Index Li-Ll

Li Baodong (b. April 1955, Beijing, China), Chinese diplomat. He was ambassador to Zambia (2005-07) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2010-13).

Li Chun (b. Sept. 14, 1875 - d. Oct. 12, 1920, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China), military governor (1913-17) and civil governor (1913-14) of Jiangxi and military governor of Jiangsu (1917-20). He was one of the famous "3 governors along the Yangtze River" (the others being the governors of Jiangxi and Anhui) who remained neutral in the civil war during the late 1910s. He suddenly died in office in 1920. It is widely believed that he committed suicide, but some sources say that he was killed by one of his guards, who was found having sex with Li's wife.

Li Daoyu (b. August 1932, Hefei, Anhui, China), Chinese diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1990-93) and ambassador to the United States (1993-98).

Li Dingkui (b. 1879, Nanfeng, Jiangxi, China - d. Sept. 5, 1947), civil governor of Jiangxi (1925-26). He was the commander of the 6th Regiment within the 1st Division of the Jiangxi Army upon the founding of the republic. He stood by Yuan Shikai's side during the "Second Revolution," fighting against the southern army led by Li Liejun in Jiangxi. Sun Chuanfang nominated him as Jiangxi governor in 1925, but Li left office upon the defeat of Sun the next year.

Li Genyuan (b. 1879, Tengchong, Yunnan, China - d. July 6, 1965, Beijing, China), civil governor (1916-17) and chairman of the government (1939-41) of Shaanxi and agriculture and commerce minister of China (1922-23). He joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance when studying in Japan and became president of Yunnan Military College when he returned in 1909. He was one of the leaders of the revolution in Yunnan and was designated as speaker of the Senate after a military junta was formed. He was also a participant in the "Second Revolution" as well as the "Republic Salvation Movement" against Yuan Shikai in 1916. He took up the Guangzhou city garrison after Sun Yat-sen founded a government in the south in 1918. He was also commander-in-chief of the Yunnan-Guangdong United Army. Chiang Kai-shek named him a "strategic adviser" in 1945, but he stayed on the mainland after Chiang's government went to Taiwan, and served as a member of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.

Li Hongzhang, Wade-Giles Li Hung-chang (b. Feb. 15, 1823, Hefei, Anhui, China - d. Nov. 7, 1901, Beijing, China), governor-general of Liangjiang (1867-68), governor of Hubei (1869-70), and governor-general of Zhili, Henan, and Shandong (1871-95, 1900-01) and Liangguang (1899-1900). In 1853 he organized the local defense against the Taiping rebels in Anhui. Later, after service with Zeng Guofan, leader of the imperial forces, he recruited an army in Anhui modeled on Zeng's units. In conjunction with Charles George ("Chinese") Gordon, leader of the foreign-trained "Ever-Victorious Army," he drove the rebels out of Jiangsu in 1863. He introduced modern arms and training to his army and called for the adoption of Western technology to strengthen China. Made a hereditary noble of the third class, he was in addition to his gubernatorial posts also appointed grand secretary (1872-1901). An advocate of "self-strengthening," he embarked on numerous modernization projects, including the establishment of railroads, telegraph lines, textile mills, a steamship company, and iron and coal mines using Western machinery. On the outbreak of the war with Japan (1894), Li, in supreme command in Korea, was thwarted by the incompetence, dishonesty, and cowardice of inferior officers. The Chinese were swept out of Korea, and Li, whose policy was that of peace, was deprived of his honours and summoned to Beijing. The disastrous course of events soon compelled the emperor to restore him to honour. Through his efforts the war was brought to a termination in 1895, China ceding Formosa (Taiwan) and paying a large war indemnity. In 1896 he concluded a secret Russo-Chinese alliance. In 1898 he arranged for the lease of the Liaodong Peninsula to Russia. After the Boxer outbreak in 1900, it was Li who had to negotiate with the foreign powers. He concluded a treaty with them shortly before his death.

Li Houji (b. 1869, Tongshan, Jiangsu, China - d. September 1942, Tianjin, China), military (1914-23) and civil (1916-22) governor of Fujian. He was a brigade commander in Qing times. The republic being founded, he was named the commander-in-chief of the Shanghai Defense Army (in effect military governor of Shanghai). As a supporter of the northern government, his forces fell in 1924 when the whole province went into chaos, suffering from bandit forces as well as the threat of the Guangdong Revolutionary Army. He then quit politics.

Li Hyong Chol (b. Feb. 25, 1948), North Korean diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1997-2001).

Li Jiating (b. April 1944), governor of Yunnan (1998-2001). He was given a suspended death sentence in 2003 for taking 18.1 million yuan ($2.2 million) in bribes.

Li Jingcheng (b. Sept. 19, 1867, Wuming, Guangxi, China - d. Nov. 21, 1944, Macun [now part of Nanning], Guangxi), civil governor of Guangxi (1917-21). Serving in the 2nd Division of the Guangxi provincial army as a chief of staff, he took part in the movement against Yuan Shikai in 1915-16, being an adviser of Gen. Lu Rongting in Guangdong. He was named director of the Guangxi Financial Bureau in 1917 before he took office as governor. He fled to Shanghai with Lu Rongting upon Lu's defeat in 1921. Having gained enough support, he returned to Guangxi with Lu in 1922, but was defeated again in 1924, when he fled to Shanghai once again and quit politics.

Li Jinglin (b. March 28, 1885, Zaoqiang, Hebei, China - d. Dec. 3, 1931), governor of Hebei (1924-25). He was a graduate from the Northeastern Military College and served in the Heilongjiang army after graduation. From 1920, he was a senior commander in Zhang Zuolin's army, but he united with Cao Kun and betrayed Zhang later. He and Shandong governor Zhang Zongchang allied their forces as the "Zhili-Shandong Coalition Army," but as his forces were disarmed by the ambitious Zhang in June 1926, he had to quit politics in the north. He turned to Chiang Kai-shek in 1927, becoming a member of the Military Committee of the National Government.

Li Jingxi (b. March 21, 1859, Hefei, Anhui, China - d. Sept. 18, 1925, Shanghai, China), governor of Yunnan (1909-11) and premier of China (1917, 1917); nephew of Li Hongzhang. He was expelled in 1911 as the revolutionaries launched a revolt against him and then stayed in Shanghai, but did not leave politics. After Yuan Shikai took power, he was named speaker of parliament, and then the director of the House of Auditors. He was a monarchist, so he offered to help in all the imperial restorations. He "agreed" to take office as premier in June 1917 on condition that the parliament was dissolved, but "only for a few days," thus making it convenient for Zhang Xun to carry out his restoration actions.

Li Jong Ok (b. 1916, South Hamgyong province, Korea [now in North Korea] - d. Sept. 23, 1999), North Korean politician. He was one of the last remaining old revolutionaries who helped North Korean leader Kim Il Sung build a Communist state in the northern part of the divided peninsula in 1945. He served in various government and party posts under Kim, including chairman of the State Planning Committee (1956-59), a deputy premier (1960-70, 1976-77), chairman of the Committee for Heavy Industry (1960-62, 1972-76), minister of metallurgical and chemical industry (1962-64), energy and coal industry (1969-70), and mining (1972), president of the Academy of Sciences (1965-67), and premier (1977-84). He was also a vice president from 1984 until 1998; in 1998, he was elected as vice president of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly. At the time of his death, he was a member of the powerful Central Committee of the Workers' Party. But he had been largely sidelined from the country's inner circles since Kim Jong Il took over power after his father died in 1994.

Li Keqiang
Li Keqiang (b. July 1955, Anhui province, China - d. Oct. 27, 2023, Shanghai, China), governor (1998-2003) and secretary of the Communist Party committee (2002-04) of Henan, secretary of the Communist Party committee of Liaoning (2004-07), and a vice premier (2008-13) and premier (2013-23) of China.

Li Kwoh-ting
Li Kwoh-ting, Wade-Giles Li Kuo-ting, Pinyin Li Guoding (b. Jan. 28, 1910, Nanjing, China - d. May 31, 2001, Taipei, Taiwan), Taiwanese politician. He fled to Taiwan in 1949 with the Nationalist Party, which lost a civil war to the Communist Party. Taiwan was mostly a poor agrarian economy in the 1950s, and the Nationalists led a shift toward manufacturing consumer goods, textiles, and sporting goods - making the "Made in Taiwan" label famous worldwide. He served as economics minister in 1965-69 and as finance minister in 1969-76. He also was a minister without portfolio in 1976-88. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Li and other economists helped craft a policy that attracted entrepreneurs in the high-tech industry and provided government funding to electronics companies. He created a large industrial park in the port city of Hsinchu which came to be known as Taiwan's "Silicon Valley." The policy helped Taiwan quickly become a leading producer of computer parts. He was also a senior adviser to Pres. Chen Shui-bian.

Li Liejun
Li Liejun (b. Feb. 23, 1882, Wuning, Jiangxi, China - d. Feb. 20, 1946, Chongqing, China), military governor of Jiangxi (1912-13). He studied abroad in Japan where he joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance. Having taken part in several anti-Qing movements after returning from Japan, he was named Jiangxi governor in 1912. As a step to strike the Kuomintang (KMT) democratic bloc in gubernatorial posts, Pres. Yuan Shikai sacked Li, as well as Anhui governor Bai Wenwei, who was also a KMT member. Li rose up in Hukou, Jiangxi, on July 12, 1913, with the support of Sun Yat-sen. He turned to the south in 1917, holding the post of chief of staff. He kept his high status as an important decision-maker in the KMT government after Chiang Kai-shek took power in 1925, and was nominated a member of the KMT Military Committee in 1932.

Li Luye (b. January 1925, Beijing, China), Chinese diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1985-90).

Li Mingzhong (b. 1887, Shenqiu, Henan, China - d. Aug. 12, 1949, Suzhou [some sources say June 1949, Shanghai], China), military governor of Gansu (1926-27). He became a general in Feng Yuxiang's army, getting the rank of division commander after years of promotions. He turned to Chiang Kai-shek in 1927 and was named commander of the 22nd Route Army as well as a member of the Military Senate.

Li Peiji (b. Oct. 30, 1885, Xian county, Hebei, China - d. June 2, 1970), chairman of the government of Suiyuan (1928) and Henan (1942-44). He served in the Shanxi provincial army (under Gen. Shang Zhen) and was promoted to commander of the 1st Division. Before World War II, he was a council member as well as director of civil affairs of both Hebei and Henan provinces. During the war, he was named general secretary of the Examination Yuan. He stayed on the mainland in 1949.

Li Peng
Li Peng, Wade-Giles romanization Li P'eng (b. Oct. 20, 1928, Chengdu [Ch'eng-tu], Sichuan [Szechwan], China - d. July 22, 2019, Beijing, China), premier of China (1987-98). His father, writer Li Shuoxun, was executed by the Nationalists in 1930, and from 1939 Li Peng was cared for by Deng Yingchao, the wife of Zhou Enlai. He joined the Communist Party in 1945. His rapid rise began in 1979 when he was appointed vice minister (from 1981 minister) of power industry and first vice minister of water resources and electric power. In 1983 he became vice-premier in charge of education, energy, transportation, and economic development. He also rose through the party ranks, joining the Central Committee in 1982 and becoming an elected member of the Politburo and the Secretariat of the Central Committee in 1985. Earlier that year he had been named minister of the State Education Commission. In 1987 Li became a member of the powerful Standing Committee of the Politburo and acting prime minister (confirmed in 1988) to succeed Zhao Ziyang after the latter had become party general secretary. Li advocated moderate-paced reform, his chief concern being the maintenance of economic and political stability under the direction of the central government. When massive student protests demanding democracy broke out in Beijing in April 1989, Li, along with Deng Xiaoping, was foremost among those calling for the suppression of the demonstrators by force if necessary. On May 20 he declared martial law in the capital, and in early June he sent the armed forces into central Beijing to crush the movement, causing hundreds of deaths. He remains unpopular for his role in the crackdown. After having served two terms as premier (the maximum allowed by the constitution), he became chairman of the National People's Congress (1998-2003). He resigned from his party posts in 2002.

Li Pingshu (b. Jan. 14, 1854, Baoshan, Jiangsu [now in Shanghai municipality], China - d. Dec. 13, 1927, Kunshan, Jiangsu), civil governor of Jiangsu (1912). He was a famous businessman. Before the founding of the republic, he was president of the Chinese Commercial Bank and of the Jiangsu Railway Bureau. He also presided over the Merchant Bureau of Jiangsu and later became chief executive of the Union of Merchants in Shanghai. He was a supporter of the government, opposing movements led by Sun Yat-sen against dictatorship and imperial claims.

Li Qiang
Li Qiang (b. July 1959), premier of China (2023- ). He was also governor of Zhejiang (2012-16) and secretary of the Communist Party committees of Jiangsu (2016-17) and Shanghai (2017-22).

Li Ruihuan (b. September 1934, Tianjin, China), Chinese politician. He was mayor (1982-89) and secretary of the Communist Party committee (1987-89) of Tianjin and chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (1993-2003).

Li Shangfu (b. February 1958, Chengdu, Sichuan, China), defense minister of China (2023).

Li Shaogeng (b. 1896 - d. 1949), foreign minister of Manchukuo (1942-44). He was also minister of transport (1935-40) and ambassador to Japan (1940-42).

Li Shen (b. 1889, Zhenfeng, Guizhou, China - d. 1930, Hong Kong), chairman of the government of Guizhou (1929). He served in the Guizhou Army for a long time since he was a teenager. He was a senior commander of the 7th Army, 16th Army, and 43rd Army in the northbound army of the southern government. He started his war against Zhou Xicheng within the province in August 1920 in order to enlarge his defense area. In May 1929, he finally occupied Guiyang, which was the capital of Guizhou, and accepted Chiang Kai-shek's nomination as chairman of Guizhou. But the next month, Gen. Mao Guangxiang led a counterattack against Li, who was defeated. He transferred his remaining forces to Yunnan chairman Long Yun, quit politics, and settled in Hong Kong.

Li Shengduo (b. June 20, 1859, Jiujiang, Jiangxi, China - d. Feb. 4, 1937, Tianjin, China), civil governor of Shanxi (1912) and agriculture and commerce minister of China (1917). He was a successful candidate in the imperial examination, which meant he was qualified to be a senior officer in the future in the imperial times. He was one of the earlier presidents of the famous Peking University, as well as mayor of Beijing in Qing times. Upon the founding of the republic, he was made senior political adviser of the president, as well as a member of Senate. He was a speaker of the Senate after Pres. Yuan Shikai's death.

Li Shengwu (b. 1899 - d. 1985), foreign minister of China (Nanjing government) (1945). He was also minister of justice (1940-41) and education (1941-44). He was appointed ambassador to Germany in 1941 but could not take up this post.

Li Shucheng (b. June 24, 1882, Qianjiang, Hubei, China - d. Aug. 26, 1965, Beijing, China), army minister of China (1924). Having graduated from the Japanese College of Army Commanders, he became one of the founders of the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance. He joined the Wuchang Uprising in 1911 and was nominated as general secretary of the office of the provisional president (Sun Yat-sen). In 1912, soon after the capital moved to Beijing, Li, succeeding Huang Xing, became director-general of the Nanjing Rear Office. He fled to Japan and the U.S. upon the failure of the "Second Revolution" in 1913 and returned on Yuan Shikai's fall in 1916, serving as army minister as well as an adviser of the president. He turned south when Premier Duan Qirui refused to validate the abolished constitution in 1917, serving as Hunan provincial army commander (Constitution Salvation Army). He joined the Northern Expedition in 1926, but turned against his commander Chiang Kai-shek in 1930 and was named as an adviser of the anti-Chiang army led by Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan. Li was a participant of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) in September 1949. He took up the agriculture ministry after the People's Republic was founded and was elected a member of the Standing Committee of both the National People's Council and the CPPCC.

Li Xiannian
Li Xiannian, Wade-Giles romanization Li Hsien-nien (b. June 23, 1909, Hongan [Hung-an] county, Hubei [Hupeh], China - d. June 21, 1992, Beijing, China), Chinese politician. A member of the Communist Party by 1927, he took part in the Long March (1934-35) and served as army captain and political commissar. After the Communist victory and Mao Zedong's rise to power, Li became governor in his native province of Hubei (1949-51) and chairman of the Central South Administrative Council (1950-54). In Beijing he served as a deputy premier (1954-80) and finance minister (1954-75), becoming a self-taught economist who favoured the Soviet model of central planning. He helped rebuild the economy after the 1960-62 famine that resulted from Mao's Great Leap Forward in collectivization. He was a member of the Communist Party Politburo since 1956 and survived numerous purges. After Mao died in 1976, he initially urged party leaders to "deepen the struggle against Deng Xiaoping," but when the latter emerged as China's premier leader, Li recanted and blamed himself for the deficit-plagued economy. Li served in the largely ceremonial post of president in 1983-88; his appointment appeared to be a concession to the still powerful and influential conservatives in order to foster political stability. He exerted enormous influence as one of the eight "revolutionary elders" and exercised his political power as one of five members of the Politburo Standing Committee (1977-87); as a member of the party's Central Advisory Commission, an influential body of party veterans; and as chairman of the People's Political Consultative Conference, a post he held at the time of his death. He supported Deng in the military suppression of the student-led 1989 Tiananmen Square pro-democracy movement.

Li Xiaopeng (b. June 1959, Chengdu, Sichuan, China), governor of Shanxi (2012-16); son of Li Peng.

Li Yuan-tsu (b. Sept. 24, 1923, Pingjiang county, Hunan province, China - d. March 8, 2017, Toufen, Chiayi county, Taiwan), vice president of Taiwan (1990-96). He was also minister of education (1974-78) and justice (1978-84).

Li Yuanchao
Li Yuanchao (b. November 1950), vice president of China (2013-18).

Li Yuanhong
Li Yuanhong, Wade-Giles Li Yüan-hung (b. Oct. 19, 1864, Huangpo, Hubei, China - d. June 3, 1928, Tianjin, China), military governor of Hubei (1911-13) and Jiangxi (1913) and president of China (1916-17, 1917, 1922-23). Being an army commander of the Qing dynasty, he was loyal to the emperor. On Oct. 10, 1911, some lower commanders of his army rose up; he himself shot and killed several revolutionary soldiers. Instead of punishing Li, the revolutionaries thought their leader should be a man with great influence, so he was made the head of the Hubei military government. Receiving the nomination, he shouted out, "don't do harm to me!" Then a revolutionary commander pointed a gun at him and he finally agreed to take office under the threat of life. Nicknamed "The Buddha," he became vice president of China in 1912. He was also a speaker of the Senate. He succeeded as president upon Yuan Shikai's death but was expelled in June 1917 when "General Pigtail" Zhang Xun led his "Pigtail Army" to Beijing and briefly restored the Qing dynasty. In 1922, when Cao Kun's Zhili Military Group gained control over the Beijing government, Li was elected by the revived House of Representatives as president once again. But he was "impeached" in the following year as Cao Kun grew a strong desire for the presidency. According to the book "Inside Stories of the Republic of China," Li managed to carry the official seal of the presidency out with him when he was expelled from office, but soon the seal was intercepted on Li's way to Tianjin and given to his successor Cao Kun by Hebei governor Wang Chengbin, a general loyal to Cao.

Li Yunlong (b. 1890, Lintong, Shaanxi, China - d. 1954), governor of Shaanxi (1926). He entered the forces of Hu Jingyi of Henan and was named brigade commander, moonlighting as deputy military governor of Shaanxi. He was designated commander of the 8th Route Army within the Southern Route of the 2nd Group Army (not the Communist-led 8th Route Army during World War II). He became commander of the 3rd Division in 1930, but soon resigned, as he did not wish to join the war against the Red Army. He was elected a member of the Shaanxi Political Consultative Conference (part of the legislative branch until 1954).

Li Zhanshu (b. August 1950, Pingshan county, Hebei, China), Chinese politician. He was governor of Heilongjiang (2007-10), secretary of the Communist Party committee of Guizhou (2010-12), and chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (2018-23).

Li Zhaoxing
Li Zhaoxing (b. Oct. 20, 1940, Jiaonan county, Shandong, China), foreign minister of China (2003-07). He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1993-95) and ambassador to the United States (1998-2001).

Li Zongren
Li Zongren, Wade-Giles Li Tsung-jen (b. Aug. 13, 1890, Guilin, Guangxi, China - d. Jan. 30, 1969, Beijing, China), military governor of Guangxi (1924-25), chairman of the government of Anhui (1938), and vice president (1948-54) and acting president (1949-50) of the Republic of China. Having graduated from the Military Academy of Guangxi, he joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance and participated in all the major revolutionary movements during the first few years of the republic. He joined the Kuomintang in 1923, when he already controlled a considerable numbers of troops in Guangxi. In 1925, having wiped out the bandits, local warlords, and remnant forces of the north, he unified Guangxi province in 1925, together with Huang Shaohong and Bai Chongxi. During the Northern Expedition, Li was named commander of the 7th Army within the National Revolutionary Army. After the founding of the National Government in 1927, he was nominated commander of the 4th Group Army and head of the Military Senate. However, Chiang Kai-shek being unable to fulfill all of Li's demands on army distribution, Li turned against Chiang in 1929. During World War II, being commander of the 5th War Zone, Li conducted the famous Taierzhuang Campaign (Taierzhuang is now a district within Zaozhuang city, Shandong), killing more than 10,000 Japanese soldiers, thus stopping the Japanese from occupying Xuzhou city too early. In April 1948, Li was elected vice president, defeating Chiang-supported candidate Sun Fo. In January 1949, under pressure of all sides, Chiang stepped down and nominated Li to act in his post. In December 1949 Li went to the U.S. where he had medical treatment, and in March 1950 Chiang resumed his post, although Li still claimed to be acting president and denounced Chiang as a dictator. In 1954 the National Assembly in Taiwan removed him as vice president. In July 1965, Li moved back from the U.S. to the Chinese mainland.

