's proposal to establish a state lottery to raise education standards. In a state increasingly dominated by Republicans, Siegelman managed to drive a wedge between the evangelical Christians who regarded James as a hero, and more business oriented voters who believed the colourful governor was harming the state's reputation and slowing its development.
James, Sir Stanislaus (Anthony) (b. Nov. 13, 1919, Soufrière, Saint Lucia - d. May 26, 2011, Castries, Saint Lucia), governor-general of Saint Lucia (1988-96); knighted 1992.
Jamieson, Donald Campbell (b. April 30, 1921, St. John's, Newfoundland - d. Nov. 19, 1986, Swift Current, Sask.), foreign minister of Canada (1976-79). He was also minister of defence production (1968-69), supply and services (1969), transport (1969-72), regional economic expansion (1972-75), and industry, trade and commerce (1975-76) and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1983-85).
Jamir, S(anaiyangba) C(hubatoshi) (b. Oct. 17, 1931, Ungma village, Assam [now in Mokokchung district, Nagaland], India), chief minister of Nagaland (1980, 1982-86, 1989-90, 1993-2003) and governor of Goa (2004-08), Maharashtra (2008-10), Gujarat (2009), and Odisha (2013- ).
Jammeh, Ousman (b. Aug. 13, 1953, Brikama, Gambia), foreign minister of The Gambia (2009-10). He was also minister of petroleum, energy, and mineral resources (2007-08) and energy (2008-09, 2010).
Jammeh, Yahya (Abdul-Azziz Jemus Junkung)1 (b. May 25, 1965, Kanilai village, Foni Kansala district, Western Division, The Gambia), president of The Gambia (1994- ). He joined what was then the Gambia National Gendarmerie in 1984 and was promoted from private to sergeant two years later. He transferred to The Gambia National Army and was commissioned in 1989. He attended the Military Police Officers Basic Course at Fort McClellan, Ala., U.S., and obtained a diploma in military science in 1994. Jammeh served under various units in The Gambia National Army. From 1984 to 1986 he was in the Special Intervention Unit, 1986-89 in the Gendarmerie Training School (Escort Training Instructor), 1989-90 Presidential Guards (in charge of Presidential Escort); in 1991 he served as officer commanding in the Mobile Gendarmerie and in 1992 was officer commanding The Gambia National Army Military Police, until July 22, 1994, when the army toppled Pres. Sir Dawda Jawara in a bloodless coup and he became chairman of the Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council. At the time Jammeh was a lieutenant. In 1994, he was promoted to the rank of captain and in 1996 to the rank of colonel. Jammeh retired from the army in 1996. After a two-year transitional period constitutional and civilian government was restored. He won presidential elections on Sept. 26, 1996.
1 He identifies himself as Sheikh Professor Alhaji Dr. Yahya Abdul-Azziz Jemus Junkung Jammeh Naasiru Deen, the religious title "Naasiru Deen" being the latest addition, announced March 1, 2011.
Jampa Phuntsok, also spelled Qiangba Puncog (b. May 1947, Qamdo prefecture, Xikang [now in Xizang], China), chairman of the government of Xizang (2003-10).
Jamshid ibn `Abd Allah, Sayyid (b. Sept. 16, 1929, Zanzibar), sultan of Zanzibar (1963-64). He lives in England since his deposition.
Jämtin, Carin (b. Aug. 3, 1964, Stockholm, Sweden), acting foreign minister of Sweden (2006). She was minister of development aid in 2003-06.
Jandrokovic, Gordan (b. Aug. 2, 1967, Bjelovar, Croatia), foreign minister of Croatia (2008-11).
Jang, Jonah (David) (b. March 13, 1944, Du [now in Plateau state], Nigeria), governor of Plateau (2007- ).
Jang Bahadur Rana, Jang also spelled Jung, original name Jang Bahadur Kunwar (b. June 18, 1817, Kathmandu, Nepal - d. Feb. 25, 1877, Patharghatta, Bhagalpur district, Bihar, India), prime minister of Nepal (1846-56, 1857-77). A man of great courage and ability, Jang Bahadur gained control over the government after killing a usurper, Gagan Singh, who in 1846 had plotted with the junior queen to become prime minister and place her son on the throne. Subsequently, he deposed and exiled both the king and the queen after they had attempted to have him assassinated. He was named prime minister for life and given the hereditary title of Rana. His diplomatic skill and conciliatory policy helped Nepal remain independent while the rest of the Indian subcontinent came under British rule. During the Indian Mutiny of 1857-58 he sent a contingent of Gurkha soldiers to aid the British, thus establishing a tradition of Gurkha military service in the British army. He also did much to improve and modernize the administration of the country and revised the old penal code. Although he attempted to abolish suttee, three of his widows immolated themselves on his funeral pyre. Once he was appointed hereditary prime minister, he believed it essential for the security of the state that he should be succeeded by a fully adult and capable man. Accordingly, he devised an order of succession by means of which the office passed not from father to son but rather from brother to brother within the family. In the second generation it passed to the sons of all his brothers in order of age and in a similar manner in succeeding generations. At his death Jang Bahadur was thus succeeded by his younger brother Ranaudip Singh. The office of prime minister remained in the Rana family until 1951. The Rana family continued, however, to remain extremely powerful.
Janisch, Hudson Ralph (b. 1824, Saint Helena - d. March 10, 1884, Saint Helena), governor of Saint Helena (1873-84). He was the first (and still the only) locally-born governor of Saint Helena.
Janklow, William J(ohn) (b. Sept. 13, 1939, Chicago, Ill. - d. Jan. 12, 2012, Sioux Falls, S.D.), governor of South Dakota (1979-87, 1995-2003). Probably no governor in South Dakota's history had as great an impact as Republican Janklow; yet he remained as controversial in victory as in defeat. He started off as a lawyer on a Sioux Indian reservation. Then, elected attorney general in 1974, he reacted sharply to the militants' uprisings of 1975, insisting that the law be enforced. Elected governor in 1978, he got Citibank into the state - the first of many credit card operations - and set the state on a low-tax course. Reelected in 1982, he ran for the Senate in 1986, and lost the primary 55%-45% to the inarticulate but personally popular incumbent Sen. Jim Abdnor. The new governor, Republican George Mickelson, was proud of his revolving economic development fund, financed by a temporary one-cent sales tax increase, to attract jobs and industry. Mickelson died in a plane crash in 1993, and was succeeded by Walter Dale Miller, a rancher from near Rapid City who served 20 years in the legislature and six as lieutenant governor. Janklow challenged him in the 1994 Republican primary and won by 54%-46%, carrying most of eastern South Dakota and losing much of the west. In the general election he won easily, 55%-41%, over Jim Beddow, the former president of Dakota Wesleyan University. Feisty and sometimes abrasive, Janklow's critics said he ran state government like a dictator. But he pledged to keep South Dakota's economy strong and to be tough on crime and drug abuse, and was reelected in 1998. In 2002 he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. On Aug. 29, 2003, he was charged with second-degree manslaughter after an accident in which his speeding car hit and killed a motorcyclist; he was convicted on December 8.
Jankowitsch, Peter (b. July 10, 1933, Vienna, Austria), foreign minister of Austria (1986-87). He was also chargé d'affaires in Senegal (1964-66) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1972-78).
Jankulovska, Gordana (b. Oct. 12, 1975, Ohrid, Macedonia), interior minister of Macedonia (2006- ).
Janmaat, Hans, byname of Johannes Gerardus Hendrikus Janmaat (b. Nov. 3, 1934, Nieuwer-Amstel, Noord-Holland, Netherlands - d. June 9, 2002, The Hague), Dutch politician. He was on the rightist fringe of Dutch politics. His views that the overcrowded Netherlands had no room for foreigners and that refugees should be sent back to their countries of origin were contrary to the country's generous open-door policy. He founded the Central Democratic party in 1984, which won its first seats in parliament in 1989. Its best result was in 1994, gaining three of the 150 seats. One was filled by Janmaat's wife Wil Schuurman, who lost a leg in a bomb attack by leftist radicals at a party meeting in 1986. Janmaat left politics in 1998 after his party lost all its seats. He said a comeback was hopeless, accusing the media and the Dutch security service of working against him. He was convicted several times on discrimination charges, most recently in 1997 for advocating an end to the Dutch multicultural society.
Janot, Raymond (b. March 9, 1917, Paris - d. Nov. 25, 2000, Paris), president of the Regional Council of Bourgogne (1986-92).
Jansa, Janez, byname of Ivan Jansa (b. Sept. 17, 1958, Ljubljana, Slovenia, Yugoslavia), prime minister of Slovenia (2004-08, 2012-13). In 1988, he became a popular figure after the Yugoslav army arrested him with three other political dissidents, accusing them of divulging state secrets. The fact that the case (widely known in the former Yugoslavia as the JBTZ case) was heard in an army court and in Serbo-Croatian triggered the first mass demonstrations in Ljubljana in the Communist era, showing in the process that the notion of an independent Slovenia was more popular than some in the Communist leadership had realized. In 1990, Jansa became defense minister in the first Slovenian independent government. He set up the Slovenian army, which in 1991 proved strong enough to withstand attack by the JLA, the ex-Yugoslav army. He was defense minister until 1994, when his career came to an abrupt end after army officials beat up an employee of the Interior Ministry. Even if the circumstances are still blurred, it was clear that the interior and defense ministries were surveying each other. Jansa was held responsible for the incident and dismissed by Prime Minister Janez Drnovsek. In 1993 Jansa became chairman of the Social Democratic Party (SDS). He was again defense minister in 2000. In the 2004 elections, the SDS (renamed Slovenian Democratic Party in 2003) managed to overturn ten years of nearly unbroken dominance by the Liberal Democratic Party (LDS) by increasing its vote from 16% in 2000 to 29%. In 2008 the SDS again won 29% but went into opposition as the Social Democrats were able to form a coalition. Jansa's popularity had been eroded by a rising cost of living and a corruption allegation. Critics also claimed that he had assumed too much power, controlling police, the judiciary, and the media, thereby endangering democracy. After snap elections in 2011, he managed to assemble a five-way coalition and return to head the government, contrary to the will of Pres. Danilo Türk, who rejected giving him a mandate to form a government. Accused by the anti-corruption watchdog in January 2013 of tax irregularities, and struggling to implement austerity measures to combat the country's financial crisis, he was ousted in a no-confidence vote in February after smaller parties left his coalition.
Jansen, Geert (Jan) (b. Nov. 7, 1946, Norg, Drenthe, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Overijssel (2002-11).
Jansen, Joannes Coenraad (b. Dec. 14, 1840, The Hague - d. March 24, 1925, The Hague), acting foreign minister of the Netherlands (1894). He was also minister of marine (1891-94, 1897), acting minister of defense (1897), and acting mayor of The Hague (1911).
Janson, Paul Emile (b. May 30, 1872, Brussels, Belgium - d. March 3, 1944, Buchenwald concentration camp, Germany), defense minister (1920), justice minister (1927-31, 1932-34, 1939, 1940), prime minister (1937-38), and foreign minister (1939) of Belgium. He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1910. After the German invasion of Belgium in 1914, he played an important part in the rehabilitation of his country and in the care of refugees. He became more prominent in politics and was a delegate to the League of Nations (1926-29). A leading member of the Liberal Party, he formed a cabinet in November 1937 consisting of Catholics, Socialists, and Liberals. During his tenure as premier, he met determined opposition from the Catholic deputies, who demanded that he cut expenditures by reducing his program of social reforms. The Socialists, however, urged more spending and new taxation. Caught between the conflicting demands, his government fell in May 1938. After the German invasion of 1940 he escaped to France, but was arrested by the Germans there in 1943, and was imprisoned at Fresnes before being transferred to the Buchenwald concentration camp in Germany where he died.
Janssen, Albert-Edouard (Marie Henri) (b. April 1, 1883, Antwerp, Belgium - d. March 29, 1966, Hamme, Belgium), finance minister of Belgium (1925-26, 1938-39, 1952-54).
Jaosoa, (Jean) Pascal (b. March 19, 1959, Amboangibe, northern Madagascar), governor of Antsiranana (2002-03).
Japaridze, Tedo, byname of Teimuraz (Archilis dze) Japaridze (b. Sept. 18, 1946, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Georgia (2003-04). In 1994-2002 he was ambassador to the U.S., Canada, and Mexico.
Jaque, Celso (Alejandro) (b. Sept. 24, 1960, Malargüe, Mendoza, Argentina), governor of Mendoza (2007-11). In 2011 he became ambassador to Colombia.
Jara (Velásquez), Ana (Ethel del Rosario) (b. May 11, 1968, Ica region, Peru), prime minister of Peru (2014- ). She was minister of women and social development (2011-12), women and vulnerable populations (2012-14), and labour (2014).
Járai, Zsigmond (b. Dec. 29, 1951, Biharkeresztes, eastern Hungary), finance minister of Hungary (1998-2000). In 2001-07 he was governor of the Hungarian National Bank.
Jaramillo Correa, Luis Fernando (b. July 24, 1935, Barranquilla, Colombia - d. Nov. 23, 2011, Bogotá, Colombia), foreign minister of Colombia (1990-91). He was also minister of public works and transport (1986-89), permanent representative to the United Nations (1992-94), and ambassador to Spain (1998-99).
Jardim, Alberto João (Cardoso Gonçalves) (b. Feb. 4, 1943, Funchal, Madeira), president of the government of Madeira (1978- ).
Jardim, Eugênio Rodrigues (b. 1856 - d. [car crash] 1926, Rio de Janeiro), governor of Goiás (1921-22).
Jarnjak, Ivan (b. April 9, 1941, Bednja, Croatia), interior minister of Croatia (1992-96).
Jaroszewicz, Piotr (b. Oct. 8, 1909, Nieswiez, Warsaw province, Russian Empire [now Nesvizh, Belarus] - d. Sept. 2, 1992, Anin, Poland), prime minister of Poland (1970-80). He joined the Soviet-backed Polish army in 1943. He progressed rapidly, rising to the rank of brigadier general by 1950. In 1944 he joined what effectively was the Communist Party, and he rose through a number of posts to become deputy premier, remaining in that office until he became premier. He joined the party's Politburo in 1964 and became a full member three days before his appointment as premier in 1970. He implemented the policies of Edward Gierek, first secretary of the Polish United Workers' (Communist) Party; their government policies led to a crippled economy, huge price increases, and long lines for goods. The strikes and unrest that followed gave rise to the Solidarity trade union movement. Jaroszewicz was made a scapegoat, and he was dropped from the Politburo and forced to resign from office in 1980. He and Gierek were expelled from the party the following year. In 1992 Jaroszewicz and his wife were found murdered in their home; he had been tortured and strangled, and she had been shot.
