Loaiza (Mariaca), Armando (b. Dec. 8, 1943, La Paz, Bolivia), foreign minister of Bolivia (2005-06). He was also ambassador to the Vatican (1994-97) and Uruguay (2003-05).
Lobanov-Rostovsky, Aleksey (Borisovich) (b. Dec. 30 [Dec. 18, O.S.], 1824, Voronezh province, Russia - d. Aug. 30 [Aug. 18, O.S.], 1896, Shepetovka, Russia), foreign minister of Russia (1895-96). He was also chargé d'affaires (1858-59), minister (1859-63), and ambassador (1878-79) to Turkey, ambassador to the United Kingdom (1879-82) and Austria-Hungary (1882-95), and governor of Oryol (1866-67).
Lobão, Edison (b. Dec. 5, 1936, Mirador, Maranhão, Brazil), governor of Maranhão (1991-94). He later was first vice-president (2001-02) and acting president (2001) of the Brazilian Senate.
Lobato, Nicolau dos Reis (b. 1952, Bazartete, western Portuguese Timor [now Timor-Leste] - d. Dec. 31, 1978, near Dare Mulo, East Timor), East Timorese leader. In May 1974, one month after the Carnation Revolution in Lisbon, which triggered the decolonization process, he helped form a political party called the Timorese Social Democratic Association, which in September 1975 became the Revolutionary Front of Independent East Timor (Fretilin). In mid-1975 he went overseas on a diplomatic mission, and in August he played the leading role in the defeat of the Timorese Democratic Union (UDT) in the civil war. At this stage he was vice-president of Fretilin, but because of his leadership in the war he became the real leader of Fretilin, although its president, Francisco Xavier do Amaral, continued to be respected. During the period of Fretilin administration in East Timor (September-December 1975) he endeavoured to establish a farmers cooperative in his home region. When Fretilin formed the Democratic Republic of East Timor on Nov. 28, 1975, he became prime minister, with Amaral as president. His wife Isobel was shot on the Dili wharf on the first day (Dec. 7, 1975) of the Indonesian invasion. For the next three years he was the military and, for the most part, the political leader of the Timorese resistance in the mountains. His position as military commander was confirmed at the Fretilin congress at Soibada in May 1976, and later, after the arrest of Amaral in September 1978, he became the president. When Timorese fortunes were at their lowest after the Operation Encirclement, he was shot in the leg by Indonesian forces. Rather than being taken prisoner, he said "my last bullet is my victory" before shooting himself dead. For the Timorese, both his Fretilin followers and even those who had previously been UDT or Apodeti, he became a folk hero.
Lobo (Sosa), Porfirio, byname Pepe (b. Dec. 22, 1947, Trujillo, Colón department, Honduras), president of Honduras (2010-14). He was president of the National Congress in 2002-06 and an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 2005.
Loch, William (b. Nov. 8, 1846 - d. Aug. 8, 1901), British resident in Nepal (1899-1901).
Locher, Ralph S(idney) (b. July 24, 1915, Romania - d. June 18, 2004, Beachwood, Ohio), mayor of Cleveland (1962-67). He was the city's law director when he was thrust into the mayor's job after Pres. John F. Kennedy appointed Mayor Anthony J. Celebrezze to a federal cabinet post in 1962. Locher immediately faced a special election to remain mayor. Although he was thought to be a mild-mannered technician without political skills, he swamped his opposition so decisively that he was unopposed when he ran for a full term the next year. However, he was not prepared to deal with the heightened black consciousness of the 1960s. His administration became beleaguered before he was defeated by Carl B. Stokes in 1967. Locher was elected a probate judge in 1972 and an Ohio Supreme Court justice in 1976, retiring from the bench on Dec. 31, 1988.
Locke, Gary (Faye) (b. Jan. 21, 1950, Seattle, Wash.), governor of Washington (1997-2005). A son of Chinese immigrants, he seems to have cultivated a Chinese name, Luo Jiahui. He was elected to the state House in 1982 and rose to chair the Appropriations Committee; he supported an income tax and the 1993 tax increases that helped to make Democratic governor Mike Lowry unpopular. That same year, Locke was elected executive of the state's largest county, King, which includes Seattle. In February 1996 Lowry announced his retirement and Locke decided to run for governor. He supported gay and abortion rights and portrayed himself as tough on crime and fiscally moderate. It was a crowded field in an all-party primary. Locke won with 24% of the vote over his Democratic rivals, Seattle mayor Norm Rice (18%) and Jay Inslee (10%). The Republican field was more fragmented, and the nomination was won by former state Senate leader Ellen Craswell, who was an ardent foe of abortion, called homosexuality sinful, and vowed to fill government with "godly" people. She promised to cut state taxes 30% (later modified to 15%), slice government spending, and privatize state universities. Locke won 58%-42%. He became the first Chinese-American governor in the U.S. and the first Asian-American to be elected governor outside Hawaii. Washington's Asian population was less than 6%. His Republican opponent in 2000 was radio talk show host John Carlson, who called for lower taxes, a new bridge to Portland, and more teachers. But voters were in a pro-incumbent mood, and Locke won 58%-40%. In December 2002 he became chairman of the Democratic Governors Association and in January 2003 he delivered the Democratic response to George W. Bush's State of the Union address. On July 21, 2003, he announced he would not seek a third term. He was U.S. commerce secretary in 2009-11 and ambassador to China in 2011-14.
Lodge, Henry Cabot (b. May 12, 1850, Boston, Mass. - d. Nov. 9, 1924, Cambridge, Mass.), U.S. politician. A Republican, he began his political career in the Massachusetts House of Representatives (1880-81) and later was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1887-93) and of the U.S. Senate (1893-1924). He became an implacable foe of Woodrow Wilson, the Democratic president of 1913-21. After the U.S. entered World War I (1917), he called for united support of the war effort. After the armistice, however, his opposition flamed up anew. Though he initially endorsed an international peacekeeping mechanism, he opposed the idea of a world organization with compulsory arbitration as advocated by Wilson. He maintained that there were matters, as touching the Monroe Doctrine, the Panama Canal tolls, or Asiatic immigration, which the U.S. could never consent to submit to arbitration. In the 1918 elections the Republicans gained control of the Senate, and he became chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee. It was largely his leadership and tenacity which prevented the U.S. adoption of the Treaty of Versailles, including the League of Nations covenant. On the one hand, he used delaying tactics to allow enthusiasm for the League to wane; on the other, he introduced a series of amendments (the Lodge reservations) that would require the approval of Congress before the U.S. would be bound by certain League decisions. Wilson refused to accept the reservations, and the treaty was defeated in the Senate. The landslide victory of Republican Warren G. Harding in the 1920 presidential election was considered a vindication of Lodge's position. He went on to serve as one of four U.S. delegates to the Washington Conference on the Limitation of Armaments (1921).
Lodge, Henry Cabot (b. July 5, 1902, Nahant, Mass. - d. Feb. 27, 1985, Beverly, Mass.), U.S. politician; grandson of Henry Cabot Lodge (1850-1924). In 1932 he was elected to the Massachusetts legislature, and four years later to the U.S. Senate, defeating Boston Mayor James M. Curley. He resigned in February 1944 to go on active duty with the U.S. Army, and saw combat in North Africa and Italy. Reelected to the Senate in 1946, he lost his seat in 1952 to Rep. John F. Kennedy. In that year he had been active in promoting the presidential candidacy of Dwight D. Eisenhower, who subsequently appointed Lodge permanent representative to the United Nations (1953-60). His principal tasks in the UN during 1953 and 1954 were to counter Soviet propaganda and attempts to split the Western powers and to combat the continued efforts of the Soviet bloc to secure admission of Communist China to the UN. Much of his time during 1955-56 was spent on efforts to secure release of 11 U.S. airmen imprisoned by China as "spies," to persuade the U.S.S.R. to participate in a world atomic energy pool for peaceful purposes, and to present the U.S. view before the UN subcommittee on disarmament. In 1957 he turned his attention to UN debates over administration of the Suez Canal and to the proposed censure of the U.S.S.R. for its suppression of the Hungarian revolt of 1956. He became something of a television idol and in July 1960 he was nominated vice presidential candidate on the unsuccessful Republican ticket headed by Richard M. Nixon. He served as U.S. ambassador to South Vietnam (1963-64, 1965-67), ambassador at large (1967-68), ambassador to West Germany (1968-69), chief negotiator at the Vietnam peace talks in Paris (1969), and special envoy to the Vatican (1970-77).
Lodge, John Davis (b. Oct. 20, 1903, Washington, D.C. - d. Oct. 29, 1985, New York City), governor of Connecticut (1951-55); brother of Henry Cabot Lodge (1902-85); grandson of Henry Cabot Lodge (1850-1924). He was also U.S. ambassador to Spain (1955-61), Argentina (1969-73), and Switzerland (1983-85).
Lodi, Sardar F(arooq) S(haukat Khan) (b. June 17, 1931, Baghdad, Iraq - d. Sept. 14, 2004, Karachi, Pakistan), governor of Balochistan (1984).
Lodkin, Yury (Yevgenyevich) (b. March 26, 1938), head of the administration of Bryansk oblast (1993, 1996-2004).
Loeak, Christopher (Jorebon) (b. Nov. 11, 1952, Ailinglaplap, Marshall Islands), president of the Marshall Islands (2012- ). He was also minister of justice (1988-92), social services (1992-96), education (1996-97), and the Ralik island chain (1997-99).
Löfven, (Kjell) Stefan (b. July 21, 1957, Stockholm, Sweden), prime minister of Sweden (2014- ). He became leader of the Social Democrats in 2012.
Logiest, Guy, byname of Guillaume Logiest (b. 1912, Ghent, Belgium), special military resident (1959-62) and high representative (1962) of Ruanda.
Loginov, Vladimir (Aleksandrovich) (b. Dec. 23, 1960), governor of Koryakia autonomous okrug (2000-05).
Logoido, Yury (Mikhailovich) (b. Aug. 31, 1938), acting head of the administration of Samara oblast (2000).
Lohman, Maurits Adriaan de Savornin (b. Jan. 9, 1832, Groningen, Netherlands - d. July 12, 1899, The Hague), governor of Dutch Guiana (1889-91).