Liagre, Jean-Baptiste Joseph (b. Feb. 17, 1815, Tournai, Hainaut, Belgium - d. Jan. 13, 1891, Brussels, Belgium), war minister of Belgium (1879-80).

Lian, Hans Jacob Biørn (b. March 31, 1942, Oslo, Norway), Norwegian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1994-97) and ambassador to Israel (2005-10).

Lian Yu (b. 1886, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China - d. ...), acting foreign minister of China (Nanjing government) (1939). He was also minister of industry (1939-40) and ambassador to Manchukuo (1941-43) and Japan (1945).

Liang Dunyan (b. 1857, Shunde, Guangdong, China - d. May 10, 1924, Tianjin, China), Chinese politician. Having attended Yale University in the U.S., he started his political career upon his return, first working in the customs and then in the foreign ministry, and thereafter becoming minister of transportation (1914-16). He was the secretary of foreign affairs in the restoration government of the Qing dynasty in 1917, established by Zhang Xun, which only lasted 12 days. He hid himself in the embassy area in Beijing after Duan Qirui expelled Zhang Xun. He was listed as wanted the following year. He later moved to Tianjin after the cancellation of the arrest warrant.

Liang Guanglie (b. December 1940, Santai county, Sichuan, China), defense minister of China (2008-13).

Liang Huazhi (b. 1906, Dingxiang, Shanxi, China - d. April 24, 1949, Taiyuan, Shanxi), chairman of the government of Shanxi (1949). His political career started in 1932, when he was named a member of the Kuomintang Shanxi Provincial Governing Committee, as well as director of the Political Department of the 2nd War Zone. He committed suicide when the People's Liberation Army entered Taiyuan city, the capital of Shanxi.

Liang Qichao
Liang Qichao, Wade-Giles Liang Ch'i-ch'ao (b. Feb. 23, 1873, Xinhui, Guangdong, China - d. Jan. 19, 1929, Beijing, China), justice minister (1913-14) and finance minister (1917) of China. He was a famous reformer in the Qing dynasty. He fled to Japan upon the failure of the 1898 reforms, which were extinguished by the Empress Dowager Cixi. He was named a cabinet member after Yuan Shikai took power, but he broke with Yuan in 1915 as he strongly opposed Yuan's action to dissolve the republican parliament. He persuaded Gen. Cai E to launch an anti-Yuan uprising in Yunnan. He was named finance minister in Duan Qirui's cabinet.

Liang Ruhao (b. 1863, Zhongshan, Guangdong, China - d. Oct. 14, 1941, Tianjin, China), foreign minister of China (1912). He was sent to the U.S. as an exchange student in 1874 and started his political career after his return. He was mayor of Shanghai in Qing times and also held the post of vice-minister of postal communications. He attended the Washington Conference in 1921 and then was named the chief executive of the Weihaiwei Takeover Committee as the U.K. agreed to return the leased territory of Weihaiwei (now Weihai in Shandong province). Later he was elected head of the Chinese Voluntary Charity Association.

Liang Shiyi (b. May 5, 1869, Sanshui, Guangdong, China - d. April 9, 1933, Hong Kong), premier of China (1921-22). He was appointed in the late Qing dynasty as the director of the Railway Bureau. After the founding of the republic, he was named secretary-general of the presidency, as well as the general manager of the Transportation Bank of China. He supported Yuan Shikai's claim to the imperial throne in 1915 and was listed as wanted upon Yuan's death in 1916, which made him flee to Hong Kong. He returned to the mainland in 1918, and later got the posts of president of the Transportation Bank as well as speaker of parliament. He went to Hong Kong again in 1928, upon the fall of the Beijing government.

Liao Lei
Liao Lei (b. Feb. 20, 1890, Luchuan, Guangxi, China - d. Oct. 23, 1939, Anhui province, China), chairman of the government of Anhui (1938-39). A graduate of Baoding Military College, he held several military posts throughout his life, including the commander of the 53rd Division, 7th Army. He was the chief commander of the 21st Group Army when he was offered the chairman post in Anhui.

Liao Zhongkai
Liao Zhongkai (b. April 12, 1878, Huiyang, Guangdong, China - d. Aug. 20, 1925, Guangzhou, Guangdong), civil governor of Guangdong (1923-24, 1924). He joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance in 1905 upon its founding and became the director of the financial bureau of Guangdong after the founding of the republic. The Revolutionary Alliance later became the Kuomintang (KMT). When the KMT was reformed in 1924, he was named the head of the Department of Workers, and then Peasants. Later he became minister of finance of the southern government, seated in Guangdong. He continued his belief in Sun Yat-sen's policy after Sun died in 1925 and one of the key policies was to maintain close relations with the Soviet Union as well as the Chinese Communist Party, which was strongly opposed by the KMT rightists. He was assassinated by the rightists in 1925.

Liaquat Ali Khan, Urdu Liyaqat `Ali Khan (b. Oct. 1, 1895, Karnal, East Punjab, India - d. Oct. 16, 1951, Rawalpindi, Pakistan), prime minister of Pakistan (1947-51). He joined the Muslim League in British India in 1923. In 1926 he was elected to the Legislative Council of the United Provinces as a member for the Muzaffarnagar district, where he served for six years as deputy president. He soon became closely associated with Mohammad Ali Jinnah. With his election as secretary of the All-India Muslim League in April 1936, he became recognized as one of the foremost Muslim leaders. He was elected to the central Legislative Assembly in 1940 and in 1943 became the deputy leader of the Muslim League. He was appointed to the viceroy's executive council in 1946 and held the portfolio of finance. By degrees he won first the respect and then the admiration of the Muslim community for his share in the struggle for Pakistan; when victory was won, and Jinnah became the first governor-general, Liaquat was the obvious choice as prime minister; he was also minister of defense. His achievements were outstanding; if Jinnah founded Pakistan, Liaquat established it, laying down the main lines of policy, domestic and foreign, which afterward guided the country. After Jinnah's death (1948), Liaquat was acclaimed as qaid-i-millet ("leader of the country"). He paid a three-week state visit to the U.S. in May 1950. His friendliness to the U.S. angered the Communists, and his relations with Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru worsened rapidly over the Kashmir dispute, although the two had been friends in the old Indian independence movement. But he steadily refused to contemplate war with India, and he was assassinated by fanatics who resented this.

Rana Liaquat
Liaquat Ali Khan, (Begum) Rana, Urdu (Begam) Ra`na Liyaqat `Ali Khan, née (Sheila) Irene Pant (b. Feb. 13, 1905, Almora, India - d. June 13, 1990), governor of Sindh (1973-76); wife of Liaquat Ali Khan. She was Pakistan's first female provincial governor. She was also ambassador to the Netherlands (1954-61) and Italy and Tunisia (1961-66).

Liatis, Alexi(o)s S(tavrou) (b. March 18, 1908, Smyrna, Ottoman Empire [now Izmir, Turkey] - d. ...), Greek diplomat. He was ambassador to the United States (1958-62) and Japan (1962-65) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1965-67).

Liatukas, Pranas (b. Jan. 29, 1876, Padievaitis, Russia [now in Lithuania] - d. Sept. 2, 1945, Vilnius, Lithuanian S.S.R.), acting defense minister of Lithuania (1919-20). He was also chief of staff (1918-19) and commander (1919-20) of the armed forces.

Liautaud, Pierre (Léon) (b. Dec. 8, 1906, Port-au-Prince, Haiti - d. ...), foreign (and education) minister of Haiti (1953-54).

Liba, Peter M(ichael) (b. May 10, 1940, Winnipeg, Manitoba - d. June 21, 2007, Clearwater Bay, Ont.), lieutenant governor of Manitoba (1999-2004).

Libai, David (b. Oct. 22, 1934, Tel Aviv, Palestine [now in Israel] - d. Dec. 24, 2023), justice minister (1992-96) and interior minister (1995) of Israel.

Liberia-Peters, Maria (L. Philomena), née Peters (b. May 20, 1941, Willemstad, Curaçao), prime minister of the Netherlands Antilles (1984-85, 1988-93). She organized parents' groups for political and social action and joined the National People's Party (NVP). After she was approached to run for office, she won a seat on the Curaçao island council in 1975. That body named her (1975-80) to an executive council which met regularly with Queen Beatrix's representative. In 1982, Liberia-Peters was elected to the Staten (legislature) of the Netherlands Antilles and became minister of economic affairs (December 1982-July 1983) in a coalition government which collapsed in June 1984. In September that same year, she was asked to form a new coalition government. Her first period as prime minister lasted until 1985, when political events intervened to make her, instead, leader of the opposition. She came back into the prime ministership in the spring of 1988. In 1993, her party was again defeated and she became head of the opposition once more, serving as a member of parliament and political leader of the NVP until 1994.

Libohova, Eqrem Bej (b. Jan. 24, 1882, Gjirokastër, Ottoman Empire [now in Albania] - d. 1948, Rome, Italy), foreign minister (1936-39) and prime minister (1943, 1943) of Albania; brother of Myfit Bej Libohova. He was also chargé d'affaires (1919-25) and minister (1925-26) to Italy, minister to France and Belgium (1934-36), minister of the royal court (1929-31), and interior minister (1943).

Libohova, Myfit Bej (b. July 1876, Libohovë village, Ottoman Empire [now in Albania] - d. Feb. 10, 1927, Sarandë, Albania), foreign minister of Albania (1913-14, 1918-20, 1925). He was also minister of interior (1912-13), justice (1914, 1924, 1925), war (1914), and finance (1924, 1924-25).

Liburd, Hyleta (Miranda), deputy governor-general for Nevis (2018- ).

Liburd, Ian (McDonald), byname Patches (b. Jan. 24, 1952), Saint Kitts and Nevis politician. He was minister of public infrastructure, urban development, transport, and post (2015-20) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2021-22).

M. Liburd
Liburd, Dame Marcella (Althea) (b. July 10, 1953, Basseterre, Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla [now in Saint Kitts and Nevis]), governor-general of Saint Kitts and Nevis (2023- ); knighted 2023. She was also speaker of the National Assembly (2004-08) and minister of health, social services, community development, culture, and gender affairs (2010-15).

Licciardo, Cayetano (Antonio) (b. July 19, 1923, Ensenada, Argentina - d. Oct. 30, 1999, Buenos Aires, Argentina), economy minister of Argentina (1971-72). He was also minister of education (1981-83).

Liceaga Ruibal, Víctor Manuel (b. Sept. 11, 1935, La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico - d. Feb. 13, 2012, Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur), governor of Baja California Sur (1987-93).

Lichal, Robert (b. July 9, 1932, Vienna, Austria - d. April 25, 2024), defense minister of Austria (1987-90).

Licht, Frank (b. March 3, 1916, Providence, R.I. - d. May 30, 1987, Providence), governor of Rhode Island (1969-73).

Lid, Mons (b. April 8, 1896, Bergen, Norway - d. March 3, 1967), governor of Hordaland (1949-66) and finance minister of Norway (1955-56).

Lida Kouassi, Moïse (b. Jan. 7, 1956, Lakota, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire]), defense minister of Côte d'Ivoire (2000-02).

Liddell, Sir Clive Gerard (b. May 1, 1883 - d. Sept. 9, 1956), governor of Gibraltar (1939-41); knighted 1939.

Lide, Adolf (Mikhailovich) (b. July 6, 1896 - d. 1941, Krasnovodsk, Turkmen S.S.R. [now Turkmenbashi, Turkmenistan]), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of Crimea oblast (1921).

Lidegaard, Martin (b. Dec. 12, 1966, Copenhagen, Denmark), foreign minister of Denmark (2014-15). He was also minister of climate and energy (2011-14).

Lidén, (Arvid) Anders (b. Jan. 2, 1949, Oskarshamn, Kalmar, Sweden), Swedish diplomat. He was ambassador to Israel and Cyprus (1999-2002), Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Mauritius (2010-12), and Finland (2012-16) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2004-10).

Lidén, Arvid (b. Nov. 16, 1881, Holmedal, Värmland, Sweden - d. Jan. 5, 1950), governor of Kalmar (1938-47).

Lidington, Sir David (Roy) (b. June 30, 1956, London, England), British justice secretary (2017-18); knighted 2019. He was also lord president of the council (2016-17) and chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (2018-19).

Lidth de Jeude, Otto Cornelis Adriaan van (b. July 7, 1881, Tiel, Gelderland, Netherlands - d. Feb. 1, 1952, The Hague, Netherlands), war minister of the Netherlands (1942-45). He was also minister of water management (1935-37, 1939).

Lie, Trygve (Halvdan) (b. July 16, 1896, Kristiania [now Oslo], Norway - d. Dec. 30, 1968, Geilo, Norway), secretary-general of the United Nations (1946-53). He became a leading member of the Norwegian Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet), which he joined at age 16. He was minister of justice (1935-39), trade (1939), supplies (1939-41), and foreign affairs (1941-46), joining the government-in-exile in London during the German occupation of Norway (1940-45). After serving as chairman of the commission that drafted the charter for the Security Council at the United Nations organization conference in San Francisco, Calif., he was elected (46-3) as the first UN secretary-general on Feb. 1, 1946, for a term of five years. He first was nominated for the less important office of president of the General Assembly, but was defeated by Paul-Henri Spaak of Belgium. After the outbreak of the Korean War (June 1950), Lie took the initiative of declaring North Korea an aggressor and promptly became persona non grata with the Communist world. When it became certain that the Soviet Union would veto his reelection in the Security Council, his term was extended for three years (without formal reelection) by a vote of 46-5 in the General Assembly on Nov. 1, 1950. The Soviet Union then ceased to recognize him as secretary-general. In the course of the investigations led by U.S. Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy against suspected Communists, Lie's secretariat was accused of giving jobs to disloyal U.S. citizens; he discharged a number of staff members regarded by the U.S. as "subversive," although no such charge could be proved. Under those pressures, Lie announced his resignation on Nov. 10, 1952. He later was governor of Oslo and Akershus (1955-63) and minister of industry (1963-64) and trade (1964-65).

Liebaert, Henri (Marcel Hector) (b. Nov. 29, 1895, Deinze, Belgium - d. April 7, 1977, Rome, Italy), finance minister of Belgium (1949-50, 1954-58). He was also minister of economic affairs (1946-47) and president of the Liberal Party (1953-54).

Liebaert, Julien (Auguste Marie Joseph) (b. June 22, 1848, Courtrai [Kortrijk], Belgium - d. Sept. 16, 1930, Ternat, Belgium), finance minister of Belgium (1899, 1907-11). He was also minister of industry and labour (1899-1900) and railways, posts, and telegraphs (1899-1907).

Liebe, (Carl Julius) Otto (b. May 24, 1860, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. March 21, 1929, Copenhagen), prime minister (1920) and justice minister (1920) of Denmark.

Lieberknecht, Christine, née Determann (b. May 7, 1958, Weimar, East Germany), minister-president of Thüringen (2009-14).

A. Lieberman
Lieberman, Avigdor, original name Evet (Lvovich) Liberman (b. June 5, 1958, Kishinev, Moldavian S.S.R. [now Chisinau, Moldova]), foreign minister (2009-12, 2013-15), defense minister (2016-18), and finance minister (2021-22) of Israel. In 1978 he immigrated with his parents to Israel, where he took the name Avigdor. In 1988 he allied himself with Benjamin Netanyahu, and in 1993 he masterminded Netanyahu's successful campaign for the Likud party leadership. When Netanyahu first became prime minister in 1996, he appointed Lieberman director-general of the prime minister's office. When Netanyahu signed the Wye River Memorandum in 1997, Lieberman considered it too conciliatory toward the Palestinians and resigned, and in 1999 he founded a new right-wing party, Yisrael Beiteinu. Drawing its membership mainly from Russian immigrants, the party won 4 of 120 seats in the 1999 Knesset election. He became minister of national infrastructure (2001-02), transportation (2003-04), and strategic affairs (2006-08) and deputy prime minister (2006-08, 2009-12). In the run-up to the February 2009 election, Lieberman sharpened his questions about Israel's Arab minority, expressing doubts about their loyalty to the Jewish state and threatening to make their right to citizenship dependent on an oath of allegiance. In the election, Yisrael Beiteinu became the third-largest party with 15 seats, and he helped form a Likud-led coalition government with Netanyahu as prime minister. Soon after taking over as foreign minister, he was interrogated by police on suspicion of money laundering, bribery, and obstructing justice in a scandal that threatened to end his controversial political career. In 2013 he went on trial on charges of fraud and breach of trust but was acquitted and then reappointed to the foreign minister's post, from which he had resigned after he was indicted. At an election rally in 2015, he said that Israeli Arabs disloyal to Israel "deserve to have their heads chopped off with an axe." In the elections, the party dropped to 6 seats and went into opposition, but in order to neutralize his caustic attacks Netanyahu decided to co-opt him into the government in 2016. In 2018 he resigned over the government's ceasefire with Palestinian militants in Gaza, denouncing the move as "surrendering to terror."

Lieberman, Herman (b. Jan. 3, 1870, Drohobycz, Austria [now Drohobych, Ukraine] - d. Oct. 21, 1941, London, England), justice minister of Poland in exile (1941).

J. Lieberman
Lieberman, Joseph (Isadore), byname Joe Lieberman (b. Feb. 24, 1942, Stamford, Conn. - d. March 27, 2024, New York City), U.S. politician. A Democrat, he ran for the Connecticut Senate in 1970 against the sitting majority leader and won. One of the volunteers in that campaign was the young Bill Clinton. Lieberman was majority leader in 1975-81. In 1980, he ran for an open seat in the U.S. House of Representatives and lost. Two years later, he was elected state attorney general. In 1988, he challenged Republican Sen. Lowell Weicker and scored an upset victory, becoming the first Orthodox Jew to sit in the U.S. Senate. In 1994, when Republicans swept to control of both houses of Congress, he won his own Senate reelection battle with 67% of the vote. In his first Senate term, he exerted influence far out of proportion to his seniority or committee position. In his second, his influence only increased. He became chairman of the centrist Democratic Leadership Council, a group Clinton helped found. He sat on the Senate committee that probed fundraising excesses in the 1996 presidential campaign and took an independent line, refusing to join fellow Democrats who rallied around Clinton and Al Gore. He came to national prominence in September 1998 when he was the first Democratic senator to denounce Clinton's affair with White House intern Monica Lewinsky as morally wrong, although he later voted against removing Clinton from office. On Aug. 7, 2000, it was announced that Lieberman had been chosen by Gore as his vice presidential running mate. He was the first Jew on the national ticket of a major U.S. political party. The ticket narrowly lost the election, but Lieberman also appeared on the Connecticut ballot for reelection to the Senate, a contest he won easily. In 2004 he made an unsuccessful bid for the Democratic presidential nomination. In August 2006 he lost the Democratic primary for senator against challenger Ned Lamont, who criticized his support of the Iraq war. He then ran as an independent and won by getting most of the Republican vote. In 2008 he supported Republican presidential candidate John McCain. He retired in 2012.

Liebmann, Guy (b. April 27, 1936, Shawnee, Okla.), acting mayor of Oklahoma City (2003-04).

Liedts, Charles Augustin, baron (b. Dec. 2, 1802, Audenarde, France [now in Belgium] - d. March 21, 1878, Brussels, Belgium), interior minister (1840-41) and finance minister (1852-55) of Belgium. He was also governor of Hainaut (1841-45) and Brabant (1845-52, 1854-61) and president of the Chamber of Representatives (1843-48). He was made baron in 1870.

Lieftinck, Piet(er) (b. Sept. 30, 1902, Muiderberg, Muiden [now in Gooise Meren] municipality, Noord-Holland, Netherlands - d. June 9, 1989, The Hague, Netherlands), finance minister of the Netherlands (1945-52).

Liegis, Imants (Viesturs) (b. April 30, 1955, England), defense minister of Latvia (2009-10). He has also been permanent representative to NATO (1997-2004) and ambassador to the Benelux countries (1997-2000), Spain (2008-09), Hungary (2012-16), and France (2016- ).

Liem, Henri Félix Prosper de (b. Feb. 18, 1792, Lubbeek, Austrian Netherlands [now in Flemish Brabant, Belgium] - d. Sept. 11, 1875, Brussels, Belgium), war minister of Belgium (1842-43).