Jarrot, André (b. Dec. 13, 1909, Lux, near Chalon-sur-Saône, Bourgogne, France - d. April 21, 2000, Lux), French political figure. He became French national motorcycle-racing champion in the 500cc category in 1937 and co-holder of the world 24-hour endurance title in 1938. Captured by German troops in June 1940, he soon escaped and bicycled his way across half of France to return to his native Burgundy, where he started organizing escape circuits. Involved in some of the first clandestine arms drops to the Resistance by the British Special Operations Executive (SOE), he was arrested by the Germans in January 1942. Released for lack of evidence, he walked over the Pyrenees to Spain where he was imprisoned for five months. When he finally reached Britain, he was trained as a secret agent and parachuted into occupied France on several sabotage missions. Awarding him the coveted Cross of the Liberation, Gen. Charles de Gaulle wrote that Jarrot's actions "seriously harmed German industries on French soil." He was also decorated by Britain, the United States, and Belgium. After the war, he was regional head for Bourgogne of the Rally of the French People (RPF) movement created by de Gaulle to bring him back to office. When the general did return to power in 1958, Jarrot was elected to parliament on a Gaullist slate and reelected in 1962, 1967, 1968, and 1973. A member of the European Parliament from 1962 to 1974, he was minister for the quality of life from 1974 to 1976 before serving in the Senate from 1986 to 1995.
Jaruzelski, Wojciech (Witold) (b. July 6, 1923, Kurow, Poland - d. May 25, 2014, Warsaw, Poland), premier (1981-85), chairman of the Council of State (1985-89), and president (1989-90) of Poland. When World War II broke out, he and his family were trapped by the invading Red Army, and he was deported to the Soviet Union. In 1943 he joined the Polish army formed in the Soviet Union under Gen. Zygmunt Berling. He joined Poland's communist party (later renamed the Polish United Workers' Party [PUWP]) in 1947 and steadily rose through the ranks of party and army, becoming a brigadier general at the early age of 33. He was elected a member of the party's Central Committee in 1964 and became a member of the Politburo in 1971. Having been deputy minister of defense since 1962, he was appointed minister of defense in March 1968. As Poland came under increasing pressure from the Solidarity movement, he was elected premier on Feb. 11, 1981, and first secretary of the party on Oct. 18, 1981, while retaining his post as minister of defense. In an effort to crush the Solidarity movement and restore Poland's economic stability, he declared martial law in Poland on Dec. 13, 1981; the move was accompanied by mass arrests of Solidarity leaders and political dissidents. With Solidarity suppressed, he lifted martial law in July 1983. In 1988 he approved negotiations between the government and the outlawed Solidarity movement. These talks culminated in April 1989 in an agreement providing for far-reaching reforms in Poland's political system, notably the legalization of Solidarity and the holding of free elections to a restructured parliament. He was elected president by the parliament in July 1989 and then resigned all his high posts in the PUWP. He faced trial in 2001, accused of giving the orders for the army to open fire on protesters in 1970.
Jarvis, Thomas J(ordan) (b. Jan. 18, 1836, Jarvisburg, N.C. - d. June 17, 1915, Greenville, N.C.), governor of North Carolina (1879-85). He was also U.S. minister to Brazil (1885-88).
Jasarevic, Bajazit (b. April 24, 1957, Srebrenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina), premier of Tuzla canton (1999-2001, 2003-07).
Jashari, Kaqusha (b. Aug. 16, 1946, Srbica [Skenderaj], Kosovo), president of the Executive Council (1987-89) and secretary of the Central Committee of the League of Communists (1988) of Kosovo.
Jaskiernia, Jerzy (Andrzej) (b. March 21, 1950, Kudowa Zdroj, Poland), justice minister of Poland (1995-96).
Jasokie, John Bosco (b. 1925 - d. Oct. 19, 2005, Kohima, Nagaland, India), chief minister of Nagaland (1975, 1980-82).
Jaspar, Henri (b. July 28, 1870, Schaerbeek, Belgium - d. Feb. 15, 1939, Saint-Gilles [now in Brussels-Capital region], Belgium), prime minister of Belgium (1926-31). Entering politics in the Catholic Party, he was made minister for economic affairs in November 1918, on the conclusion of World War I, and reorganized industry and commerce with considerable success. In 1919 he became deputy for Liège. In the following year he left the Ministry of Economic Affairs to become interior minister and, later, foreign minister (1920-24). In the latter capacity he facilitated Belgium's entry into the League of Nations and also the country's representation at the Permanent Court of International Justice at The Hague. He helped create the customs union of Belgium and Luxembourg in 1921, and in 1924 he took part in the Dawes Plan negotiations, which enabled Germany to resume reparations payments to the Allies. In May 1926 he was called on to form a ministry of national unity. His cabinet included representatives of the three Belgian parties, Catholic, Socialist, and Liberal, and implemented a series of financial policies, designed by banker Emile Francqui, to remedy the economic crisis; these included devaluation of the currency, creation of new taxes, conversion of the public debt, nationalization of the railroads, and financing of public works. These measures revitalized the Belgian economy, although it declined again after the onset of the Great Depression in 1929. Jaspar later served as finance minister (1932-34) and again as foreign minister (1934). He was asked to form a new government in 1939 but failed owing to the refusal of the Socialists to collaborate; he died soon thereafter.
Jasray, Puntsagiyn (b. Nov. 26, 1933, Bugat soum, Govi-Altay province, Mongolia - d. Oct. 25, 2007, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia), Mongolian politician. He served as deputy prime minister before the 1990 democratic revolution ended nearly 70 years of communist rule and was chairman of the influential State Planning Commission. He was prime minister from 1992 to 1996 and was a member of the Central Committee of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party.
Jatene, Simão Robson Oliveira, Robson also spelled Robison (b. April 1, 1949, Belém, Brazil), governor of Pará (2003-07, 2011- ).
Jatkola, Emil (Julius) (b. 1879 - d. Dec. 31, 1948), governor of Mikkeli (1933-48).
Jatoi, Ghulam Mustafa (b. Aug. 14, 1931, New Jatoi, Sind, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Nov. 20, 2009, London, England), chief minister of Sindh (1973-77) and prime minister of Pakistan (1990).
Jatti, Basappa Danappa (b. Sept. 10, 1912, Savalgi, Bijapur district [now in Karnataka] - d. June 7, 2002, Bangalore), chief minister of Mysore (1958-62), lieutenant governor of Pondicherry (1968-72), governor of Orissa (1972-74), and vice president (1974-79) and acting president (1977) of India. During the movement for independence from Britain, he was active in an underground network of saboteurs in southern India. In 1943 he became a member of the municipal council of Jamkhandi, a tiny princely state, and was eventually appointed its chief minister on the eve of India's independence. After the linguistic reorganization of Indian provinces, he entered the cabinet of Mysore's chief minister, S. Nijalingappa, as health and labour minister. Endearing himself to Jawaharlal Nehru and Indira Gandhi at the national level, Jatti was able to steal a march over other Congress leaders in the state and became chief minister in 1958. When Nijalingappa returned as chief minister in 1962, Jatti took the unusual step - in the Indian context - of rejoining his cabinet as an ordinary minister. By far the most controversial turn in an otherwise placid political career came when Jatti became acting president of India in 1977, and had to preside over Gandhi's electoral defeat at the hands of the Janata Party. The new government was not comfortable with the continuance of Congress governments in the states. When the nine sitting Congress chief ministers refused to recommend dissolution of their legislatures, the national government advised Jatti to dismiss the state governments, but he demurred. Prime Minister Morarji Desai is said to have sent a terse message to Jatti with the ultimatum: "Sign or resign." He had no option but to comply.
Jau, Michel (Charles) (b. Jan. 21, 1951, Paris, France), high commissioner of French Polynesia (1992-94). He has also been prefect of the départements of Oise (2001-04), Yvelines (2010-13), and Haute-Vienne (2013- ).
Jaua (Milano), Elías (José) (b. Dec. 17, 1969, Caucagua, Miranda, Venezuela), executive vice president (2010-12) and foreign minister (2013-14) of Venezuela. He has also been minister of popular economy (2004-06), minister of agriculture and lands (2006-10, 2012), and vice president for development of territorial socialism and minister of communes and social movements (2014- ).
Jaunarena, (José) Horacio (b. Nov. 29, 1942, Pergamino, Buenos Aires province), defense minister of Argentina (1986-89, 2001, 2002-03).
Jáuregui y Aldecoa, Agustín de (b. 1708 - d. [from the result of an accident] April 27, 1784, Lima, Peru), viceroy of Peru (1780-84).
Jauréguiberry, Jean-Bernard (b. Aug. 26, 1815, Bayonne, France - d. Oct. 21, 1887, Paris), acting governor of Cochinchina (1859-60), governor of Senegal (1861-63), and French minister of marine and colonies (1879-80, 1882-83).
Jawara, Sir Dawda (Kairaba), original name Saihou Jawara (b. May 16, 1924, Barajally, MacCarthy Island, Gambia), president of The Gambia (1970-94). He became a Christian when he married in 1955 and changed his name to David (Kwesi) Jawara, but ten years later he reverted to the Islamic faith and adopted his current name. In 1959 he joined the Protectorate People's Party. He changed its name to the People's Progressive Party (PPP) and became its leader. In the elections of 1960 he won a seat in the Gambian legislature and was appointed minister of education. He resigned his ministerial post in 1961 when the British government picked a rival Gambian leader to serve as the country's interim prime minister preparatory to new elections. The PPP won the general elections of 1962, and Jawara became prime minister. He led his country to independence three years later. Under his leadership, the tiny nation of The Gambia became one of Africa's few successful parliamentary democracies; Jawara's ruling PPP won six successive elections (1966, 1972, 1977, 1982, 1987, 1992) under completely free conditions after independence. He was knighted in 1966. He served as president from 1970, when a republican constitution was adopted to replace the former monarchy under the British sovereign. He came close to being overthrown by an armed coup at the end of July 1981, while he was in England for the wedding of Prince Charles. In 1982-89 he was vice president of the Senegambia confederation. Sir Dawda was conciliatory rather than combative in dealing with supporters and opponents alike. A strong believer in the Commonwealth of Nations, he also gave firm support to the Organization of African Unity and to the idea of nonalignment. A successful military coup in 1994 overthrew him and he was granted asylum by Senegal. He later lived in exile in London. An unconditional amnesty for him was announced in December 2001, and he returned on June 1, 2002, and retired from the PPP on September 19.
Jawari, Mohamed Osman (b. Dec. 7, 1945, Afgoye, Somalia), acting president of Somalia (2012).
Jay, John (b. Dec. 12, 1745, New York City - d. May 17, 1829, Bedford, N.Y., U.S.), U.S. politician. He was a delegate to the First Continental Congress (1774) in Philadelphia and helped assure the approval of the Declaration of Independence (1776) in New York, where he was a member of the provincial Congress. The following year he helped draft New York's first constitution, was elected the state's first chief justice, and in 1778 was chosen president of the Continental Congress. In 1779 Jay was appointed minister plenipotentiary to Spain, which had joined France in openly supporting the revolutionaries against Britain. He was sent in May 1782 to join Benjamin Franklin in Paris as joint negotiator for peace with Britain. On his return from abroad, Jay found that Congress had elected him secretary for foreign affairs (1784-90). Frustrated by the limitations on his powers in that office, he became convinced that the nation needed a more strongly centralized government than was provided for by the Articles of Confederation, and he plunged into the fight for ratification of the new federal Constitution, framed in 1787. In 1789 Pres. George Washington appointed Jay the country's first chief justice. In 1794 Washington sent Jay as a special envoy to Great Britain to help avert war over accumulated grievances. The commercial agreement, called the Jay Treaty (November 19), aroused a storm of protest among the Jeffersonian Republicans, who denounced it as a sellout by pro-British Federalists. Before the negotiations, Jay at one time had been considered a leading candidate to succeed Washington, but the unpopular treaty ruined whatever chances he had for the presidency. New York Federalists, however, elected him governor (1795-1801).
Jayalalitha, Jayaram (b. Feb. 24, 1948, Mysore city, India), chief minister of Tamil Nadu (1991-96, 2001, 2002-06, 2011-14). She quit films in 1982 after a successful acting career to become one of India's most powerful regional politicians. She took over the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK), a party representing low-caste Hindus and Tamil speakers, from her former co-star, matinee idol M.G. Ramachandran, after his death in 1987. As chief minister, she built up a personality cult, erecting huge plyboard cutouts of herself around the state capital Madras and proclaiming her development successes on giant hoardings. She was ousted by the opposition Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) party in state assembly polls in May 1996. An electoral alliance in the state between Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao's Congress party and Jayalalitha's AIADMK failed to gain enough support to conquer the DMK, which ran on an anti-Jayalalitha, anti-corruption campaign. The Congress-AIADMK pact backfired when it prompted several key state Congress leaders to defect and form a new party. Disillusionment with what many Tamils saw as her extravagant lifestyle and increasingly autocratic manner grew after the split. In 1999 she was accused by her accountant of savagely beating him with a high-heeled shoe. Jayalalitha and her senior party colleagues also faced 33 financial corruption cases stemming from her time in power in Tamil Nadu. She was convicted of corruption in 2000. Her 2001 appointment as chief minister was struck down because of the conviction, which was, however, quashed by an appeals court, and she was reinstated in 2002. In 2014 she was sentenced to four years in jail and thus again disqualified from office.
Jayaratne, D(issanayake) M(udiyanselage) (b. June 4, 1931), prime minister of Sri Lanka (2010- ). He has also been minister of agriculture (1994-2001), post and telecommunication (2004-07), plantation industries (2007-10), and Buddha Sasana and religious affairs (2010- ).
Jayewardene, Junius Richard, also spelled Jayawardene (b. Sept. 17, 1906, Colombo, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. Nov. 1, 1996, Colombo), president of Sri Lanka (1978-89). In 1938 he joined the Ceylon National Congress, which was formed in 1918 to agitate for political reforms and freedom from British rule and later merged with several smaller parties to form the United National Party (UNP). In 1943 he was elected to the State Council, and four years later he entered Parliament. He was a governor of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund from 1947 to 1952. In 1948 he became finance minister. During the next years he held several high government positions and in 1973 became party leader on the death of Dudley Senanayake. The UNP won a sweeping victory in the 1977 general elections, and Jayewardene became prime minister in July that year. Within weeks of taking office he had to contend with an outbreak of communal conflict between Sinhalese and Tamils. Jayewardene's plan for a French-style presidential form of government was approved by Parliament in September 1977, and on Feb. 4, 1978, he became president. He won a second term in an election he called ahead of schedule in October 1982. He dismantled Sri Lanka's socialist economic system, encouraging foreign investment and privatization. Cynics called him "Yankee Dickie" for his slant towards Western capitalist states. During the summer of 1983 the long-simmering and at times violent hostility between the Sinhalese and Tamil communities erupted into bloody riots. In 1987 the worst violence in Sri Lanka's history occurred. Although the Tamils made up only 18% of the population, the entire country was being affected by the spreading violence. Amid continued ethnic fighting, which had claimed thousands of lives, Jayewardene retired in 1989.
Jayawickrema, (Walter Geoffrey) Montague (b. Jan. 14, 1911 - d. Nov. 16, 2001), governor of North Western province, Sri Lanka (1989-93). He was minister of transport and works (1954-56), nationalized services, shipping and transport, posts, works, and power (1960), public works and posts and telecommunications (1965-70), public administration (1977-89), home affairs (1977-80), and plantation industries (1980-89).
Jazi, Dali, Arabic al-Dali al-Jazi (b. Dec. 7, 1942, Nabeul, Tunisia - d. March 9, 2007, Tunis, Tunisia), defense minister of Tunisia (2001-04). He also was minister of public health, minister of higher education (1994-99), minister delegate at the office of the prime minister in charge of human rights, communications, and relations with the Chamber of Representatives (1999-2000), and advisor to the president of the republic. In 2005 he was named president of the Economic and Social Council. Jazi, who joined the Democratic Constitutional Rally in 1989, became a member of the party's central committee and later a member of the political bureau. He was decorated twice by Pres. Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, first with the Grand Ribbon of the Order of the Republic and the second time with the insignia of Grand Officer of the Order of November 7.