Lohse, Hinrich (b. Sept. 2, 1896, Mühlenbarbek, Schleswig-Holstein, Prussia, Germany - d. Feb. 25, 1964, Mühlenbarbek), Oberpräsident of Schleswig-Holstein (1933-45) and Reichskommissar of Ostland (1941-44). He was arrested in 1945 and sentenced to 10 years of hard labour in 1948. He was released in 1951 due to health problems.
Loizaga (Lezcano), Eladio (Ramón), also called Eladio Loizaga Caballero (b. March 17, 1949), foreign minister of Paraguay (2013- ). He was permanent representative to the United Nations in 2001-09.
Lokna (Vi-Dina), Fakadi (d. May 18, 2005, N'Djamena, Chad), foreign minister of Chad (1993-94).
Lokoloko, Sir Tore (b. Sept. 21, 1930, Iokea village, Papua [now in Gulf province, Papua New Guinea] - d. March 13, 2013, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea), governor-general of Papua New Guinea (1977-83); knighted 1977.
Lokubandara, W(ijesinghe) J(ayaweera) M(udiyanselage) (b. Aug. 5, 1941, Haputale, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka]), governor of Sabaragamuwa (2010- ). He was speaker of the Sri Lankan parliament in 2004-10.
Lomanto, Antônio, Júnior (b. Nov. 29, 1924, Jequié, Bahia state, Brazil), governor of Bahia (1963-67).
Lombardi, Hernán (Santiago) (b. May 4, 1960, Buenos Aires), minister of tourism, culture, and sports of Argentina (2001).
Lombardo, Héctor (José) (b. 1937, La Boca district, Buenos Aires), public health minister of Argentina (1999-2001).
Lombardo, Raffaele (b. Oct. 29, 1950, Catania, Sicilia, Italy), president of Sicilia (2008-12).
Lon Nol (b. Nov. 13, 1913, Kampong Leon, Prey Vêng province, Cambodia - d. Nov. 17, 1985, Fullerton, Calif., U.S.), president (1972-75) of the Khmer Republic (Cambodia). He entered the French colonial service (1937), becoming a magistrate, then governor of Kratie province (1945), head of the national police (1945, 1951), and governor of Battambang province (1947, 1954). He joined the army as lieutenant colonel (1952) and led a successful campaign against the insurgent Viet Minh as an area commander. He became army chief of staff (1955) and commander in chief (1960) and rose to the rank of lieutenant general in 1961. He was defense minister (1956, 1958, 1959-66), deputy premier (1963-66), and premier (1966-67), resigning after a serious car accident left him hospitalized for several months. He returned to the cabinet as defense minister in 1968 and one year later regained the premiership, also keeping the defense portfolio until 1971. He was a prime architect of the March 1970 coup that overthrew Norodom Sihanouk as head of state. Abandoning Sihanouk's policy of neutrality in the Indochina war, he established close ties with the United States and South Vietnam, permitting their forces to operate on Cambodian territory. The U.S. bombing raids against Vietcong bases in Cambodia resulted in growing alienation of the peasants, and the Communist Khmer Rouge grew from about 3,000 guerrillas to 30,000. After a heart attack in 1971 he resigned (and was raised to the rank of marshal), but it was decided that he should remain titular premier, and he soon took full power again. In March 1972, he installed himself as president. On April 1, 1975, with Khmer Rouge insurgents only a few miles from the capital, he left the country. He lived first in Hawaii but moved to California in 1979.
Lonardi (Doucet), Eduardo (Ernesto) (b. Sept. 15, 1896, Buenos Aires - d. March 22, 1956, Buenos Aires), provisional president of Argentina (1955). He entered the Argentine Military College in 1914 and was commissioned in the Horse Artillery. In 1938 he was sent to Chile as military attaché. In 1947 he went to Washington with the rank of colonel to serve as military attaché and representative on the Inter-American Defense Board. He remained in the U.S. for nine months, returning to Argentina to command the Third Army, a post he held until he was forced to retire in September 1951. He spent much of the next four years in cautious conspiracy to overthrow the regime of Juan Perón. In December 1951 he was jailed for eight months in connection with the abortive effort of a disgruntled general to topple the government. In 1952 he was accused of complicity in a plot to assassinate Perón but escaped imprisonment. A year later he was again confronted in another roundup but escaped arrest. An attempt to seize the government in June 1955 failed because of lack of coordination between the Navy and Army organizations. But General Lonardi continued preparations, and on September 16, he broadcast a proclamation from Córdoba identifying himself as "chief of the forces of liberation." A week later he arrived in Buenos Aires to take over as provisional president. He often referred to the moral and material collapse of Argentina under Perón's dictatorship and said that his government's aim was to restore "the sentiment of decency in the country." After two months he was overthrown in a palace coup, being accused by the ruling military junta of having favoured right-wing "undemocratic" politicians.
Loncar, Budimir (b. April 1, 1924, Preko, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia]), foreign minister of Yugoslavia (1987-91). He was also ambassador to Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore (1965-69), West Germany (1973-77), and the United States (1979-83).
London, Orville (Delano) (b. Nov. 6, 1945, Parlatuvier, Tobago), chief secretary of the Tobago House of Assembly (2001- ).
Lonfernini, Giovanni (b. Oct. 2, 1976, San Marino, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2003-04).
Lonfernini, Luigi (b. Aug. 31, 1938), captain-regent of San Marino (1971, 2001).
Lonfernini, Teodoro (b. May 12, 1976, San Marino, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2012-13).
Long, Earl K(emp) (b. Aug. 26, 1895, Winnfield, Winn parish, La. - d. Sept. 5, 1960, Alexandria, Rapides parish, La.), governor of Louisiana (1939-40, 1948-52, 1956-60); brother of Huey P. Long.
Long, Huey P(ierce), byname The Kingfish (b. Aug. 30, 1893, Winnfield, Winn parish, La. - d. [two days after being shot] Sept. 10, 1935, Baton Rouge, La.), governor of Louisiana (1928-32).
Long, John D(avis) (b. Oct. 27, 1838, Buckfield, Maine - d. Aug. 28, 1915, Hingham, Mass.), governor of Massachusetts (1880-83) and U.S. secretary of the Navy (1897-1902).
Long, Maurice (b. March 15, 1866, Crest, Drôme, France - d. Jan. 15, 1923, Colombo, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka]), governor-general of French Indochina (1920-22).
Long, Olivier (Daniel) (b. Oct. 11, 1915, Petit-Veyrier, near Geneva, Switzerland - d. March 19, 2003, Geneva), director-general of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1968-80).
Long Boret (b. Jan. 3, 1933, Khum Chbar Ampou, Kandal province, Cambodia - d. [executed] April 17, 1975, Phnom Penh), foreign minister (1972-73) and prime minister (1973-75) of Cambodia. In 1971-72 he was information minister.
Long Jiguang (b. 1867, Mengzi, Yunnan, China - d. March 12, 1925, Beijing, China), military governor (1913-16) and civil governor (1913, 1915-16) of Guangdong. He was the brother of Long Jinguang and son of a tribal chief in Yunnan. He was a brigade commander in the Qing dynasty. During the "Second Revolution" (1913) against Yuan Shikai, he followed Yuan's orders and occupied the city of Guangzhou, which contributed to the failure of the revolutionaries, who basically stayed in the south. For a long time he was Yuan's strong supporter in the revolutionary-minded south. He gained the trust of Duan Qirui after Yuan's death and offered to stay on Hainan island. In 1917, he tried to launch an attack on the southern government led by Sun Yat-sen, but failed. He then left politics.
Long Jinguang (b. 1863, Mengzi, Yunnan, China - d. Aug. 7, 1917, Beijing, China), civil governor of Yunnan (1916). He was the younger brother of Long Jiguang and the son of a tribal chief in southern Yunnan. He served in both the Yunnan Army and the Guangxi Army during his early days. He became commander of the 1st Division of the Guangdong Army, which was controlled by the Yunnan Army after the latter made its way to Guangdong. His forces, as well as those of his elder brother, supported Yuan Shikai's imperial reign, and exchanged fire with Cai E's anti-Yuan "Salvation Army" in Yunnan in 1916. He was subsequently detained by Guangxi Gov. Lu Rongting and went to Beijing after being freed.
Long Yun (b. Nov. 19, 1884, Zhaotong, Yunnan, China - d. June 27, 1962, Beijing, China), chairman of the government of Yunnan (1927-45). He served in Tang Jiyao's Yunnan Army for years until 1927, when he, together with Hu Ruoyu, launched a coup and expelled Tang from office. Soon after that he became the 38th Army commander within the National Revolutionary Army, at the same time continuing as Yunnan chairman for more than a decade. During World War II, he was nominated as commander-in-chief of the 1st Army Group, fighting against the Japanese in his province. Nicknamed "King of Yunnan," Long enjoyed significant prestige in his province, and Chiang Kai-shek became suspicious that Yunnan might slip out of his control. In 1945, Long was sacked by Chiang as Yunnan chairman and recalled to the capital. Chiang gave him a powerless post of deputy director of the "Committee of Strategic Advisers," thus putting him under "house arrest." Long fled to Hong Kong at the end of 1948 and joined the Kuomintang Revolutionary Committee (KMT-RC, a KMT anti-Chiang organization which became the largest "democratic party" under the Communist Party's leadership after the founding of the People's Republic). In August 1949, he declared his revolt against Chiang together with Huang Shaohong in Hong Kong. After the Communist victory he became vice-chairman of the National Defense Committee and vice-chairman of the Administrative Council of Southwestern China. He was also vice-chairman of the KMT-RC. He was determined a "rightist" by the government in 1957 (posthumously rehabilitated in 1980).
Longchamp, (Emmanuel) Fritz (M.) (b. Oct. 31, 1948, Port-de-Paix, Haiti), foreign minister of Haiti (1995-2001).
Longden, Sir James Robert (b. 1827 - d. Oct. 4, 1891, Longhope, near Watford, England), president of the British Virgin Islands (1861-64), lieutenant governor of Dominica (1864-67) and British Honduras (1867-70), and governor of Trinidad (1870-74), British Guiana (1874-77), and Ceylon (1877-83); knighted 1876.
Longequeue, Louis (b. Nov. 30, 1914, Saint-Léonard-de-Noblat, Haute-Vienne, France - d. Aug. 11, 1990, Limoges, Haute-Vienne), president of the Regional Council of Limousin (1981-86).