Lien Chan (Wade-Giles), Pinyin Lian Zhan (b. Aug. 27, 1936, Xian, Shaanxi province, China), Taiwanese politician. He was ambassador to El Salvador (1975-76), communications minister (1981-87), vice-premier (1987-88), foreign minister (1988-90), governor of Taiwan province (1990-93), prime minister (1993-97), and vice president (1996-2000). As premier, he came under fire for a spate of violent crimes on the island, including the kidnap and murder of the teenage daughter of a popular actress in April 1997. Analysts and local media speculated that Lien gave up the premiership mainly to pursue presidential ambitions. Indeed he ran as the Kuomintang candidate in the 2000 election, but finished third. After the election he succeeded Lee Teng-hui as chairman of the Kuomintang, and he was again its presidential candidate in 2004, narrowly losing to Pres. Chen Shui-bian. On April 26, 2005, he traveled to China for a historic meeting with the leaders of the Communist Party. In July 2005 he retired as Kuomintang chairman. In 2010 China awarded him the first Confucius Peace Prize for his contributions to bridging the gap between Taiwan and the mainland.

Liendo, Horacio Tomás (b. Dec. 17, 1924, Córdoba, Argentina - d. Aug. 24, 2007, Buenos Aires, Argentina), labour minister (1976-79) and interior minister (1981) of Argentina.

Liepins, Roberts (b. Sept. 2, 1890, Petertal parish, Russia [now in Latvia] - d. Sept. 16, 1978, Ludwigsburg, Baden-Württemberg, West Germany), finance minister of Latvia (1928). He was also minister to Lithuania (1928-33), Estonia (1933-35), and the Soviet Union (1935-36) and mayor of Riga (1936-40).

Liesching, Sir Percivale (b. April 1, 1895, London, England - d. Nov. 4, 1973, Sidcup, Kent, England), high commissioner for Southern Africa (1955-58); knighted 1944.

Liévano Aguirre, Indalecio (b. July 24, 1917, Bogotá, Colombia - d. March 29, 1982, Bogotá), foreign minister of Colombia (1974-78) and president of the UN General Assembly (1978-79). He was Colombia's permanent representative to the United Nations in 1978-82.

Liewen, Carl Gustaf friherre von (b. May 4, 1722 - d. June 16, 1770), governor of Stockholm (1768-70).

Liezietsu, Shürhozelie (b. Nov. 20, 1936, Kohima, Assam [now in Nagaland], India), chief minister of Nagaland (2017).

Lifschitz, (Roberto) Miguel (b. Sept. 13, 1955, Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina - d. May 9, 2021, Rosario), governor of Santa Fe (2015-19). He was also mayor of Rosario (2003-11).

Ligachev, Yegor (Kuzmich) (b. Nov. 29, 1920, Dubinkino [now in Novosibirsk oblast], Russia - d. May 7, 2021, Moscow, Russia), Soviet politician. He joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) in 1944. In 1949 he became a party official in Novosibirsk. He held a variety of party and government posts in Novosibirsk and Tomsk, being first secretary of the party committee of Tomsk oblast (1965-83) before being named in 1983 secretary of the Central Committee (CC) Secretariat. In 1985 he became a member of the Politburo. In December 1987 he stated that he chaired meetings of the CC Secretariat and CPSU general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev those of the Politburo. This confirmed his status as second in command in the U.S.S.R. only to Gorbachev. Under Gorbachev, he consistently espoused a less radical approach to reform; a particular target was the media. When Gorbachev was on holiday in the summer of 1987, Ligachev seized the opportunity, together with KGB head Gen. Viktor Chebrikov, to sound a warning against too radical change. He played a leading role in the dismissal of Boris Yeltsin, the aggressive pro-radical-reform first party secretary of Moscow. Subsequently, a violent altercation took place between the two at the CC plenum in November 1987. Whereas Yeltsin castigated party officials for their privileges and abuse of power, Ligachev denied that they enjoyed any privileges. In August 1988, again while Gorbachev was on holiday, he once more warned against the danger of radical reform. However, when Ligachev himself was on holiday in September, Gorbachev called a CC plenum and pushed through drastic personnel changes. Ligachev was caught off guard and was demoted to chairman of the CC commission on agrarian affairs. His loss was underlined at the 71st anniversary celebrations of the October Revolution on November 7 when Gorbachev, Premier Nikolay Ryzhkov, and Moscow party boss Lev Zaikov formed the top trio. He remained a member of the Politburo until July 1990. In 1999-2003 he was the oldest member of the Russian State Duma.

Ligeard, Cynthia (b. June 15, 1962, Nouméa, New Caledonia), president of the government of New Caledonia (2014-15).

Light, Sir Henry (b. 1783 - d. March 3, 1870, Falmouth, Cornwall, England), acting governor of Antigua (1836-37), lieutenant governor of Dominica (1837-38), and governor of British Guiana (1838-48); knighted 1848.

Lightenvelt, Leonardus Antonius (b. Oct. 28, 1795, 's-Hertogenbosch, Batavian Republic [now Netherlands] - d. Oct. 29, 1873, Hyères, Var, France), foreign minister (1848-49) and acting justice minister (1849) of the Netherlands. He was also minister of affairs of Roman Catholic worship (1848, 1853).

Lightfoot, Lori (Elaine) (b. Aug. 4, 1962, Massillon, Ohio), mayor of Chicago (2019-23).

Ligi, Jürgen (b. July 16, 1959, Tartu, Estonian S.S.R.), defense minister (2005-07), finance minister (2009-14), and foreign minister (2015 [acting], 2016) of Estonia. He was also education minister (2015-16).

Ligne, Eugène François Charles Joseph Lamoral, prince de (b. Jan. 28, 1804, Brussels, France [now in Belgium] - d. May 20, 1880, Brussels), Belgian politician. He was ambassador to France (1842-48) and chairman of the Senate (1852-79).

Ligon, Thomas W(atkins) (b. May 1, 1810, Prince Edward county, Va. - d. Jan. 12, 1881, "Chatham," near Ellicott City, Md.), governor of Maryland (1854-58).

Ligonier, John Ligonier, (1st) Earl, original name Jean-Louis Ligonier (b. Nov. 7, 1680, Castres [now in Tarn département], France - d. April 28, 1770), governor of Guernsey (1750-52) and British commander-in-chief of the forces (1757-59) and master-general of the ordnance (1759-63). He was knighted in 1743, created Viscount Ligonier of Enniskillen (1757) and Viscount Ligonier of Clonmell (1762) in the Irish peerage, and, in the peerage of Great Britain, baron in 1763 and earl in 1766.

Ligoya, Perks M(aster Clemency) (b. 1959), Malawian official. He was governor of the Reserve Bank (2009-12), high commissioner to India and Sri Lanka (2013-15) and Kenya (2015-16), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2018-21).

Liikanen, Erkki (Antero) (b. Sept. 19, 1950, Mikkeli, Finland), finance minister of Finland (1987-90). He was also EU commissioner for budget, personnel, and administration (1995-99) and enterprise and information society (1999-2004) and governor of the Bank of Finland (2004-18).

Liimets, Eva-Maria (b. May 31, 1974, Tallinn, Estonian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Estonia (2021-22).

Liinamaa, Keijo (Antero) (b. April 6, 1929, Mänttä, Finland - d. June 28, 1980, Helsinki, Finland), prime minister of Finland (1975). He was also minister of justice (1970) and labour (1971-72).

Likomidov, Aleksandr (Fyodorovich) (b. 1907, Saratov, Russia - d. ...), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Kalmyk A.S.S.R. (1943).

Likulia Bolongo (Lingbangi), (Norbert) (b. July 8, 1939, Basoko, Orientale province, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)]), prime minister of Zaire (1997). General Likulia, Pres. Mobutu Sese Seko's army chief of staff, was defense minister and deputy prime minister in the government of Kengo wa Dondo, who resigned as prime minister March 24, 1997. Likulia was from Mobutu's home district. Mobutu named Likulia prime minister on April 9, 1997, after firing Étienne Tshisekedi, but a month later he lost power along with Mobutu as the rebel troops of Laurent Kabila reached Kinshasa. He then went into exile in France, but returned in 1999. He served as enterprises minister in 2000-01 and was a presidential candidate in 2006 (winning 0.5% of the vote).

Lilaar, Franciscus Gerardus Reinierdus Hubertus van (b. Nov. 9, 1823, Amersfoort, Netherlands - d. April 23, 1889, The Hague, Netherlands), justice minister of the Netherlands (1868-71). He was also minister of affairs of Roman Catholic worship (1868).

Lilar, Albert (Jean Julien François), baron (b. Dec. 21, 1900, Antwerp, Belgium - d. March 16, 1976), justice minister (1946-47, 1949-50, 1954-58, 1960-61) and deputy prime minister (1958-60) of Belgium. He was created baron in 1976.

Lilic, Zoran (b. Aug. 27, 1953, Brza Palanka, near Kladovo, eastern Serbia), president of Yugoslavia (1993-97). He was also chairman of the National Assembly of Serbia (1993) and deputy prime minister of Yugoslavia (1997-99).

Lilienfeld-Toal, Anatoly (Pavlovich), German Anatole Charles Maurice von Lilienfeld-Toal (Toal added in 1883) (b. Oct. 25, 1865, St. Petersburg, Russia - d. Nov. 11, 1931, Kiel, Germany), governor of Penza (1910-14); son of Pavel Lilienfeld-Toal.

Lilienfeld-Toal, Pavel (Fyodorovich), German Paul Frommhold Ignatius von Lilienfeld-Toal (Toal added in 1883) (b. Jan. 29, 1829, Bialystok, Russia [now in Poland] - d. Jan. 11, 1903, St. Petersburg, Russia), governor of Courland (1868-85).

Lilienthal, David E(li) (b. July 8, 1899, Morton, Ill. - d. Jan. 15, 1981, New York City), U.S. official; chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority (1941-46) and of the Atomic Energy Commission (1946-50).

Liliuokalani (Hawaiian Lili`u-o-kalani), original name Lydia Kamakaeha (Lydia Kamaka`eha), also called Lydia Paki Liliuokalani (she was nominally adopted by Abner and Konia Paki - the latter a granddaughter of Kamehameha I - immediately after birth), or Liliu Kamakaeha (b. Sept. 2, 1838, Honolulu, Hawaii [now in U.S.] - d. Nov. 11, 1917, Honolulu), queen of Hawaii (1891-93). Her mother, Keohokalole, was an adviser of Kamehameha III. In 1862 she married an American, John Owen Dominis (1832-1891). At the death of her younger brother Prince Regent William P. Leleiohoku in 1877, she was named heir presumptive, and in 1891 she succeeded her older brother, David Kalakaua, on the throne, becoming the first reigning queen of Hawaii. She opposed the Reciprocity Treaty of 1887, signed by Kalakaua, which granted privileged commercial concessions to the United States and ceded to them the port of Pearl Harbor. This alienated her from Hawaii's haole (foreign businessmen) who tried to abrogate her authority, while she tried to introduce a new constitution disenfranchising the foreigners and restoring the political power of native Hawaiians. Led by Sanford Ballard Dole, the "missionary party" declared the queen deposed in January 1893 and established a provisional government pending annexation by the United States. To avoid bloodshed, Liliuokalani surrendered, but she appealed to U.S. president Grover Cleveland to reinstate her. Cleveland ordered the queen restored, but Dole defied the order, and when a Republic of Hawaii was proclaimed in 1894, the U.S. soon recognized it. In 1895 an insurrection in the queen's name, led by Robert Wilcox, was suppressed by Dole's group, and she was kept under house arrest on charges of treason. On Jan. 24, 1895, to save the lives of her supporters who had been jailed following the revolt, she agreed to sign a formal abdication. She fought bitterly against annexation, which nonetheless occurred in 1898.

Liljencrantz, Gustaf Fredrik greve, byname Gösta Liljencrantz (b. Nov. 7, 1801, Björklinge socken [now part of Uppsala municipality], Uppsala, Sweden - d. March 8, 1869, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Stockholm (1849-67); son of Johan Wilhelm greve Liljencrantz. He was friherre (baron) before succeeding as greve (count) in 1816.

Liljencrantz, Johan Wilhelm greve (b. May 9, 1768, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Oct. 25, 1816, Västerås, Västmanland, Sweden), governor of Västmanland (1811-16). He was friherre (baron) before succeeding as greve (count) in 1815.

Lill, Paul-Adolf (b. Jan. 25, 1882, Jõgeveste parish, Valga county, Russia [now in Estonia] - d. March 13, 1942, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), defense minister of Estonia (1933-39).

Lilley, George L(eavens) (b. Aug. 3, 1859, Oxford, Mass. - d. April 21, 1909, Hartford, Conn.), governor of Connecticut (1909).

Lilliehorn, (Johan) Fredrik friherre (b. July 24, 1745, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Aug. 27, 1811, Västerås, Västmanland, Sweden), governor of Älvsborg (1785-1809) and Västmanland (1809-11). He was made friherre (baron) in 1800.

Lillienberg, Johan Georg greve (b. Aug. 14 [Aug. 3, O.S.], 1713, Bolmsö socken, Jönköping, Sweden - d. April 26, 1798, Toresund socken, Södermanland, Sweden), governor of Åbo och Björneborg (1749-57) and Uppsala (1757-62). He was made friherre (baron) in 1766 and greve (count) in 1778.

Lillienstedt, Johan friherre, original surname Paulinus (b. June 14, 1655, Björneborg [now Pori], Finland - d. Sept. 26, 1732, Divitz, Sweden [now part of Divitz-Spoldershagen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany]), governor of Östergötland (1710-14). He was ennobled under the name Lillienstedt in 1690 and made friherre (baron) in 1713.


Lillikas, Giorgos, English George Lillikas (b. June 1, 1960, Panagia, Paphos, Cyprus), foreign minister of Cyprus (2006-07). He was minister of commerce, industry, and tourism in 2003-06 and a presidential candidate in 2013 and 2018.

Lillo (Robles), Eusebio (b. Aug. 14, 1826, Santiago, Chile - d. July 8, 1910, Santiago), interior minister of Chile (1886). He was also mayor of Santiago (1875-76) and intendant of Curicó (1876-77). As a poet he was the author of the lyrics of the Chilean national anthem.

Lilo, Gordon Darcy (b. Aug. 28, 1965), finance minister (2006-07, 2010-11) and prime minister (2011-14) of the Solomon Islands. He was also minister of national planning and aid coordination (2006), justice (2007), and environment (2007-10).

Lilov, Aleksandur (Vasilev) (b. Aug. 31, 1933, Granichak, Bulgaria - d. July 20, 2013), Bulgarian politician. From the beginning of the 1960s, he began his career in the Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP). He was a secretary of the Central Committee from 1972 to 1983. In 1974 he was elected to the Politburo, and from that point on, he was known as the party's chief ideologist. After Lyudmila Zhivkova's death in 1981, Lilov was removed from the Politburo. This was primarily because of his liberal and reformist views. At the Fourteenth Congress of the BCP in February 1990, Lilov was elected general secretary of the party, which in April was renamed Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP). Lilov wanted the unity of the BSP, so that it could remain in power, but this was criticized by strict reformists. His main opponent was Andrey Lukanov. In December 1991 Lilov was replaced as BSP chairman by Zhan Videnov.

A. Lim
Lim, Alfredo (Siojo) (b. Dec. 21, 1929, Tondo district, Manila, Philippines - d. Aug. 8, 2020, Manila), Philippine politician. He rose in the police force to become the director of the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI). When underdog Lim overcame the odds against him to beat six opponents in Manila's March 1992 mayoral election, he faced a daunting mandate: to clean up the streets of the wayward capital. Lim, the most heavily decorated police officer in Manila's history, promised to do his best to eradicate crime, smut, and corruption from the city. After his election, the controversial mayor came to be viewed as a restorer of peace and justice but also as a strong-arm enforcer who waged vendettas to achieve his goals. Lim carried his reputation for discipline and swift retribution into the mayor's office; jaywalkers commonly stood in cages on the side of the street for up to two hours, as did offenders of the city's new antilittering and antismoking laws. Lim declared bars, nightclubs, massage parlours, and "love motels" illegal and gave owners a June 30, 1993, deadline to leave the city. While many relocated outside city limits, others stood their ground, and some 250 owners of the businesses that Lim had closed filed lawsuits and obtained restraining orders. In addition to tough antilittering laws and community street washings, Lim requested every homemaker and storekeeper to plant a tree. To solve the problem of traffic congestion, he banned provincial buses from the city. He also favoured penalizing the city's 400,000 squatters, saying, "Slums are not necessarily the result of poverty, but the offshoot of laxity in law enforcement." When asked if he would run for president in 1998, Lim replied, "All I want is to rescue Manila from decay, and then retire." He did run in the election, but received only 7.4% of the vote. He became secretary of interior and local government (2000-01) and a senator (2004-07) before being again elected mayor of Manila (2007-13). Both in the 1998 presidential and in the 2013 and 2016 mayoral elections, he was defeated by Joseph Estrada.

Lim Chang Yong, also called Channing Liem (b. Oct. 30, 1909, Ulyul, Korea [now in North Korea] - d. Jan. 24, 1996, Berkeley, Calif.), South Korean diplomat. He was permanent observer to the United Nations (1960-61).

Lim Chong Eu
Lim Chong Eu, Tun, Pinyin Lin Cangyou (b. May 28, 1919, Penang, Straits Settlements [now in Malaysia] - d. Nov. 24, 2010, Tanjong Bungah, Penang), chief minister of Penang (1969-90). He received the titles Dato' Seri (November 1990), Tun (June 5, 1991), and Datuk Amar (Sept. 9, 1995).

Lim Guan Eng, Pinyin Lin Guanying (b. Dec. 8, 1960, Johor Bahru, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), chief minister of Penang (2008-18) and finance minister of Malaysia (2018-20).

Lim Jock Hoi
Lim Jock Hoi, Dato Paduka (b. Dec. 5, 1951), secretary-general of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (2018-23).

Lim Kim San, Pinyin Lin Jinshan (b. Nov. 30, 1916, Singapore - d. July 20, 2006, Singapore), Singaporean politician. He was best known for his role in providing low-cost housing for thousands of Singaporeans after he became chairman of the Housing Board in 1960. Having refused in 1959, he was persuaded to stand for elections in 1963. He then served as minister of national development (1963-65, 1975-79), finance (1965-67), interior and defense (1967-70), education (1970-72), environment (1972-75, 1979-81), and communications (1975-78). He left politics in 1981, but remained active in public life, among other things as chairman of the Port of Singapore Authority (1979-94).

Lim Pyong Jik, also known as Ben C. Limb (b. Oct. 26, 1893, Seoul, Korea [now in South Korea] - d. Sept. 21, 1976, Seoul), foreign minister of South Korea (1949-51). He was also permanent observer to the United Nations (1951-60).

Lim Yew Hock
Lim Yew Hock, Tun, Pinyin Lin Youfu (b. 1914, Singapore - d. Nov. 30, 1984, Saudi Arabia), chief minister of Singapore (1956-59). He became a trade union representative in a Singapore trade union legislative council. In 1955 he became a minister under David Saul Marshall, succeeding him as chief minister when Marshall resigned after having failed to win full independence from the British. Lim Yew Hock attended the Singapore constitutional conference at Lancaster House in London (1957), at which self-government was conceded. He suppressed Communist and anti-British movements in Singapore. In 1959 his Singapore People's Alliance was defeated at the polls by Lee Kuan Yew's People's Action Party. Lim retired from politics in 1963. Sent as high commissioner to Australia for the Federation of Malaysia (to which Singapore belonged, 1963-65), he was recalled in 1965 following a scandal. Subsequently a convert to Islam, he moved to Jidda and had associations with the World Islamic Development Bank.

Lima, Affonso Peixoto de Abreu (b. 1847, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Nov. 16, 1935, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Espírito Santo (1877-78).

Lima, Afonso Augusto de Albuquerque (b. Aug. 22, 1909, Fortaleza, Brazil - d. April 26, 1981, aboard plane between Recife and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), interior minister of Brazil (1967-69).

Lima, Alexandre José Barbosa (b. March 23, 1862, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. Jan. 9, 1931, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Pernambuco (1892-96).

Lima, Alexandre José Barbosa, Sobrinho (b. Jan. 22, 1897, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. July 16, 2000, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Pernambuco (1948-51); nephew of Alexandre José Barbosa Lima.

Lima, Alvaro Moreira de Barros Oliveira (b. 18... - d. October 1909, Belo Horizonte, Brazil), governor of Piauí (1890-91).

Lima, Alvaro Tiberio de Moncorvo (b. Feb. 16, 1816, Cachoeira, Bahia, Brazil - d. Dec. 17, 1868, Salvador, Bahia), president of Bahia (1855-56).

Lima, André Cordeiro de Araujo (b. Jan. 19, 1833, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Aug. 25, 1894, Rio de Janeiro), president of Santa Catarina (1870).

Lima, Antonio Augusto de (b. April 5, 1859, Congonhas de Sabará [now Nova Lima], Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. April 22, 1934, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Minas Gerais (1891). He was also president of the Brazilian Academy of Letters (1928).

Lima, Antonio Pedro Monteiro (b. Jan. 5, 1948, Dakar, Senegal), Cape Verdean diplomat. He was ambassador to Algeria (1982-90) and Guinea-Bissau (1983-90) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2007-14).

Lima, Arthur Paredes Cunha (b. Dec. 19, 1949, Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil), acting governor of Paraíba (2009).