Jean (Benoît Guillaume Marie Robert Louis Antoine Adolphe Marc d'Aviano) (b. Jan. 5, 1921, Château de Colmar-Berg, Luxembourg), grand duke of Luxembourg (1964-2000). In 1953 he married Princess Joséphine-Charlotte of Belgium (b. Oct. 11, 1927, Brussels - d. Jan. 10, 2005, Château de Fischbach, Luxembourg). The couple had five children, three boys and two girls.
Jean, Michaëlle (b. Sept. 6, 1957, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), governor-general of Canada (2005-10).
Jeandet-Mengual, Emmanuèle (b. Jan. 18, 1949), acting president of the Regional Council of Haute-Normandie (2013- ).
Jeannet-Oudin, Nicolas Georges (b. Oct. 4, 1762, Arcis-sur-Aube - d. Oct. 20, 1828, Arcis-sur-Aube), governor of French Guiana (1793-94, 1796-98) and co-agent of Guadeloupe (1799-1801); nephew of Georges Jacques Danton.
Jeanprêtre, Francine (b. July 6, 1946, Neuchâtel), president of the Council of State of Vaud (2002).
Jebali, Hamadi, Arabic Hammadi al-Jibali (b. Oct. 13, 1949, Sousse, Tunisia), prime minister of Tunisia (2011-13).
Jefferson, Thomas (b. April 13, 1743, Shadwell, Goochland [now in Albemarle] county, Virginia [now in U.S.] - d. July 4, 1826, Monticello, near Charlottesville, Va.), president of the United States (1801-09). In 1769 he entered the lower house of the Virginia colonial legislature, the House of Burgesses. In 1775 the legislature appointed him as a member of its delegation to the Second Continental Congress meeting in Philadelphia. In June 1776, when the decision to break irrevocably with Great Britain seemed near, he was appointed to the committee assigned to draft a formal statement of the reasons for such a decision. Benjamin Franklin and John Adams were also on the committee, but they recognized Jefferson's superior talent and gracefully bowed to it. He thus became the principal author of the Declaration of Independence. After three years in the legislature, he was elected governor in 1779 and served for two years. In 1784 he went to France to join Franklin and Adams in negotiating treaties with European powers. After a few months he succeeded Franklin as resident U.S. minister to the French government. He returned to the U.S. at the end of 1789 and became secretary of state. He soon became involved in controversy with Alexander Hamilton, leading to the formation of national political parties. Both Jefferson and Hamilton retired from the cabinet near the end of George Washington's first term, but each continued to be the symbol of the new parties, Jefferson of the Democratic-Republican, Hamilton of the Federalist. The Federalist candidates clearly lost the 1800 presidential election, but neither of the Republican candidates, Jefferson and Aaron Burr, could claim victory. The House of Representatives chose Jefferson and he was reelected in 1804.
Jefferson, Thomas C(arrol) (b. April 1941, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands - d. Oct. 29, 2006, Miami, Fla.), leader of government business of the Cayman Islands (1992-95). He was also financial secretary (1982-92), head of the civil service (1986-92), and minister of tourism (1994-2000).
Jeffery, (Philip) Michael (b. Dec. 12, 1937, Wiluna, Western Australia), governor of Western Australia (1993-2000) and governor-general of Australia (2003-08).
Jeker, Ruedi (b. July 9, 1944, Matzendorf, Solothurn, Switzerland), president of the government of Zürich (2004-05).
Jekshenkulov, Alikbek (b. May 25, 1957), foreign minister of Kyrgyzstan (2005-07). He was also ambassador to Austria (2000-04).
Jelavic, Ante (b. Aug. 21, 1963, Podprolog, Croatia), chairman of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1999-2000). The president of the Bosnian branch of the Croatian HDZ party and from 1996 defense minister of the Muslim-Croat federation, he successfully ran for the Croat seat on the country's presidency in 1998. His election as president by hardliners at a party congress in May 1998 despite Croatian president Franjo Tudjman's support for another candidate caused a split in the Bosnian HDZ as moderates deserted it to form a new party. Jelavic and the rump party came under heavy criticism from Zagreb but the pragmatic Jelavic managed to reestablish good relations with Tudjman and gain his full support. A wartime logistics chief in the Bosnian Croat HVO militia, Jelavic represented a powerful and rich lobby in Herzegovina - the Croat-dominated western strip of Bosnia - which wanted strong links with Croatia and opposed abolition of the institutions of the Bosnian Croat wartime statelet of Herceg-Bosna. Critics accused Hercegovinians of protecting only their business interests and forgetting about Croats from other areas of the Muslim-Croat federation and from the Serb republic. An election rule amendment ahead of the November 2000 general election - which weakened the ethnic vote and helped to tip the HDZ from power - proved too much for entrenched nationalist interests to bear. In March 2001 a Bosnian Croat congress dominated by the HDZ voted to establish Croat self-rule, and Jelavic gave the international community two weeks to change the electoral law. In response, High Representative Wolfgang Petritsch on March 7 sacked Jelavic from the Bosnian presidency. He resigned as leader of the HDZ on April 5, 2002. He was arrested on Jan. 23, 2004, on suspicion of links to organized crime. He was released on bail in May 2005. On Oct. 6, 2005, he was sentenced in absentia to 10 years in prison after he was found guilty of abuse of office and embezzlement of €100 million. He remains on trial in a separate case for undermining the stability of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Jeleva, Rumiana (Ruseva) (b. April 18, 1969, Nova Zagora, Bulgaria), foreign minister of Bulgaria (2009-10).
Jelevferij (Eleutherius), secular name Benjamin Aleksandrovic Voroncov (b. Oct. 17, 1892 - d. March 27, 1959), metropolitan of the Orthodox Church of Czechoslovakia (1951-55). He was subsequently metropolitan of Leningrad and Novgorod (Nov. 28, 1955-Jan. 1, 1957) and of Leningrad and Ladoga (Jan. 1, 1957-March 27, 1959).
Jelic, Milan (b. March 26, 1956, Koprivna [now in Republika Srpska], Bosnia and Herzegovina - d. Sept. 30, 2007, Doboj, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina), president of the Republika Srpska (2006-07).
Jemibewon, David (Medayese) (b. July 20, 1940), governor of Oyo (1976-78).
Jenkins of Hillhead, Roy (Harris) Jenkins, Baron (b. Nov. 11, 1920, Abersychan, near Pontypool, Monmouthshire, south Wales - d. Jan. 5, 2003, East Hendred, Oxfordshire), British politician. He was a Labour MP for working-class constituencies, first in London and then in Birmingham, since 1948. Under Prime Minister Harold Wilson he was home secretary (1965-67, 1974-76) and chancellor of the exchequer (1967-70). From 1970 to 1972 he served as deputy leader of the Labour Party, a position he resigned because of disagreements over European policy. He found himself increasingly at odds with his own party. He resigned his House of Commons seat in 1976 to take the presidency of the European Commission, saying it was "the most important enterprise in my life." His four-year term in Brussels was in some ways a disappointment, but he was the prime mover in establishing the European Monetary System. Jenkins returned to the U.K. not to the well-earned retirement but to help create a new political party, the Social Democratic Party (SDP). Despairing of the disarray into which the Labour Party had fallen, Jenkins joined with David Owen, Shirley Williams, and William Rodgers (all of them cabinet ministers in the last Labour government) to form a Council of Social Democracy, which later became the SDP. Jenkins, the oldest of the four, was the first to contest a by-election, at Warrington in July 1981. With 42% of the votes, he came close to winning a supposedly impregnable Labour stronghold. He thus had put a new centre party on the map of British politics. In 1987 he was created a baron.
Jenks, Wilfred (b. March 7, 1909, Liverpool - d. Oct. 9, 1973, Rome), director-general of the International Labour Organization (1970-73).
Jenny, Kurt (b. May 13, 1931, Basel, Switzerland - d. Feb. 1, 2004, Basel), president of the government of Basel-Stadt (1975-76, 1983-84, 1990-91).
Jerandi, Othman (b. Hammam Lif, Tunisia), foreign minister of Tunisia (2013-14). He was ambassador to Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone, and Liberia (1994-97), South Korea (2002-05), and Jordan (2010-11) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2011-12).
Jereissati, Tasso Ribeiro (b. Dec. 15, 1948, Fortaleza, Ceará), governor of Ceará (1987-91, 1995-2002).
Jeremiah, David E(lmer) (b. Feb. 25, 1934, Portland, Ore.), acting chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (1993).
Jeremic, Vuk (b. July 3, 1975, Belgrade, Serbia), foreign minister of Serbia (2007-12) and president of the UN General Assembly (2012-13).
Jerez (y Tellería), Máximo (José de Jesús) (b. June 8, 1818, León, Nicaragua - d. Aug. 12, 1881, Washington, D.C., U.S.), member of the Government Junta of Nicaragua (1857).
Jersey, Paul de (b. Sept. 21, 1948, Brisbane, Qld.), governor of Queensland (2014- ). He was chief justice of Queensland in 1998-2014.
Jervois, Sir William (Francis Drummond) (b. Sept. 10, 1821, Cowes, Isle of Wight, England - d. [following carriage accident] Aug. 17, 1897, Bittern Court, Hampshire, England), governor of the Straits Settlements (1875-77), South Australia (1877-83), and New Zealand (1883-89); knighted 1874.
Jervolino, Rosa Russo, officially Rosa Jervolino Russo, née Rosa Jervolino, Jervolino also spelled Iervolino (b. Sept. 17, 1936, Naples, Italy), interior minister of Italy (1998-99). She served as social affairs minister in 1987-92 and as education minister in the Giuliano Amato government of 1992-93. A tireless worker for the rights of women and of the family, Jervolino chaired the Constitutional Affairs Committee in the lower house, the Chamber of Deputies, from June 1996. A member of the Popular Party (PPI), heir to the Christian Democrats, she became the first woman ever to take Italy's home affairs portfolio. In 2001 she was elected mayor of Naples.
Jessen-Petersen, Søren (b. June 21, 1944, Nørresundby village, northern Denmark), UN administrator of Kosovo (2004-06).
Jesus, José Luís de (b. Sept. 20, 1950, Ribeira Grande, Santo Antão island, Cape Verde), foreign minister of Cape Verde (1998-99).
Jeszenszky, Géza (b. Nov. 10, 1941, Budapest, Hungary), foreign minister of Hungary (1990-94). He was ambassador to the United States in 1998-2002 and became ambassador to Norway in 2011.
Jettou, Driss, Arabic Idris Jitu (b. May 24, 1945, El Jadida, Morocco), finance minister (1997-98), interior minister (2001-02), and prime minister (2002-07) of Morocco.
Jevtic, Desimir (b. Dec. 16, 1938, Krusevac, Serbia, Yugoslavia), president of the Executive Council of Serbia (1986-89). He was also Yugoslav ambassador to Romania (1990-99).
Jewell, Marshall (b. Oct. 20, 1825, Winchester, N.H. - d. Feb. 10, 1883, Hartford, Conn.), governor of Connecticut (1869-70, 1871-73) and U.S. postmaster general (1874-76). He was also minister to Russia (1873-74).
Jha, Lakshmi Kant (b. Nov. 22, 1913 - d. Feb. 22, 1988), governor of Jammu and Kashmir (1973-81).
Jha, Nagendra Nath (b. Jan. 5, 1935), lieutenant governor of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (2001-04) and of Pondicherry (2004). He was also Indian ambassador to Ireland (1977-79), Turkey (1979-81), Kuwait (1984-89), and Yugoslavia (1989-90) and high commissioner to Sri Lanka (1990-93).
Jhabeemissur, Gaëtan (b. July 23, 1955), chief commissioner of Rodrigues (2011-12).
Ji Hongchang, original name Ji Hengli (b. Dec. 4, 1895, Fugou, Henan, China - d. Nov. 24, 1934, Beijing, China), chairman of the government of Ningxia (1929). He started his military career in 1913 under the leadership of Gen. Feng Yuxiang. He was the commander of the 22nd Army when he was nominated as Ningxia chairman. Refusing to attack the Red Army led by the Communist Party while the whole country was threatened by Japan, he was sacked by Chiang Kai-shek and ordered to "observe and study" abroad. He returned to China in 1932. In May 1933, he helped to organize the Chahar People's Anti-Japanese Army together with Feng Yuxiang and Fang Zhenwu and directed it along the front line against the Japanese invaders. The army recovered the Japanese-controlled Dolun (now in Inner Mongolia) and built nationwide confidence to fight against the Japanese. In October, the People's Army was extinguished, he went to Beijing and Tianjin for anti-Japan propaganda, but Chiang's policy to "extinguish the outlaws [mainly Communists] before fighting against invaders" disappointed him. Thus, he unexpectedly joined the Communist Party in 1934. In November that year he was shot, wounded, and arrested by Kuomintang secret agents and finally executed.
Ji Jinchun (b. 1877, Haicheng, Liaoning, China - d. 1948, Shenyang, Liaoning), governor of Rehe (1921-22) and Suiyuan (1927-28). He joined the bandit gang led by Zhang Zuolin as a teenager. In 1905, Zhang started to contact the Japanese; Ji led the "East Asia Volunteer Army" (mainly his gang members) to fight against the Russians in Northeastern China in the Russo-Japanese War. After Zhang surrendered to the government and developed his strength by annexing other bandit groups, Ji was named commander of the 28th Division, later 15th Army, as well as head of the Shanhai Pass garrison until 1931. After Japan occupied the northeastern region, Ji quit all his posts and moved to Tianjin. Japanese authorities in Tianjin spared no efforts to try to persuade him to accept office under them, but were repeatedly rejected by him. He returned to Shenyang upon the surrender of Japan in 1945.
Ji Pengfei (b. Feb. 2, 1910, Linyi county, Shanxi, China - d. Feb. 10, 2000, Beijing, China), Chinese politician. He enlisted in the Nationalist Forces led by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, but following a revolt by his unit, he switched sides to the communists in 1931. He joined Mao Zedong's legendary 1934-35 Long March into northwestern China to escape the Nationalists. He later became director of the medical department of the Communist Party's military committee. Ji began a new career as a diplomat after the 1949 communist victory. He traveled extensively in Africa and led delegations to Britain, France, Iran, and Yugoslavia. He was ambassador to East Germany (1953-55) and then became deputy foreign minister (1955-72). He weathered attacks by the Red Guards, ultraradical forces incited by Mao that terrorized China during the 1966-76 Cultural Revolution. In April 1971 he became acting foreign minister, when the incumbent Chen Yi held this post only nominally. After Chen's death he officially became foreign minister (1972-74). In 1972, he headed China's delegation to the Vietnam Conference in Paris. He later held a series of senior party and government posts. He was appointed deputy premier in 1979 and cabinet secretary-general in 1980. He also was a member of the national legislature. In 1982 he became director of Hong Kong and Macau affairs in the State Council, playing a lead role in the negotiations with Britain over the return of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty. He was also chairman of the committee that drafted the Basic Law, the constitution governing the relationship between Hong Kong and the Chinese mainland. He retired from public life after the Basic Law was approved in 1990.