Longerstaey, Edouard (Frederic Theodoor) (b. Dec. 14, 1919, Rupelmonde, Kruibeke municipality, East Flanders province, Belgium - d. March 28, 1986, Kruibeke), secretary-general of the Western European Union (1977-85).
Longford, Frank Pakenham, (7th) Earl of, (6th) Baron Silchester, (1st) Baron Pakenham, Baron Pakenham of Cowley, original name Francis Aungier Pakenham (b. Dec. 5, 1905, London - d. Aug. 3, 2001, London), British politician. He was the second son of the 5th Earl of Longford and great-great-grandson of Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel. He was created 1st Baron Pakenham in 1945 and succeeded to the Irish earldom (and the barony of Silchester) in 1961, when his elder brother died. He was a passionate social reformer and champion of society's outcasts. Born and brought up a Protestant aristocrat and Conservative, he ended up a Socialist, a Roman Catholic, and an Irish Nationalist. His persistent crusades overshadowed his political career, and in later years it was largely forgotten that he had served as leader of the House of Lords (1964-68) and had held other ministerial posts, among them undersecretary at the War Office (1946-47), chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (1947-48), minister of civil aviation (1948-51), first lord of the admiralty (1951), lord privy seal (1964-65, 1966-68), and colonial secretary (1965-66). He opposed the appeasement of Adolf Hitler before World War II and worked on social reforms that led to the creation of Britain's welfare state. He chaired a committee that in 1963 proposed state compensation for victims of violent crime. He was most noted, however, for his prison reform campaign, and particularly for arguing that one of Britain's most notorious modern criminals, child killer Myra Hindley, should be paroled. Lord Longford was made a Knight of the Garter in 1972. In 1999 he was created a life peer as Baron Pakenham of Cowley, allowing him to continue to sit in the House of Lords when hereditary peers lost their right to do so.
Longo, Luigi (b. March 15, 1900, Fubine Monferrato, Piedmont, Italy - d. Oct. 16, 1980, Rome, Italy), Italian politician. In 1919 he joined the Italian Socialist Party but in 1921 he was one of those who broke away to found the Italian Communist Party (PCI). He struggled against Italian Fascism - being arrested for the first time in 1923 for his political activity in Turin and being assaulted and badly beaten by Fascists at Reggio Emilia in 1924 - until Benito Mussolini's ban on political parties forced him into exile. He continued the struggle among Italian refugees in France, Switzerland, and at Moscow, where he represented the PCI in the executive committee of the Communist International in 1932-34. In 1936 he became a political inspector of the international brigades in the Spanish Civil War. He was arrested in France in 1939 and sent back to Italy, where he was interned. Released in 1943, he became deputy commander of the Italian partisan military organization, winning the U.S. Bronze Star for his contribution to the Allied war effort. After the war, he became deputy secretary of the PCI. Knowing his loyalty to the Soviet Union, many were surprised when he was chosen in 1964 to succeed Palmiro Togliatti as secretary-general of the most independent of the European Communist parties. But he proved to be a firm supporter of the "Italian road to socialism" and denounced the Soviet intervention in Czechoslovakia in 1968. After his retirement in 1972, he became party president, an honorary post. He continued to support the diversity of roads to socialism (as in an article he was allowed to contribute to Pravda in 1977), but he expressed misgivings about the "historic compromise" with non-Communist political parties, a policy pursued by his successor, Enrico Berlinguer.
Longrigg, Tony, byname of Anthony James Longrigg (b. April 21, 1944), governor of Montserrat (2001-04).
Lønningdal, Kristin (Kverneland) (b. Jan. 1, 1923, Stavanger, Rogaland, Norway - d. Feb. 23, 2010), governor of Rogaland (1982-91).
Lonsdale, Baldwin (Jackson), president of Vanuatu (2014- ).
Loodus, Tarmo (b. Feb. 18, 1958, Lihula borough, Lääne county, Estonian S.S.R.), interior minister of Estonia (1999-2002). Loodus, who was mayor of Viljandi in 1996-99, is a member of the Pro Patria Union.
Lopes, Amílcar (Fernandes) Spencer (b. Sept. 8, 1948, Vila da Ribeira Brava, São Nicolau island, Cape Verde), foreign minister of Cape Verde (1996-98). He was elected to the National Assembly in 1991 and was its president in 1991-95. He was ambassador to the U.S. (1998-2001) and to Canada (1999-2001).
Lopes, Cristiano Dias, Filho (b. Dec. 26, 1927, Bom Jesus do Norte, Espírito Santo, Brazil - d. Sept. 9, 2007, Vitória, Espírito Santo), governor of Espírito Santo (1967-71).
Lopes, Francisco Higino Craveiro (b. April 12, 1894, Lisbon - d. Sept. 2, 1964, Lisbon), governor-general of Portuguese India (1936-38) and president of Portugal (1951-58).
Lopès, Henri (b. Sept. 12, 1937, Léopoldville [now Kinshasa]), prime minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (1973-75). He was also minister of national education (1969-71), foreign minister (1971-73), finance minister (1977-80), and ambassador to France (1998- ).
Lopes, Pedro (Miguel de) Santana (b. June 29, 1956, Lisbon, Portugal), prime minister of Portugal (2004-05). He joined the centre-right Social Democrats in 1976, and was elected senior vice president of the party in February 2002, and president on July 1, 2004. He was elected to the Portuguese parliament in 1980 for the first of two four-year terms and later to the European Parliament. In 1991, he became secretary of state for culture. After his party's defeat in the 1995 general election he became president of the soccer club Sporting Lisbon. In 1997, he was elected mayor of Figueira da Foz, a small town north of Lisbon. Four years later he won the race for Lisbon's mayor, a post he held until he was appointed prime minister in July 2004, replacing José Manuel Durão Barroso who resigned to become European Commission president. His first five months in office were marked by delays in the start of the school year, accusations of government interference in the media, a downgrading of the credit outlook given by ratings agency Standard and Poor's, and the angry resignation of a minister. Then in December Pres. Jorge Sampaio called early elections for February 2005, and Lopes resigned, remaining in a caretaker capacity until the elections, which were won by the Socialist Party. Lopes then resigned as party president and briefly returned as mayor of Lisbon (March-September 2005).
López (Carrillo), Francisco Solano (b. July 24, 1827, Asunción, Paraguay - d. March 1, 1870, Cerro Corá [now in Amambay department]), president of Paraguay (1862-69). The eldest son of the dictator Carlos Antonio López, he was made a brigadier general at the age of 18. Upon his father's death (Sept. 10, 1862) he seized power and quickly fortified it with the help of the army. His Irish mistress, Elisa Alicia Lynch, became a person of enormous influence in Paraguay. Vastly overrating Paraguay's military potential and underestimating its two giant neighbours, Brazil and Argentina, he in 1863 allowed himself to be drawn into boundary disputes with both countries and into a civil war raging in Uruguay in which Brazil and Argentina were involved. He may have hoped to play the role of arbitrator in the dispute and thereby take centre stage in Latin American politics, but as a result of complicated diplomatic intrigues, he found himself at war with Brazil in December 1864. By demanding the right to place troops in the Argentine province of Corrientes, violating Argentina's desire to remain neutral, he provoked the Triple Alliance of Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay against Paraguay on May 1, 1865. Although he had successfully invaded Brazil's Mato Grosso province in late 1864, his invasion of Uruguay in 1865 was a disaster. The allies defeated him at Tuyutí in May 1866 and captured the fortress of Humaitá in July 1867. In January 1869 he was forced to withdraw into northern Paraguay, where he held out for another fourteen months until he was routed and, after refusing to surrender, was killed. While some saw him as a paranoid megalomaniac who wanted to become South America's Napoléon, he was later also regarded as a hero who resisted Argentine and Brazilian designs on Paraguay.
López, Germán (Osvaldo) (b. 1918/19 - d. 1989), defense minister of Argentina (1986).
López (Requena), José Venancio (b. 1791 - d. Sept. 28, 1863), president of Guatemala (1842).
López, Patxi, byname of Francisco Javier López Álvarez (b. Oct. 4, 1959, Portugalete, Vizcaya province, Spain), president of the government of País Vasco/Euskadi (2009-12).
Lopez, Salvador P(once Sinang) (b. May 27, 1911, Currimao, Ilocos Norte province, Philippines - d. Oct. 18, 1993), foreign secretary of the Philippines (1963-64). He was ambassador to France (1955-62) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1964-68, 1986-88).
López Arellano, Oswaldo (Enrique) (b. June 30, 1921, Danli, Honduras - d. May 16, 2010, Tegucigalpa, Honduras), head of state of Honduras (1963-71, 1972-75). He was a member of the ruling Military Government Council in 1957. As defense minister and head of the armed forces, Colonel López Arellano ousted Pres. Ramón Villeda Morales in 1963 and two years later held a constitutional assembly that formalized his position as president of Honduras, then a banana-producing country under the sway of Washington. In 1969 a short but bloody war with El Salvador known as the "Soccer War" broke out after teams from the two nations played World Cup qualifying matches that saw opposing supporters beaten or killed. He remained in power until 1971, when he was constitutionally debarred from standing for reelection. He then backed Ramón Ernesto Cruz Uclés, like himself of the National Party, who won the election. Remaining head of the armed forces, in 1972 he toppled Cruz in another military coup. He was himself ousted by the armed forces in 1975 after dissident officers accused him of receiving a $2.5 million bribe they said U.S. banana company United Brands offered to reduce a banana export tax.
López Bravo (y Castro), Gregorio (b. Dec. 19, 1923, Madrid, Spain - d. Feb. 19, 1985, near Bilbao, Spain), Spanish politician. In 1959 he was appointed director general of the Department of Trade within the Ministry of Commerce. In line with the policy adopted by Francisco Franco in the 1950s, he opposed doctrinaire Falangist economic nationalism and advocated contemporary European and American management and industrial methods. In 1960 he became head of the Institute of Foreign Currency in the Ministry of Finance. As minister of industry (1962-69) he encouraged private investment and laid the foundations for the rapid economic growth of that period. As foreign minister (1969-73) he continued the policies of his predecessor, José María Castiella. He travelled widely (becoming known as "Señor Barajas" after Madrid's airport) in an attempt to develop Spain's diplomatic and trade links with Western and Eastern Europe, Latin America, and the Arab states. An early success was the establishment of relations with the Soviet Union at permanent trade mission level. His eventual removal from office was attributed to his failure to extract from Britain any promises regarding the future status of Gibraltar. He was severely criticized for his decision to withdraw the Gibraltar issue from the agenda of the United Nations General Assembly, in order to save Britain embarrassment, and when he nevertheless returned empty-handed from his fourth meeting with British foreign secretary Sir Alec Douglas-Home (May 1973). After Franco's death (1975) he was a member (1977-79) of the Cortes (parliament) elected under the Political Reform Law. He was killed in an air crash.