Lima, (Aristóteles) Bayard Lucas de (b. May 18, 1906, Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. Dec. 11, 1995, Brasília, Brazil), prefect of Distrito Federal (1961).

Lima, Bento Corrêa, acting president of Paraíba (1834, 1835).

C.R. Lima

H. Lima
Lima, Cássio Rodrigues da Cunha (b. April 5, 1963, Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil), governor of Paraíba (2003-09); son of Ronaldo José da Cunha Lima; cousin of Arthur Paredes Cunha Lima. He was also mayor of Campina Grande (1989-93, 1997-2002).

Lima, Eitel (Pinheiro) de Oliveira (b. Aug. 22, 1908, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. April 14, 1987, Rio de Janeiro), acting prefect of Distrito Federal (1955).

Lima, Filipe Moreira (b. May 20, 1880, Serrinha [now part of Cruz do Espírito Santo], Paraíba, Brazil - d. Oct. 4, 1960, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), federal interventor in Ceará (1934-35).

Lima, Floriano Peixoto Faria (b. Nov. 15, 1917, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. July 9, 2011, Rio de Janeiro), governor of Rio de Janeiro (1975-79). He was also president of Petrobras (1973-74).

Lima, Francisco de Araujo (d. July 29, 1877), president of Paraíba (1861-64).

Lima, Francisco Negrão de (b. Aug. 24, 1901, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. Oct. 26, 1981, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), justice and interior minister (1951-53) and foreign minister (1958-59) of Brazil, prefect of Distrito Federal (1956-58), and governor of Guanabara (1965-71). He was also ambassador to Venezuela (1941-42), Paraguay (1942-46), Belgium (1947), and Portugal (1959-63).

Lima, Francisco Roberto (b. Feb. 13, 1917), vice president of El Salvador (1962-67). He was also ambassador to the United States (1961-64).

Lima, Hermes (b. Dec. 22, 1902, Livramento do Brumado, Bahia, Brazil - d. Oct. 1, 1978, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), prime minister and foreign minister of Brazil (1962-63). He was also minister of labour (1962).

Lima, Jackson Barreto de (b. May 6, 1944, Santa Rosa de Lima, Sergipe, Brazil), governor of Sergipe (2013-18). He was also mayor of Aracaju (1986-88, 1993-94).

Lima, João da Matta Corrêa (b. Feb. 8, 1830, Paraíba [now João Pessoa], Paraíba, Brazil - d. May 8, 1877, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil), acting president of Paraíba (1877).

Lima, Joaquim de Araújo (b. 1905, Catu, Bahia, Brazil - d. August 1967, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Guaporé (1948-51).

Lima, Joaquim Ignacio de, governor of Angola (1821-22).

Lima, Joaquim Manuel Rodrigues (b. May 4, 1845, Caetité, Bahia, Brazil - d. Dec. 18, 1903, Caetité), governor of Bahia (1892-96).

Lima, José Cerqueira de Aguiar (b. March 6, 1828, Vitória parish, São Salvador da Bahia [now Salvador], Brazil - d. Dec. 20, 1898, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting governor of Pernambuco (1889) and governor of Paraná (1890-91).

Lima, José Fernandes de (b. June 11, 1912, Mamanguape, Paraíba, Brazil - d. Nov. 9, 1999, João Pessoa, Paraíba), governor of Paraíba (1960-61).

Lima, José Fernandes de Barros (b. Aug. 21, 1868, Passo de Camaragibe, Alagoas, Brazil - d. May 16, 1938, Maceió, Alagoas), governor of Alagoas (1918-21, 1921-24).

Lima, José Manoel de, president of Espírito Santo (1841-42).

Lima, Manoel Ildefonso de Souza (b. 1831, Príncipe Imperial, Piauí [now Crateús, Ceará], Brazil - d. 1897, Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil), acting president of Piauí (1879-80, 1880, 1881-82, 1883, 1884, 1885).

Lima, Miguel da Rocha (b. Aug. 12, 1868, Goiás, Goiás, Brazil - d. July 14, 1935, Goiás, Goiás), president of Goiás (1905-09 and [acting] 1922-25).

Lima, Milton (b. Nov. 5, 1920, Belém, Pará, Brazil), governor of Rondônia (1962).

Lima, Noraldino (b. Jan. 12, 1885, São Sebastião do Paraíso, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. Nov. 30, 1951, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), federal interventor in Minas Gerais (1946).

Lima, Octávio Júlio Moreira (b. Aug. 11, 1926, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. May 23, 2011, Rio de Janeiro), Brazilian politician; son of Filipe Moreira Lima; nephew of Ângelo Mendes de Morais. He was minister of aeronautics (1985-90).

Lima, Orestes da Rocha (b. Dec. 15, 1893 - d. Dec. 24?, 1966), federal interventor in Rio Grande do Norte (1947).

Lima, Raymundo Braulio Pires (b. Jan. 23, 1845, Maranhão province [now state], Brazil - d. Nov. 7, 1901, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting president of Sergipe (1878-79).

Lima, Raymundo Ferreira de Araujo (b. June 23, 1818, Lavras da Mangabeira, Ceará, Brazil - d. Nov. 21, 1908, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), war minister of Brazil (1870-71).

R.J. Lima
Lima, Ronaldo José da Cunha (b. March 18, 1936, Guarabira, Paraíba, Brazil - d. July 7, 2012, João Pessoa, Paraíba), governor of Paraíba (1991-94). He was also mayor of Campina Grande (1969, 1983-88).

Lima, Salathiel Simões de (b. 1859 - d. Aug. 5, 1934), acting president of Goiás (1914-17).

Lima, Sebastião Nogueira de (b. Nov. 3, 1880, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil - d. Aug. 2, 1964, São Paulo, Brazil), federal interventor in São Paulo (1945).

Lima, Valdomiro Castilho de (b. Jan. 15, 1873, São Borja, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. Feb. 12, 1938, Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), military governor (1932-33) and federal interventor (1933) of São Paulo.

Lima, Vicente Machado da Silva (b. Aug. 9, 1860, Castro, São Paulo [now in Paraná], Brazil - d. March 3, 1907, Curitiba, Paraná), acting governor (1893-94, 1894) and acting president (1904-06) of Paraná.

Lima, Wilson (Ferreira de) (b. June 20, 1953, Ceres, Goiás, Brazil), acting governor of Distrito Federal (2010).

Lima, Wilson Miranda (b. June 26, 1976, Santarém, Pará, Brazil), governor of Amazonas (2019- ).

Limann, Hilla, original name Hilla Babini (b. Dec. 12, 1934, Gwellu, Upper Region, Gold Coast [now Ghana] - d. Jan. 23, 1998, Accra, Ghana), president of Ghana (1979-81). He came from the less developed northern part of Ghana. Its people, like his own family, were mostly poor peasant farmers, or they performed menial tasks in the cities. But Limann himself was one of the best-educated men in the country. After a distinguished academic career, he settled for a modest diplomatic post as Ghana's representative in Switzerland. A little-known figure even inside his own country, he emerged in 1979 as the leader of the People's National Party, which won the June elections held shortly after Flight Lt. Jerry John Rawlings and his Armed Forces Revolutionary Council had ousted the previous military government. Limann was inaugurated as president on September 24, ending nearly eight years of military rule. Though strongly influenced as a young man by Ghana's first president, Kwame Nkrumah, and still describing himself as a Nkrumahist, he espoused policies after coming to office that showed him to be moderate rather than militant in his economic ideas. Like Nkrumah, however, he was an ardent pan-African. In his inaugural address he showed himself to be a strong advocate of political tolerance, praising both Nkrumah and those who had been his bitterest critics during the earlier years of Ghana's independence. Limann established his first priorities as restoring Ghana's economic fortunes and, in his own words, to "cleanse" the country's public life. "Mine is a vision," he said, "of Ghana in which the majority of our people shall not be reduced to grinding poverty again." In 1981, however, Rawlings staged another coup and unseated Limann. When Limann ran for president again in 1992, he lost to Rawlings.

Limarenko, Valery (Igorevich) (b. Oct. 19, 1960, Kharkov, Ukrainian S.S.R.), governor of Sakhalin oblast (2018- ).

Limbaya Mbangisa, César (b. Dec. 30, 1973, Pembe, Zaire [now in Congo (Kinshasa)]), governor of Mongala (2022-24).

Limboo, Sanchaman (b. Jan. 15, 1949, Hee Yangthang, Gyalshing, West Sikkim district, Sikkim [now in India] - d. Nov. 8, 2020, Gangtok, Sikkim), chief minister of Sikkim (1994).

Limburg-Stirum, Friedrich (Wilhelm) Graf zu (b. Aug. 6, 1835, The Hague, Netherlands - d. Sept. 27, 1912, Gross-Peterwitz, Prussia [now part of Kostomloty, Poland]), acting foreign minister of Germany (1880-81).

Limburg Stirum, Johan Paul graaf van (b. Feb. 2, 1873, Zwolle, Netherlands - d. April 17, 1948, The Hague, Netherlands), governor-general of the Netherlands East Indies (1916-21). He was also Dutch chargé d'affaires in the Ottoman Empire (1907-09) and minister to Sweden, Denmark, and Norway (1914-16), Egypt (1922-24), Germany (1927-37), and the United Kingdom (1937-39).

Limburg Stirum, Leopold graaf van (b. March 12, 1758, Hoogeveen, Drenthe, Netherlands - d. June 25, 1840, The Hague, Netherlands), acting war minister of the Netherlands (1813).

Limburg Stirum, Louis Gaspard Adrien graaf van (b. Jan. 10, 1802, Groningen, Batavian Republic [now Netherlands] - d. Aug. 30, 1884, Arnhem, Netherlands), king's commissioner of Groningen (1850-53) and Gelderland (1853-80). He was also chairman of the First Chamber (1849-50).

Limburg Stirum, Menno David graaf van (b. Nov. 30, 1807, Wexford, Ireland - d. July 22, 1891, The Hague, Netherlands), war minister of the Netherlands (1872-73).

Limon, Ewald Wensley (b. Oct. 11, 1953, Paramaribo, Suriname), Surinamese diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2003-07).

Limón Muñoz, José de Jesús (b. May 23, 1918 - d. March 25, 1985), interim governor of Jalisco (1964-65).

Limón Rojas, Miguel (b. Dec. 17, 1943, Mexico City, Mexico), Mexican politician. He was minister of agrarian reform (1994-95) and education (1995-2000).

Limpo, Syahrul Yasin (b. March 16, 1955, Makassar, Sulawesi [now in Sulawesi Selatan], Indonesia), governor of Sulawesi Selatan (2008-18). He has also been agriculture minister of Indonesia (2019- ).

D.Y.L. Lin
Lin, David Y.L. (Lin Yung-lo) (b. March 10, 1950), foreign minister of Taiwan (2012-16). He was also ambassador to Grenada and to Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1997-2001).

Lin Baoyi (b. 1863, Fuzhou, Fujian, China - d. 1927), Chinese navy commander. He entered the Navy College of Fuzhou (set up by Li Hongzhang) and then was sent abroad to the United Kingdom. Having returned to China, which was still ruled by the emperor, he was made a general of the navy. He was named a senior advisor of the navy upon the founding of the republic and continued his career as a commander. In 1917, after the abortive restoration of the Qing dynasty, Premier Duan Qirui refused to validate the constitution. Lin, as well as another navy general, Cheng Biguang, led their ships southward to the "constitutional government" led by Sun Yat-sen. In the south, he became the commander-in-chief of the navy and also the minister of navy in the cabinet. In August 1920, he stood by Guangxi's side, supporting its army in the battle against rebellious Guangdong, but failed.

Lin Biao
Lin Biao (Wade-Giles romanization Lin Piao), original name Lin Yurong (b. Dec. 5, 1907, Huanggang, Hubei province, China - d. Sept. 13, 1971?, Mongolia?), Chinese political figure. In 1925 he joined the Socialist Youth League and also enrolled in the Whampoa Academy, beginning his military career. Lin quickly demonstrated his military prowess. But when Chiang Kai-shek turned savagely against his Communist allies in 1927, Lin fled with the Communists. In the spring of 1928, he joined Mao Zedong in the hills of south-central China and established himself at once as one of the ablest and most active commanders in Mao's small but growing Red Army. In 1945, he was elected for the first time to the Communist Party's Central Committee. By the end of 1948, he had captured all of Manchuria, ensuring the rapid collapse of Chiang's Nationalists in the rest of China. In the People's Republic, Lin was appointed to many high posts in the government and the party. In 1954, he was named a vice premier. In 1955 he was elevated to the Politburo and in May 1958 to its Standing Committee. In September 1959 he succeeded Peng Dehuai as defense minister. In August 1966 Lin replaced Liu Shaoqi as the future successor to Mao; this position was formalized in April 1969, when Lin was so designated by the new constitution. Lin and the army amassed great political authority. In 1972 the Chinese government announced that Lin was killed in an airplane crash in Mongolia in 1971 as he was fleeing to the Soviet Union after having plotted unsuccessfully to assassinate Mao. Speculation that Lin was in fact assassinated by the Chinese leadership was reinforced in 1990 when Mongolian officials cast doubt on the Chinese government's claim that Lin had been among those killed in the 1971 airplane crash.

Lin Chia-lung (b. Feb. 13, 1964, Taipei, Taiwan), foreign minister of Taiwan (2024- ). He was also director-general of the Government Information Office (2004-05), secretary-general of the Democratic Progressive Party (2006-07), mayor of Taichung (2014-18), minister of transportation and communications (2019-21), and secretary-general to the president (2023-24).

Lin Chin-sheng (b. Aug. 4, 1916, Chiayi, Taiwan), interior minister of Taiwan (1972-76). He was also minister of communications (1976-81) and minister without portfolio (1981-84).

Lin Chuan
Lin Chuan (b. Dec. 13, 1951, Kaohsiung, Taiwan), finance minister (2002-06) and premier (2016-17) of Taiwan.

Lin Hu (b. 1887, Luchuan, Guangxi, China - d. February 1960), military governor of Guangdong (1924-25). Having joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance (which became the Kuomintang) in 1906, he became a brigade commander in the army upon the founding of the republic. He joined the "Second Revolution" against Yuan Shikai in 1913, serving as left wing commander. Lin fled to Japan upon the failure of the revolution and joined the Chinese Revolutionary Party (as the Kuomintang was dissolved by Yuan Shikai). After that, Lin went south and stood by Sun Yat-sen's side until 1922, when he turned to Chen Jiongming. He fled to Shanghai after Chen was defeated in 1925. He became a member of the Legislative Yuan (parliament) after World War II, and was elected vice-chairman of the Guangxi Provincial Political Consultative Conference after the Communist victory in the civil war. He was also a member of the Standing Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.

Lin Junting (b. 1876, Fangcheng [now Fangchenggang], Guangxi, China - d. 1933), governor of Guangxi (1923-24). He was a bandit gang member before turning to Gen. Lu Rongting. He was appointed commander of the 2nd Army of Guangxi upon the birth of the republic. In the 1920s, Guangxi, following other southern provinces, declared autonomy from the Beijing government; Lin was named the commander-in-chief of the Guangxi Autonomous Army. Lin turned to Sun Yat-sen in 1923; the latter appointed him as the military magistrate of 8 counties in Guangdong province (mainly in southwestern Guangdong, as well as Hainan island). But in August 1924, Lin's forces were unexpectedly assaulted by north-supporting Gen. Deng Benying and lost his original defense area. In the spring of 1925, he led his army back and occupied Nanning, the capital of Guangxi. He was defeated by Gen. Li Zongren in July that year, and then fled out of Guangxi.

Lin Kuang-hua (Wade-Giles), sometimes also Lin Kwang-hua, Pinyin Lin Guanghua (b. Oct. 25, 1945), governor of Taiwan province (2003-06).

Lin Sen
Lin Sen (b. Feb. 11, 1867, Fuzhou, Fujian, China - d. Aug. 1, 1943, Chongqing, China), civil governor of Fujian (1922-23) and chairman of the National Government of China (1931-43). He joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance in 1905 and was elected speaker of the Nanjing Provisional Senate upon the founding of the republic. After that Senate was replaced, as the capital moved to Beijing, Lin was nominated as the secretary-general of the Kuomintang American General Branch. In 1917, he joined Sun Yat-sen's southern government, taking up the foreign ministry, and then being promoted to speaker of the Constitutional Congress. After Chiang Kai-shek took power, he became vice president of the Legislative Yuan and succeeded as that body's president upon the resignation of Hu Hanmin in March 1931. Within a few months the strange workings of an internal political scheme precipitated him into the post of president of the National Government; the substance of power remained in the hands of Chiang Kai-shek. When the Japanese advanced upon Nanjing in November 1937, Lin formally established China's new capital at the far-inland city of Chongqing; he spurned offers of becoming president of a Japanese puppet regime established at Nanjing in 1940. He died in office.

Lin Shusen (b. December 1946, Shantou, Guangdong, China), governor of Guizhou (2006-10). He was mayor of Guangzhou from March 1997 to February 2003.

Lin Yang-kang (b. June 10, 1927, Nantou county, Taiwan - d. April 13, 2013, Taichung, Taiwan), governor of Taiwan province (1978-81) and interior minister of Taiwan (1981-84). He was also mayor of Taipei (1976-78), vice-premier (1984-87), and a presidential candidate (1996).

Lin Yungai (b. 1884, Xinyi, Guangdong, China - d. October 1948, Guangzhou, Guangdong), chairman of the government of Guangdong (1932-36). He participated in the revolution in 1911 and was nominated governor of Gao-Lei region (now in southwestern Guangdong, mainly the Leizhou peninsula, off the coast of which lies Hainan island). After a period studying abroad in the U.S., he became a secretary of Sun Yat-sen in 1920. He was named chairman of Guangdong in 1932, also serving as head of the Financial Bureau and the Construction Bureau. He was also mayor of Guangzhou city.

Lina, Jose (David), also called Jose Lina, Jr., byname Joey Lina (b. Dec. 22, 1951, Victoria, Laguna, Philippines), interior secretary of the Philippines (2001-04). He was also governor of Metro Manila (acting, 1986-87) and Laguna (1995-2001).

Linares (y de Lizarazu Beaumont y Navarra), José María (de) (b. July 10, 1808, Ticala, Viceroyalty of La Plata [now in Potosí department, Bolivia] - d. Oct. 6, 1861, Valparaíso, Chile), foreign minister (1839-41) and provisional president (1857-61) of Bolivia. He was also minister to Spain (1845-47).

Linares (Gutiérrez), Julio (Enrique) (b. Aug. 7, 1930, Panama City, Panama - d. Oct. 27, 1993, New York City), finance minister (1963-64) and foreign minister (1989-93) of Panama.

Linares Brum, Hugo (b. July 30, 1921 - d. Feb. 23, 2008), interior minister of Uruguay (1974-79, 1983-84).

A. Lincoln
Lincoln, Abraham, byname Honest Abe, the Rail-splitter, or the Great Emancipator (b. Feb. 12, 1809, near Hodgenville, Ky. - d. April 15, 1865, Washington, D.C.), president of the United States (1861-65). As a Whig, he was elected four times from 1834 to 1840 to the Illinois state legislature and served one term in Congress (1847-49). In 1854 his political rival Stephen A. Douglas manoeuvred through Congress a bill for reopening the entire Louisiana Purchase to slavery and allowing the settlers of Kansas and Nebraska to decide for themselves whether to permit slaveholding in those territories. The Kansas-Nebraska Act provoked violent opposition in Illinois and the other states of the old Northwest. It gave rise to the Republican Party while speeding the Whig Party on the way to disintegration. Along with thousands of other homeless Whigs, Lincoln soon became a Republican (1856). He gained national recognition and soon began to be mentioned as a presidential prospect for 1860. On May 18, 1860, he won the Republican nomination and, though winning no more than 40% of the popular vote on November 6, he won a clear majority in the electoral college. In early 1861 (before his inauguration in March) several southern states seceded and formed the Confederate States of America. On April 12, civil war broke out. He issued the Emancipation Proclamation (Jan. 1, 1863) and played a large part in bringing about the Thirteenth Amendment, finally abolishing slavery. He was reelected in 1864 with a large popular majority (55%). The civil war effectively ended on April 9, 1865, with the surrender of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee. On the evening of April 14, John Wilkes Booth shot Lincoln as he sat in Ford's Theatre in Washington. He died early the next morning.

B. Lincoln
Lincoln, Benjamin (b. Jan. 24, 1733, Hingham, Mass. - d. May 9, 1810, Boston, Mass., U.S.), U.S. political figure. He held local offices and was a member of the Massachusetts militia (1755-76). During the Seven Years' War (1756-63), he did not volunteer to take part in the fighting, but was involved in recruitment, training, and supplying and by the end of the war had reached the rank of major. In 1774 he was elected to the General Court of Massachusetts, which was quickly dissolved by Gov. Thomas Gage, whereupon the members declared themselves a Provincial Congress, with Lincoln appointed secretary and becoming member of important committees. In July 1775 the Congress was replaced by a House of Representatives, to which he was also elected. In February 1776 he was appointed major general and in September commander of a 5,000-man force seconded to Washington by Massachusetts. In February 1777 he was appointed a major general in the Continental army. In October 1778 he was placed in command of Continental forces in the South. He rendered distinguished service in the northern campaigns early in the war, but was forced to surrender with about 7,000 troops at Charleston, S.C., May 12, 1780. He was widely criticized for this defeat, but no formal action was taken against him. A prisoner exchange in November 1780 enabled him to return to active duty, and he participated in the Yorktown campaign in 1781, then served the Continental Congress as "secretary at war" (1781-83). Shays' Rebellion in western Massachusetts, which began in 1786 over high debts and heavy taxes, was quelled in February 1787 by militiamen led by Lincoln. He was elected lieutenant governor of Massachusetts (1788-89) and was collector for the port of Boston (1789-1809).