Jia Deyao (b. Aug. 23, 1881, Hefei, Anhui, China - d. Dec. 9, 1940), army minister (1925-26) and premier (1926) of China. Having graduated from the Japanese College of Army Commanders, he returned to China, serving in the armed forces of Yuan Shikai, holding posts of brigade commanders. He was also the president of the Baoding College of Commanders. He became premier in 1926, but stepped down soon together with Duan Qirui. In 1935, he was elected a councillor of the Hebei-Chahar Political Committee (led by Song Zheyuan, supported by both the Japanese invaders and Chiang Kai-shek, who wished to compromise before 1937).
Jiang Chaozong (b. Sept. 15, 1861, Jingde, Anhui, China - d. Sept. 20, 1943), acting premier of China (1917). He joined the army as a teenager and stationed his forces in Hanzhong, Shaanxi, at the end of the Qing dynasty. Upon the founding of the republic, he was named vice commander of the Interim Tianjin-Beijing Garrison. He also held a post in the interim Senate (set up by imperial-minded president Yuan Shikai as an alternative to the dissolved parliament). In 1917, when Li Yuanhong was eager to dissolve the pro-Duan Qirui congress, Jiang's predecessor as premier resigned and no one wished to succeed, knowing that whoever did would have to countersign the president's proposal to validate the dissolution (according to the 1912 constitution, any validation of the president's proposals required a countersign of the premier). Jiang did agree to take office as premier upon Li's desire and countersigned to dissolve the parliament, which also removed Jiang himself from the office. For this, Jiang got the nickname of "15-minute premier." Soon afterwards he quit politics, living in Beijing until 1937, when he took up the leadership of the Japanese-backed "Beijing Peace Preservation Association." He was also a member of the Japanese-backed "Political Committee" of the "North China Interim Government."
Jiang Dengxuan (b. 1881, Yi county, Hebei, China - d. Nov. 26, 1925, Luanzhou, Hebei), military governor of Anhui (1925). He was graduated from the College of Army Commanders and then became general in the northeastern region, before which he had been the staff officer of Heilongjiang Gov. Zhu Qinglan. As Zhang Zuolin reformed his army after his failure in the battle against Cao Kun and Wu Peifu in 1921, Jiang was named the commander of the 1st Army. He then took office as Anhui governor, a post which was earlier supposed to go to Gen. Guo Songling (1883-1925), after Zhang dominated the Beijing government. He had been getting along badly with Guo Songling and was later executed by the depressed Guo on his way of fleeing from office upon the threat of the northbound army led by Chiang Kai-shek.
Jiang Guiti (b. 1843, Bo county [now Bozhou city], Anhui, China - d. Jan. 17, 1922, Rehe, China), governor of Rehe (1912, 1913-21). He started his military career when he was only a teenager, participating in the war against Taiping rebels, and decades later in the Yihetuan (Boxer) Rebellion in 1900. Years later, the Yi Jun (Army of Perseverance), which was an important army in northern Rehe province, was put under his leadership. He served as the governor of Rehe from the eve of the republic. In 1915, when Yuan Shikai claimed the imperial throne, Jiang was honoured as one of the first "dukes." He was named army inspection director in 1921.
Jiang Qing (Wade-Giles Chiang Ch'ing), stage name Lan Ping (Lan P'ing), original name Luan Shumeng (Luan Shu-meng) (b. March 1914, Zhucheng, Shandong province, China - d. May 14, 1991, Beijing), Chinese political figure. She became the third wife of Chinese Communist leader Mao Zedong in 1939. At first she remained largely out of public view, but in 1963 she became more politically active, sponsoring a movement in the Beijing opera and ballet aimed at infusing traditional Chinese art forms with proletarian themes. Her cultural reform movement gradually grew into a prolonged attack on many of the leading cultural and intellectual figures in China and culminated in the Cultural Revolution that by 1966 had begun to sweep the country. One of the few people whom Mao trusted, she became the first deputy head of the Cultural Revolution and acquired far-reaching powers over China's cultural life. As the Revolution waned in the late 1960s, however, so did Jiang's prominence. When Mao died in 1976, the radicals in the party lost their protector. A month later, wall posters appeared attacking Jiang and three other radicals as the Gang of Four, and the attacks grew progressively more hostile. Jiang and the other members of the Gang of Four were soon afterward arrested. She was expelled from the Communist Party in 1977. In 1980-81 at her public trial, she was accused of fomenting the widespread civil unrest that had gripped China during the Cultural Revolution, but she refused to confess her guilt. She received a suspended death sentence, which in 1983 was commuted to life imprisonment. On June 4, 1991, the government officially reported that she had committed suicide. The notice also stated that she had been out of custody and under medical treatment since May 1984.
Jiang Yi-huah (b. Nov. 18, 1960, Keelung, Taiwan), interior minister (2009- ) and premier (2013- ) of Taiwan.
Jiang Yong (b. 1877, Changting, Fujian, China - d. Feb. 9, 1960, Shanghai, China), justice minister of China (1917, 1917-18). After the republic was founded, he was named president of the Higher Court, making his way to the cabinet. He quit all his posts in 1924 and became a lawyer. During World War II, he rejected all the offers by the Japanese authorities, later taking part in anti-Japanese movements instead. After the war, he disagreed with Chiang Kai-shek's attempt to resume the civil war, seeking peace privately together with Yan Huiqing and Zhang Shizhao in January 1949. He was elected a member of Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (the central legislative organization of China until 1954, when the National People's Congress was founded).
Jiang Zemin, Wade-Giles Chiang Tse-min (b. Aug. 17, 1926, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China), general secretary of the Communist Party (1989-2002) and president (1993-2003) of China. He joined the Chinese Communist Party (CPC) in 1946. In 1980 he became vice-minister of the state commission on imports and exports. In 1982 he became vice-minister of the electronics industry, and from 1983 to 1985 he was its minister. He had meanwhile become a member of the Central Committee of the CPC in 1982. He was named mayor of Shanghai in 1985, and he became a member of the Politburo in 1987. He supported the government's forcible suppression of massive pro-democracy student demonstrations on Tiananmen Square in the summer of 1989. This won him the favour of China's paramount leader, Deng Xiaoping, and of the premier, Li Peng, when the Chinese leadership was reshuffled following the suppression of the democracy movement. Jiang thus succeeded Zhao Ziyang as general secretary of the CPC in June of that year. He was a compromise choice who combined a commitment to continued free-market economic reforms with a determination to preserve the CPC's monopoly on political power. He succeeded Deng as chairman of the party's Central Military Commission in 1989 and became president in 1993. Under his leadership the state began to reduce ownership and control of some of its 300,000 industries. China aggressively promoted exports and actively sought foreign investment, and as a result, the Chinese economy began to grow at spectacular rates. Observers noted, however, that the overwhelming majority of industries continued to be owned and operated by the state and were notoriously inefficient. He gave up his last post, that of chairman of the CPC's Central Military Commission, in September 2004.
Jiang Zungui (b. Oct. 30, 1882, Zhuji, Zhejiang, China - d. Aug. 5, 1931), military governor of Zhejiang (1912, 1926). He was a graduate of the Japanese College of Army Commanders. He joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance in Japan, and served as a brigade commander after his return. He held the post of the minister of military affairs in the military government of Guangdong during the rush of uprising in 1911, and, as a revolutionary activist, he joined the wars launched by the south against Yuan Shikai, who made himself emperor, in 1916, and then against Duan Qirui, who refused to revive the abolished republican constitution, in 1917. In 1923, he was named the director of senior staff members in the Guangzhou headquarters of the northbound army, and then Chiang Kai-shek's senior advisor in 1928.
Jiang Zuobin (b. March 4, 1884, Yingcheng, Hubei, China - d. Dec. 24, 1942, Chongqing, China), chairman of the government of Anhui (1937-38). He joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance in 1905 when studying abroad in Japan. He joined the uprising in Jiangxi, starting from Jiujiang, as the head of staff in the Jiujiang Military Government. Though holding most posts in the south, he later became deputy minister of staff in the Beijing government. He started an ambassadorial career after Chiang Kai-shek took power, having been the president of the "Frontline Political Committee" for some time. He was posted to Germany and later Japan. Recalled, he was named interior minister in Chiang's government, before going to Anhui as chairman. He was also director of the Examination Group of the Officials.
Jiao Dafeng (b. 1887, Liuyang, Hunan, China - d. Oct. 31, 1911, Changsha, Hunan), governor of Hunan (1911). He participated in the "Pingxiang-Liuyang-Liling Revolt" against the Qing dynasty in 1906 and fled to Japan after the revolt was extinguished. He joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance (or United League; an anti-Qing political party founded in 1905, which in 1913 became the Nationalist Party or Kuomintang) and was appointed head of the department of inspection within the party. He joined the "March Together" (a similar organization) in 1907, and then on Oct. 22, 1911, he, together with Chen Zuoxin (1886-1911), launched another revolt against the Qing government, organizing a military junta in Hunan province on the following day. He was then made governor of Hunan by that government, while Chen became vice governor. Both he and Chen were killed in a coup launched by some constitutional monarchists, led by Mei Xin and Tan Yankai, on October 31.
Jibril (al-Warfally), Mahmoud, Arabic Mahmud Jibril al-Warfali (b. May 28, 1952), interim prime minister of Libya (2011).
Jigme Dorji Wangchuk ('Jigs-med rDo-rje dBang-phyug) (b. May 2, 1929, Tongsa, Bhutan - d. July 21, 1972, Nairobi, Kenya), king of Bhutan (1952-72); son of Jigme Wangchuk.
Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuk ('Jigs-med Ge-sar rNam-rgyal dBang-phyug) (b. Feb. 21, 1980), king of Bhutan (2006- ); son of Jigme Singye Wangchuk. He married a commoner, Jetsun Pema, in 2011.
Jigme Singye Wangchuk ('Jigs-med Seng-ge dBang-phyug) (b. Nov. 11, 1955, Dechenchholing Palace, Thimphu, Bhutan), king of Bhutan (1972-2006); son of Jigme Dorji Wangchuk. He renounced his absolute powers in 1998. In December 2005 he said he would abdicate in 2008, when the country was to hold its first elections under parliamentary democracy. As it turned out, he already handed over the crown to his son in December 2006.
Jigme Wangchuk ('Jigs-med dBang-phyug) (b. 1906 - d. March 24, 1952, Bumthang, Bhutan), king of Bhutan (1926-52).
Jiménez (Rebolledo), Carlos (b. April 7, 1869, Barinas, Venezuela - d. Jan. 11, 1951, Caracas, Venezuela), defense minister of Venezuela (1917-29). He was the first civilian to hold that post.
Jiménez (Wald), José Mariano (b. Jan. 30, 1843, Arica, Peru [now in Chile] - d. Aug. 1, 1901, Lima, Peru), prime minister of Peru (1889, 1893-94).
Jiménez (Mayor), Juan (Federico) (b. Aug. 5, 1964, Lima, Peru), prime minister of Peru (2012-13). He was also justice minister (2011-12).
Jiménez (Puerto), Milton (Danilo) (b. Nov. 8, 1961, Tegucigalpa, Honduras), foreign minister of Honduras (2006-08). He resigned after local television aired a video that caught him punching police after he was arrested for drunk driving.
Jiménez (García-Herrera), Trinidad (b. June 4, 1962, Málaga, Spain), foreign minister of Spain (2010-11).
Jiménez Cantú, Jorge (b. Oct. 27, 1914, Mexico City - d. Nov. 10, 2005, Mexico City), governor of México (1975-81).
Jiménez Castellanos, Adolfo (b. 1844 - d. Jan. 19, 1929, Madrid, Spain), governor of Cuba (1898-99).
Jiménez Morales, Guillermo (b. Dec. 2, 1933, Huauchinango, Puebla, Mexico), governor of Puebla (1981-87).
Jiménez Oreamuno, (Romualdo) Ricardo (de Jesús) (b. Feb. 6, 1859, Cartago, Costa Rica - d. Jan. 4, 1945, San José, Costa Rica), foreign minister (1889-90) and president (1910-14, 1924-28, 1932-36) of Costa Rica; son of Jesús Jiménez Zamora. He was also president of the Congress of Deputies (1903-04, 1909-10).
Jiménez Zamora, Jesús (María Ciriaco) (b. June 18, 1823, Cartago, Costa Rica - d. Feb. 12, 1897, Cartago), foreign minister (1859-60) and president (1863-66, 1868-70) of Costa Rica.
Jimmy (Tapangararua), Willie, finance minister (1993-96, 1997, 2005-08, 2013) and foreign minister (1996-97) of Vanuatu. In 2009-12 he was ambassador to China. In 2014 he became minister of trade.
Jin Shuren (b. Dec. 20, 1880, Linxia, Gansu, China - d. Sept. 12, 1941, Lanzhou, Gansu), governor of Xinjiang (1928-33). He went to Xinjiang in 1911, serving as magistrate and as head of the bureau of civil affairs. In July 1928, he supported a mutiny against Fan Yaonan, who assassinated Gov. Yang Zengxin in a coup, and killed Fan, thus taking over the province. Jin's reign over Xinjiang was a catastrophe for the Xinjiang people, especially those from particular ethnic groups, with heavy taxes as well as discrimination policies; as a result, Uygurs revolted in the 1931 Hami Uprising. Two years later, under the constant riots in the province, Gen. Sheng Shicai, who gained the support of the Uygurs, launched a coup and expelled Jin from office. Jin went to the capital Nanjing via the U.S.S.R. In May 1935, Chiang Kai-shek framed and detained him for "colluding with the U.S.S.R.," and sentenced him to three and a half years, but under the persuasion of Qinghai chairman Ma Lin, Jin was released in October that year.
Jin Yune (b. March 14, 1881, Zou county [now Zoucheng city], Shandong, China - d. Oct. 23, 1935, Beijing, China), civil governor of Henan (1926) and military governor of Shaanxi (1926); brother of Jin Yunpeng. A graduate of the Army University of Beijing, he devoted himself to military affairs, being promoted from regiment to division commander. In 1927, his forces were defeated by Zhang Zuolin, he was removed from office, and fled to Nanjing, where Chiang Kai-shek nominated him as a councillor with a rank of general. He quit politics in 1930.
Jin Yunpeng (b. 1877, Zou county [now Zoucheng city], Shandong, China - d. Jan. 3, 1951, Tianjin, China), military governor of Shandong (1913-16) and premier and army minister of China (1919-20, 1920-21). Having graduated from Beiyang Military College, he turned to the governor-general of Yungui, Li Jingxi, serving as a military staff member. After finishing his term in Shandong, he was named the president of the Military Consultative Committee. He was sacked as premier on the eve of the first "Zhili-Fengtian" War in 1921 and returned to Shandong, becoming a businessman.
Jindal, Bobby, byname of Piyush Jindal (b. June 10, 1971, Baton Rouge, La.), governor of Louisiana (2008- ). He is the nation's first Indian-American governor.