López Caballero, Alfonso (b. 1949?), Colombian politician; son of Alfonso López Michelsen. He served as agriculture minister in the early 1990s but was forced to quit in a scandal over oil rights on land he owned in Casanare province. López and other landowners sought government compensation for the exploitation of oil reserves under their property, despite provisions in the constitution placing oil and mineral rights in state hands. He stepped down after accusations that he had tried to gain personal benefit from his ministerial position and from his status as son of a former president. He served as interior minister from January to August 1998.
López Contreras, Carlos (b. Jan. 31, 1942, Márcala, La Paz department, Honduras), foreign minister of Honduras (1986-90, 2009-10).
López Guevara, Carlos Alfredo (b. Jan. 7, 1929, Pocrí, Coclé province, Panama - d. March 3, 2008), foreign minister of Panama (1968-69). He was also ambassador to the U.S. and Canada (1978-80).
López Mateos, Adolfo (b. May 26, 1910, Atizapán de Zaragoza [now Ciudad López Mateos], México state, Mexico - d. Sept. 22, 1969, Mexico City), president of Mexico (1958-64). He entered politics in 1929, first as a socialist, then as a member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). He was elected senator for the state of México in 1946. He became campaign manager for Adolfo Ruiz Cortines in the presidential campaign of 1951-52. Ruiz Cortines named him secretary-general of the PRI and later included him in his cabinet as minister of labour and social security. He showed conciliatory talents - there were no serious strikes during his term of office - and helped draft the U.S.-Mexico migrant-labour treaty. He was chosen as the PRI candidate for the presidency in November 1957 and was elected president on July 6, 1958, by an approximate margin of 10 to 1 over his opponent, Luis H. Álvarez. The presidential election was the first in which women could vote. His election had been a certainty, since no presidential candidate of the PRI had been defeated in decades. Leading the country during the time Fidel Castro came to power in Cuba and when many Mexicans asked whether their own revolution of the 1910s had not been betrayed, he needed to walk a tightrope between the vociferous left wing with communist sympathies and the right who were determined to cling to their fortunes. Some of his left-wing declarations, clearly intended for home consumption, aroused near-panic reaction in the U.S., leading to large-scale flights of capital, but he later conciliated the businessmen, though he refused to modify his policies of continued agrarian reforms and resisted pressure from the U.S. to take an actively hostile attitude to Castro's government.
López Michelsen, Alfonso (Antonio Lázaro) (b. June 30, 1913, Bogotá, Colombia - d. July 11, 2007, Bogotá), president of Colombia (1974-78); son of Alfonso López Pumarejo. Returning to Colombia from voluntary exile in Mexico in 1958, he organized a new party of dissident Liberals, the Liberal Revolutionary Movement (MRL), to oppose the National Front, the coalition of the two major established parties, the Liberals and Conservatives. Established in 1957 to end a decade of violent civil strife, the National Front pact had guaranteed the peaceful alternation of presidential terms between the two parties, thereby, in López' opinion, stifling any real political competition and leadership. He ran unsuccessfully for president in 1962 but gained a seat in the Senate, to which he was reelected in 1966. In 1967 he made peace with the orthodox Liberal Party leadership and, returning to the fold, was appointed governor of the new department of César by Pres. Alberto Lleras Camargo. In August 1968 he became foreign minister, serving until 1970; he formed closer ties with the Soviet Union and worked for better relations with other Latin American countries. In 1974 the termination of the National Front agreement restored competitive presidential elections, and he soundly defeated Conservative Álvaro Gómez Hurtado. A provisional extension of the pact, however, required the president to form a cabinet made up of equal numbers of Liberals and Conservatives. He took steps to curb inflation, raised taxes on high incomes, and eliminated price subsidies. But there was a rise in unemployment, leading to a surge in labour unrest, land seizures by peasants, and guerrilla activity, moving him to declare a state of siege in 1975. He lost the 1982 presidential election to Conservative Belisario Betancur Cuartas.
López Murphy, Ricardo (Hipólito) (b. Aug. 10, 1951, Buenos Aires), defense minister of Argentina (1999-2001). He was a presidential candidate in 2003.
López Nogales, Armando (b. Sept. 1, 1950, Cananea, Sonora, Mexico), governor of Sonora (1997-2003).
López Obrador, Andrés Manuel ("AMLO") (b. Nov. 13, 1953, Tepetitán, Macuspana municipality, Tabasco state, Mexico), Mexican politician. In the 1960s he joined the ruling Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), but by 1988 he and other dissenters were accusing the party of betraying the poor and soon formed the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD). He became the PRD leader in Tabasco and ran for governor in 1994. Losing to the PRI candidate, he claimed fraud and launched a protest campaign which helped propel him to national prominence. In 2000, he won election as chief of government of the Distrito Federal (mayor of Mexico City). Hundreds of thousands of his supporters protested weekly after the Mexican Congress voted on April 7, 2005, to strip him of his immunity from prosecution. Mexico's attorney general's office filed contempt of court charges against López Obrador on April 20, on allegations he disobeyed a court order to halt the construction of a road in 2001. López Obrador said the case against him was politically motivated, to prevent him from running for president. A court later sent back the charges, and Pres. Vicente Fox retreated by replacing the attorney general and ordering a review; the new attorney general dropped the case on May 4. On July 29 López Obrador resigned to run for the PRD presidential nomination, which he obtained in September. In the presidential election of July 2006, he was defeated by less than a percentage point by Felipe Calderón of the governing National Action Party. He claimed he was the victim of fraud, and his supporters engaged in massive protests, blocking the central boulevard of Mexico City with a tent camp from July 31 to September 15. On November 20 he was "sworn in" as "legitimate president" in an alternative inauguration ceremony, saying he was launching a "parallel government."
López Portillo (y Pacheco), José (Guillermo Abel) (b. June 16, 1920, Mexico City - d. Feb. 17, 2004, Mexico City), president of Mexico (1976-82). He held various administrative positions under presidents Gustavo Díaz Ordaz and Luis Echeverría Álvarez before becoming minister of finance in 1971. As president he followed a more conservative approach than that of his predecessor, deemphasizing land redistribution and favouring the creation of nonagricultural jobs, exploitation of oil and natural gas, tax concessions to stimulate industrial development, and attraction of foreign investment. His most significant political reform was to increase the size of the Chamber of Deputies to 400, with a minimum of 100 seats reserved for opposition parties. This measure was designed to permit more minority participation in Mexican politics, which had been dominated by the Institutional Revolutionary Party since 1929. On the international front, he adopted a somewhat conciliatory approach toward supplying the United States with oil and gas while exerting pressure for the easing of U.S. trade and immigration restrictions. His ambitious program for the exploitation of huge, newly discovered petroleum reserves by Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), the state-owned Mexican oil agency, resulted in the rapid expansion of Mexico's oil exports, but by the end of his term in 1982, the bottom had fallen out of the world crude oil market, rampant government corruption and unrestrained government borrowing had resulted in a huge foreign debt, and the economy was in shambles. For many years after the boom went bust, he was reviled. In 1983 Pres. Miguel de la Madrid dissociated himself from López's administration, accusing it of aggravating the "grotesque" maldistribution of wealth and defrauding PEMEX.
López Pumarejo, Alfonso (b. Jan. 31, 1886, Honda, Tolima department, Colombia - d. Nov. 20, 1959, London), president of Colombia (1934-38, 1942-45). He first entered politics in 1915 when he was elected to the Chamber of Representatives as a Liberal. In 1930 he helped to elect as president Enrique Olaya Herrera, bringing the Liberal Party to power for the first time in 45 years. López was then named minister to Britain. In 1934 he was elected president himself, being opposed only by a Communist candidate, Estiquio Timote. A friendship he had formed in Britain with Óscar R. Benavides, who became president of Peru in 1933, averted a threatened war between the two countries over the ownership of Leticia on the upper Amazon and led to the signing of a protocol of peace and friendship. He formally tendered his resignation in 1937 because he was dissatisfied with the action of parties in Congress, but it was refused. The constitution prohibited a president from serving two consecutive terms, but after an interval of four years he was elected a second time in 1942, defeating Carlos Arango Vélez. He was on leave of absence from November 1943 to May 1944, to take his wife to the United States for medical treatment, and thereafter again attempted to resign, but rescinding the resignation after the Senate rejected it. In an abortive coup by an army faction in July 1944, he was kidnapped and held for a short time. He finally resigned in July 1945. López has been hailed as a great reformer and one of Colombia's best presidents in the 20th century. He headed the Colombian delegation to United Nations assemblies in 1945, 1948, and 1958, and served as ambassador to Britain since June 1959.
Lorak, Nidel L. (b. 1943?), Marshall Islands politician. In 2000 the third-term senator from Arno Atoll became minister of internal affairs; in 2002 he was shifted to public works and in 2008-12 he was education minister.
Lord, Bernard (b. Sept. 27, 1965, Moncton, N.B.), premier of New Brunswick (1999-2006).
Lord, William P(aine) (b. July 20, 1838, Dover, Del. - d. Feb. 17, 1911, San Francisco, Calif.), governor of Oregon (1895-99). He was also U.S. minister to Argentina (1900-03).
Loret de Mola Mediz, Carlos (b. July 30, 1921, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico - d. [officially in car accident, but believed assassinated] between Feb. 5 and 7, 1986), governor of Yucatán (1970-76).
Loreto, Sérgio Teixeira Lins de Barros (b. Sept. 9, 1870, Águas Belas municipality, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. March 6, 1937), governor of Pernambuco (1922-26).
Lortkipanidze, Vazha (b. Nov. 29, 1949, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), minister of state of Georgia (1998-2000). He was also ambassador to Russia (1995-98).
Losco, Andrea (b. March 31, 1951, Cardito, Campania, Italy), president of Campania (1999-2000).