Lincoln, Enoch (b. Dec. 28, 1788, Worcester, Mass. - d. Oct. 8, 1829, Augusta, Maine), governor of Maine (1827-29); son of Levi Lincoln.

Lincoln, Levi (b. May 15, 1749, Hingham, Massachusetts Bay [now Mass.] - d. April 14, 1820, Worcester, Mass.), U.S. attorney general (1801-04) and acting governor of Massachusetts (1808-09).

Lincoln, Levi, Jr. (b. Oct. 25, 1782, Worcester, Mass. - d. May 29, 1868, Worcester), governor of Massachusetts (1825-34); son of Levi Lincoln.

Lincoln, Robert T(odd) (b. Aug. 1, 1843, Springfield, Ill. - d. July 26, 1926, Manchester, Vt.), U.S. secretary of war (1881-85); son of Abraham Lincoln; son-in-law of James Harlan. He was also minister to the United Kingdom (1889-93).

Lincolnshire, Charles Robert Wynn-Carrington, (1st) Marquess of (b. May 16, 1843, London, England - d. June 13, 1928, High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, England), governor of New South Wales (1885-90). He was also British lord chamberlain (1892-95), president of the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries (1905-11), and lord privy seal (1911-12). He succeeded as (3rd) Baron Carrington in 1868 and was created Earl Carrington in 1895 and Marquess of Lincolnshire in 1912.

Lind, John (b. March 25, 1854, Kånna socken [now part of Ljungby municipality], Kronoberg, Sweden - d. Sept. 18, 1930, Minneapolis, Minn.), governor of Minnesota (1899-1901).

Lind, (Bertha Frederikke) Nathalie (b. Oct. 1, 1918, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. Jan. 11, 1999, Frederiksberg, Denmark), justice minister of Denmark (1973-75, 1978-79). She was also minister of social affairs (1968-71) and cultural affairs (1973-75).

Lindberg, Elof (Herman) (b. July 16, 1891, Nederkalix, Norrbotten, Sweden - d. Nov. 10, 1957, Umeå, Västerbotten, Sweden), governor of Västerbotten (1943-56).

Lindboe, Asbjørn (b. June 19, 1889, Trondhjem [now Trondheim], Norway - d. March 8, 1967), justice minister of Norway (1931-33) and governor of Nord-Trøndelag (1945-59).

Lindcreutz, Albrecht, original surname Lindberg (b. Sept. 5, 1674, Södertälje, Uppland [now in Stockholm county], Sweden - d. Oct. 13, 1744, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Kopparberg (1739-42). He was ennobled under the name Lindcreutz in 1719.

A. Linde
Linde, Ann (Christin) (b. Dec. 4, 1961, Hälsingborg, Malmöhus [now Helsingborg, Skåne], Sweden), foreign minister of Sweden (2019-22). She was also minister of EU affairs and trade (2016-19) and foreign trade and Nordic affairs (2019).

Linde, Hubert Ignacy (b. Nov. 3, 1867, Stanislau, Austria [now Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine] - d. [assassinated] April 17, 1926, Warsaw, Poland), finance minister of Poland (1923). He was also minister of posts and telegraphs (1919).

Lindeberg, Erik (Fredrik Leopold) (b. Aug. 15, 1889, Gävle, Gävleborg, Sweden - d. Oct. 20, 1967, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Blekinge (1942-48).

Lindebrække, Gjert (b. April 25, 1879, Ulvik, Norway - d. Sept. 1, 1960, Bergen, Norway), governor of Hordaland (1934-49).

Lindell, Ingvar (Albert) (b. Aug. 23, 1904, Växjö, Kronoberg, Sweden - d. Feb. 8, 1993), justice minister of Sweden (1957-59) and governor of Halland (1959-71).

Linden, (Pierre) René (Hubert Marie) van der (b. Dec. 14, 1943, Eys, Wittem [now in Gulpen-Wittem] municipality, Limburg, Netherlands), Dutch politician. He was chairman of the First Chamber (2009-11).

Lindenberg, Carlos Fernando Monteiro (b. Jan. 13, 1899, Cachoeiro do Itapemirim, Espírito Santo, Brazil - d. Jan. 6, 1991, Vitória, Espírito Santo), governor of Espírito Santo (1947-51, 1959); nephew of Bernardino de Souza Monteiro and Jeronimo de Souza Monteiro.

Lindencrona, Erik Gustaf (b. Nov. 14, 1738, Ystad, Malmöhus [now in Skåne], Sweden - d. July 21, 1808, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Västernorrland (1796-1807).

Lindencrona, Ulrik Gustaf (b. May 10, 1785, Kinne-Vedum socken, Skaraborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden - d. May 11, 1846, Frankfurt am Main [Germany]), acting governor of Öland (1821-25); son of Erik Gustaf Lindencrona.

Linder, Béla (b. Feb. 10, 1876, Majs, Hungary - d. April 15, 1962, Belgrade, Serbia), defense minister of Hungary (1918). He was also minister without portfolio (1918) and mayor of Pécs (1920-21).

Lindet, (Jean Baptiste) Robert (b. May 2, 1746, Bernay [now in Eure département], France - d. Feb. 16, 1825, Paris, France), president of the National Convention of France (1794).

Lindgren, Sven (Ingemar) (b. Jan. 5, 1946), governor of Kalmar (2002-11).

Lindh, (Ylva) Anna (Maria) (b. June 19, 1957, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Sept. 11, 2003, Solna, Stockholm county, Sweden), Swedish politician; wife of Bo Holmberg. She became a municipal councillor in 1977. In 1982-85 she held a seat in the Riksdag; she was a member of its Standing Committee on Taxation. She was long a rising star in Sweden's main political party, following a traditional career path. From 1984 to 1990 she was president of the Social Democratic Youth League, following in the footsteps of many leading Social Democrats. She was a favourite on Swedish political talk shows, partly because of her appearance and as a representative of young people. She was seen as a consistent, solid performer whose career had no upsets. From 1986 to 1990 she presided over a government council on alcohol and drug policy and from 1987 to 1989 she was vice chairwoman of the International Union of Socialist Youth. In 1991 Lindh graduated to the heavyweight policy-making executive committee of the Social Democrats. She gained her first cabinet post in 1994 when she became minister of the environment. She was named foreign minister in 1998 and came to be seen as the most likely successor to Prime Minister Göran Persson. She was stabbed while shopping at a Stockholm department store on Sept. 10, 2003, and died the next morning. The attack shocked the nation that has prided itself on the accessibility of its politicians. Like many officials, she did not use a bodyguard. The assailant, who initially escaped, turned out to be Mijailo Mijailovic, a Swede of Serbian ancestry who apparently was angered by Lindh's support for the NATO campaign against Serbia in 1999. He was sentenced to life imprisonment in March 2004. An appeals court in July concluded he was mentally ill and he was taken from prison to a closed psychiatric ward, but this decision was overturned by the Supreme Court in December.

Lindhielm, Anders Grelsson friherre, original name Anders Grelsson Lindeberg (b. Sept. 14, 1634, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Sept. 14, 1704, Viborg och Nyslott county, Sweden), governor of Viborg och Nyslott (1689-1704); nephew of Anders Appelbom. He was ennobled under the name Lindhielm in 1666 and made friherre (baron) in 1692.

Lindhielm, Mårten Grelsson friherre, original name Mårten Grelsson Lindeberg (b. September 1638, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Feb. 14, 1720), governor of Nyland och Tavastehus (1695-96) and Jönköping (1696-1716); brother of Anders Grelsson friherre Lindhielm; nephew of Anders Appelbom. He was ennobled under the name Lindhielm in 1669 and made friherre (baron) in 1692.

Lindley López, Nicolás (b. Nov. 16, 1908, Lima, Peru - d. Feb. 3, 1995, Lima), prime minister (1962-63) and junta chairman (1963) of Peru. He was ambassador to Spain in 1964-75.

Lindman, Salomon Arvid Achates (b. Sept. 19, 1862, Österbybruk, Uppsala, Sweden - d. [plane crash] Dec. 9, 1936, near Croydon Aerodrome, Surrey [now part of London], England), prime minister (1906-11, 1928-30) and foreign minister (1917) of Sweden. He was also sea defense minister (1905).

Lindner, Christian (Wolfgang) (b. Jan. 7, 1979, Wuppertal, Nordrhein-Westfalen, West Germany), finance minister of Germany (2021- ). He has also been general secretary (2009-11) and chairman (2013- ) of the Free Democratic Party.

Lindo, Sir (Henry) Laurence (b. Aug. 13, 1911, Port Maria, Jamaica - d. May 8, 1980, London, England), administrator of Dominica (1952-59); knighted 1967. He was also Jamaican high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1962-73) and ambassador to France (1966-72) and West Germany (1967-70).

Lindoso, José Bernardino (b. Aug. 21, 1920, Manicoré, Amazonas, Brazil - d. Jan. 25, 1993, Brasília, Brazil), governor of Amazonas (1979-82).

J.V. Lindsay
Lindsay, John V(liet) (b. Nov. 24, 1921, New York City - d. Dec. 19, 2000, Hilton Head, S.C.), mayor of New York City (1966-74). He was executive assistant to the U.S. attorney general from January 1955 to January 1957. A Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1959, he represented New York's 17th congressional district - known as the "Silk Stocking District" because of its Fifth Avenue and Park Avenue wards. He first ran for mayor of New York City in 1965. His race against Abraham Beame - the city comptroller, and Lindsay's ultimate successor - and William F. Buckley, Jr., caught the city's imagination. Lindsay's charisma and can-do spirit won young activists to his cause, and he captured the endorsement of the then-influential Liberal Party. He lost the Republican primary when he ran for reelection in 1969, but won the general election as the Liberal Party candidate. His outspoken opposition to the Vietnam War lost him his few friends in the Republican Party, and he switched to the Democratic Party in 1971. He was mayor in a restless era when the city faced racial tensions, urban discontent, and debilitating strikes. But in the years when Newark, N.J., Los Angeles, and other cities burned, New York remained relatively untouched, and Lindsay was given credit. He championed programs for the poor and opened satellite offices to work with minority youth. In 1972 he sought the Democratic presidential nomination but mustered little support. Many by then blamed him for the city's fiscal troubles that reared up in the 1970s, saying his liberal policies and use of deficit spending helped send the city to the financial brink. In 1973 Lindsay decided not to seek a third term as mayor. He made an unsuccessful Senate bid in 1980.

Lindsay, Robert B(urns) (b. July 4, 1824, Lochmaben, Dumfriesshire, Scotland - d. Feb. 13, 1902, Tuscumbia, Ala.), governor of Alabama (1870-72); brother-in-law of John A. Winston.

Lindsey, Washington E(llsworth) (b. Dec. 20, 1862, Armstrong, Ohio - d. April 5, 1926, Portales, N.M.), governor of New Mexico (1917-19).

Lindström, Jari (Tapani) (b. June 28, 1965, Kuusankoski [now part of Kouvola], Finland), justice minister of Finland (2015-17). He was also minister of labour (2015-19).

Lindt, Auguste R(udolph) (b. Aug. 5, 1905, Bern, Switzerland - d. April 14, 2000, Bern), UN high commissioner for refugees (1957-60). He served in the Swiss army in 1940-45 and worked for the International Committee of the Red Cross in postwar Berlin (1945-46). He was a permanent observer for neutral Switzerland at the United Nations from 1953 until 1956, and chairman of the UNICEF Executive Board (1953-54), before he was appointed to head the UN refugee agency. He immediately began to mobilize an assistance program for some 200,000 Hungarians who fled to Austria and Yugoslavia to escape Soviet repression. In 1959 he oversaw the agency's involvement in helping more than 260,000 Algerian refugees in Morocco and Tunisia. After his term at UNHCR, Lindt went to Washington as Switzerland's ambassador (1960-62). He later served as ambassador to the Soviet Union and Mongolia (1966-68) and to India and Nepal (1969-70).

Línek, Roman (b. Oct. 6, 1963, Pardubice, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), governor (2000-04) and acting governor (2007-08) of Pardubický kraj.

Linevich, Nikolay (Petrovich) (b. Jan. 5, 1839 [Dec. 24, 1838, O.S.] - d. April 23 [April 10, O.S.], 1908, St. Petersburg, Russia), acting governor-general of Priamurye (1903-04).

Lineweaver, Goodrich W(ilson) (b. Jan. 4, 1887, Harrisonburg, Va. - d. Aug. 8, 1961, Washington, D.C.), acting U.S. commissioner of reclamation (1953).

Linford, Robert James (b. May 26, 1917, Somerset, Tas. - d. March 17, 2007), administrator of the Cocos Islands (1975-77).

Ling Qing (b. April 1, 1923, Beijing, China - d. Sept. 10, 2010, Beijing), Chinese diplomat. He was ambassador to Venezuela (1975-78) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1980-85).

Ling-Stuckey, Ian (b. Dec. 27, 1959), governor of New Ireland (2002-07). He has also been Papua New Guinean minister of mining (1997), public service (1998), industry and commerce (1998-99), treasury (2020-24), and finance and rural development, labour and industrial relations, and immigration and border security (2022) and minister assisting the prime minister (2024- ).

Lingama-Toleque, Christian (b. Sept. 18, 1936, Bangui, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic]), foreign minister of the Central African Republic (1991-92). He was also minister of information (1975-76) and ambassador to the United States (1982-89).

Lingden, Rajendra (Prasad) (b. Sept. 7, 1965), Nepalese politician. He was a deputy prime minister and minister of energy, water resources, and irrigation (2023).

Lingen, Reinhold Johan friherre von (b. Aug. 28, 1708, Visby, Gotland, Sweden - d. Sept. 30, 1785, Slaka socken, Östergötland, Sweden), governor of Kristianstad (1763-72) and Malmöhus (1772). He was created friherre (baron) in 1764.

Lingle, Linda, née Cutter (b. June 4, 1953, St. Louis, Mo.), governor of Hawaii (2002-10). She founded the Moloka'i Free Press on Molokai, which is part of Maui County. In 1980 she was elected to the Maui Council. She was elected mayor of Maui in 1990 and reelected in 1994. In 1998 she first ran for governor. A Republican, she hailed what she called "the Maui miracle" (in her years as mayor, Maui gained jobs while the rest of Hawaii lost them) and led in polls throughout the campaign, but incumbent Ben Cayetano appealed to Hawaii's ethnic groups and Democratic tradition and won 50%-49%. She immediately set out to run again and built an organization much stronger than what she had in 1998. She changed the mindset in Hawaii that Democratic victories were inevitable. Meanwhile, Cayetano struggled with budget problems and Democrats were caught up in scandals. Lingle led in the polls from the start. The chief theme of her campaign was change: "We've got to break our reputation as a place where you've got to know someone to get things done." Democrats were in disarray; the initial favourite, Honolulu Mayor Jeremy Harris, withdrew in May 2002, and Lt.Gov. Mazie Hirono entered the race. Hirono was part of the ruling Democratic machine, and there were two candidates running as outsiders; she won the September 21 primary with 41% of the vote to 39% for Ed Case and 18% for Andy Anderson. Lingle did not have a strong primary opponent, defeating John Carroll 90%-10%. Ethnic balance for once helped Republicans; they had a ticket with a white Caucasian (Lingle) and a Native Hawaiian (James "Duke" Aiona), while the Democrats had a ticket with two Japanese Americans, Hirono and Matt Matsunaga. Lingle won 52%-47%. She became the state's first Republican governor in 40 years and the first woman ever. She was reelected in 2006, defeating former state senator Randy Iwase 62%-35%. In 2012 she lost a bid for the U.S. Senate.

Lingman, John, byname of Jonas Henrik Lingman (b. Nov. 19, 1901, Bollnäs, Gävleborg, Sweden - d. Oct. 5, 1962, Gävle, Gävleborg), governor of Gävleborg (1954-62). He was also Swedish minister of civil affairs (1950-54).

Linh, Syarhey (Stsyapanavich), Russian Sergey (Stepanovich) Ling (b. May 7, 1937, Minsk, Belorussian S.S.R.), prime minister of Belarus (1996-2000). He was also chairman of the Executive Committee of Minsk oblast (1983-86), a deputy prime minister (1991-96), economy minister (1994), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2000-02). Pres. Alyaksandr Lukashenka, who had repeatedly criticized Linh's cabinet for falling living standards, high inflation, and a poor grain harvest the previous year, dismissed Linh as premier in 2000. He did not mention plans to ease tight state regulation of the economy. Under Linh's premiership, the government alienated international lending institutions by putting structural reforms on hold, introducing multiple exchange rates, and resorting to printing money to boost the economy. But presidential officials and the opposition said the government would not liberalize the economy as long as Lukashenka, who enjoyed vast powers and tolerated no opposition, remained a strong supporter of state regulation.

J. Linhares


Ham Lini
Linhares, José (b. Jan. 28, 1886, Sinimbu farm, Guaramiranga district, Ceará, Brazil - d. Jan. 26, 1957, Caxambu, Minas Gerais, Brazil), president of Brazil (1945-46). He was also president of the Supreme Federal Court (1945-49, 1951-56).

Linhares, Rodrigo Domingos de Sousa Coutinho Teixeira de Andrade Barbosa, conde de (b. Aug. 4, 1755, Chaves, Portugal - d. Jan. 26, 1812, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), finance minister (1801-04) and foreign and war minister (1801 [acting], 1808-12 [in Brazil]) of Portugal. He was also minister to Sardinia (1778-91) and marine and overseas minister (1796-1801). He was made conde de Linhares in 1808.

Linhart, Michael (b. Aug. 31, 1958, Ankara, Turkey), foreign minister of Austria (2021). He has also been ambassador to Syria (2000-03), Greece (2007-12), France (2018-21), and Germany (2022- ).

Lini (Vanuaroroa), Ham (b. Dec. 8, 1951, Pentecost island, New Hebrides [now Vanuatu]), deputy prime minister (2004, 2008-09, 2010-11, 2011, 2011-13, 2014-15), home affairs minister (2004), and prime minister (2004-08) of Vanuatu; brother of Walter Lini. After the death of his brother in 1999, he was chosen to stand in a by-election to fill the vacant seat. In 2003 he became president of the National United Party. He was also minister of public utilities (2008), justice (2008-09), trade (2010-11, 2011, 2011-13, 2014-15), and meteorology, climate change adaptation, energy, and natural disasters (2016-19).

Lini, (Motarilavoa) Hilda (b. New Hebrides [now Vanuatu]), Vanuatu politician; sister of Walter Lini. She was minister of health (1991-93) and justice (1996). In 1987 she was one of the first two female MPs elected in Vanuatu.

W. Lini
Lini, Walter (Hadye) (b. 1942, Pentecost island, New Hebrides [now Vanuatu] - d. Feb. 21, 1999, Port Vila, Vanuatu), prime minister (1980-91) and foreign minister (1980-83) of Vanuatu. In June 1971 he and two others formed the New Hebridean Culture Association, which was primarily concerned with the effect of Western influences on traditional lifestyles. The association soon evolved into the New Hebrides National Party, later known as the Vanua'aku Pati. Under his leadership, the party narrowly won the general election of 1975 but boycotted the 1977 election as a protest against delays in moving toward independence. The party then formed a "people's provisional government" which controlled large sections of the country. After a change in French policy had made independence an early prospect, the party agreed to join with its Francophone rivals in a government of national unity in which Lini was deputy chief minister and minister of social services. In November 1979 elections, the party won 62% of the vote and 26 of the 39 seats in the Representative Assembly; Lini became chief minister and minister of justice, leading the fragmented Melanesian archipelago of about 80 islands to independence with the cry "Seli Ho" (Let's Pull Together). When the Anglo-French condominium became independent as Vanuatu (July 30, 1980), Lini became its first prime minister. For a few weeks either side of independence, Lini had to deal with secessionist movements, but with the aid of troops from Papua New Guinea he was successful in maintaining Vanuatu's territorial integrity. He also was minister of public service, planning, and information (1988-91). In 1988 Pres. Ati George Sokomanu attempted to dissolve parliament, but Lini survived and reestablished his government. Criticism of the government grew over the next few years, however, and he was forced out of office in 1991. He then formed a new party, the National United Party, and had other cabinet roles, including deputy prime minister (1995-97, 1998) and minister of justice, culture, and women's affairs (1995-96, 1996-98) and internal affairs (1998). He was opposition leader when he died.

Linic, Slavko (b. June 19, 1949, Rijeka, Croatia), finance minister of Croatia (2011-14). He was also mayor of Rijeka (1990-2000) and a deputy prime minister (2000-03).

Link, Arthur A(lbert) (b. May 24, 1914, Alexander, N.D. - d. June 1, 2010, Bismarck, N.D.), governor of North Dakota (1973-81).