Jinnah, Mohammad Ali, also called qa´id-e a`zam ("The Greatest Leader") (b. Dec. 25, 1876, Karachi, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Sept. 11, 1948, Karachi), governor-general of Pakistan (1947-48). He first entered politics by participating in the 1906 Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress, the party that called for dominion status and later for independence for India. Four years later he was elected to the Imperial Legislative Council. Largely to safeguard Muslim interests, the All-India Muslim League was founded in 1906, but he remained aloof from it. Only in 1913, when assured that the league was as devoted as the Congress to the political emancipation of India, did he join the league. It was largely through his efforts that the Congress and the Muslim League began to hold their annual sessions jointly, to facilitate mutual consultation and participation. When the failure of the Non-cooperation Movement and the emergence of Hindu revivalist movements led to antagonism and riots between the Hindus and Muslims, the league gradually began to come into its own. Before long Jinnah became convinced that a Muslim homeland on the Indian subcontinent was the only way of safeguarding Muslim interests and the Muslim way of life. On March 22-23, 1940, in Lahore, the league adopted a resolution to form a separate Muslim state, Pakistan. The idea was first ridiculed and then tenaciously opposed by the Congress, but Jinnah led his movement with such skill and tenacity that ultimately both the Congress and the British government had no option but to agree to the partitioning of India. Pakistan thus emerged as an independent state in 1947, with Jinnah as the first head of state. He was not regarded as merely the governor-general; he was revered as the father of the nation.
João VI, in full João Maria José Francisco Xavier de Paula Luís António Domingos Rafael, byname o Clemente (the Clement) (b. May 13, 1767, Lisbon, Portugal - d. March 10, 1826, Lisbon), king of Portugal (1816-26). He was the younger son of Queen Maria I, becoming heir on the death of his elder brother and taking power in 1792 as a result of the mental illness of his mother. In 1799 her illness was declared incurable, and he assumed the title of prince regent. He married Carlota Joaquina, eldest daughter of Carlos IV of Spain, and supported Spain against the French Republic. But Spain made peace at Basel in 1795 and served as a vehicle for French pressure on Portugal. In 1801 Spain invaded Portugal, though peace was made at Badajoz. In 1807, Napoleon proclaimed his European blockade, threatening to close the port of Lisbon. As French troops approached Lisbon, the royal family retired to Brazil with the government. Britain guaranteed the throne of the Braganças and in 1808 sent an army to Portugal which forced the surrender of the French. After Napoleon's surrender in 1814, João was expected to return; but, on Napoleon's escape from Elba, João remained in Brazil, which he made a united kingdom with Portugal. In 1816 his mother died and he became king. In 1820 the radical revolution in Spain spread to Portugal, and he finally agreed to leave Brazil, leaving his heir Pedro in Rio de Janeiro. When the Portuguese radicals were overthrown in 1823, João was restored to his authority but promised a constitution. The absolutists supported his queen, Carlota Joaquina, and made their son Miguel commander-in-chief. João attempted to steer a middle course, separating from his wife and sending Miguel into exile. João reluctantly accepted the separation of Brazil in 1825, assuming (with the acquiescence of Emperor Pedro I, his son) the style of Emperor of Brazil, for life; he died soon after.
Job, Christian (b. June 30, 1943, Nancy, Meurthe-et-Moselle, France), administrator-superior of Wallis and Futuna (2002-05). He was also French ambassador to Comoros (2005-08).
Jobe, Maba (Jahou) (b. 1965?), Gambian politician. He was high commissioner to Nigeria in 1996-2001. In 2006 he was appointed foreign minister, but the appointment was revoked six days later.
Jobert, Michel (b. Sept. 11, 1921, Meknes, Morocco - d. May 26, 2002, Paris), foreign minister of France (1973-74). He started his career in government service at the General Accounting Office in 1949 and later moved on to other ministries, including finance and labour. He was Georges Pompidou's chief of staff for 10 years before being named foreign minister in 1973. He was minister of external commerce in 1981-83 under Pres. François Mitterrand.
Jobin, Francis Laurence, byname Bud Jobin (b. Aug. 14, 1914, Winnipeg - d. Aug. 25, 1995, Winnipeg), lieutenant governor of Manitoba (1976-81).
Joensen, Edmund (b. Sept. 19, 1944, Oyri, Faeroe Islands), prime minister of the Faeroe Islands (1994-98).
Jõerüüt, Jaak (b. Dec. 9, 1947, Tallinn, Estonian S.S.R.), defense minister (2004-05) and acting foreign minister (2005) of Estonia. He was also ambassador to Finland (1993-97), Italy (1998-2002), Malta (1999-2002), and Cyprus (1999-2004) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2004). He resigned as defense minister in 2005 after the director of a museum linked to his ministry wore a virulently anti-communist T-shirt at a football match; the shirt was emblazoned with the slogan "Commies to the oven" and listing the names of 35 Estonian politicians who have been members of the Communist Party, including the president and prime minister. Jõerüüt said that, to a lesser extent, he had chosen to resign over a series of recent banking and political scandals in Estonia.
Joga, Vicente (Bienvenido) (b. March 10, 1946, Villa Berthet, Chaco, Argentina), governor of Formosa (1987-95).
Jogi, Ajit (Pramod Kumar) (b. April 29, 1946, Jogi Dongri, Bilaspur district, Chhattisgarh), chief minister of Chhattisgarh (2000-03).
Johannesen, Kaj Leo (Holm) (b. Aug. 28, 1964, Tórshavn, Faeroe Islands), prime minister (2008- ) and foreign minister (2011- ) of the Faeroe Islands.
Jóhannesson, Ólafur (Davíds) (b. March 1, 1913, Stórholt, Iceland - d. May 20, 1984), prime minister (1971-74, 1978-79) and foreign minister (1980-83) of Iceland.
Johanns, Mike, byname of Michael Owen Johanns (b. June 18, 1950, Osage, Iowa), governor of Nebraska (1999-2005) and U.S. agriculture secretary (2005-07). In 1986, he chose to not seek reelection as a county commissioner because of his impending marriage. But friends urged him to run for Lincoln City Council in 1989 and he stepped on the political fast track. He became mayor of Nebraska's second-largest city in 1991 and ran unopposed for a second term. In 1998, the Republican beat Democrat Bill Hoppner, 54% to 46%, to become Nebraska's next governor. Johanns had earned a reputation as an understated, moderate politician - the qualities that endeared outgoing Democratic governor Ben Nelson to Nebraskans. In 2002 he became the first Republican governor of Nebraska to win reelection in more than four decades.
Jóhannsson, Kjartan (b. Dec. 19, 1939, Reykjavík, Iceland), secretary-general of the European Free Trade Association (1994-2000). He was also Icelandic minister of fisheries (1978-80) and commerce (1979-80) and ambassador to the EU (2002-05) and to Belgium and Luxembourg (2003-06).
Johansen, Lars Emil (b. Sept. 24, 1946, Illorsuit, Uummannaq, Greenland), prime minister (1991-97) and finance and foreign minister (2007) of Greenland. In 2013 he became chairman of the Inatsisartut (parliament).
Johansson, Bengt K(arl) Å(ke) (b. Jan. 4, 1937, Sandhult, Sweden), governor of Älvsborg (1991-97).
John, Eustace (b. 1939, Rose Hill, Gingerland, Nevis), deputy governor-general for Nevis (1994- ).
John, Patrick R(oland) (b. Jan. 7, 1938, Roseau), prime minister of Dominica (1974-79). In 1960 he became involved in trade unionism. He attended courses on industrial relations and trade unionism in Jamaica and Canada and became general secretary of Dominica's Waterfront and Allied Worker Union, which he had helped to found. In 1965 he was elected to the influential post of mayor of the island's capital, Roseau. Entering the legislature in 1970 as a member of E.O. LeBlanc's ruling Dominica Labour Party, he subsequently held several ministerial posts. When LeBlanc resigned in 1974, John succeeded him as prime minister. Following the murder of a number of tourists in the mid-1970s and the emergence of a black power movement, he introduced legislation so broadly drawn that it even regulated acceptable modes of dress. Later, he indicated that revolutionary groups would not be tolerated. Personally charming and witty, though with an aggressive streak that some related to his diminutive stature, John was an animated, unpompous, and incisive speaker who obviously enjoyed playing to the gallery. He became the first prime minister of independent Dominica on Nov. 3, 1978. As was the case with many Caribbean politicians, John, who was also honorary commander of Dominica's 80-strong defense force, eluded political labels. In Caribbean terms he was a socialist but not a revolutionary. After some dalliance with Cuban and Guyanese models of development, he appeared to have rejected them in favour of a mixed economy. Internationally, he made it clear that, in development terms, he saw the island's future bound up with the West. To the surprise of many, one of his first acts after independence was to establish diplomatic relations with South Korea.
John, Radek (b. Dec. 6, 1954, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), deputy prime minister (2010-11) and interior minister (2010-11) of the Czech Republic.
John, Sir Rupert (Godfrey) (b. May 19, 1916, Evesham village, Saint Vincent - d. Dec. 25, 1996, Saint Vincent), governor of Saint Vincent (1970-77). He was a senior human rights officer at the UN in New York from 1962 to 1970. In October 1970, a year after Saint Vincent became a British Associated State with complete internal self-government, he was appointed its first native-born governor. He was knighted in 1971.
Johns, Sir Adrian (James) (b. 1951, Redruth, Cornwall, England), governor of Gibraltar (2009-13); knighted 2008.
Johnson, Andrew (b. Dec. 29, 1808, Raleigh, N.C. - d. July 31, 1875, near Carter Station, Tenn.), president of the United States (1865-69). He was alderman and then mayor of Greeneville, Tennessee. He served in the state legislature, went to Congress (1843-53), then was governor of Tennessee (1853-57). Elected a U.S. senator in 1856, he broke with the Democratic Party in 1860 when he vehemently opposed Southern secession. When Tennessee seceded in 1861, he alone among the Southern senators remained at his post and refused to join the Confederacy. In recognition of this unwavering support, Pres. Abraham Lincoln appointed him (1862) military governor of Tennessee, by then under Federal control. To broaden the base of the Republican Party to include loyal "war" Democrats, he was selected to run for vice president on Lincoln's successful reelection ticket of 1864. He was thrust unexpectedly into the presidency upon Lincoln's assassination (1865). His lenient Reconstruction policies toward the South embittered the Radical Republicans in Congress and led to his political downfall. He dismissed Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton - the Radicals' ally within his cabinet - to provide a court test of the constitutionality of the Tenure of Office Act, which forbade the president to remove certain federal officers without the Senate's concurrence. In response, the House of Representatives voted articles of impeachment against Johnson - the first such occurrence in U.S. history. In a theatrical trial before the Senate, the charges proved weak, however, and the key votes (May 16 and 26, 1868) fell one short of the necessary two-thirds for conviction. After returning to Tennessee he finally won reelection as a senator (1875) shortly before he died.
Johnson, Daniel (b. April 9, 1915, Danville, Quebec, Canada - d. Sept. 26, 1968, Barrage [dam] Manic 5 [now Barrage Daniel Johnson], Quebec), premier of Quebec (1966-68).
D. Johnson, Jr.
Johnson, Daniel, Jr. (b. Dec. 24, 1944, Montreal), premier of Quebec (1994); son of Daniel Johnson; brother of Pierre-Marc Johnson.
Johnson, Gary E(arl) (b. Jan. 1, 1953, Minot, N.D.), governor of New Mexico (1995-2003). He won the Republican primary in 1994 with 34% to 33% for Dick Cheney (not the former defense secretary), 19% for John Dendahl, and 13% for former (1967-71) governor David Cargo. He ran on vague slogans - "people before politics," "citizen service" - and promised to hold the line on government growth, to give teachers more power to set priorities, and to roll back a six cent gas tax increase. He won the general election over a grizzled veteran of state politics, Bruce King. Johnson was widely criticized in April 1995 for meeting with representatives of a New Mexico militia just nine days after the Oklahoma City bombing, characterizing them as "responsible, reasonable, lawful," and saying, "they're here to help in time of emergency." In 2012 he was presidential candidate of the Libertarian Party after an unsuccessful bid for the Republican nomination.
Johnson, J(oseph) Rudolph (Kaifa) (b. 1938, Kolahun, Lofa county, Liberia), foreign minister of Liberia (1987-90). He was also ambassador to the EEC and Benelux states (1982-86) and planning and economic affairs minister (1987).
Johnson, Sir Leslie Wilson, byname Les Johnson (b. April 2, 1916, Western Australia - d. Aug. 31, 2000, Sydney, N.S.W.), administrator (1970-73) and high commissioner (1973-74) of Papua New Guinea (PNG). In 1962 he secured his initial PNG appointment as deputy director of education, being promoted to director within a few months. He put the education system and teacher training on sure foundations. As well as arguing strongly for the creation of the University of PNG, he steered the legislation establishing it through the House of Assembly. He became assistant administrator of PNG in 1966 and administrator in 1970. He brought fine judgment to the job in winding down his position from chief executive of the Australian administration to constitutional head of a PNG government. But his old offering of advice and counsel did not work on the Gazelle Peninsula, on the north-east island of New Britain. He tried to achieve a settlement of the trouble stirred up there by the rebellious Mataungan Association but the Mataungans remained at loggerheads with the administration until after the 1972 House of Assembly elections. He eschewed the "big stick," which had been the hallmark of George Warwick Smith's term as secretary of the Department of Territories in seeking to control every aspect of PNG affairs. Working in cordial tandem with Sir David Hay, his predecessor as administrator, who had replaced Smith at Territories, much was done to restore Port Moresby-Canberra relations. He was made high commissioner when PNG became self-governing. He was director-general of the Australian Development Assistance Agency (now AusAid), 1974-76, and Australian ambassador to Greece and high commissioner to Cyprus, 1976-80. In the 2000 PNG birthday honours, he was made KBE, having been made CBE in 1976.
Johnson, Lyndon B(aines) (b. Aug. 27, 1908, near Stonewall, Gillespie county, Texas - d. Jan. 22, 1973, San Antonio, Texas), president of the United States (1963-69). Following two years as director of the National Youth Administration in Texas (1935-37), he ran successfully for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives. In 1941 he failed in a bid for elevation to the U.S. Senate in a special election. But in 1948 he tried again, and, in a vicious campaign that included vote fraud on both sides in the deciding Democratic primary, he narrowly won his seat in the Senate, where he remained for 12 years, becoming Democratic whip in 1951. As majority leader (1955-61), his skilled leadership was largely responsible for passage of the civil-rights bills of 1957 and 1960. He accepted John F. Kennedy's invitation to join the national Democratic ticket as a vice presidential candidate (1960). He acceded to the presidency upon Kennedy's assassination (Nov. 22, 1963). In November 1964 he won reelection with an unprecedented popular majority of more than 15,000,000 votes, which he interpreted as an extraordinary mandate to pursue his domestic reform program aimed at creating what he called the "Great Society." He signed into law the most comprehensive civil-rights legislation since Reconstruction, initiated major social service programs, and bore the brunt of national opposition to U.S. military involvement in the Vietnam War, which had begun under the previous administration. On March 31, 1968, he startled television viewers with a national address that included three announcements: that he had just ordered major reductions in the bombing of North Vietnam, that he was requesting peace talks, and that he would neither seek nor accept his party's renomination to the presidency.
Johnson, Mobolaji (Ohofunso) (b. 1935), governor of Lagos (1968-75).