Losembe Batwanyele, original name (until 1972) Mario (Philippe) Cardoso (b. Sept. 29, 1933, Stanleyville, Belgian Congo [now Kisangani, Congo (Kinshasa)]), foreign minister of Congo (Kinshasa)/Zaire (1970-72). He was also minister of national education (1969-70).
Losonczi, Pál (b. Sept. 18, 1919, Bolhó, Somogy county, Hungary - d. March 28, 2005, Kaposvár, Somogy county), chairman of the Presidential Council of Hungary (1967-87). He joined the Communist Party in 1945 and became a member of parliament in 1953. He was agriculture minister in 1960-67.
Lott, (Chester) Trent (b. Oct. 9, 1941, Grenada, Miss.), U.S. politician. He worked as an administrative assistant (1968-72) in the U.S. House of Representatives. Elected to the House in 1972, he became Republican whip in 1981. He won election to the U.S. Senate in 1988, where he was active on the armed services, budget, and other committees. He was reelected in 1994 and was chosen majority whip. He was chosen majority leader of the Senate on June 12, 1996. He replaced Sen. Robert Dole, who had resigned from the Senate to devote himself full-time to his presidential campaign. Called an ardent conservative, Lott was considered to be a close ally of Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich. Lott lost his place as majority leader on June 6, 2001, when Jim Jeffords' defection from the Republican Party placed the Senate in Democratic hands. He then served as minority leader until Jan. 3, 2003.
Loua, Alexandre Cécé (b. 1956, Nzérékoré, Guinea), foreign minister of Guinea (2009-10). He has been ambassador to Yugoslavia, Macedonia, and Bulgaria (1996-98), South Africa and the other countries of the Southern African Development Community (2001-07), Germany (2007-09), and India (2012- ).
Loubère, Jean-Louis (b. Aug. 18, 1820, Riguepeu, Gers, France - d. ...), governor of French Guiana (1870-77).
Loubet, Émile (François) (b. Dec. 30, 1838, Marsanne, Drôme, France - d. Dec. 20, 1929, Montélimar, Drôme), president of France (1899-1906). He was elected mayor of Montélimar in 1870 and held that office until he became president. He entered the Chamber of Deputies in 1876 as a moderate republican and worked for free, obligatory, and secular primary education. He entered the Senate in 1885 and was minister of public works in 1887-88. He became prime minister and minister of the interior in February 1892, but his tenure as premier ended in December on the question of the Panama scandal (the collapse of the French Panama Canal company, the Compagnie Universelle du Canal Interocéanique), though he continued to serve as interior minister until January 1893. In 1896-99 he was president of the Senate, and then was elected president of the republic following the death of Félix Faure. Favouring settlement of the case of Alfred Dreyfus, the Jewish army officer convicted for treason on questionable evidence in 1894, he summoned René Waldeck-Rousseau to form a ministry to resolve the affair and appealed to all republicans to rally behind it. Dreyfus, brought back from the Devil's Island penal colony, was again convicted by a court-martial, but Loubet pardoned him, signaling the victory of republican forces against those of the royalists, the Roman Catholic clergy, and the army. In 1905, amid violent controversy, any relationship of the Roman Catholic Church, as well as of the Protestant and Jewish faiths, to the state was dissolved. In foreign affairs, Loubet smoothed relations with Britain in April 1904 by signing the Entente Cordiale, and also exchanged visits with the Russian emperor and other European leaders. He survived an assassination attempt in 1905.
Loubet, Lucien Vincent (b. March 1, 1905, Paris, France), acting commissioner of Cambodia (1948-49).
Lougheed, Sir James Alexander (b. Sept. 1, 1854, Brampton, Ont. - d. Nov. 2, 1925, Ottawa), Canadian minister without portfolio (1911-18), minister of soldiers' civil re-establishment (1918-21), and minister of interior and mines (1920-21); knighted 1916.
Lougheed, (Edgar) Peter (b. July 26, 1928, Calgary, Alberta - d. Sept. 13, 2012, Calgary), premier of Alberta (1971-85); grandson of Sir James Alexander Lougheed. In 1965 he became leader of the Alberta Progressive Conservative Party. At that time his party did not have a single seat in the Alberta legislature, but he quickly reversed the party's fortunes. He was first elected in 1967 to represent Calgary West in the legislature. In the 1971 provincial election the Progressive Conservative Party gained a majority of seats, and Lougheed became premier of Alberta. His goal as premier was to convert the money earned from oil revenues into permanent capital to yield a self-sustaining economy once the nonrenewable resource base was exhausted. To this purpose his government established with oil revenues the Alberta Heritage Fund, a financial base from which to finance future industrialization and development in the province. Lougheed, a former football player with the Edmonton Eskimos, became the man to fight for Alberta in the conflict with the federal government over the pricing and sharing of the oil and gas reserves. The battle began in 1973 when the federal government put an export tax on crude oil. Finally, after years of wrangling, haggling, and political maneuvering, the province and the federal government reached an agreement on oil pricing on Sept. 2, 1981. By the terms of this pact the federal government would receive 25% of the oil revenue and Alberta 75%. Lougheed disclaimed any ambition in federal politics. In 1975 he was his party's first choice for national leader, but he declined the offer, preferring to stay in Alberta to work for the province. He won reelection with huge majorities until he retired in 1985.
Lougnon, Jean Baptiste Antoine (b. July 21, 1843, Ainay-le-Château, Allier, France - d. ...), governor of French Guiana (1884-85) and Réunion (1886, 1887-88).
Louis II, in full Louis Honoré Charles Antoine (b. July 12, 1870, Baden-Baden, Germany - d. May 9, 1949, Monaco), prince of Monaco (1922-49).
Louis XIV, byname Louis the Great, Louis the Grand Monarch, or the Sun King, French Louis le Grand, Louis le Grand Monarque, or le Roi Soleil, original name Louis-Dieudonné (b. Sept. 5, 1638, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France - d. Sept. 1, 1715, Versailles, France), king of France (1643-1715). He was the son of Louis XIII and his Spanish queen, Anne of Austria. He succeeded his father at the age of four years and eight months. In 1660 he married Marie-Thérèse of Austria, daughter of the king of Spain. After the chief minister Cardinal Jules Mazarin died in 1661, Louis told his astonished ministers that he intended to assume all responsibility for ruling the kingdom, something that had not occurred since the reign of Henry IV. In 1667 he invaded the Spanish Netherlands, which he regarded as his wife's inheritance, thus beginning a series of wars that lasted for a good part of his reign. He had to retreat (1668) in the face of English and especially Dutch pressure. He swore to destroy the Dutch republic; allying himself with his cousin Charles II of England, he invaded the Netherlands in 1672, emerging triumphant in 1678. He extended the frontier of France in the north and east by annexing part of Flanders as well as Lorraine and the Franche-Comté. He devoted himself to building new residences, including Versailles, to which the seat of government was transferred in 1682. The queen died in 1683, and he secretly married Mme de Maintenon. His revocation (1685) of the Edict of Nantes, which had guaranteed the Protestants' freedom of worship, drove many artisans from France and caused great misfortune. The War of the Grand Alliance (1688-97) forced him to give up part of his territorial acquisitions, and the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-14) further strained French resources.
Louis XV, byname Louis the Well-Beloved, French Louis le Bien-Aimé (b. Feb. 15, 1710, Versailles, France - d. May 10, 1774, Versailles), king of France (1715-74). He was the great-grandson of King Louis XIV and the son of Louis, duc de Bourgogne, and Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy. Because his parents and his only surviving brother all died in 1712, he became king on the death of Louis XIV. Until he attained his legal majority in February 1723, France was governed by a regent, Philippe II, duc d'Orléans, who in 1721 betrothed Louis to the infanta Mariana, daughter of King Felipe V of Spain. Orléans died in December 1723, and his successor as chief minister, Louis-Henri, duc de Bourbon-Condé, cancelled the Spanish betrothal and married the king to Marie Leszczynska, daughter of the dethroned king Stanislaw I of Poland. The Polish connection led to French involvement against Austria and Russia in the War of the Polish Succession (1733-38). André-Hercule de Fleury, who had replaced Bourbon-Condé in 1726, died in 1744, and Louis thereafter ruled without a chief minister. He occupied himself with a succession of mistresses some of whom exercised considerable political influence. Pauline-Félicité de Mailly-Nesle, marquise de Vintimille, his mistress from 1739 to 1741, had sponsored the war party that brought France into the inconclusive War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48) against Austria and Britain. In September 1745 he took as his official mistress (maîtresse en titre) Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, marquise de Pompadour, whose influence lasted until her death in 1764. In the Seven Years' War (1756-63), France lost to the British almost all her colonial possessions in North America and India. Generally, Louis' long reign was marked by a decline in the crown's moral and political authority.
Louis XVI, also called (until 1774) Louis-Auguste, duc (duke) de Berry (b. Aug. 23, 1754, Versailles, France - d. Jan. 21, 1793, Paris, France), king of France (1774-92). He was the third son of the dauphin Louis and his consort Maria Josepha of Saxony. He became the heir to the throne on his father's death in 1765. In 1770 he married the Austrian archduchess Marie-Antoinette, daughter of Maria Theresa and the Holy Roman emperor Franz I. He became king on the death of his grandfather Louis XV. It was aristocratic opposition to the fiscal, economic, and administrative reforms of the controller-general of finance, Charles Alexandre de Calonne, in 1787 that forced the king, in July 1788, to summon the States General, the representatives of the clergy, nobility, and commoners, for the following year and thus set in motion the French Revolution. Louis's resistance to popular demands was one of the causes of the forcible transfer of the royal family from Versailles to the Tuileries Palace in Paris on Oct. 6, 1789. Yet he made still more mistakes, acquiescing in the disastrous attempt to escape from the capital to the eastern frontier on June 21, 1791. Caught at Varennes and brought back to Paris, his powers were temporarily suspended by the Legislative Assembly. The republic was proclaimed on Sept. 21, 1792. In November proof of his counterrevolutionary intrigues with foreigners was found in a secret cupboard in the Tuileries. On December 3, it was decided that Louis, who together with his family had been imprisoned since August, should be brought to trial for treason. Citizen Capet, as he was then called, was condemned to death on Jan. 18, 1793. He was guillotined in the Place de la Révolution in Paris three days later.