Linkevicius, Linas (Antanas) (b. Jan. 6, 1961, Vilnius, Lithuanian S.S.R.), defense minister (1993-96, 2000-04) and foreign minister (2012-20) of Lithuania. He has also been permanent representative to NATO (2005-11) and ambassador to Belarus (2012) and Sweden (2024- ).

Linkomies, Edwin (Johan Hildegard), original surname (until 1928) Flinck (b. Dec. 22, 1894, Vyborg, Russia - d. Sept. 8, 1963, Helsinki, Finland), prime minister of Finland (1943-44).

Linkun, Nikolay (Iosifovich) (b. 1904 - d. 1977), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Dagestan A.S.S.R. (1939-42).

Linlithgow, John Adrian Louis Hope, (1st) Marquess of (b. Sept. 25, 1860, South Queensferry, Linlithgowshire, Scotland - d. Feb. 29, 1908, Pau, France), governor of Victoria (1889-95) and governor-general of Australia (1901-02). He was also British paymaster-general (1895-99) and secretary for Scotland (1905). He succeeded as (7th) Earl of Hopetoun in 1873 and was created Marquess of Linlithgow in 1902.

Linlithgow, Victor Alexander John Hope, (2nd) Marquess of (b. Sept. 24, 1887, South Queensferry, Linlithgowshire, Scotland - d. Jan. 5, 1952, South Queensferry), viceroy of India (1936-43); son of John Adrian Louis Hope, Marquess of Linlithgow. He succeeded as marquess in 1908.

Linnér, Sigfrid (Nathanael) (b. Sept. 13, 1877, Bäckaby, Jönköping, Sweden - d. Jan. 13, 1963, Uppsala, Sweden), governor of Jämtland (1923-30) and Uppsala (1931-43).

Lino, José Ruy da Silveira (b. Aug. 13, 1924, Tarauacá, Acre, Brazil - d. July 7, 1987, Brasília, Brazil), governor of Acre (1961-62).

Lino Neto, Antonio Maria de Mendonça (b. July 8, 1913, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Oct. 2, 1980, Lisbon), justice minister of Portugal (1973-74).

Linois, Charles (Alexandre Léon) Durand, comte de (b. Jan. 27, 1761, Brest, France - d. Dec. 2, 1848, Versailles, France), governor of Guadeloupe (1814-15). He was made comte de Linois in August 1810.

Lins, Adolpho Lamenha (b. June 27, 1845, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. Sept. 4, 1881, Recife), president of Piauí (1874) and Paraná (1875-77).

Lins, Alcides (b. May 2, 1891, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. Nov. 9, 1969, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), federal interventor in Minas Gerais (1946-47).

Lins, Bento José Lamenha (b. Aug. 29, 1866, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. Nov. 21, 1922, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), member of the Governing Junta of Paraná (1891-92).

Lins, João Azevêdo, Filho (b. Aug. 14, 1953, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil), governor of Paraíba (2019- ).

Lins, Manuel Joaquim de Albuquerque (b. Sept. 18, 1852, São Miguel dos Campos, Alagoas, Brazil - d. Jan. 7, 1926, São Paulo, Brazil), president of São Paulo (1908-12).

Lins, Tiburcio Valeriano da Rocha (d. April 7, 1898, Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil), governor of Alagoas (1894).

Lins e Silva, Evandro Cavalcânti (b. Jan. 18, 1912, Parnaíba, Piauí, Brazil - d. Dec. 17, 2002, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), foreign minister of Brazil (1963). He was also attorney-general (1961-63).

Linthorst Homan, Harry, byname of Henri Pieter Linthorst Homan (b. May 29, 1905, Assen, Drenthe, Netherlands - d. Feb. 3, 1989, Wapenveld, Gelderland, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Friesland (1945-70); son of Jan Tijmen Linthorst Homan; brother of Johannes Linthorst Homan (1903-1986); grandson of Henri Staal.

Linthorst Homan, Jan Tijmen (b. Oct. 2, 1873, Assen, Drenthe, Netherlands - d. May 27, 1932, Havelte, Drenthe), queen's commissioner of Drenthe (1917-31); son of Johannes Linthorst Homan (1844-1926); son-in-law of Henri Staal.

Linthorst Homan, Johannes (b. Sept. 16, 1844, Assen, Drenthe, Netherlands - d. Nov. 19, 1926, Havelte, Drenthe), queen's commissioner of Drenthe (1904-17).

Linthorst Homan, Johannes (b. Feb. 17, 1903, Assen, Drenthe, Netherlands - d. Nov. 6, 1986, Rome), queen's commissioner of Groningen (1937-41); son of Jan Tijmen Linthorst Homan; grandson of Henri Staal.

Lintilä, Mika (Tapani) (b. April 15, 1966, Toholampi, Finland), deputy prime minister and finance minister of Finland (2019). He was also minister of economic affairs (2016-19, 2019-23).

Lintonen, Kirsti (Eeva Helena) (b. May 23, 1945, Tampere, Finland), Finnish diplomat. She was ambassador to Namibia (1990-94, 2000-05) and South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Mauritius, and Swaziland (2000-05) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2005-09).

Linturi, Arvo (Viljo Ilmari), original surname (until 1906) Lindroth (b. Feb. 23, 1887, Turku, Finland - d. May 30, 1975), interior minister of Finland (1929-30).

Lionginas, Jonas (b. May 16, 1956, Vilnius, Lithuanian S.S.R.), finance minister of Lithuania (1999, 2000-01).

Liotard, (Louis Eugène) Victor (Théophile) (b. July 17 [other sources say August 13], 1858, Chandernagor, French India - d. Aug. 22, 1916, Bordeaux, France), commissioner (1894-97) and lieutenant governor (1897-1900) of Haut-Oubangui and governor of Dahomey (1900-06), New Caledonia (1906-08), and French Guinea (1908-10).

Lipavský, Jan (b. July 2, 1985, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), foreign minister of the Czech Republic (2021- ).

Lipin, Aleksandr (Petrovich) (b. 1903, Ust-Kulom, Vologda province [now in Komi republic], Russia - d. ...), chairman of the Executive Committee (1935-37) and of the Executive Committee of Soviets (1937) of the Komi autonomous oblast/A.S.S.R.

Lipovaca, Hamdija (b. Dec. 20, 1976, Bihac [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), premier of Una-Sana canton (2011-15).

Lipovic, Sabid (b. May 26, 1959), premier of Una-Sana (1998-2000).

Lippens, Maurice (Auguste Eugène Charles Marie Ghislain, comte) (b. Aug. 21, 1875, Ghent, Belgium - d. July 12, 1956, Ixelles [now in Brussels-Capital region], Belgium), governor-general of Belgian Congo (1921-23). He was also governor of East Flanders (1919-21) and Belgian minister of railways, posts, and telegraphs (1927-29) and education (1932-34) and chairman of the Senate (1934-36).

Lippestad, Johan (Andreas) (b. Dec. 19, 1902, Kristiania [now Oslo], Norway - d. 1961, Oslo), Norwegian politician. He was a minister (1941-42) under the German occupation government, then a minister in the Vidkun Quisling government. He was sentenced to life imprisonment after the war, but was released on probation in 1956.

Lippitt, Charles W(arren) (b. Oct. 8, 1846, Providence, R.I. - d. April 4, 1924, Harmon-on-Hudson [now part of Croton-on-Hudson], N.Y.), governor of Rhode Island (1895-97); son of Henry Lippitt.

Lippitt, Henry (b. Oct. 9, 1818, Providence, R.I. - d. June 5, 1891, Providence), governor of Rhode Island (1875-77).

Lippmann, Alphonse Édouard (b. 1851, Pondichéry, French India [now Puducherry, India] - d. Oct. 9, 1893, on the hospital ship La Minerve), acting commissioner-general of French Congo (1893).

Lippmann, Edmond (Joseph Hilarion Paul) (b. March 11, 1875 - d. March 24, 1936), French resident commissioner of the New Hebrides (1916-18).

Lipponen, Paavo (Tapio) (b. April 23, 1941, Turtola [now Pello], Finland), prime minister of Finland (1995-2003). He rose from backstage to head the Social Democratic Party in 1993 after years as its foreign policy expert. He was a prime mover in putting Finland on the path to joining the European Union in 1995 and rapidly took to the complex wheeling and dealing inside the EU. He weaned Finland off spendthrift habits to take the country into Europe's economic and monetary union. His record on the economy put him on the right of the Social Democrats, who historically had been the guardians of the generous Nordic welfare state and the ally of the powerful trade unions. Faced with the prospect of losing power in 1999, Lipponen tried to scare leftist voters with the prospect of a right-wing government if he lost and he courted the unions during the election campaign. Lipponen exuded an authority and frankness that won him respect from the usually reserved Finns. But this trust was damaged by a political cronyism scandal that beset the Social Democrats in 1997 and hung over the party since. He narrowly staved off defeat in the 1999 election but in 2003 the Centre Party came out narrowly ahead of the Social Democrats. He then became speaker of parliament (2003-07), a post he previously held in 1995. In 2005 he stepped down as party leader.

Lippwe, Jeem (S.), Micronesian diplomat. He has been chargé d'affaires (2011) and permanent representative (2022- ) to the United Nations.

Lipsic, Daniel (b. July 8, 1973, Bratislava, Slovakia), a deputy prime minister and justice minister (2002-06) and interior minister (2010-12) of Slovakia.

Lipstok, Andres (b. Feb. 6, 1957, Haapsalu, Estonian S.S.R.), finance minister of Estonia (1994-95). He was also governor of Lääne county (1989-94), minister of economic affairs (1995-96), and president of the Bank of Estonia (2005-12).

Lira (Lira), Alejandro (b. April 3, 1873, Santiago, Chile - d. July 6, 1951, Santiago), war and navy minister (1907) and foreign minister (1914-15) of Chile. He was also ambassador to the Vatican (1931-33).

Lira (Calvo), José Ramón (b. Oct. 7, 1807, Santiago, Chile - d. 1876), war and marine minister of Chile (1870-71). He was also intendant of Chiloé (1848-52), Santiago (1857-58), Coquimbo (1861-64), and Valparaíso (1864-67).

Lisboa, Bento Luiz de Oliveira (b. 1836, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. June 6, 1905, Rio de Janeiro), president of Rio de Janeiro (1872-73) and Rio Grande do Sul (1887); son of Venancio José Lisboa; brother of Venancio José de Oliveira Lisboa.

Lisboa, Henrique Marques de Oliveira (b. Dec. 2, 1799, Porto Alegre, Brazil - d. Oct. 31, 1869, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Alagoas (1845).

Lisboa, José Antonio (b. Feb. 23, 1777, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. July 29, 1850, Rio de Janeiro), finance minister of Brazil (1830).

Lisboa, Manoel Ribeiro da Silva (b. 1807, Bahia captaincy [now state], Brazil - d. [assassinated] April 11, 1838, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil), president of Sergipe (1835) and Rio Grande do Norte (1837-38).

Lisboa, Mariano Martins (b. Aug. 1, 1847, Brejo, Maranhão, Brazil - d. Feb. 3, 1926), acting president of Maranhão (1909).

Lisboa, Venancio José (b. March 7, 1810, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. May 24, 1880, Rio de Janeiro), president of São Paulo (1838-39) and Maranhão (1842-43).

Lisboa, Venancio José de Oliveira (b. Oct. 7 or 12, 1834, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. May 15, 1903, Rio de Janeiro), president of Paraíba (1869-70), Paraná (1870-73), Minas Gerais (1873-74), and Bahia (1874-75); son of Venancio José Lisboa.

Liscák, Jozef (b. Jan. 18, 1947, Svrcinovec, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia] - d. Oct. 13, 2022), justice minister of Slovakia (1994-98).

Lisco, (Gustav Amandus) Hermann (b. Jan. 30, 1850, Berlin, Prussia [Germany] - d. Nov. 7, 1923, Berlin), justice minister of Germany (1909-17).

Lise, Claude (b. Jan. 31, 1941, Fort-de-France, Martinique), president of the General Council of Martinique (1992-2011).

Lise, Pierre (b. Nov. 3, 1937, Fort-de-France, Martinique), administrator-superior of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands (1996-98).

Lisette, Gabriel (Francisco) (b. April 2, 1919, Puerto Bello, Panama - d. March 3, 2001, Port-de-Lanne, Landes, France), prime minister of Chad (1957-59). He was also mayor of Fort-Lamy (1956-60) and deputy prime minister (1959-60).

Lisgar, John Young, (1st) Baron (b. Aug. 31, 1807, Bombay [now Mumbai], India - d. Oct. 6, 1876, Bailieborough, County Cavan, Ireland), lord high commissioner of the Ionian Islands (1855-59), governor of New South Wales (1861-67), and governor-general of Canada (1868-72). He was also chief secretary for Ireland (1853-55). He was knighted in 1855 and created baron in 1870.

Lisitsyn, Anatoly (Ivanovich) (b. June 26, 1947, Bolshiye Smenki, Kalinin [now Tver] oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), head of the administration (1991-95) and governor (1995-2007) of Yaroslavl oblast. He was also mayor of Rybinsk (1990-91).

Liska, Juraj (b. Nov. 29, 1964, Trencín, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia]), defense minister of Slovakia (2003-06). He was also mayor of Trencín (2002-03).

Lissón, Carlos (b. 1823, Lima, Peru - d. March 22, 1891, Lima), acting interior, police, and public works minister of Peru (1867).

Lissouba, Pascal (b. Nov. 15, 1931, Tsinguidi village, southwestern Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)] - d. Aug. 24, 2020, Perpignan, France), president of Congo (Brazzaville) (1992-97). A southern Marxist, he entered politics in 1963. His country's first socialist prime minister (1963-66), he was also minister of trade, industry, and agriculture (1963-66), planning (1968), and agriculture, waterways, and forests (1969). He was jailed for life in 1977 for complicity in the assassination of military leader Marien Ngouabi. Denis Sassou-Nguesso freed him when he came to power in 1979. Lissouba left for France where he joined UNESCO. He later became director of the African Bureau for Science and Technology in Nairobi. He returned to Congo in 1990 to take part in a national conference that stripped Sassou of his powers and rewrote the constitution. His Pan-African Union for Social Democracy, the largest party in the national assembly, provided him with a stepping stone to becoming the country's first democratically elected president in 1992. He initially enjoyed the support of Sassou, but relations between the two men soured. The ethnic and personal rivalry that underpins politics in the Congo boiled over into bloody clashes after a disputed 1993 parliamentary poll. At least 2,000 people died in Brazzaville as Lissouba supporters fought militia loyal to 1992 runner-up Bernard Kolélas and to Sassou. Gabon's Pres. Omar Bongo and UN special envoy Mohamed Sahnoun brokered a peace deal in 1994. Both Lissouba and Sassou planned to contest presidential elections on July 27, 1997. But on June 5, Lissouba's troops surrounded Sassou's home in a crackdown on private militia. Fighting ensued that derailed the planned election. Lissouba's own Koykoy and Mamba militia fought alongside his supporters in the army, as they did in 1993-94, but Sassou's forces won in October. Lissouba went into exile in London. In 1999 he was convicted in absentia for an assassination plot against Sassou-Nguesso and sentenced to 20 years in prison. In December 2001 he was further convicted on treason and corruption charges and sentenced to 30 years hard labour. Since September 2004 he lives in Paris.

Lissu, Tundu (Antiphas Mughwai) (b. Jan. 20, 1968, Mahambe village, Singida region, Tanzania), Tanzanian presidential candidate (2020).

List, Frederik Carel (b. Feb. 5, 1784, Breda, Staats-Brabant [now Noord-Brabant], Netherlands - d. Nov. 22, 1868, Wageningen, Gelderland, Netherlands), war minister of the Netherlands (1840-48).

List, Robert (Frank) (b. Sept. 1, 1936, Visalia, Calif.), governor of Nevada (1979-83).

Lister, Ernest (b. June 15, 1870, Halifax, England - d. June 14, 1919, Seattle, Wash.), governor of Washington (1913-19).

Listhaug, Sylvi (b. Dec. 25, 1977, Ålesund, Møre og Romsdal, Norway), justice minister of Norway (2018). She has also been minister of agriculture and food (2013-15), immigration and integration (2015-18), the elderly and public health (2019), and oil and energy (2019-20) and leader of the Progress Party (2021- ).

Listowel, William Francis Hare, (5th) Earl of (b. Sept. 28, 1906, London, England - d. March 12, 1997, London), governor-general of Ghana (1957-60). He was also British postmaster-general (1945-47) and secretary of state for India (1947) and Burma (1947-48). He succeeded as earl in 1931.

Listre, Arnoldo (Manuel) (b. Feb. 22, 1938), Argentine diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1982 [acting], 2000-03) and ambassador to Nigeria, Chad, Ghana, Togo, and Benin (1985-87), Hungary (1987-89), and Russia, Georgia, Armenia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan, and Kazakhstan (1994-2000).

Lisulo, Daniel (Muchiwa) (b. Dec. 6, 1930, Mongu, western Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia] - d. Aug. 21, 2000, Johannesburg, South Africa), prime minister of Zambia (1978-81). He was also minister of legal affairs and attorney general (1977-78).

Lithgow, John Thomas (b. Jan. 25, 1856, Halifax, Nova Scotia - d. March 14, 1928, Madeira, Portugal), acting commissioner of Yukon Territory (1906-07).

Litho Moboti Nzoyombo, (Jean Joseph) (b. June 22, 1924, Kawele, Équateur province, Belgian Congo [now in Nord-Ubangi province, Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. Feb. 25, 1982, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France), finance minister of Congo (Léopoldville/Kinshasa) (1965-67). He was also minister of agriculture (1967-70).

Littardi, Niccolò (Tommaso) (b. July 23, 1748, Porto Maurizio, Republic of Genoa [now in Liguria, Italy] - d. 18...), member of the Executive Directory of the Ligurian Republic (1798-99). He was made a chevalier de l'Empire by Napoléon on Jan. 3, 1813.

Little, Andrew (James) (b. May 7, 1965, New Plymouth, N.Z.), justice minister (2017-20) and defence minister (2023) of New Zealand. He was also leader of the Labour Party (2014-17) and minister of Treaty of Waitangi negotiations (2017-23) and health (2020-23).

Little, Brad(ley Jay) (b. Feb. 15, 1954, Emmett, Idaho), governor of Idaho (2019- ).

Little, James Joseph Warnell (b. June 13, 1931, Auckland, N.Z. - d. April 4, 2013, Auckland), acting high commissioner of the Cook Islands (1974-75).

Little, John S(ebastian) (b. March 15, 1853, Jenny Lind, Ark. - d. Oct. 29, 1916, Little Rock, Ark.), governor of Arkansas (1907).

Little, Sir Joseph Ignatius (b. 1835, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island - d. July 14, 1902, St. John's, Newfoundland), acting governor of Newfoundland (1901); knighted 1901. He was chief justice (1898-1902).

Little, Philip Francis (b. 1824, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island - d. Oct. 21, 1897, Monkstown, County Dublin, Ireland), premier of Newfoundland (1855-58).

Littlefield, Alfred H(enry) (b. April 12, 1829, Scituate, R.I. - d. Dec. 21, 1893, Central Falls, R.I.), governor of Rhode Island (1880-83).

Littorin, (Elaine) Camilla Fagerberg, née Fagerberg (b. Jan. 31, 1968, Lidingö, Stockholm county, Sweden), acting governor of Dalarna (2021-22).

Litvinenco, Sergiu (b. July 11, 1981, Hârtop, Cimislia district, Moldavian S.S.R.), justice minister of Moldova (2021-23).

Litvinov, Maksim (Maksimovich), original name Meir-Genokh Moiseyevich Vallakh (b. July 6, 1876, Bialystok, Russia [now in Poland] - d. Dec. 31, 1951, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), foreign minister of the Soviet Union (1930-39). He was also ambassador to the United States (1941-43) and minister to Cuba (1942-43).

Litvinov, Pyotr (Maksimovich), Russian ruler of Georgia (1806-07).

Liu Bolong (b. Longli, Guizhou, China - d. Nov. 18, 1949, Qinglong, Guizhou), Chinese general. A graduate of Huangpu Military Academy, Guangdong (whose president was Chiang Kai-shek), his early posts were member of the Kuomintang Clearing Committee (a bureau to clear the Communists out of the Kuomintang) as well as director of the "Rejuvenation Association" (in fact an assassination group). He was also the commander of the New 28th Division, and later commander of the 89th Army. He stationed his troops in Guizhou from 1948, but he went along badly with Guizhou chairman Gu Zhenglun. On Nov. 18, 1949, the eve of Communist victory in Guizhou, Gu "invited" Liu to the Qinglong county government office, and Liu was killed by the guards there.

Liu Chao-shiuan
Liu Chao-shiuan, Pinyin Liu Zhaoxuan (b. May 10, 1943, Hengyang, Hunan, China), premier of Taiwan (2008-09). He was also transport minister (1993-96) and vice premier (1997-2000).