Johnson, Pierre-Marc (b. July 5, 1946, Montreal), premier of Quebec (1985); son of Daniel Johnson; brother of Daniel Johnson, Jr. He was first elected to the National Assembly of Quebec in 1976 to represent the Montreal riding of Anjou. He joined René Lévesque's cabinet in 1977 as minister of labour and manpower. A man who liked to delegate authority, he relied upon experienced government conciliators to solve labour conflicts. Late in 1980 he became minister of consumer affairs, cooperatives, and financial institutions. Less than half a year later he was made minister of social affairs. In the latter office he had the unpleasant task of cutting the amount the government spent for social services. In 1984 he was appointed minister of justice and minister responsible for Canadian intergovernmental affairs. In the first party leadership election in Canadian history in which all party members could vote directly for the candidates, he was chosen leader of the Parti Québécois (PQ) on Sept. 29, 1985. He replaced Lévesque, one of the founders of the party, who was retiring from politics after nine years as premier. Johnson, who always described himself as a bleu (conservative), was able to transform the PQ platform of separatism from a direct, immediate goal to a long-term ideal. Described as having a perfect political image - charming, intelligent, pragmatic - he was sworn in as Quebec's 24th premier on Oct. 3, 1985. Three weeks after assuming office, he called a general election. His campaign was based on realism and frankness, with no expensive promises. On Dec. 2, 1985, the Liberal Party, led by former premier Robert Bourassa, won a landslide victory, taking 99 of the 122 seats in the National Assembly. Johnson was reduced to the position of leader of the small opposition.
Johnson, Prince (Yormie), also appearing as Prince Yedou Johnson (b. July 6, 1952, Nimba county, Liberia), Liberian rebel leader. Along with his fellow rebel leader Charles Taylor, Johnson ended the rule of Samuel Doe in 1990 - but then the two men fell out, plunging the country into a civil war that claimed 200,000 lives and made Liberia synonymous with blood and brutality. Johnson had accused Doe of human rights abuses and persecution of the Gio ethnic group, to which he belongs. He ordered his men to cut off Doe's ears and to produce and distribute a video of Doe's death. "His ears were cut off because apparently he could not hear the cries of the 300 Gio children he threw down a well," he said. He surrendered to ECOMOG in 1992 and was given asylum in Nigeria, where he lived as the guest of the government in a villa in Lagos. He came back to Liberia on March 28, 2004, aspiring to be a senator, but returned to Lagos on April 7 after receiving death threats. However, he did successfully run for senator in Nimba county in the October 2005 election. Among the Gio tribe, Johnson (whose first name is common in Liberia and does not connote royalty) remained immensely popular. He was a presidential candidate in 2011.
Johnson, Susan R(ockwell), international supervisor of Brcko (2004-06).
Johnson-Sirleaf, Ellen, née Johnson (b. Oct. 29, 1938, Monrovia, Liberia), finance minister (1979-80) and president (2006- ) of Liberia. She was awarded the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize together with activists Leymah Gbowee and Tawakkul Karman "for their nonviolent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work."
Johnston, David (Lloyd) (b. June 28, 1941, Sudbury, Ont.), governor-general of Canada (2010- ).
Johnston, Donald J(ames) (b. June 26, 1936, Cumberland, Ont.), justice minister of Canada (1984) and secretary-general of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (1996-2006).
Johnston, Edward Elliott (b. Jan. 3, 1918, Jacksonville, Ill. - d. Feb. 18, 2011), high commissioner of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (1969-76).
Johnston, Eric Eugene (b. July 29, 1933, Shanghai, China - d. Feb. 26, 1997, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia), administrator of the Northern Territory (1981-89).
Johnston, Rita (Margaret), née Leichert (b. April 22, 1935, Melville, Sask.), premier of British Columbia (1991). She was elected to the city council of Surrey in 1969 and served as a loyal alderman under Mayor Bill Vander Zalm. After she was defeated in an attempt to succeed Vander Zalm as mayor, she decided to run for a seat in the provincial legislature. In 1983 she was elected as a Social Credit MLA representing Surrey, vowing to continue to work for the city that she had devoted most of her political life to. Ironically, she once again found herself serving under Vander Zalm, who was elected premier in 1986. Remembering her loyalty during his term as mayor, Vander Zalm appointed her minister of municipal affairs (1986-89), minister of transportation and highways (1989-91), and deputy premier (1990-91). When Vander Zalm resigned in 1991 amid allegations of illegal activities, Johnston succeeded him as premier (the first female premier in Canadian history) and became interim leader of the Social Credit party. In a surprising turn of events, she was narrowly reelected leader by the Socred party at their annual convention, beating fellow cabinet minister Grace McCarthy, who had been expected to coast to an easy victory. As premier, Johnston was forced to call the unpleasant election that Vander Zalm had narrowly avoided. Her close connections to the corrupt former premier were not ignored by the public, and her government faced a massive electoral defeat after only seven months in power. She lost her own seat and retired from politics.
Johnstone, Peter (b. July 30, 1944), governor of Anguilla (2000-04). He entered the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in 1962, and his career before becoming governor included posts in Bern, Benin, Budapest, Maseru, Dhaka, Dublin, Harare, Edmonton, and Jakarta.
Jois, M(anadagadde) Rama (b. July 27, 1931, Araga village, Shimoga district, Mysore province [now Karnataka state], India), governor of Jharkhand (2002-03) and Bihar (2003-04).
Joliet, (Jean Auguste) Gaston (b. Sept. 2, 1842, Dijon, France - d. bf. 1912), governor of Mayotte (1905-06).
Jolly, André Édouard, baron (b. April 13, 1799, Brussels, France [now in Belgium] - d. Dec. 3, 1883, Brussels), member of the Provisional Government of Belgium (1830-31).
Jomaa, Mehdi, Arabic Mihdi Juma`a (b. April 21, 1962, Mahdia, Tunisia), prime minister of Tunisia (2014- ). He was also minister of industry (2013-14).
Jonah, James (Omotayo C.) (b. Jan. 27, 1934, Freetown, Sierra Leone), Sierra Leonean politician. A former permanent representative to the United Nations (1996-97) and organizer of the 1996 multiparty elections, he was finance minister in 1998-2001.
Jonas, Franz (Josef) (b. Sept. 29, 18991, Floridsdorf [now part of Vienna], Austria - d. April 24, 1974, Vienna), mayor of Vienna (1951-65) and president of Austria (1965-74).
1 His official birth date was Oct. 4, 1899, apparently so registered by the midwife to have the birthday match the name day.
Jonassaint, (Joseph) Émile (b. May 20, 1913, Port-de-Paix, Haiti - d. Oct. 24, 1995, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), interim president of Haiti (1994). His career in politics began in the 1950s when he was a senator in Gen. Paul Magloire's dictatorship. During the years of the Duvalier family's rule, however, he withdrew from political life. He was picked (1986) to be president of a constituent assembly organized to draft a new constitution after the ouster of Jean-Claude Duvalier. He served on the Supreme Court until Pres. Jean-Bertrand Aristide ordered him to retire in 1991 because of his age, but he was placed back on the court later that year when the military took over. He became interim president as the puppet of the military regime that had overthrown Aristide. He oversaw some of the regime's harshest human rights abuses. He agreed to step down when a U.S. peace mission negotiated a compromise that averted an imminent invasion by U.S. forces. Instead, a peaceful occupation began the next morning, and Aristide was restored to office the next month. Jonassaint was a firm believer in voodoo, sprinkled his speeches with spiritual references, and often invoked the name of Agaou, a voodoo god.
Jonassen, Jon (Tikivanotau Michael) (b. July 24, 1949, Rarotonga, Cook Islands), acting secretary-general of the South Pacific Commission (1989).
Jónasson, Hermann (b. Dec. 25, 1896, Sydri-Brekkum, Iceland - d. Jan. 22, 1976), prime minister of Iceland (1934-42, 1956-58).
Jonathan, Goodluck (Ebele Azikiwe) (b. Nov. 20, 1957, Otuoke [now in Bayelsa state], Nigeria), governor of Bayelsa (2005-07) and vice president (2007-10) and president (2010- ) of Nigeria. In 2010-12 he was chairman of the Economic Community of West African States.
Jonathan, (Joseph) Leabua (b. Oct. 30, 1914, Leribe, Basutoland [now Lesotho] - d. April 5, 1987, Pretoria, South Africa), prime minister of Lesotho (1965-86). He was a great-grandson of the Basuto king Moshoeshoe I. From 1937 he worked in local government in Basutoland and was a member of delegations to London (1959, 1964) that sought self-government for Basutoland. A convert to Catholicism, he was founder (1959) and leader of the church-supported Basutoland National Party, which won a slim majority in elections held in April 1965; Jonathan himself failed to win a seat, but he entered the National Assembly in a by-election in July 1965 - by getting Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd of South Africa to announce a gift of 100,000 sacks of grain to be administered not by the government but by Chief Jonathan. After Lesotho gained independence in 1966, Jonathan established full diplomatic relations with South Africa in 1967. Following the apparent victory in the January 1970 general elections of the opposition Basutoland Congress Party, Jonathan suspended the constitution, thereafter ruling by decree; he even briefly superseded the monarchy by installing himself as head of state with the style Tona-Kholo. Gradually his subservience to South Africa diminished, and he began to shelter black dissident refugees, notably members of the African National Congress. In retaliation South Africa raided Lesotho's capital, Maseru (1982), blockaded the kingdom (December 1985), and supported (perhaps engineered) the coup in which he fell.
Jonckheer (Yrausquin), Efraïn (F.) (b. Oct. 20, 1917, Curaçao - d. March 30, 1987, Amsterdam, Netherlands), prime minister of the Netherlands Antilles (1954-68).
Jones, Ben (Joseph) (b. Aug. 5, 1924, Moyah, St. Andrew's parish, near Grenville, Grenada - d. Feb. 10, 2005, Carriere, St. Andrew's parish), foreign minister (1984-90, 1990-91) and prime minister (1989-90) of Grenada. He served as an opposition senator from 1967 to 1979. In 1984 he was elected to the House of Representatives. Known as "Uncle Ben," he served in several portfolios, including legal affairs, attorney general, external affairs, agriculture, and tourism, and in 1989 was made deputy prime minister. A member of the National Party of Prime Minister Herbert A. Blaize, he became prime minister after Blaize died in December 1989 (holding at the same time the portfolios of external affairs, finance, trade, industry, planning, and national security), but the party lost the March 1990 elections to the National Democratic Congress. The latter did not win an outright majority, however, and Jones served as minister (holding especially the portfolio of agriculture, forestry, lands and fisheries) for some time after the election until leaving politics in 1991.
Jones, Brereton C(handler) (b. June 27, 1939, Gallipolis, Ohio), governor of Kentucky (1991-95). He was a Republican legislator in West Virginia in the 1960s, moved to Kentucky in 1972, and was elected lieutenant governor as a Democrat in 1987. His most publicized opponent in 1991, the wife of then-incumbent Wallace Wilkinson, withdrew just before the primary; Jones got 38%, enough to beat Lexington mayor Scotty Baesler (30%) and Dr. Floyd Poore (27%). Jones won against Republican Larry Hopkins 65%-35%. He acted in the tradition of his predecessors. He increased the generous tax incentives pioneered by Martha Layne Collins, elected in 1983, which brought the Toyota plant to the antique county seat of Georgetown, just north of Lexington. Jones also continued the school reform program enacted under Wilkinson, elected in 1987, which, in response to a state Supreme Court decision, raised the dropout age to 18, added family resource centers in needy areas and computer-ready phone lines in each classroom, and increased aid to poorer districts with bonuses to those whose schools improve and penalties on those whose schools don't. Jones's great initiative was healthcare reform. With Howard Dean of Vermont, he was the governor most supportive of the Clinton healthcare plan, and he wanted to expand Medicaid to provide universal coverage in Kentucky, with a health commission to set rates if costs exceed state-set limits. But no plan passed in the 1993 special legislative session, and in 1994, after Jones extended Medicaid coverage, he got through a bill to make insurance more portable from job to job and to make CommonHealth insurance available to the public on the same terms as state employees.
Jones, Carwyn (Howell) (b. March 21, 1967, Swansea, Wales), first minister of Wales (2009- ).
Jones, J(ames) Weldon (b. Feb. 28, 1896, Copeville, Texas - d. Nov. 24, 1982, Houston, Texas), acting U.S. high commissioner to the Philippines (1937).
Jones, James L(ogan) (b. Dec. 19, 1943, Kansas City, Mo.), Supreme Allied Commander Europe of NATO (2003-06). He was Pres. Barack Obama's national security advisor in 2009-10.
Jones, Mervyn (Thomas) (b. Nov. 23, 1942, Swansea, south Wales), governor of the Turks and Caicos Islands (2000-02). He entered the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in 1964 and held various posts in Calcutta (1966-67), Bonn (1967-70), Warsaw (1970-73), Oslo (1977-80), Bangkok (1981-84), Los Angeles (1990-94), and Brussels (1996-99) before becoming governor.
Jonguitud Barrios, Carlos (b. Nov. 4, 1923, Coxcatlán, San Luis Potosí, Mexico - d. Nov. 22, 2011, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of San Luis Potosí (1979-85).
Jonnart, Charles (Célestin Auguste) (b. Dec. 27, 1857, Fléchin, Pas-de-Calais, France - d. Sept. 30, 1927, Paris, France), acting governor-general of Algeria (1900-01, 1903-11, 1918-19) and minister of public works (1893-94), foreign affairs (1913), and liberated regions and blockade (1917) of France.
Jónsson, (Gudmundur) Emil (b. Oct. 27, 1902, Hafnarfjördur, Iceland - d. Nov. 30, 1986), foreign minister (1956, 1965-71) and prime minister (1958-59) of Iceland.
Jorbenadze, Avtandil (b. Feb. 23, 1951, Chibati village, Lanchkhuti region, Georgian S.S.R.), minister of state of Georgia (2001-03).
Jordan, Barbara C(harline) (b. Feb. 21, 1936, Houston, Texas - d. Jan. 17, 1996, Austin, Texas), U.S. politician. In 1966 she won a seat in the Texas Senate, where she served until 1972, the year she was elected to represent Texas' 18th District in the U.S. House of Representatives. She was the first black congresswoman to come from the Deep South. Although she acquired a reputation as an effective legislator, Jordan did not become a national figure until 1974, when her participation in the hearings held by the House Judiciary Committee on the impeachment of Pres. Richard M. Nixon was televised nationwide. Her keynote address at the 1976 Democratic National Convention confirmed her reputation as one of the most commanding and articulate public speakers of her era. In 1977 Jordan unexpectedly announced that she would not run for a fourth term.
Jordan, (William) Hamilton (McWhorter) (b. Sept. 21, 1944, Charlotte, N.C. - d. May 20, 2008, Atlanta, Ga.), White House chief of staff (1979-80). He went to work in Jimmy Carter's first gubernatorial campaign and he conceived and engineered the plan that eventually led to Carter's presidential nomination. Aside from his immediate family, no one was closer to the president. Unlike his predecessors, Carter preferred not to have a designated chief of staff. The White House - as organized by Jordan - was compared to a wheel with spokes radiating out from the Oval Office, though Jordan's spoke seemed heavier and stronger than the others. His casual dress of boots and jeans, a freewheeling life-style, and alleged incidents of boorish social behaviour quickly made Jordan an ongoing item for Washington gossip columns. The Justice Department investigated unproven charges that he had used cocaine in a New York disco club. Fairly or unfairly, much of the blame for the legendary inefficiency of the Carter White House was placed on Jordan's young shoulders. In August 1979, during the cabinet shake-up that followed Carter's energy crisis meetings at Camp David, Md., Carter finally named Jordan to be his chief of staff, with all of the power and authority that had gone with the post in the past. Jordan quickly stepped into his new role. He started wearing business suits, lowered his profile as a man-about-town, and began returning phone calls. Older, experienced assistants and advisers were brought into the administration, including some Washington "insiders." While some loose ends remained to be tied up, there was general agreement in Washington that the White House was better coordinated and more efficient after Jordan was put in charge. Whether he liked it or not, he had become part of the governmental and political establishment.