Louis XVIII, also called (until 1795) Louis Stanislas Xavier, comte (count) de Provence (b. Nov. 17, 1755, Versailles, France - d. Sept. 16, 1824, Paris, France), king of France (1814-15, 1815-24); brother of Louis XVI.
Louis-Philippe I, also called Louis-Philippe, duc (duke) d'Orléans, byname Roi Citoyen ("Citizen King") (b. Oct. 6, 1773, Paris, France - d. Aug. 26, 1850, Claremont, Surrey, England), king of France (1830-48). He was the eldest son of Louis Philippe Joseph de Bourbon-Orléans, duc de Chartres, and Adélaïde de Bourbon-Penthièvre. At first styled duc de Valois, he became duc de Chartres when his father inherited the title duc d'Orléans in 1785. On the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, he joined the group of progressive nobles who supported the revolutionary government. When France went to war with Austria in April 1792, he joined the Army of the North, but in April 1793 he joined his commander in deserting to the Austrians, thereafter living in exile in various countries. He became duc d'Orléans on the execution of his father by the Jacobin government in November 1793. Later he reconciled the house of Orléans with the elder branch of the Bourbon family, headed by Louis XVIII, the exiled titular king of France. He returned to France on the first restoration of Louis XVIII (1814) and recovered part of the Orléans estates. After the second restoration of Louis XVIII (1815), Louis-Philippe was a consistent adherent of the liberal opposition. In 1830 Charles X's repressive measures touched off a rebellion that gave Louis-Philippe his opportunity to gain power. He was elected lieutenant-general of the kingdom by the legislature on July 31, two days before Charles abdicated. On August 9 Louis-Philippe accepted the crown as "king of the French." His so-called July Monarchy relied on the bourgeoisie. Faced with an insurrectionary movement of proletarian and middle-class elements, he abdicated in 1848 and, disguised as "Mr. Smith," fled to England.
Louisa-Godett, Mirna (Altagracia) (b. Jan. 29, 1954, Willemstad, Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles), prime minister of the Netherlands Antilles (2003-04).
Louisy, Sir Allan (Fitzgerald Laurent) (b. Sept. 5, 1916, Laborie village, Saint Lucia - d. March 2, 2011, Laborie), prime minister of Saint Lucia (1979-81). He served as registrar of the Supreme Court and additional magistrate (1946-50), senior magistrate in Antigua (1951-54), and crown attorney and legal draftsman in Montserrat (1954-55) and then in Dominica (1956-58). His career then took him to Jamaica, where he was resident magistrate, then registrar of the Supreme Court and Court of Appeal until 1964, when he took up a post on the bench of the Associated States Appeal Court. His political career began in October 1973 (shortly after he retired as a judge of the Appeal Court) with the then opposition St. Lucia Labour Party (SLP). The party was split over the question of leadership at the time, and Louisy came on the scene as a mediator. He negotiated the admission of new blood into the party and brought to it a measure of respectability that it had not known for many years. In the elections of May 1974, he made his first attempt at a House of Assembly seat, running in his home village of Laborie. The SLP lost by seven seats to ten for the United Workers Party (UWP), but Louisy won his contest by a margin of over 1,000 votes and was selected by the party as leader of the opposition in the new Parliament. Two years later the SLP's leadership problem, which had remained unresolved, was settled at a national party convention, and Louisy emerged triumphant in a three-way contest. On July 2, 1979, he became prime minister following the resounding defeat, in the first post-independence election, of the UWP, which had held power for 16 years under the leadership of John Compton. Louisy resigned as prime minister in 1981, but was appointed a minister without portfolio and later attorney general. He did not seek reelection in 1982 and retired from the political arena soon thereafter. He was knighted in 2005.
Louisy, Dame (Calliopa) Pearlette (b. June 8, 1946, Laborie village, Saint Lucia), governor-general of Saint Lucia (1997- ); knighted 1999.
Louly, Mohamed Mahmoud Ould (Ahmed), Arabic Muhammad Mahmud walad Ahmad Luli (b. Jan. 1, 1943, Tidjikja, central Mauritania), president of Mauritania (1979-80). He joined the Army in November 1960. He was trained in French military academies and subsequently held various administrative posts on the Mauritanian general staff. He was a member of the Military Committee for National Recovery (CMRN), which in July 1978 ousted Pres. Moktar Ould Daddah, and its successor, the Military Committee for National Salvation, formed on April 6, 1979. In Mustafa Ould Salek's government (1978-79) Louly was successively minister in charge of inquiries and investigations, minister in charge of the CMRN permanent committee, and minister of cadre training and the civil service. On June 3, 1979, he became head of state. The change in leadership followed Salek's progressive loss of authority as a result of Mauritania's worsening situation. Considered to be an able administrator and a man of integrity, Louly had some experience as an economist in addition to his military training. In his first message to the nation, he reaffirmed Mauritania's determination to find a solution to the conflict in Western Sahara which had increasingly sapped its resources during the past three years. Louly's first act was to announce the formation of a new government, whose composition reflected the need to find solutions to the country's two most pressing problems: the disastrous state of the national finances; and the mounting tension between the Moors and the black African tribes of the south. The number of black ministers in the new 14-member government was increased from 4 to 5. Louly was deposed in January 1980 by the prime minister, Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidalla.
Loum, Mamadou Lamine (b. Feb. 3, 1952, Mboss, Senegal), prime minister of Senegal (1998-2000). He was delegate minister in charge of the budget (1993-98) until he took over as minister of economy, finance, and planning on the resignation of Pate Ousmane Sackho in April 1998. Loum, who had no political affiliation, became prime minister when Habib Thiam resigned in July 1998, following general elections in May.
Loutsch, Hubert (b. Nov. 18, 1878, Monnerich, Luxembourg - d. Oct. 24, 1946, Brussels), prime minister of Luxembourg (1915-16).
Louveau, Edmond (Jean) (b. Aug. 4, 1895, Mamers, Sarthe, France - d. June 17, 1973, Suresnes, Hauts-de-Seine, France), governor of French Sudan (1946-52).
Louvin, Roberto (b. Oct. 31, 1960, Aosta), president of Valle d'Aosta (2002-03).
Louw, Eric (Hendrik) (b. Nov. 21, 1890, Jacobsdal, Orange Free State [now Free State, South Africa] - d. June 24, 1968, Cape Town, South Africa), finance minister (1954-56) and foreign minister (1955-64) of South Africa. He was also high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1929), minister to the United States (1929-33), Italy (1933), and France and Portugal (1934-37), and minister of economic affairs (1948-54).
Louw, Gene, byname of Eugene van der Merwe Louw (b. July 15, 1931, Cape Town, South Africa), administrator of Cape province (1979-89) and home affairs minister (1989-92) and defense minister (1992-93) of South Africa. He was also minister of constitutional development and planning (1989), education (1989-90), and public works (1992-93).
Love, Sir James (Frederick) (b. 1789 - d. 1866), lieutenant governor of Jersey (1852-57).
Love, John A(rthur) (b. Nov. 29, 1916, Gibson City, Ill. - d. Jan. 21, 2002, Aurora, Colo.), governor of Colorado (1963-73). A Republican, he became governor by beating Democratic incumbent Stephen L.R. McNichols in 1962. Regarded as a political moderate during his first term, Love was reelected in 1966 and 1970. Until Love, no Colorado governor served more than six years. In his early gubernatorial career, many legislative veterans of Love's party considered him a political novice and tried to bypass him. Once, he sided with Democrats in a successful drive for a higher state budget. In his last term, opposition within his own party faded, but Republicans criticized him for failing to exert enough leadership. In 1973, he resigned to become Pres. Richard Nixon's first energy czar. Less than a year into the job, he resigned, citing frustration with the Nixon administration over the growing Watergate scandal.
Lovell, Harold (Earl Edmund) (b. Sept. 27, 1955, St. John's, Antigua), foreign minister (2004-05) and finance minister (2009- ) of Antigua and Barbuda.
Loveridge, Sir John (Henry) (b. Aug. 2, 1912 - d. Nov. 7, 1994), bailiff of Guernsey (1973-82); knighted 1975. He was earlier attorney general (1960-69) and deputy bailiff (1969-73).
Lovink, Antonius Hermanus Johannes, byname Tony Lovink (b. July 12, 1902, The Hague, Netherlands - d. March 27, 1995, Ottawa, Canada), high commissioner of the Netherlands East Indies (1949).
Lovre, Koviljko (b. 1954, Hotkovci village, near Glamoc [now in Republika Srpska], Bosnia and Herzegovina), chairman of the Executive Council of Vojvodina (1992-93).
Low, Frederick F(erdinand) (b. June 30, 1828, Frankfort [now Winterport], Maine - d. July 21, 1894, San Francisco, Calif.), governor of California (1863-67). He was also U.S. minister to China (1870-73).
Low, Sir Hugh (b. May 10, 1824, Clapton, eastern London - d. April 18, 1905, Alassio, Liguria, Italy), governor of Labuan (1866-67) and resident of Perak (1877-89); knighted 1883.
Lowassa, Edward (Ngoyai) (b. Aug. 26, 1953, Monduli, Arusha region, Tanganyika [now in Tanzania]), prime minister of Tanzania (2005-08). A member of parliament since 1985, he was appointed minister of state in the office of the prime minister and first vice president responsible for judiciary and parliamentary affairs in 1990 before serving as minister for lands, housing, and urban development in 1993-95. In 1998-2000 he was minister of state in the vice president's office (environment, poverty eradication, and union matters) and in 2000-05 minister for water and livestock development.
Lowe, Richard Barrett (b. 1902, Madison, S.D. - d. 1972), governor of American Samoa (1953-56) and Guam (1956-59).
Løwer, Eldbjørg (b. July 14, 1943, Ål, Buskerud county), defense minister of Norway (1999-2000). She was member of the Kongsberg town council (1976-88) and mayor of Kongsberg (1984-88), board chairman of the National Directorate of Labour (1986-94), and minister of local government and regional development (1997-99). When she was appointed as the first female defense minister of a NATO country, Løwer had apparently little background in defense apart from membership in Norway's defense studies institute.