Liu Chengxun (b. May 6, 1884, Dayi, Sichuan, China - d. Dec. 21, 1944, Dayi), governor of Sichuan (1922-23). He was promoted to an army commander long after graduation from the Sichuan Military College. He was nominated Sichuan governor as well as commander-in-chief of the Sichuan provincial army by Sun Yat-sen. Three years later, he was designated the commander of the 23rd Army by the southern government. He suffered a great defeat in 1927 in the war against Gen. Liu Wenhui, losing his entire defense area. His remaining forces were disarmed and redesignated subsequently. He then quit politics.

Liu Chieh (b. 1905, Guangdong, China - d. Feb. 12, 1991, Falls Church, Va.), Nationalist Chinese diplomat. He was ambassador to Canada (1947-62) and the Philippines (1972-75) and (Taiwan's last) permanent representative to the United Nations (1962-71).

Liu Cunhou (b. 1885, Jianyang, Sichuan, China - d. June 19, 1960, Taiwan), military governor of Sichuan (1917-18, 1919-21). A graduate of the Japanese College of Army Commanders, he returned to China in 1909 and joined the revolution in 1911. After the republic was founded, he was designated military governor of Chongqing city and later commander of the 1st Army (in the Sichuan Army). He turned to Chiang Kai-shek in 1927, taking up the leadership of the 23rd Army of the National Revolutionary Army. He was also the commander of the "Outlaw Suppressing Army" in Sichuan, which was mainly devoted to striking the Communist forces.

Liu Fuzhi (b. March 31, 1917, Yuetinggang, Mei county [now part of Meizhou city], Guangdong, China - d. Aug. 25, 2013, Beijing, China), justice minister of China (1982-83). He was also minister of public security (1983-85) and procurator-general (1988-93).

Liu G.
Liu Guanxiong (b. June 7, 1861, Fuzhou, Fujian, China - d. July 20, 1927, Tianjin, China), navy minister of China (1912-16, 1917-19) and military governor of Fujian (1913-14). When he was young, he entered the Navy College of Fuzhou (set up by Li Hongzhang) and then was sent abroad to the United Kingdom. He was named navy minister as well as commander-in-chief of the navy upon the founding of the republic. He also served as transportation minister (1912) and education minister (1913). He was honoured as a "duke" when Yuan Shikai claimed the throne in 1915 and turned to Duan Qirui upon Yuan's death. In 1917, the navy split as Duan refused to validate the abolished constitution.

Liu Jieyi (b. December 1957, Beijing, China), Chinese diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2013-18).

Liu Kuiyi (b. Dec. 3, 1878, Hengshan, Hunan, China - d. Nov. 1, 1950, Xiangtan, Hunan), industry and commerce minister of China (1912-13). He started to participate in the activities against the Qing dynasty together with Huang Xing in 1903 in Japan. Having joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance (precursor of the Kuomintang) in 1907, he acted as the leader of the party and took part in the Wuchang Uprising in 1911. He accepted the cabinet post offered by Pres. Yuan Shikai in August 1912, thus quitting the Kuomintang, which had broken with Yuan. He intended to quit politics in 1927, when the Kuomintang started to persecute Communist Party members. But years later, he became an adviser of the Executive Yuan (premier's office). He was sacked since he disagreed with Chiang Kai-shek's policy of going on with extinguishing the Red Army while Japanese invaders had entered China. After being away from politics for more than a decade, he was appointed an adviser of the Communist-led Hunan Provincial Military Control Commission in 1949.

Liu Kun (b. December 1956, Raoping county, Guangdong, China), finance minister of China (2018-23).

Liu Renxi (b. 1844, Liuyang, Hunan, China - d. March 6, 1919), governor of Hunan (1916). A reformist, he was the head of the Education Association of Hunan in the late Qing dynasty. During this time, he suggested the Qing government form a parliament elected by popular vote. In 1914, he set up "Chuanshan College" in which he further researched Confucianism. He strongly opposed the imperial rule of Yuan Shikai, and was involved in the movement against Gov. Tang Xiangming, Yuan's supporter in Hunan. During the days of frequent civil war in 1918, he formed the "Peace Forever Organization" and was elected its secretary-general. He devoted himself to propaganda throughout the country in order to maintain peace and stability.

Liu Shangqing (b. March 27, 1870, Tieling, Liaoning, China - d. Feb. 20, 1947, United States), agriculture and industry minister of China (1927), civil governor of Liaoning (1927-28), and chairman of the government of Anhui (1937). He was nominated as head of the Financial Bureau of Heilongjiang at the end of the Qing dynasty and continued his term after the founding of the republic, before being transferred to Liaoning. He was also a member of the Kuomintang Central Political Committee, as well as vice president of the Supervisory Committee. He was interior minister in the Nanjing government.

Liu Shaoqi
Liu Shaoqi, Wade-Giles romanization Liu Shao-ch'i (b. Nov. 24, 1898, Ningxiang district, Hunan, China - d. Nov. 12, 1969, Kaifeng, Henan, China), chairman of the People's Republic of China (1959-68). In 1920 he joined the Socialist Youth League and subsequently became a member of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). He became increasingly more involved in the labour movement - as vice chairman of the All-China Federation of Labour in May 1925, and as secretary-general of the Third National Labour Congress in 1926. When the Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) and the CCP split in April 1927, Liu and his comrades fled underground. Liu's ascendancy in the party was rapid; by 1934 he had gained a seat on the Politburo. On Oct. 1, 1949, the People's Republic of China was established, and Liu was named vice chairman of the new government. When Mao relinquished his position as chairman of the People's Republic of China (though he remained party chairman), Liu assumed the chairmanship in April 1959. In October 1968, during the Cultural Revolution, he was stripped of his positions and labeled China's Khrushchev. During 1974 rumours of Liu's death gained wide circulation, and on October 31 a Communist newspaper in Hong Kong confirmed the fact, though no details of date or place of death were revealed until May 1980. The causes of Liu's fall are not clear. For several years the names of Liu, Deng Xiaoping, and Lin Biao were linked, and the three were condemned in the party press as "capitalist roaders" intent on defeating the revolution. In February 1980, the Central Committee of the CCP decided "to completely rehabilitate" Liu, calling him a "great Marxist and proletarian revolutionary," and to remove the labels of "renegade, traitor, and scab" formerly attached to him.

Liu Wenlong (b. 1870, Yueyang, Hunan, China - d. 1950, Ürümqi, Xinjiang, China), governor of Xinjiang (1933). Before serving as governor, he was head of the provincial Education Bureau in Xinjiang. He was named governor by Gen. Sheng Shicai, who was later nicknamed "King of Xinjiang." Liu disagreed with Sheng's dictatorship in the province and was put under house arrest by Sheng four months later until 1944. Liu crossed over to the Communists in September 1949 and was elected a delegate of the Ürümqi Municipal People's Congress the next year.

Liu Xiang (b. July 1, 1890, Dayi, Sichuan, China - d. Jan. 20, 1938, Hankou [now part of Wuhan], Hubei, China), military governor (1921-22, 1923-24, 1925-26), civil governor (1921-22, 1923-24), and chairman of the government (1935-38) of Sichuan. He was graduated from Sichuan Military College and finally promoted to be an army commander in Sichuan. During his days as a commander in Sichuan, the local warlords exchanged fire with each other frequently. In the 1920s, the fiercest war between the warlords, the Liu Xiang-Liu Wenhui War, broke out. During the years of wars, millions of people were killed in the province. After Liu turned to Chiang Kai-shek, his forces were redesignated as the 21st Army (years later as 5th Army) of the Revolutionary Forces. In January 1938, he ordered his army of more than 100,000 soldiers out of Sichuan to fight against the Japanese invaders, but for fear that Chiang's army might enter his defense area on the excuse of "anti-Japanese cooperation," he tried to turn against Chiang with Shandong chairman Han Fuju.

Liu Xianqian (b. Jan. 25, 1865, Xingyi, Guizhou, China - d. 1937, Xingyi), civil governor of Guizhou (1916); cousin of Liu Xianshi. Having been a brigade commander at the end of the Qing dynasty, he was named commander of the forces in southwestern Guizhou (mainly Anlong and Xingyi counties) after the republic was founded. As a commander, he led his army to Sichuan to reinforce Cai E in 1916. Thereafter he retreated to Guizhou and continued his regional commander career until 1925, being a commander of the 7th Army of the Autonomous Army of Yunnan-Guizhou and, as a supporter of the northern government, launching an attack in Liuzhou, Guangxi, against Gen. Li Zongren, where he was defeated; he quit politics after that.

Liu Xianshi (b. May 8, 1870, Xingyi, Guizhou, China - d. Nov. 7, 1927, Xingyi), military governor (1913-20, 1922) and civil governor (1916-20, 1923-25) of Guizhou. He was a brigade commander in the late Qing period, responding to the revolution in Guizhou in 1911. Recommended by public acclaim, he gained the post of Guizhou governor. He was a supporter of Sun Yat-sen and joined several revolutionary actions against all the warlords. He quit politics in January 1925.

Liu Yufen (b. 1886, Qingyuan, Hebei, China - d. April 2, 1943, Beijing, China), acting military governor (1925-26), civil governor (1927-28), and chairman of the Provincial Council (1928-29) of Gansu, governor of Suiyuan (1926), and chairman of the government of Shaanxi (1929-30). Having been a general subordinated to Feng Yuxiang, who brought him to the western provinces, he was commander of all Kuomintang forces in Gansu province as well as the general commander of the 7th Route Army within the 2nd Army Group. Liu was also named as the commander of the Kuomintang forces against the "outlaws" (Communists) of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Ningxia provinces. He turned to Wang Jingwei in 1940 and was nominated as a member of the Central Political Committee as well as the chief of staff in that Japanese-backed government.

Liu Zhe (b. 1880, Yongji, Jilin, China - d. Jan. 7, 1954, Taiwan), education minister of China (1927-28). A graduate of Peking University, he was named vice-speaker of the Jilin Provincial Council upon the founding of the republic, concurrently being a member of the Senate of the Republic. He was later named an adviser of the president's office. He was also a member of the Commission for Foreign Affairs within the Beijing government. During his term as education minister in the cabinet of Pan Fu, he was also president of Peking University. He retreated to the northeast together with Zhang Zuolin in June 1928 and was wounded in the train blast that caused Zhang's death. Turning south in 1929, he was named a member of the Commission of Political Affairs of the Northeastern Region. He returned to his education ministry within the Hebei-Chahar Political Commission (led by Song Zheyuan) on the eve of World War II. He went to Taiwan in 1949.

Liu Zhenhua
Liu Zhenhua (b. Oct. 7, 1883, Gong county, Henan, China - d. Nov. 18, 1956, Taipei, Taiwan), military (1922-25) and civil (1918-22, 1922-25) governor of Shaanxi and chairman of the government of Anhui (1933-37). He participated in the revolution in 1911 after joining the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance and stationed himself in Shaanxi for a long time, involving his province into the melee of the warlords in the 1920s. He was named commander of the 8th Front Army/11th Route Army of the National Revolutionary Army in 1927. Years later he was named a commander of the "Anti-Communist Forces of the border region of Henan-Hubei-Anhui provinces." He became "mortally disabled" and quit politics in 1937.

Liu Zhennian (b. 1898, Nangong, Hebei, China - d. May 13, 1936), Chinese army commander. A graduate of the famous Baoding Military College, he was regiment/brigade commander under the leadership of Li Jinglin, Chu Yupu, and later Zhang Zongchang. His forces were redesignated by the Kuomintang upon the fall of Zhang in 1928. He himself was nominated as the commander of the 21st Division. He executed Chu Yupu in 1929. Stationed in eastern Shandong, he charged heavy taxes in his defense area and was considered as a scourge and called "King of Shandong East." He was defeated by Han Fuju, who controlled the western part, in the early 1930s, and then moved his defense area to Wenzhou, Zhejiang. For fear of losing his forces, he rejected Chiang Kai-shek's order to attack the Red Army in Jiangxi; as a consequence, Chiang framed and executed him in 1936.

Liu Zhi
Liu Zhi (b. June 30, 1892, Jian, Jiangxi, China - d. Jan. 15, 1971, Taichung, Taiwan), chairman of the government of Henan (1930-35). He served in the Guangdong Army until 1924, when he was appointed a professor of Huangpu Academy. Being commander of the 2nd Division, he joined the Northern Expedition. He was promoted to commander of the 1st Army in 1927, also being commander of the 1st Army Group. During World War II, he was named commander of the 2nd Group Army within the 1st War Zone, vice-commander of the 1st War Zone, as well as commander of the Chongqing city garrison. However, Liu's army frequently fled from the frontline during the war against the Japanese forces, so he got the nickname of "Long-legged General." He went to Hong Kong, and then to Indonesia in 1949, and moved to Taiwan in November 1953.

Liu Zhongli (b. October 1934, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China), finance minister of China (1992-98). He was also director of the State Administration of Taxation (1994-98) and chairman of the National Council for Social Security Fund (2000-03).

Liu Zuolong (b. 1874, Hanyang [now part of Wuhan], Hubei, China - d. Jan. 28, 1934, Hankou [now part of Wuhan], Hubei), civil governor of Hubei (1926). He was a lower commander in the Qing army, but crossed over together with Li Yuanhong in 1911. He was a supporter of the central government until September 1926, when his forces suddenly turned to the southern army on the front line. As a result, the southern army managed to occupy the whole city of Wuhan at last. Liu was named the commander of the 15th Army of the northbound revolutionary forces. He was arrested in September 1927 for murdering the Kuomintang delegate of his army, Geng Dan, and then freed after Tang Shengzhi took over Hubei province. However, his forces were put under the leadership of Gen. Tao Jun of Guangxi.

Liu Zuwu (b. 1886, Kunming, Yunnan, China - d. February 1922), acting civil governor of Yunnan (1915-16). He studied abroad in Japan, where he joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance. He helped to teach in the army college in Yunnan province after his return. He was a regiment commander when he accepted the post of Yunnan governor.

Liuga, Faumuina Tiatia (Faaolatane) (b. Sept. 16, 1945, Papa i Palauli, Western Samoa [now Samoa]), finance minister of Samoa (2011-14). He was also minister of public works (2001-06) and natural resources and environment (2006-11).

Liven, Knyaz Andrey (Aleksandrovich) (b. July 21 [July 9, O.S.], 1839, Simferopol, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. March 15 [March 2, O.S.], 1913, St. Petersburg, Russia), governor of Moscow (1870-72) and Russian minister of state properties (1880-81); grandson of Knyaz Karl Liven.

Liven, Knyaz Karl (Andreyevich), German Carl Christoph von Lieven (b. Feb. 12 [Feb. 1, O.S.], 1767, Kiev, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. Jan. 12, 1845 [Dec. 31, 1844, O.S.], Balgalln, Courland province, Russia [now Balgale, Latvia]), education minister of Russia (1828-33). The family was given the titles Graf (count) in 1799 and Knyaz (prince) in 1826.

Liven, Knyaz Khristofor (Andreyevich), German Christoph Heinrich von Lieven (b. May 17 [May 6, O.S.], 1774, Kiev, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. Jan. 10, 1839, Rome, Papal State [now in Italy]), Russian diplomat; brother of Knyaz Karl Liven. He was minister to Prussia (1809-12) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1812-34).

Liven, Baron Vilgelm (Karlovich), German Wilhelm Heinrich von Lieven (b. Oct. 11 [Sept. 29, O.S.], 1800, Dünhof estate, Courland, Russia [now in Latvia] - d. Feb. 15 [Feb. 3, O.S.], 1880, St. Petersburg, Russia), governor-general of Livonia, Estonia, and Courland (1861-64).

Liverovsky, Aleksandr (Vasilyevich) (b. Sept. 4 [Aug. 23, O.S.], 1867, St. Petersburg, Russia - d. Dec. 19, 1951, Leningrad [St. Petersburg]), Russian minister of communications (1917).

Liverpool, Arthur William de Brito Savile Foljambe, (2nd) Earl of (b. May 27, 1870, Eastbourne, Sussex, England - d. May 15, 1941, Canwick, near Lincoln, England), governor (1912-17) and governor-general (1917-20) of New Zealand; great-grandson of half-brother of Robert Banks Jenkinson, Earl of Liverpool. He succeeded as Earl of Liverpool (of the second creation) in 1907.

Liverpool, Charles Jenkinson, (1st) Earl of (b. April 26, 1729, Winchester, Hampshire, England - d. Dec. 17, 1808, London, England), British secretary at war (1778-82). He was also president of the Board of Trade (1786-1804) and chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (1786-1803). He was created Baron Hawkesbury in 1786 and Earl of Liverpool in 1796.

N. Liverpool
Liverpool, Nicholas (Joseph Orville) (b. Sept. 9, 1934, Grand Bay, Dominica - d. June 1, 2015, Miami, Fla.), president of Dominica (2003-12). He was ambassador to the U.S. in 1998-2001.

Earl of Liverpool
Liverpool, Robert Banks Jenkinson, (2nd) Earl of, (2nd) Baron Hawkesbury1 (b. June 7, 1770, London, England - d. Dec. 4, 1828, Coombe House, Kingston upon Thames, England), British prime minister (1812-27); son of Charles Jenkinson, Earl of Liverpool. In 1790 he entered the House of Commons as member for Appleby. He soon became a leading Tory, serving as a member of the Board of Control for India (1793-96), master of the Royal Mint (1799-1801), foreign secretary (1801-04, in which role he negotiated the short-lived Treaty of Amiens with Napoleonic France), home secretary (1804-06, 1807-09), and secretary for war and the colonies (1809-12). After the assassination of Prime Minister Spencer Perceval, Liverpool reluctantly took his place, but was overshadowed by the greater political imaginativeness of his colleagues, George Canning and Viscount Castlereagh, and by the military prowess of the Duke of Wellington. Nevertheless he remained in office for nearly 15 years, and was crucial in holding together the different Tory factions. His government presided over the War of 1812 with the United States, the final campaigns of the Napoleonic Wars, and the Congress of Vienna (1814-15), where he strenuously urged the international abolition of the slave trade, a view which was accepted within a few years by the other European powers. In 1819 he strengthened the British monetary system by restoring the gold standard. He insisted that ecclesiastical and other appointments be justified by merit rather than by influence. Reacting to civil disturbances following industrial and agricultural failures, he suspended the Habeas Corpus Act for Great Britain in 1817 and for Ireland in 1822 and imposed other repressive measures in 1819. He was forced to retire after suffering a paralytic stroke on Feb. 17, 1827.
1 When his father, the 1st Baron Hawkesbury (of Hawkesbury in the County of Gloucester), was created 1st Earl of Liverpool in 1796, Robert took the courtesy title Lord Hawkesbury. In 1803, in order to allow Robert to sit in the House of Lords and hold an office reserved for peers, he was created Baron Hawkesbury by writ in acceleration. He succeeded as 2nd Earl of Liverpool on his father's death in 1808.

Livet, Stanislas Fortunat (b. Oct. 24, 1808, Chlewiska, Poland - d. 1860), commandant-superior of Mayotte (1849-51).

B. Livingston
Livingston, Bob, byname of Robert Linlithgow Livingston (b. April 30, 1943, Colorado Springs, Colo.), U.S. politician. He lost his first bid for Congress in 1976 but won a special election in 1977 with 51% of the vote to take the place of Democrat Richard Tonry, who pleaded guilty to violations of federal campaign finance laws. In 1987 he failed in a bid to be elected governor of Louisiana after a lacklustre campaign that many felt doomed him to the Republican rank and file. Then, House Speaker Newt Gingrich lifted him above more senior members in 1995 to head the Appropriations Committee. In 1995 his temper flared on the House floor. He thunderously called on Republicans to stand their ground against the White House in a budget fight, saying: "We'll never, never, never give in. We'll stay here till Doomsday." But later his mother called to tell him he was out of line, and he promised not to be so again. He was poised to become speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives in 1998. He began to campaign for the speakership after Newt Gingrich announced he would retire in 2000 - a schedule sped up after the party's disappointing midterm election showing; Livingston's announcement that he would challenge Gingrich for the post precipitated the latter's decision to step aside. Nominated speaker on Nov. 18, 1998, Livingston realized his ability to lead Congress was severely damaged by his admission on December 17 that affairs almost cost him his marriage. On December 19 he announced he would not serve as speaker, saying "I must set the example that I hope President Clinton will follow. I will not stand for speaker of the House on January 6 but rather will remain as backbencher in this Congress that I so dearly love."

Livingston, Edward (b. May 28, 1764, Clermont estate, Columbia county, New York - d. May 23, 1836, Montgomery Place, near Red Hook, N.Y.), mayor of New York City (1801-03) and U.S. secretary of state (1831-33); brother of Robert R. Livingston. He was also minister to France (1833-35).

Livingston, Peter R(obert) (b. May 8, 1737 - d. Nov. 15, 1794), chairman of the Committee of Safety of New York (1776-77).

Livingston, Robert R(obert) (b. Nov. 27, 1746, New York City - d. Feb. 26, 1813, Clermont, N.Y.), U.S. secretary of state (1781-83). He was also minister to France (1801-04).

Livingston, William (b. Nov. 30, 1723, Albany, New York - d. July 25, 1790, Elizabethtown, N.J.), governor of New Jersey (1776-90).