Jordanovski, Ljupco (R.) (b. Feb. 13, 1953, Stip, Macedonia - d. Oct. 7, 2010, Skopje, Macedonia), acting president of Macedonia (2004). He was president of the Sobranie (parliament) in 2003-06. In 2006 he was ambassador to the United States.
Jore, Léonce (Alphonse Noël Henri) (b. May 21, 1882, Helville [now Andoany], Nossi-Bé island, Madagascar - d. Sept. 29, 1975, Vevey, Vaud, Switzerland), acting lieutenant governor of Niger (1923-25) and governor of Senegal (1926-29), the French Settlements in Oceania (1930-32), and New Caledonia (1932-33, 1938-39); grandson of Alphonse Seignac-Lesseps.
Jorge, Oscar Mario (b. July 14, 1936, Caleufú, La Pampa, Argentina), governor of La Pampa (2007- ).
Jorge, Paulo Teixeira (b. May 15, 1929, southern Benguela province, Angola - d. June 26, 2010, Luanda, Angola), foreign minister of Angola (1976-84).
Jorge Blanco, (José) Salvador (Omar) (b. July 5, 1926, Santiago, Dominican Republic - d. Dec. 26, 2010, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic), president of the Dominican Republic (1982-86). He was sentenced along with three other men to 20 years in prison in 1991 for misusing government funds, but the conviction was overturned in 2001 by an appeals court that ruled that he was never given the right to defend himself during the trial.
Jørgensen, Anker (Henrik) (b. July 13, 1922, Copenhagen, Denmark), prime minister of Denmark (1972-73, 1975-82). He was president of the Warehouse Workers' Union, 1956-62, and then rose to become president in 1968 of Denmark's largest labour union, that of the unskilled workers. He was elected to Parliament in 1964 from a Copenhagen working-class constituency. When the Danish people in October 1972 "chose Europe," voting in a referendum for Denmark to seek admission into the European Economic Community, Prime Minister Jens Otto Krag resigned in his hour of triumph. Jørgensen succeeded him on October 4, to the surprise of most Danes, for he had held no ministerial post; it continued to be a widespread opinion that he was Krag's "personal invention." The Social Democrats lost the 1973 election, but Jørgensen returned to office in 1975. He headed minority Social Democrat governments except in 1978-79, when he formed a coalition with the Liberal (Venstre) Party.
Jorritsma, John, byname of Johannes Arnoldus Jorritsma (b. Sept. 16, 1956, Bolsward, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Friesland (2008- ).
José I, in full José Francisco António Inácio Norberto Agostinho (b. June 6, 1714, Lisbon - d. Feb. 24, 1777, Lisbon), king of Portugal (1750-77). His father, João V, enriched by the gold and diamonds of Brazil, had enjoyed unchallenged authority and gave José no responsibility. Thus, after his accession, José was content to leave decisions to his ministers, devoting himself to his pleasures, the opera and the chase. He appointed Sebastião de Carvalho, who soon gained an ascendancy over him and became all-powerful after the Lisbon earthquake of Nov. 1, 1755. Carvalho's regalistic policies were intended to assert the power of the crown and to create a mercantile class; this brought him into conflict with the nobility and the church. An attempt on José's life on Sept. 3, 1758, gave Carvalho the opportunity to persecute influential noble families, and in 1759 the Jesuits were expelled. José unquestioningly accepted Carvalho's version of these events. In 1775 the quarter-centenary of the reign was celebrated by the inauguration of the equestrian statue of José, which still adorns the Terreiro do Paço. Carvalho, now marquês de Pombal, seized the opportunity to advertise the reign's achievements, but when José fell ill in February 1777 it was already evident that his death would end the minister's power. José's daughter, Maria I, at once dismissed him.
Joseph, Cuthbert (b. 1927, Siparia, Trinidad and Tobago - d. Nov. 29, 2011, Cascade, Trinidad and Tobago), foreign minister of Trinidad and Tobago (1975-76).
Joseph Pairin (bin) Kitingan, Datuk Seri Panglima (b. Aug. 17, 1940, Papar, North Borneo [now Sabah, Malaysia]), chief minister of Sabah (1985-94). He received the titles Datuk (1978), Datuk Seri Panglima (1986), and Dato' Seri (1988).
Josèphe, Noël (b. 1920 - d. March 23, 2006, Beuvry, Pas-de-Calais, France), president of the Regional Council of Nord-Pas-de-Calais (1981-92).
Joshi, B(anwari) L(al) (b. April 1, 1934, Choti Khatu village [now in Nagore district, Rajasthan], India), lieutenant governor of Delhi (2004-07) and governor of Meghalaya (2007), Uttarakhand (2007-09), and Uttar Pradesh (2009-14).
Joshi, Kailash (Chandra) (b. July 14, 1929, Hatpipaliya village [now in Dewas district, Madhya Pradesh], India), chief minister of Madhya Pradesh (1977-78).
Joshi, Kumudben (Manishankar) (b. Jan. 31, 1934), governor of Andhra Pradesh (1985-90).
Joshi, Manohar (Gajanan) (b. Dec. 2, 1937, Nandvi, Raigad district, Bombay province [now Maharashtra]), chief minister of Maharashtra (1995-99). He took power as the state's chief after provincial elections in 1995, and shot into international prominence when he first threatened to cancel and later renegotiated a power project contract awarded to a unit of U.S.-based Enron Corp by the previous Congress Party government. The project was a pioneering benchmark for India's economic reform programme launched in 1991 to woo foreign investors. In 2002-04 he was speaker of the Lok Sabha.
Joshua, Ebenezer (Theodore) (b. May 23, 1908, Kingstown, Saint Vincent island - d. March 14, 1991, Kingstown), chief minister of Saint Vincent (1956-67).
Josie, Peter (b. 1941?), foreign minister of Saint Lucia (1981-82).
Josipovic, Ivo (b. Aug. 28, 1957, Zagreb, Croatia), president of Croatia (2010- ).
Jospin, Lionel (Robert) (b. July 12, 1937, Meudon, Hauts-de-Seine département, near Paris), prime minister of France (1997-2002). He joined the Socialist Party (PS) in 1971. He lost his first bid for a parliamentary seat in 1978, but was elected in 1981. He soon became a favourite of party leader François Mitterrand, who became president in 1981, and Jospin was promoted to succeed him as first secretary of the PS. After Mitterrand's reelection in May 1988, Jospin joined the cabinet and yielded the party leadership to Pierre Mauroy. He was minister of research and technologies (1988), sports (1988-91), and national education (1988-92). In 1989 he made the decision to allow Muslim female students to wear the veil in public schools, a violation of the principle of separation of church and state in the view of many French people. In the early 1990s his political career was in severe decline. He lost his cabinet post on April 2, 1992, and his parliamentary seat in the election of March 18, 1993. The party nominated Jospin as its candidate for president (Feb. 3, 1995) and although he ran with no platform and little fanfare, he won the first round of the vote, getting 23.3% of the vote, compared to 20.7% for Jacques Chirac and 18.5% for Édouard Balladur. In the runoff he earned an impressive 47.4% of the vote but came in second to Chirac (52.6%). On Oct. 14, 1995, he was again elected PS first secretary. When scandal again haunted the PS leaders in 1997, Jospin was asked to be the party's candidate for prime minister. The left won the parliamentary elections on June 1, and Jospin became prime minister at the head of a coalition of Socialists, Communists, and Greens. In 2002 he ran again for president but only finished third, as the left vote was divided among many candidates; he then resigned as prime minister.
Joubert, Charles Henri Alfred (b. June 10, 1831, Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe - d. ...), commandant of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1873-76).
Jouslard, Michel Louis Isidore de (b. June 30, 1814, Ardin, Deux-Sèvres, France - d. Nov. 15, 1872, Maisons-Neuves), commandant of the French Settlements in Oceania (1869-71).
Jouvenel (des Ursins), (Bertrand) Henry (Léon Robert) de (b. April 2, 1876, Paris - d. Oct. 5, 1935, Paris), French minister of public instruction, fine arts, and technical education (1924), high commissioner of Syria and Lebanon (1925-26), and minister of overseas France (1934).
Jovanovic, Vladislav (b. June 9, 1933, Zitni Potok, near Prokuplje, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia]), foreign minister of Serbia (1991-92, 1992-93) and Yugoslavia (1992, 1993-95).
Jovanovic, Zivadin (b. Nov. 14, 1938, Oparic, Rekovac municipality, Serbia), foreign minister of Yugoslavia (1998-2000).
Jovic, Ivo Miro (b. July 15, 1950, Trebizat, Capljina municipality, Bosnia and Herzegovina), chairman of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2005-06).
Joy Way (Rojas), Víctor (Dionicio) (b. 1947), prime minister of Peru (1999). Earlier he was minister of industry, external commerce, tourism, and integration (1991-92) and president of the Congress (1996-97, 1998-99). Joy Way, who was jailed and had his assets seized in 2001, was found guilty in February 2005 of illicit enrichment and tax fraud and sentenced to eight years in prison and a 10 million soles ($3 million) fine.
Jozeau-Marigné, Léon (Jean Louis) (b. July 21, 1909, Angers, France - d. July 18, 2003), president of the Regional Council of Basse-Normandie (1974-78, 1982-83).
Juan Carlos I, in full Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón (b. Jan. 5, 1938, Rome, Italy), king of Spain (1975-2014). He was the grandson of the last king, Alfonso XIII, who left Spain in 1931 and renounced his rights in favour of his third son, Juan Carlos Teresa Silverio Alfonso de Borbón y Battenberg, Count de Barcelona (1913-93), popularly known as Don Juan. Don Juan married María de las Mercedes de Borbón y Orleans (1910-2000), and their elder son was Juan Carlos. Juan Carlos spent his early years in Italy and first came to Spain in 1947. After his father suggested in 1945 that Francisco Franco should step down as leader of the country, Franco grew resentful and turned with increasing interest to Juan Carlos. A 1947 law established Spain as a "representative monarchy," but the country remained, throughout Franco's lifetime, without a monarch. Finally, on July 22, 1969, Franco presented to the Cortes (parliament) a law designating Juan Carlos the future king of Spain. Two events facilitated the move: in December 1968 the Carlist pretender, Carlos Hugo de Borbón-Parma, had been expelled from the country; and on Jan. 7, 1969, Juan Carlos said for the first time that he would accept the throne if offered (previously he had maintained that his father's claim preceded his own). After his accession to the throne in 1975, he encouraged the revival of political parties and amnesty for political prisoners. In 1981 he took swift action to deflate a military coup that threatened to topple the nascent democracy and return the government to Franconian reactionary lines. Juan Carlos was married in Athens on May 14, 1962, to Princess Sophia of Greece, daughter of King Pavlos. They had two daughters, Elena and Cristina, and a son, Felipe, who succeeded him on his abdication in 2014.
Juárez (García), Benito (Pablo) (b. March 21, 1806, San Pablo Guelatao, Oaxaca, Mexico - d. July 18, 1872, Mexico City), president of Mexico (1858-72). In 1831 he won his first public office, a seat on the municipal council. He became governor of Oaxaca, a post that brought him into national prominence. The return of the conservatives to power in 1853 elections doomed imminent reform in Mexico, and many prominent liberals, including Juárez, were exiled. From December 1853 to June 1855 he lived in New Orleans in the United States. In 1855 the liberals took control of the national government, and Juárez left the U.S. to join the new administration as minister of justice and public instruction. In 1857, Ignacio Comonfort was elected president, and the new Congress chose Juárez to preside over the Supreme Court and therefore, according to the constitution, also to serve as the effective vice president of Mexico. When the conservatives revolted and ousted Comonfort in January 1858, Juárez had a legal claim to the presidency. Lacking troops to control the area around Mexico City, however, he retired to the eastern port city of Veracruz. By late 1860 the conservatives were faltering, and in January 1861 Juárez was able to return to Mexico City and was constitutionally elected president. The French occupied Mexico City in June 1863. Forced to leave the capital again, Juárez kept himself and his government alive by a long series of retreats that ended only at Villa Paso del Norte (later renamed Ciudad Juárez) at the Mexican-U.S. border. Early in 1867, Napoleon decided to withdraw his troops. Juárez was reelected in 1867 and 1871, but after the latter campaign many of his countrymen took up arms against him. He spent the last few months of his life trying to restore peace. He died of a heart attack.
Juárez, Carlos (Arturo) (b. Feb. 8, 1917, La Banda, Santiago del Estero province, Argentina - d. July 2, 2010, Santiago del Estero city), governor of Santiago del Estero (1949-52, 1973-76, 1983-87, 1995-98, 1999-2001). His wife Mercedes Marina Aragonés de Juárez became governor in 2002 and promptly appointed him as economy minister; he was removed along with his wife in 2004 when the federal government took over the province.
Juárez, Mercedes Marina Aragonés de, byname Nina Aragonés de Juárez (b. 1926), governor of Santiago del Estero (2002-04); wife of Carlos Juárez. She was removed from office after a year of charges that the provincial government was corrupt and mismanaged. The crisis was sparked by the murder of two young women in 2003. The opposition and several journalistic investigative reports said that they were killed after a sex and drugs party with sons of top officials. No arrests were ever made in the case. The governor was also accused of stealing from the state pension fund, and the opposition said her officials kept files on thousands of people in the province.
Juárez Celman, Miguel (Jerónimo del Corazón de Jesús) (b. Sept. 29, 1844, Córdoba, Argentina - d. April 14, 1909, Arrecifes, Buenos Aires province, Argentina), president of Argentina (1886-90).
Juba, Stephen (b. July 1, 1914, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada - d. May 2, 1993, Petersfield, Manitoba), mayor of Winnipeg (1957-77).
Jubelin, Jean-Guillaume (b. Nov. 24, 1787, Saint-Pierre, Martinique - d. 18...), governor of Senegal (1828-29), French Guiana (1829-36), and Guadeloupe (1837-41).
Juca, Romero, Filho (b. Nov. 30, 1954, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil), governor of Roraima (1988-91).
Judd, Gerrit Parmele (b. April 23, 1803, Paris, N.Y. - d. July 12, 1873, Honolulu, Hawaii), finance minister (1842-49, 1850-53), foreign minister (1843-45), and interior minister (1845-46) of Hawaii.
Judd, Lawrence M(cCully) (b. March 20, 1887, Honolulu, Hawaii - d. Oct. 4, 1968, Honolulu), governor of Hawaii (1929-34) and American Samoa (1953); grandson of Gerrit Parmele Judd.
Judeh, Nasser (Sami) (b. 1961, Amman, Jordan), foreign minister of Jordan (2009- ).