Lowry, Mike, byname of Michael Edward Lowry (b. March 8, 1939, St. John, Wash.), governor of Washington (1993-97). A Democrat, he was a state legislative staffer in 1969, a King County councilman (1975-78), then elected to Congress from the liberal Seattle district for a decade (1978-88), a loser in Senate races to Daniel Evans in 1983 and Slade Gorton in 1988, then a 52% winner in the Democratic annus mirabilis of 1992. In his first two years as governor, he enacted a liberal platform, with a tax increase, a Youth Agenda that tried to get at the roots of youth violence, and a healthcare reform aimed at covering the uninsured, especially children. But his job rating languished in the 30s and in 1994 Republicans captured the state House. The new Republican legislature rolled back Lowry's tax increases and healthcare program, which was similar to the Clinton plan. The legislature repealed key provisions (employer mandates and insurance premium caps) but kept provisions for the portability of coverage and increased services to the poor. Passed with a veto proof majority and faced with a new political reality, Lowry signed the bill. The legislature also passed its own welfare reform, with a two-year limit on benefits and denial of aid to teenage welfare mothers. But the biggest headlines came in February 1995 when Lowry was accused by a former staffer of sexual harassment. He denied the charges and asked for an independent investigation; in the days that followed two other aides, both women, also resigned. The 51-page report concluded that Lowry was not guilty of sexual harassment, though he had "touched her in ways she found offensive." He abandoned his bid for a second term.
Loyd, Sir Francis Alfred, byname Sir Frank Loyd (b. Sept. 5, 1916, Berkhamsted, England - d. Dec. 13, 2006), commissioner of Swaziland (1964-68); knighted 1965.
Loyola Vera, Ignacio (b. Sept. 10, 1954, Querétaro, Querétaro, Mexico), governor of Querétaro (1997-2003).
Lozancic, Niko (b. 1957, Kakanj, Bosnia and Herzegovina), president of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2003-07). In 2008-09 and 2010 he was chairman of the House of Representatives of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Lozanic, Sima (b. Feb. 27, 1847, Belgrade, Serbia - d. June 7, 1935, Belgrade), foreign minister of Serbia (1894, 1902-03). He was also minister of economy (1894, 1894-95, 1897-99) and minister to the United Kingdom (1900-02).
Lozano Ramírez, Raúl (b. March 9, 1911, Molango, Hidalgo, Mexico - d. Jan. 28, 2006), provisional governor of Hidalgo (1975).
Lozoraitis, Stasys (b. Sept. 5, 1898, Kaunas, Russia [now in Lithuania] - d. Dec. 24, 1983, Rome, Italy), foreign minister of Lithuania (1934-38) and head of its diplomatic service in exile (1940-83). He was also minister to Italy (1939-40).
Lozoraitis, Stasys (b. Aug. 2, 1924, Berlin, Germany - d. June 13, 1994, Washington, D.C.), head of the diplomatic service of Lithuania in exile (1987-91); son of Stasys Lozoraitis (1898-1983). He was ambassador to the United States (1991-93) and Italy (1993-94) and a presidential candidate in 1993.
Lu Chuanlin (b. 1836 - d. 1910), governor of Sichuan (1895-97).
Lu Diping (b. Nov. 3, 1887, Ningxiang, Hunan, China - d. Jan. 31, 1935, Nanjing, China), chairman of the government of Hunan (1928-29), Jiangxi (1929-31), and Zhejiang (1931-34). He was a graduate of Hunan Military College and a participant of the Wuchang Uprising. His military posts were commander of the 2nd Army and of the 18th Division.
Lu Gongwang (b. Feb. 28, 1879, Yongkang, Zhejiang, China - d. July 22, 1954), governor of Zhejiang (1916-17). A graduate of Baoding Military College, he participated in the revolutionary rush in 1911 at home and finally became a division commander after several promotions. He was also a magistrate of Jiaxing-Huzhou region (northern Zhejiang). He turned to the South in 1920 and was nominated as minister of staff. He moved to Tianjin thereafter until 1946, when he was named speaker of the Zhejiang Provincial Council. He was elected a member of the Political Consultative Conference after the Communist victory.
Lu Hongtao (b. Sept. 7, 1866, Tongshan, Jiangsu, China - d. Aug. 31, 1927, Tianjin, China), military (1920-25) and civil (1923-25) governor of Gansu. He was a graduate from the cannon department of the Military College of Tianjin. He was first named military governor of Gansu before the founding of the republic, and he, together with the civil governor Zhao Weixi ("Governor Pigtail"), kept arresting and killing local revolutionaries even after the fall of the Qing dynasty. He also became the commander of the 1st Division of the Gansu Army in 1924.
Lu Huanyan (b. 1892, Luchuan, Guangxi, China - d. June 15, 1930, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China), chairman of the government of Guangxi (1929-30). He was named commander of the 26th Division in 1927. Gen. Li Mingrui, as well as Lu's predecessor, Yu Zuobai, a Kuomintang leftist, whose brother was an underground Communist Party member, opposed Chiang Kai-shek's policy of breaking with the Communist Party; Lu followed Yu and Li at first, but later betrayed them and turned to Chiang in October 1929. He was nominated as Guangxi chairman, as well as deputy commander of the 8th Army, as a reward. He was assassinated.
Lu Jianzhang (b. 1879, Mengcheng, Anhui, China - d. June 14, 1918, Tianjin, China), military governor of Shaanxi (1914-16). Having been a brigade commander in Qing times, he was nominated head of the execution bureau of the capital by Pres. Yuan Shikai, during which he got the nickname "the butcher" since large numbers of anti-Yuan revolutionary activists were executed by him. He was made Shaanxi governor in 1914 but was expelled by Gen. Chen Shufan in 1916 upon the death of his protector Yuan. In 1917, he was nominated as one of the senior military advisers of Pres. Feng Guozhang. He was found trying to persuade Gen. Feng Yuxiang, his nephew, to fight against the government-controlling Anhui military group, for which he was executed by Xu Shuzheng, a senior leader of that group.
Lu Jin (b. 1880, Tianjin, China - d. 1946, Tianjin), army minister of China (1924). A graduate of the Japanese College of Army Commanders, he served in the Beiyang Army after his return. After the republic was founded, he was named chief of staff of the Zhili military governor's office; he was also the military governor of Tianjin city. Before taking office as Chinese army minister, he was the commander of the 9th Division. He fled to Japan in 1924 upon the Beijing Coup led by Feng Yuxiang, but returned to Tianjin two years later. He rejected any Japanese-designated post offered to him during World War II.
Lu Jinshan (b. 1878, Jinghai, Hebei [now in Tianjin municipality], China - d. June 29, 1941, Tianjin), Chinese commander. A graduate of the Japanese College of Army Commanders, he became the commander of the 3rd Brigade of the Hubei Army in 1912. He was promoted to commander of the 18th Division later, and was also nominated as commander-in-chief of the armed forces along the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. He was also designated military governor of Hubei, but did not take office. In 1927, he was removed from all his posts as northern general Wu Peifu was defeated. He lived in Tianjin ever since. After Tianjin fell to the Japanese invaders, Lu rejected any post offered by the Japanese.
Lu Rongting (b. Sept. 19, 1858, Wuming, Guangxi, China - d. Nov. 6, 1928, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China), military (1912-16, 1924) and civil (1912-13) governor of Guangxi and military governor of Guangdong (1916-17). He was a military commander in Guangxi in the Qing dynasty and suppressed the revolutionary uprising of Zhennan Pass (now Friendship Pass on the Sino-Vietnam border in Pingxiang, Guangxi) led by Sun Yat-sen and Huang Xing. He expelled Gov. Shen Bingkun upon the founding of the Guangxi Revolutionary Military Government and became governor. He occupied Guangdong during the vacancy of army control in that province, whose revolutionary army mostly advanced north to fight against the army of Yuan Shikai, who claimed the throne. Though he had been a supporter of the north, he surprisingly became one of the members of the Governing Committee of the southern government founded by Sun Yat-sen, whom he tried to squeeze out. He was defeated by the Guangdong Revolutionary Army in 1920 and fled back to Guangxi, where he left again the next year, expelled by the Guangdong Army. Under the support of Wu Peifu, he slipped into Guangxi again in 1923 but once again was driven out in 1924.
Lu Tao (b. Oct. 12, 1882, Yibei, Guangxi, China - d. Nov. 14, 1949, Guiyang, Guizhou, China), military (1921-22) and civil (1925) governor of Guizhou. He joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance in 1905 and was admitted into Yunnan Military College in 1909. Having been commander-in-chief of the Guizhou provincial army, he became Guizhou governor when the southwestern province declared its autonomy from the northern government in 1921. In 1936, he was named commander-in-chief of the Guizhou Army of Anti-Japanese National Salvation. He tended to cooperate with the Communist Party upon its victory in 1949, for which he was assassinated by Kuomintang general Liu Bolong.
Lu Xin (b. 1872, Shunde, Guangdong, China - d. June 12, 1933), justice minister of China (1926). He went abroad to Japan and the U.S. to study law and became a correspondent of the China Daily in Hong Kong upon his return. He was also the head of the Guangdong branch of the underground Revolutionary Party and vice-speaker of the Guangdong Senate. After the republic was founded, he was elected a senator in Nanjing (January-March 1912) and then in Beijing. In 1922, he was named minister of agriculture and commerce, but did not take office. Four years later, he became minister of justice in the cabinet of Premier Jia Deyao.
Lu Yongxiang (b. Oct. 22, 1867, Jiyang, Shandong, China - d. May 15, 1933, Tianjin, China), military governor of Zhejiang (1919-24), Zhili (1924), and Jiangsu (1925). Having been a brigade commander in Qing times, he became a division commander after the founding of the republic. During his term as Zhejiang governor, he broke with his Jiangsu counterpart Qi Xieyuan and the famous Jiangsu-Zhejiang war began, which left tens of thousands of people dead. In that war he was defeated by Qi. He left office as Jiangsu governor in 1925 as Zhang Zuolin's army entered that province.