K. Livingstone
Livingstone, Ken(neth Robert) (b. June 17, 1945, Lambeth, South London, England), British politician. He was elected to the Greater London Council (GLC) in 1974 and ran unsuccessfully as a candidate for Parliament in 1979. A member of the Labour Party since 1968, he maintained "the only way to achieve socialism in this country is by carrying the mass of the people with you." After winning the May 1981 elections with Andrew McIntosh as their leader, the Labour councillors on the GLC voted the following day to oust McIntosh and replace him with Livingstone. Labour's right wing protested, but Livingstone's supporters were in the majority, having gambled and won in their policy of contesting marginal seats. During the summer of 1981 Livingstone's views on Northern Ireland (British troops should not be there), private medicine (there should be none), and other matters often made the headlines in Britain's national press and earned him the sobriquet "Red Ken." He fought a losing battle against Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher's drive to strip the city of its powers; the GLC was abolished in 1986. Later, Livingstone's hopes of becoming the first elected mayor of London suffered a setback in November 1998 when the Labour Party adopted a new system for choosing its candidate. A meeting of party officials decided that those seeking to be shortlisted to be chosen as candidate for the mayoral election in 2000 must first be screened by a selection panel. But Livingstone ran as an independent and won the May 4 election with 38% of the vote, while the official Labour candidate ended up in third place. It was an embarrassment for Prime Minister Tony Blair, who regarded the maverick leftwinger as out of tune with "New Labour." He was, however, the official Labour candidate when he was reelected in 2004. In 2008 he could not escape the general anti-Labour trend in the English municipal elections and lost to Conservative Boris Johnson, who defeated him again in 2012. After being accused of anti-Semitism for stating that Hitler "was supporting Zionism before he went mad and ended up killing six million Jews," he was suspended from the Labour Party in 2016 and left it in 2018.

Livingstone, Susan Morrisey (b. Jan. 13, 1946, Carthage, Mo.), acting U.S. Navy secretary (2003).

Livni, Tzipi, byname of Tzipora Livni (b. July 5, 1958, Tel Aviv, Israel), foreign minister of Israel (2006-09). Elected to the Knesset in 1999, she was minister for regional cooperation (2001), minister without portfolio (2001-02), minister of agriculture (2002-03), minister of immigrant absorption (2003-06), minister of housing and construction (2004-05), and minister of justice (2004-06, 2006-07, 2013-14). She was elected leader of the Kadima party in 2008 but was defeated by Shaul Mofaz in March 2012 and formed the Hatnuah party in November 2012.

Livramento, Francisco Luiz do (b. Desterro [now Florianópolis], Santa Catarina, Brazil - d. Aug. 15, 1844, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Santa Catarina (1831, 1836-37).

Livramento, Joaquim Augusto do (b. Feb. 4, 1820, Desterro [now Florianópolis], Santa Catarina, Brazil - d. May 7, 1883, Desterro), acting president of Santa Catarina (1882, 1882); son-in-law of José Mariano de Albuquerque Cavalcanti.

Livshits, Aleksandr (Yakovlevich) (b. Sept. 6, 1946, Berlin, Germany - d. April 25, 2013, Moscow, Russia), finance minister and a deputy prime minister of Russia (1996-97). He was also a minister without portfolio (presidential envoy to the G8) (1999-2000).

A. Livytsky
Livytsky, Andriy (Mykolayovych) (b. April 9, 1879, Krasny farm, Zolotonosha district, Poltava province, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. Jan. 17, 1954, Karlsruhe, West Germany), foreign minister (1919-20), chairman of the Council of Ministers (1920), and president in exile (1926-54) of the non-Communist Ukraine.

Livytsky, Mykola (Andriyovych) (b. 1908 - d. Dec. 8, 1989), president in exile of Ukraine (1967-89); son of Andriy Livytsky.

Liwag, Juan (Ramos) (b. June 12, 1906, Gapan, Nueva Ecija, Philippines - d. Nov. 30, 1983), justice secretary of the Philippines (1962-63). He was also solicitor general (1952-54).

Lizander, Fyodor (Stanislavovich), German Feodor Wladimir von Lysander (b. Oct. 16, 1816 - d. Feb. 15, 1893, Pavlovsk, St. Petersburg province, Russia), governor of Livonia (1868-71).

Lizano (Gutiérrez), (Francisco Cipriano) Saturnino (b. Nov. 29, 1826, Esparza, Costa Rica - d. April 19, 1905, San José, Costa Rica), acting president of Costa Rica (1882). He was minister of foreign affairs (1876), public works (1876-77), war and navy (1876-77, 1880-81), and interior (1876-77, 1880-82) and first designate (1881-82).

Lizarzaburu (Borja), Pedro Ignacio (baptized Sept. 23, 1834, Guano, Ecuador - d. May 1902, Riobamba, Ecuador), member of the Provisional Government (1883) and foreign minister (1893) of Ecuador.

Lizcano (Arango), (Óscar) Mauricio (b. Aug. 12, 1976, Medellín, Colombia), Colombian politician. He has been president of the Senate (2016-17) and minister of information technologies and communications (2023- ).

Lizin, Anne-Marie, née Vanderspeeten (b. Jan. 5, 1949, Huy, Liège, Belgium - d. Oct. 17, 2015, Huy), Belgian politician. She was chairman of the Senate (2004-07).

Lizurume, José Luis (b. May 24, 1941, Buenos Aires, Argentina), governor of Chubut (1999-2003).

Ljajic, Rasim (b. Jan. 28, 1964, Novi Pazar, Serbia), a deputy prime minister of Serbia (2012-20). He was also minister of human and minority rights of Yugoslavia (2000-03) and Serbia and Montenegro (2003-06) and Serbian minister of labour and social policy (2007-12), health (acting, 2011), and trade and telecommunications (2012-20).

Ljesar, Mihailo (b. 1950, Cetinje, Montenegro - d. [murdered] Dec. 20, 1993, Podgorica, Montenegro), a deputy prime minister of Montenegro (1992-93).

Ljubic, Frano (b. July 27, 1946, Uzarici, near Siroki Brijeg, Herzegovina), premier of Herzegovina-Neretva (1998-99).

Ljubicic, Nikola (b. April 4, 1916, Karan village, near Uzice, Serbia - d. April 13, 2005, Belgrade, Serbia), defense minister of Yugoslavia (1967-82) and president of the Presidency of Serbia (1982-84).

Ljubijankic, Irfan (b. 1952, Bihac, Bosnia and Herzegovina - d. May 28, 1995, Cetingrad, Croatia), foreign minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1993-95). In the first democratic elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1990, Ljubijankic was elected to the Bosnian parliament, later becoming a leading member of the Party of Democratic Action (SDA). In 1991, Ljubijankic was appointed President of the Bihac district, a post he continued to hold throughout the first year of the Bosnian civil war. When that war began in April 1992, Bihac was surrounded by Serb forces from occupied territories in Croatia and from occupied territories within Bosnia. Cut off from the outside world, Bihac suffered tremendously. Rather than remain a professional politician, Ljubijankic volunteered to return to his work in the Bihac hospital. His skills in facial surgery were particularly useful at that time because of the many shrapnel injuries the hospital treated due to Serb shelling. Ljubijankic continued working as both president of the Bihac district and as one of the finest surgeons in the Bihac hospital until he became foreign minister on Oct. 29, 1993. As foreign minister, Ljubijankic traveled frequently in search of a diplomatic peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In one of his last official events, he represented Bosnia and Herzegovina during the V-E Day celebration of the 50th anniversary of the defeat of European fascism in London on May 8, 1995. Three weeks following this event, Ljubijankic was assassinated while leaving Bihac where he completed an important government mission.

Ljung, (Ester Karin) Marita, née Karlsson (b. Sept. 9, 1962, Enköping, Uppsala, Sweden), governor of Jämtland (2021- ).

Ljungdahl, Vilmar (Severin) (b. March 28, 1892, Nöbbele, Kronoberg, Sweden - d. Aug. 20, 1963), finance minister of Sweden (1936).

Lkhagvasüren, Jamyangiyn (b. 1912, Saykhan district, Bulgan province, Mongolia - d. 1982), defense minister of Mongolia (1959-69). He was also ambassador to Bulgaria (1978-80).

Lkhamsüren, Nantayshiriyn (b. May 27, 1917, Tüsheet Khan aymag, Mongolia - d. Jan. 13, 1990, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia), deputy premier and foreign minister of Mongolia (1950-53).

Llach Schonenberg, Prudencio (Francisco Juan) (b. Jan. 26, 1912, Santiago de María, Usulután, El Salvador - d. Feb. 10, 1991, San Salvador, El Salvador), Salvadoran diplomat. He was ambassador to the Vatican (1977-91).

Llandaff, Henry Matthews, (1st) Viscount (b. Jan. 13, 1826, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. April 3, 1913, London, England), British home secretary (1886-92). He was made viscount in 1895.

Llano (Lozano), Manuel María de (b. March 1, 1799, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico - d. March 9, 1863, Monterrey), governor of Nuevo León (1839-45). He was also mayor of Monterrey (1826, 1832, 1841, 1850, 1856).

Llaryora (Seijo), Martín (Miguel) (b. Oct. 6, 1972, San Francisco, Córdoba, Argentina), governor of Córdoba (2023- ). He was also mayor of Córdoba (2019-23).

Llaver, Santiago Felipe (b. Aug. 16, 1916, San Martín, Argentina - d. July 14, 2002), governor of Mendoza (1983-87).

Lleras Camargo
Lleras Camargo, Alberto (b. July 3, 1906, Bogotá, Colombia - d. Jan. 4, 1990, Bogotá), president of Colombia (1945-46, 1958-62). During the 1930s he joined the Partido Liberal and became one of its most prominent members. He served as speaker of the House of Representatives (1931-33) before serving under Pres. Alfonso López Pumarejo as interior minister (1935-37, 1937-38, 1943-45), ambassador to the United States (1943), and foreign minister (1945). When López Pumarejo resigned in 1945, Lleras Camargo became acting president. He was credited in 1957 with helping to establish a coalition with the Conservatives, known as the Frente Nacional. The system, which enabled the Liberals and Conservatives to succeed each other automatically every four years between 1958 and 1974, was effective in reducing widespread rural partisan violence. Lleras Camargo served as the first president under this arrangement, and during his tenure he instituted agrarian reform legislation, drafted a 10-year social and economic development plan, and helped establish greater cooperation in the region by founding (1961) the Latin American Free Trade Association to reduce tariffs in the region. Earlier (1948-54) he had been the first secretary-general of the Organization of American States.

Lleras Restrepo
Lleras Restrepo, Carlos (Alberto) (b. April 12, 1908, Bogotá, Colombia - d. Sept. 27, 1994, Bogotá), finance minister (1938-41, 1941-42, 1943-44) and president (1966-70) of Colombia. A dyed-in-the-wool Liberal, he gained political prominence as head of the Liberal Party in 1941 and again from 1948 to 1950. His second term as party president began after his predecessor, Jorge Gaitán, was assassinated, an event that touched off a decade of violent unrest between the Liberals and Conservatives in Colombia. After his home was burned to the ground in 1952, Lleras Restrepo spent two years in exile in Mexico. As president, he fostered economic union in Latin America as the driving force behind the Andean Pact, an agreement that forged trade links between Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Chile (Chile later pulled out). His bid for the presidency in 1978 was not supported by the party. Nonetheless, he remained active in politics.

Lleshi, Haxhi (Halit) (b. May 1, 1913, Reshan, Albania - d. Jan. 1, 1998, Tiranë, Albania), interior minister (1944-46) and chairman of the Presidium of the People's Assembly (1953-82) of Albania.

Lleshi, Ismail (Imer) (b. Oct. 2, 1947), defense minister of Albania (2000-01).

Lleshi, Sandër, also spelled Lleshaj (b. Jan. 25, 1963, Mirditë, Albania), interior minister of Albania (2018-20).

Llewellin, John Jestyn Llewellin, (1st) Baron (b. Feb. 6, 1893, Chevening, near Sevenoaks, Kent, England - d. Jan. 24, 1957), governor-general of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (1953-57). He was also British president of the Board of Trade (1942), minister of aircraft production (1942), minister resident in Washington for supply (1942-43), and minister of food (1943-45). He was created baron in 1945.

Llewelyn, Sir Robert Baxter (b. 1845 - d. Feb. 19, 1919), commissioner of the Turks and Caicos Islands (1878-83), administrator of Tobago (1885-88), Saint Vincent (1888-89), Saint Lucia (1889-91), and Gambia (1891-1900), and governor of the Windward Islands (1900-06); knighted 1898.

Llona (Álvarez), Ricardo E(ulogio) (b. 1883, Lima, Peru - d. Sept. 28, 1940, Lima), finance minister of Peru (1930).

Llopis Ferrándiz, Rodolfo (b. Feb. 27, 1895, Callosa d'en Sarrià, Alicante province, Spain - d. July 22, 1983, Albi, Tarn, France), prime minister and foreign minister of Spain in exile (1947). He was also general secretary of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party in exile (1954-72).

R. Lloreda
Lloreda Caicedo, Rodrigo (b. Sept. 2, 1942, Cali, Colombia - d. Jan. 13, 2000, Cali), Colombian politician. He served as governor of his home state of Valle del Cauca in 1968-70, and later as senator, education minister (1978-80), foreign minister (1982-84), and ambassador to the United States (1985-86). He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate for the Conservative Party in 1990, but served in the National Constituent Assembly that drafted Colombia's 1991 constitution. Lloreda was a political mentor to Pres. Andrés Pastrana, who appointed him as his first defense minister after taking office in August 1998. As defense minister, Lloreda laid plans to restructure the armed forces, boosting its air mobility and replacing conscripts with volunteer soldiers. Until that point the army had suffered a string of devastating defeats at the hands of Marxist rebels. He frequently clashed with government peace commissioner Víctor Ricardo over the way he was handling peace talks with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) guerrillas. That dispute later developed into a confrontation with Pastrana, whom he accused of granting too many concessions to the rebels for too little in return. Pastrana pulled government security forces out of a region of southeast Colombia the size of Switzerland to create a forum for peace talks. The military accused the FARC of using the area as a centre for a drugs-for-armaments smuggling racket. Lloreda resigned in May 1999 after disagreements with Pastrana over the peace process. Lloreda was widely respected among the military for his straight-talking. When he resigned, more than 10 of Colombia's top generals threatened to resign in solidarity before Pastrana persuaded them to stay.

Lloreda Mera, Francisco José (b. Nov. 13, 1965, Cali, Colombia), Colombian politician. He was minister of national education (2000-02) and ambassador to the Netherlands (2008-10).

Llorente (y Lannas), Alejandro (b. Oct. 10, 1814, Cádiz, Spain - d. Dec. 30, 1901, Madrid, Spain), interior minister (1852-53), finance minister (1853), and foreign minister (1864) of Spain.

Llorente Martínez, Rodrigo (b. Nov. 25, 1928, Cali, Colombia - d. April 28, 2016, Bogotá, Colombia), finance minister of Colombia (1971-73). He was also minister of development (1959-60).

Llorenti Soliz, Sacha (Sergio), also spelled Llorenty (b. March 13, 1972), interior minister of Bolivia (2010-11). He has also been permanent representative to the United Nations (2012-19) and executive secretary of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (2020- ).

Llosa (Gonzales Pavón), Luis Edgardo (b. Oct. 6, 1907, Lima, Peru - d. July 23, 1993, Lima), foreign minister of Peru (1955-56, 1962-63).

Llosa Argüelles, Manuel Belisario (Jesús) (b. June 1, 1894, Lima, Peru - d. Aug. 16, 1973, Miraflores, Lima province, Peru), finance minister of Peru (1948).

Llosa Pautrat, Jorge Guillermo (Belisario) (b. May 29, 1925, Lima, Peru - d. Oct. 23, 2007, Lima), Peruvian diplomat; son of Manuel Belisario Llosa Argüelles. He was ambassador to Bolivia (1975-77), Yugoslavia (1977-79), Venezuela (1979-83), Belgium (1983-85), and Sweden and Norway (1985-87).

Llosa Ricketts, Emilio (Guillermo) (b. July 30, 1912, Arequipa, Peru - d. Feb. 1, 1983, Miraflores, Lima province, Peru), justice minister of Peru (1963-65).

Llovera Páez (Secocín), Luis Felipe (b. April 14, 1913, Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela - d. Sept. 10, 1977, Caracas, Venezuela), Venezuelan junta member (1948-52). He was also minister of interior (1948-52, 1958) and communications (1955-58, 1958).

Lloyd, Edward (b. Feb. 17, 1671 [Feb. 7, 1670, O.S.] - d. March 31, 1719 [March 20, 1718, O.S.]), acting governor of Maryland (1709-14).

Lloyd, Edward (b. July 22, 1779, Talbot county, Maryland - d. June 2, 1834, Annapolis, Md.); governor of Maryland (1809-11); great-grandson of the above.

Lloyd, George Ambrose Lloyd, (1st) Baron (b. Sept. 19, 1879, near Solihull, Warwickshire, England - d. Feb. 4, 1941, London, England), governor of Bombay (1918-23) and British high commissioner of Egypt (1925-29). He was also secretary of state for the colonies (1940-41). He was knighted in 1918 and created baron in 1925.

Lloyd, Henry (b. Feb. 21, 1852, near Cambridge, Md. - d. April 11, 1932, Cambridge), governor of Maryland (1885-88); grandson of Edward Lloyd (1779-1834); great-grandson of John Henry.

Lloyd, James Monteith (b. Nov. 24, 1911 - d. April 6, 1995), administrator of Grenada (1957-62).

Lloyd, Marie-Pierre, née Sinon (b. 1952), Seychelles politician; sister of Guy Sinon. She was minister of social affairs and employment (2006-07) and social development and health (2007-10) and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (2013-17).

P. Lloyd
Lloyd, (George) Peter (b. Sept. 23, 1926 - d. June 24, 2007, London, England), governor of the Cayman Islands (1982-87). He served as a district officer in Kenya (1951-60) and as colonial secretary in Seychelles (1961-66), chief secretary in Fiji (1966-70), and defense secretary in Hong Kong (1971-74). In 1974 he was posted to Bermuda, where he served as deputy governor under three governors until 1981. After his governorship in the Cayman Islands he retired in Bermuda, where he became chairman of the Bermuda Festival of the Performing Arts in 1987.

W.F. Lloyd
Lloyd, Sir William F(rederick) (b. 1864, Stockport, Devon, England - d. June 13, 1937, St. John's, Newfoundland), Newfoundland politician. He entered the political arena as a supporter of Prime Minister Robert Bond and in 1904 was elected to the House of Assembly representing the Liberal party in the district of Trinity. In the 1908 general election he unsuccessfully represented the Liberals in the Port de Grave district and chose not to run the next year, when a tie necessitated another election. But in 1913 he was again elected in Trinity, this time in opposition to the Edward Morris administration. The next year Bond resigned as leader and was replaced by James M. Kent, whom Lloyd in turn replaced as Liberal leader in 1916. The next year he accepted the portfolio of Attorney General in Morris's coalition National Government when that year's general election was postponed to 1918 due to World War I. Morris resigned as prime minister on Dec. 31, 1917, and Lloyd, who had been acting prime minister, was called on to form a new government. In January 1918 Lloyd became the 13th prime minister of Newfoundland. His administration introduced conscription that April and further postponed the pending election to 1919. He was appointed to the British privy council and (1919) created a K.C.M.G. When the war ended Lloyd attended the Paris Peace Conference as one of the five Empire delegates. When he returned, Newfoundland had gone almost six years without a general election. Despite signs of a brewing political crisis, Lloyd announced on April 10 another election postponement, but he resigned in May. He later became the registrar of the Supreme Court, but he did return to public life briefly in 1924 as minister of justice in the administration of Albert E. Hickman.

Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, David Lloyd George, (1st) Earl, Viscount Gwynedd of Dwyfor (b. Jan. 17, 1863, Manchester, England - d. March 26, 1945, Llanystumdwy, Caernarvonshire, Wales), British prime minister (1916-22). A Liberal, he entered Parliament in 1890, winning a by-election at Caernarvon Boroughs, the seat he retained for 55 years. He bitterly and courageously opposed the South African War and in 1901 was nearly lynched in Birmingham, the stronghold of Joseph Chamberlain and Conservative imperialism. In 1905 he was appointed to the cabinet as president of the Board of Trade, and in 1908 he became chancellor of the exchequer. In 1915, when the Liberal government was reconstructed on a coalition basis including the Conservatives, he became minister of munitions. After the June 1916 death of Lord Kitchener, he was appointed to the vacant position at the War Office. When Prime Minister H.H. Asquith was manoeuvred into resigning on December 5, he was replaced two days later by Lloyd George. He was a capable wartime leader and, as one of the three great statesmen at Versailles, bears a major responsibility for the peace settlement. A major domestic problem was Ireland, where the Sinn Féin refused to recognize the British Parliament. From 1919 to 1921 a civil war raged. In the summer of 1921, he reversed the policy of repression in Ireland and began the negotiations that culminated in Irish independence. He resigned in 1922 when the Conservative Party decided to end the coalition. From 1926 to 1931 he headed an ailing Liberal Party. In 1940 Winston Churchill invited him to join his war cabinet, but Lloyd George declined, ostensibly on grounds of age and health. Just two months before his death, he was elevated to the peerage.