Judge, Thomas (Lee) (b. Oct. 12, 1934, Helena, Mont. - d. Sept. 8, 2006, Chandler, Ariz.), governor of Montana (1973-81). A Democrat, he became lieutenant governor in 1969. In 1972, at age 38, he became the youngest man ever elected governor in Montana. Voters simultaneously approved a new state constitution that included a provision that residents have a right to a "clean and healthful environment." With that mandate, he oversaw creation of laws governing such areas as strip mine reclamation, air and water pollution controls, and a coal severance tax that finances a state trust fund. He said one of his proudest achievements was that he "brought government to the people" with 150 public forums around the state. His inaugural ball was the first that was open to all Montanans. But Judge also had a series of missteps, notably when he illegally shot an elk during the 1974 hunting season. Even though he turned himself in, a Republican justice of the peace fined him $300 and suspended his hunting privileges. He lost the Democratic primary in 1980 when he sought a third term. Trying again in 1988, he won the nomination, but lost the election.
Jugnauth, Sir Anerood (b. March 29, 1930, Palma, Mauritius), prime minister (1982-95, 2000-03) and president (2003-12) of Mauritius; knighted 1988. In 1983 he founded the Mauritian Socialist Movement.
Jugnauth, Pravind (Kumar) (b. Dec. 25, 1961), finance minister of Mauritius (2003-05, 2010-11); son of Sir Anerood Jugnauth. He took over the leadership of the Mauritian Socialist Movement from his father in April 2003.
Juhar (Haji) Mahiruddin, Tun (Datuk Seri Panglima Haji) (b. Nov. 5, 1953, Kampung Tambisan, Sandakan, British North Borneo [now Sabah, Malaysia]), head of state of Sabah (2011- ).
Juin, Alphonse (Pierre) (b. Dec. 16, 1888, Bône [now Annaba], Algeria - d. Jan. 27, 1967, Paris), French resident-general of Morocco (1947-51). He was made a maréchal de France on May 8, 1952, and was the last surviving officer of that rank.
Jukneviciene, Rasa (b. Jan. 26, 1958, Tiltagaliai village, Panevezys region, Lithuanian S.S.R.), defense minister of Lithuania (2008-12).
Julia, Marcel (Lucien Paul) (b. March 29, 1930, Mostaganem, Algeria), prefect of Martinique (1979-81). He was also prefect of the départements of Haute-Corse (1976-77), Mayenne (1977-79), and Var (1981-85).
Juliana (Louise Emma Marie Wilhelmina) (b. April 30, 1909, The Hague - d. March 20, 2004, Soestdijk palace, Baarn, Utrecht province), queen of the Netherlands (1948-80). The only child of Queen Wilhelmina and Prince Hendrik, Juliana in 1931 helped form the Nationaal Crisis Comité to foster measures by private enterprise to alleviate the economic depression. She married Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld on Jan. 7, 1937, and gave birth to four daughters: Beatrix (Jan. 31, 1938), Irene (Aug. 5, 1939), Margriet (Jan. 19, 1943), and Marijke (Feb. 18, 1947; later known by her second name Christina). During World War II she took refuge in Ottawa, while her husband remained with Queen Wilhelmina's London government. After returning to the Netherlands in 1945, she acted as regent (October-December 1947 and May-August 1948) during Wilhelmina's illness and became queen on Sept. 6, 1948, following her mother's abdication. The "bicycling monarch" shopped at her local supermarket and sent her children to state school. Her popularity prompted the Labour Party to drop its demand to turn the country into a republic. The first major crisis early in her reign was triggered by her desperation to find a cure for her youngest daughter who was born almost totally blind; her employment of a faith healer caused public concern. The marriages of Princess Irene to a Spanish Carlist prince (1964) and Princess Beatrix to a German diplomat (1966) aroused political controversy stemming from Dutch memories of World War II. Another crisis involved Prince Bernhard's acceptance of huge sums of money from the U.S. Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in 1976. Juliana withstood these dissensions, however. On her 71st birthday she abdicated, by her own wish, in favour of Beatrix, and reverted to the title of princess.
Julien, Gustave (Henri Jacques) (b. March 15, 1870, Toulouse - d. Aug. 2, 1936, Paris), governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1915-19).
Jullien, Philippe Émile (b. July 10, 1845, Mer, Loir-et-Cher, France - d. July 24, 1912, Paris), governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1901-04), of the French Settlements in Oceania (1905-07), and of Réunion (1910).
Juma, Omar Ali (b. June 26, 1941, Chake Chake, Pemba, Zanzibar [now in Tanzania] - d. July 4, 2001, Dar es Salaam), chief minister of Zanzibar (1988-95) and vice president of Tanzania (1995-2001).
Jumagulov, Apas (Jumagulovich) (b. Sept. 19, 1934, Arashan village, Kirgiz A.S.S.R.), premier of the Kirgiz S.S.R. (1986-91) and prime minister of Kyrgyzstan (1993-98). He was ambassador to Germany in 1998-2003 (also accredited to Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the Vatican in 1999-2003) and to Russia in 2005-07.
Jumaliyev, Kubanychbek (Myrzabekovich) (b. April 26, 1956, Aksy rayon, Jalal-Abad oblast, Kirgiz S.S.R.), prime minister of Kyrgyzstan (1998). He served as chairman of the State Committee of Science and New Technology from 1992 to 1994 and was first deputy minister of education and science from 1994 to 1995. Thereafter, he was appointed as the first deputy state secretary under the president, where he served until 1996. In 1996 he became the head of the presidential administration, while also acting as a chairman of the administration reform commission and other commissions. He became prime minister following the resignation of Apas Jumagulov in March 1998. Pres. Askar Akayev dismissed his government in December on the grounds that it had undermined the Kyrgyz economy by failing to coordinate properly with the National Bank and that this had led to a serious depreciation of the national currency and a worsening of the balance of payments. He then served as governor of Jalal-Abad oblast (1998-2001), minister of transport and communications (2001-05), deputy prime minister (2002-04), and first deputy prime minister (2004-05).
Jumbe, Sheikh Mwinyi Aboud (b. 1920, Zanzibar [now in Tanzania]), president of Zanzibar and first vice president of Tanzania (1972-84).
Jumblatt, Walid (Kamal), Arabic Walid (Kamal) Janbulat (b. Aug. 7, 1949, Mukhtara, Lebanon), Lebanese politician. He inherited the leadership of the Druze people in Lebanon's Shuf Mountains when his father, Kamal Jumblatt, was assassinated in 1977. He also inherited his father's position as head of the Progressive Socialist Party (PSP), a mildly left-wing party founded by Kamal in the late 1940s. The Jumblatt residence was at Mukhtara, where "Walid Bey" held court in traditional fashion. Before his father's death his interest in politics was marginal. He afterward developed into a rather remote political leader who was uneasily in alliance with the Syrians. His own political beliefs were moderately reformist. He favoured, as did his father, greater secularization of Lebanon. But he was also conscious of his duty to the Druze, whose control over the Shuf, once uncontested, came under increasing pressure from Maronite Christian immigrants in the 19th century. He was also one of the leaders of the National Salvation Front, which included his PSP along with Muslim and Christian antigovernment groups in northern Lebanon. During the Lebanese peace talks in Geneva in the fall of 1983, he achieved a degree of reconciliation with Pres. Amin Gemayel, but continued shelling between Druze and Lebanese Army and rightist forces after the peace conference indicated that there had been no real rapprochement. His power base among his own people was strengthened immeasurably in September 1983 when his forces asserted their mastery over almost all the Shuf Mountains, mainly at the expense of their arch-rivals, the predominantly Maronite and right-wing Phalange. He was minister of public works and transport and minister of tourism (1984), minister of public works (1989-90), minister of state (1991-92), and minister of displaced affairs (1992-98; as such he was responsible for returning the very people he had driven from their homes). He was nominated as MP representing the Shuf district in 1991 and reelected in 1992, 1996, 2000, and 2005.
Juncker, Jean-Claude (b. Dec. 9, 1954, Rédange-sur-Attert, Luxembourg), finance minister (1989-2009) and prime minister (1995-2013) of Luxembourg and president of the European Commission (2014- ). He was also minister of labour (1984-99).
Juneau, (Laurent) Solomon (b. Aug. 9, 1793, L'Assumption parish, near Montreal, Quebec - d. Nov. 14, 1856, Shawano, Wis.), mayor of Milwaukee (1846-47).
Junejo, Mohammad Khan (b. Aug. 18, 1932, Sindhri, Sanghar district, northeast of Karachi, India [now in Pakistan] - d. March 16, 1993, Baltimore, Md.), prime minister of Pakistan (1985-88). He was also interior minister (1985) and defense minister (1985-86).
Jung, Mehdi Nawaz (b. May 23, 1894, Hyderabad, India - d. June 27, 1967), governor of Gujarat (1960-65).
Jung, Najeeb (b. Jan. 18, 1951, Delhi, India), lieutenant governor of Delhi (2013- ).
Jungers, Eugène (Jacques Pierre Louis) (b. July 19, 1888, Messancy, Luxembourg province, Belgium - d. Sept. 17, 1958, Brussels), governor of Ruanda-Urundi (1932-46) and governor-general of Belgian Congo (1946-52).
Juppé, Alain (Marie) (b. Aug. 15, 1945, Mont-de-Marsan, Landes, France), prime minister of France (1995-97). His early career was as a "fast-track" civil servant. In 1976, as a close lieutenant of Jacques Chirac, he helped to found the right-of-centre Rally for the Republic (RPR) party, of which he later became secretary-general (1988-95). He was first elected to the National Assembly in 1986 (first for Paris, from 1997 for Gironde). Nicknamed "Amstrad" for his lightning intellect, he became a delegate minister of budget in the 1986-88 Chirac administration and was an outstanding foreign minister in the Édouard Balladur government of 1993-95. A pro-European technocrat, he became prime minister when Chirac was elected president in May 1995. Juppé also became mayor of Bordeaux in June 1995. He resigned as prime minister in May 1997 after the conservative coalition lost the first round of parliamentary elections. In 2002 he became head of the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP), a new centre-right party that replaced the RPR. In 2003 he went on trial in a scandal dating back to the time Chirac was mayor of Paris. Investigators suspected that city funds were used to pay members of the RPR. The prosecutor alleged that Juppé, as secretary-general of the party, knew of the payments. On Jan. 30, 2004, Juppé was found guilty and given a suspended 18-month prison sentence, which also barred him from holding public office for 10 years. He resigned from the presidency of the UMP in July and as member of the National Assembly on September 30. On December 1, an appeals court reduced the prison sentence to 14 months and the politics ban to one year. On December 2 he announced his resignation as mayor of Bordeaux, but he was reelected to that post in 2006. In 2007 he became minister of ecology, but resigned a month later after failing to win a seat in parliament. In 2010-11 he was defense minister and in 2011-12 again foreign minister.
Juránek, Stanislav (b. Jan. 24, 1956, Brno, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), governor of Jihomoravský kraj (2000-08).
Jürgensen, Jürgen, also known as Jörundur "Hundadagarkonungur" ("the Dog Days' King") (b. April 7, 1780, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. Jan. 20, 1841, Hobart, Van Diemen's Land [now Tasmania]), "protector" of Iceland (1809). In 1766 his father, while touring through Switzerland and Germany, took the opportunity of changing his name from Jørgen Jørgensen to the more Germanic Jürgen Jürgensen. Jürgen junior served on various vessels and took command of the privateer Admiral Juul during the Anglo-Danish War. He took three "prizes" before surrendering to HMS Sappho in March 1808. After 10 months restriction in London he made his way to Iceland, returning again to England in June 1809. Aided and abetted by an English merchant and some seamen, he then went back to Iceland, arrested the Danish governor, proclaimed Iceland independent of Denmark (June 26), and awarded himself the title of Protector (July 12). He later commented in a rare moment of objective candour, "I...fully determined to seize the first opportunity to strike some blow to be spoken of... It was not love of Liberty... which influenced me on this occasion... I have in the course of my life been under the malignant influences of other passions besides play." This situation came to an abrupt end after nine weeks when HMS Talbot arrived on the scene. He returned "voluntarily" to England in August 1810, but in September he was placed in the prison hulk Bahama at Chatham. He was frequently in prison and on Dec. 4, 1822, being tried at Middlesex after admitting he had stolen 15 shillings and with his previous disregard of the law being taken into consideration, he was sentenced to death - but like many other criminals of the time, his sentence was commuted to life imprisonment and transportation to Van Diemen's Land, where he spent the rest of his life.
Juri (Fernández), Hugo (Oscar) (b. Oct. 2, 1948, Córdoba, Argentina), education minister of Argentina (2000-01).
Jurisic, Zvonko (b. Oct. 15, 1961), premier of West Herzegovina (2006-10, 2010).
Justo (Rolón), Agustín P(edro) (b. Feb. 26, 1876, Concepción del Uruguay, Argentina - d. Jan. 10, 1943, Buenos Aires, Argentina), president of Argentina (1932-38). He rose to the rank of general and for a brief period after the revolution of 1930 served as commander in chief of the army. Justo held the portfolios of war, agriculture, and public works and climaxed his political career with election to the presidency in November 1931 on a conservative coalition ticket. During the early years of his administration, he was faced with the political and economic reconstruction of his country, weakened by revolution and the world economic depression. He inaugurated what amounted to a police state, though his presidential acts were considered more moderate than those of his predecessor, José Félix Uriburu. During World War II, Justo opposed Pres. Ramón Castillo's policy of neutrality, urging Argentina to declare war on the Axis powers. After Brazil declared war on Germany and Italy (August 1942), Justo accepted a commission as a general in the Brazilian army. His death removed Castillo's most formidable foe from the Argentine political arena.
Jusuf (Amir), (Andi) Muhammad (b. June 23, 1928, Kayuara, Netherlands East Indies [now in Sulawesi Selatan, Indonesia] - d. Sept. 8, 2004, Makassar, Sulawesi Selatan, Indonesia), Indonesian politician. He joined local revolutionary forces in their struggle against the Dutch. Later, while serving as the panglima (military commander) in his home province, he moved with skill and subtlety in crushing a rebellion in which the forces of Kahar Muzakar, an Islamic firebrand and onetime Jusuf benefactor, had teamed up with dissident army officers. Jusuf remained in the region for eight years and was, by any yardstick, unusually successful. He not only put down an insurrection but also laid the basis for the future industrial development of the province. Most important of all, he provided an alternative focus of loyalty at a time when Kahar Muzakar was enjoying great popular support. Jusuf was a putra daerah (son of the region) who was establishing himself as a national figure. In 1965 he was appointed minister of basic and light industry in the cabinet of President Sukarno. He was the first man from his province ever to hold cabinet rank. Three months after his return to the capital, a group of leftist junior officers spearheaded a coup in which six senior army generals were killed. In the wake of that event, Jusuf was instrumental in persuading Sukarno to transfer his executive authority to General Suharto and thus helped lay the basis for the New Order government. After serving as minister for industry in both the first and second Suharto cabinets he took over as defense minister (1978-83). He wasted no time in bringing the nation's defense establishment under his command and was for a time considered the second most powerful figure in Indonesia. In 1983-93 he was chairman of the audits agency.
Juvanon, (François) Adrien (b. Aug. 13, 1875, La Balme [now La Balme-les-Grottes], Isère, France - d. 19...), governor of French Guiana (1927), Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1928-29), and French India (1931-34).
Juxon-Smith, Andrew Terence (b. 1933 - d. 1996, Stapleton, N.Y.), chairman of the National Reformation Council of Sierra Leone (1967-68).