Lu Zhengxiang (b. June 12, 1871, Shanghai, China - d. Jan. 15, 1949, Brugge, Belgium), foreign minister (1912, 1912-13, 1915-16, 1917-18, 1919-20), premier (1912), and secretary of state (1915-16) of China. A Christian, he spent most of his childhood abroad so that his Chinese was not very fluent. He was ambassador of the Qing dynasty to the Netherlands and later Russia. Recalled upon the founding of the republic, he was nominated foreign minister within the cabinet of Tang Shaoyi. He succeeded Tang as premier upon the resignation of the latter, for he was unfamiliar with Chinese affairs, thus easy to handle. Lu's inaugural speech was so awful that the parliament decided to reject the nomination, but the MPs did agree later as they were told that "Bismarck was like that, too." He represented China at the Paris Conference of 1919, during which, under the pressure of the Chinese people, Lu and delegate Gu Weijun (1889-1987) decided not to sign the Treaty of Versailles, which planned to transfer all the German interests in China to Japan, although the government ordered them to sign it. He was posted to Switzerland as ambassador in 1922, and was removed in 1927. Thereafter he stayed in the Saint-André Abbey in Brugge, Belgium, taking the name Brother Pierre-Célestin; Pope Pius XII conferred upon him the title of honorary abbot in 1946.
Lu Zhonglin (b. March 12, 1884, Ding county, Hebei, China - d. Jan. 11, 1966, Tianjin, China), chairman of the government of Hebei (1938-40); possibly son of Lu Chuanlin. He joined the army at an early age, under the leadership of Feng Yuxiang, becoming a brigade commander years later. He joined the Beijing Coup of 1924, leading his troops to the Forbidden City and expelling the ex-emperor Puyi from the palace. Being the commander of the 1st Division, Lu took up the Beijing garrison as Feng gained control over the city. He acted as minister of military affairs as well as commander-in-chief of the northwestern army after 1927. During World War II, he served in the 1st and 3rd War Zone, being nominated as vice-commander and chief of staff respectively. He was a member of the National Defense Commission as well as the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference after the People's Republic was founded.
Luanghy, Pascal (b. Dec. 4, 1917, Kindu, Belgian Congo [now in Maniema province, Congo (Kinshasa)]), governor of Maniema (1966).
Lubachivsky, Myroslav Ivan (Yevstakhivych) Cardinal (b. June 24, 1914, Dolyna, Galicia - d. Dec. 14, 2000, Lviv, Ukraine), major archbishop of Lviv, head of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (1984-2000). He left the Ukraine in 1938 as a young priest to study in Austria. He lived in the United States from 1947 to 1980, serving the final year as metropolitan archbishop of Philadelphia. He moved to the Vatican in 1980 and became head of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church following the death of Josyf Cardinal Slipy in 1984. Lubachivsky, who became a cardinal in 1985, was hailed as a hero by the Vatican for struggling to preserve the church which had been outlawed by Soviet ruler Iosif Stalin in 1946. Greek Catholics have services similar to those of Eastern Orthodox churches but owe allegiance to the pope. The Ukrainian church, with some 4 million members, is concentrated in the western part of Ukraine. Hundreds of priests were imprisoned and churches, schools, and monasteries were turned over to the dominant Russian Orthodox Church. But the Ukrainian church survived underground to reemerge when Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev lifted the ban. Lubachivsky, a U.S. citizen, headed the Ukrainian church from Rome until the crumbling of communist power allowed him to take up residence in Lviv in 1991. Some 25,000 people, many weeping and singing hymns, lined the streets to greet his motorcade. "This native church of mine was resurrected and rose from the grave," he said then.
Lubaya, André (Guillaume) (d. [assassinated] May 2, 1968), president of Kasaï (1962) and Luluabourg (1963-64). He was also health minister of Congo (Kinshasa) (1966).
Lubaya, Claudel (André), governor of Kasaï Occidental (1999-2006); son of André Lubaya.
Lubbers, Ruud, byname of Rudolphus Franciscus Marie Lubbers (b. May 7, 1939, Rotterdam, Netherlands), prime minister of the Netherlands (1982-94). In the 1960s he belonged to the progressive part of the Catholic People's Party (KVP). He felt emotionally engaged with the Christian Radicals, a movement of progressive politicians within the three great confessional parties, but refused to become a member of the Radical Political Party, founded in 1968, because he felt he owed allegiance to the KVP. During these years he also participated actively in employers' organizations. In 1964 he became chairman of the Christian Young Employers' Organization. Later he was appointed chairman of the Catholic Employers' Organization for the Metal Industry and a member of the board of the influential Dutch Christian Employers' Organization. He entered parliament as a member of the KVP in 1972 and served as economics minister in the government headed by Socialist prime minister Joop den Uyl in 1973-77. During that period he proved his capabilities and succeeded in winning the confidence of the Socialists. In 1977 he became vice-chairman of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) in the lower house. After the unexpected and emotional departure of Willem Aantjes in 1978 he was appointed chairman. He played an important role as mediator between the party and the government. He had a reputation as a competent negotiator - a person who had at least five solutions for any one problem. He became the country's youngest prime minister as head of a centre-right coalition in 1982, winning endorsements from the voters in 1986 and 1989. In 1994 his party was defeated at the polls. He was the longest-serving Dutch prime minister. In 2000 he was president of the World Wide Fund for Nature. In 2001 he became UN high commissioner for refugees. He resigned that post in 2005 over allegations of sexual harassment.
Lubennikov, Leonid Ignatyevich (b. Jan. 21, 1910 - d. Nov. 28, 1988), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Karelo-Finnish S.S.R. (1955-56).
Lubinda, Given (b. May 15, 1963), foreign minister of Zambia (2012-13). He was also minister of information, broadcasting, and tourism (2011-12).
Lübke, Friedrich Wilhelm (b. Aug. 25, 1887, Enkhausen [now part of Sundern], Germany - d. Oct. 16, 1954), minister-president of Schleswig-Holstein (1951-54); brother of Heinrich Lübke.
Lübke, (Karl) Heinrich (b. Oct. 14, 1894, Enkhausen [now part of Sundern], Germany - d. April 6, 1972, Bonn, West Germany), president of the Federal Republic of Germany (1959-69). After serving in World War I he was able to unify many small German farmers' organizations into the German Farmers Federation and served as its director (1926-33). He was a Centre Party member of the Prussian Landtag (state parliament) in 1931-33. Politically inactive throughout the Nazi era, he helped to organize the Christian Democratic Union in Westphalia after World War II and was a member of the Landtag of Nordrhein-Westfalen from 1946 to 1952. Between 1947 and 1952 he also served as the state's minister of food, agriculture, and forestry. During 1949-50 and 1953-59, he sat in the Bundestag (federal parliament), and in 1953 he entered the cabinet of Chancellor Konrad Adenauer as minister of food, agriculture, and forestry. In this post he played an important role in modernizing West German agriculture. In 1959 he was chosen to be Christian Democratic candidate for the federal presidency after Adenauer had declined to run. He was elected president in July 1959 and reelected in July 1964. He represented his country with a dignified demeanour and discretion and, though his powers as president were constitutionally limited, at times intervened in domestic political affairs, especially during the last period of Adenauer's chancellorship. He also became legendary for his malapropisms and poor English (supposedly having translated the German "gleich geht's los" as "equal goes it loose," or having addressed a group in Liberia with "Ladies and gentlemen, dear Negroes," though that seems apocryphal). In October 1968 he announced he would resign on June 30, 1969, to enable the next presidential election to take place well ahead of the Bundestag election.
Lubys, Bronislovas (b. Oct. 8, 1938, Plunge, Lithuania - d. Oct. 23, 2011, Druskininkai, Lithuania), prime minister of Lithuania (1992-93).
Lucas, Neil (Bedford) (b. Aug. 10, 1945, Melbourne, Vic.), administrator of Christmas Island and the Cocos Islands (2006-08).
Lucas, Sylvia (Elizabeth), premier of Northern Cape (2013- ).
Lucas García, Fernando Romeo (b. July 4, 1924, San Juan Chamelco, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala - d. May 27, 2006, Puerto La Cruz, Anzoátegui, Venezuela), president of Guatemala (1978-82). In 1947 he entered military service as a cadet, and by 1973 he had risen to the rank of brigadier general. He also became army chief of staff and defense minister. In 1958-63 he served as a congressman from Alta Verapaz. In the March 5, 1978, presidential election he polled more votes than either of his opponents, Gen. Ricardo Peralta Méndez and Col. Enrique Peralta Azurdia, but low turnout and intimidation by Peralta Azurdia's extreme right-wing National Liberation Movement followers deprived Lucas of a clear-cut popular triumph. Almost 60% of the registered voters failed to cast ballots at all, and another 20% intentionally invalidated theirs as a gesture of protest. Following repeated delays in the announcement of the final outcome, all three candidates charged fraud. Peralta Azurdia, with 250 armed supporters, seized the offices of the Electoral Council but departed on the arrival of armed soldiers and policemen. Finally, three days after the popular voting, the Council declared that no one had won the constitutionally required 50% and that the presidency would be decided by the Congress. Despite charges of fraud from both Peralta Méndez and Peralta Azurdia and threats from Peralta Azurdia's backers to seize the Electoral Council a second time, the Congress endorsed Lucas as the candidate with the most popular votes. Nominee of the Broad Front, he also had the support of the army leadership and the outgoing administration of Gen. Kjell Eugenio Laugerud García. A similar controversy erupted after the 1982 elections, and months before Lucas' term would have ended, he was overthrown in a coup led by Gen. Efraín Ríos Montt.
Lucas Giménez, Juan José (b. May 10, 1944, El Burgo de Osma, Soria province, Castilla-León, Spain), president of the Junta of Castilla-León (1991-2001). He was president of the Senate of Spain in 2002-04.
Luce (of Adur in the County of West Sussex), Richard (Napier) Luce, Baron (b. Oct. 14, 1936), governor of Gibraltar (1997-2000). He was a junior Foreign Office minister between 1979 and 1985, and held other ministerial posts until 1990. He retired from parliament at the 1992 general election. He was knighted in 1991 and created a baron in 2000.
Luce, Sir William (Henry Tucker) (b. Aug. 25, 1907 - d. July 7, 1977), governor of Aden (1956-60) and chief political resident of the Persian Gulf (1961-66); knighted 1956.
Lucena, Cícero de, Filho (b. Aug. 5, 1959), governor of Paraíba (1994-95).
Lucena, Henrique Pereira de, barão de Lucena (b. May 27, 1835, Limoeiro [now Bom Jardim], Pernambuco, Brazil - d. Dec. 10, 1913, Rio de Janeiro), governor of Pernambuco (1890).
Lucey, Patrick J(oseph) (b. March 21, 1918, La Crosse, Wis. - d. May 10, 2014, Milwaukee, Wis.), governor of Wisconsin (1971-77). He was also ambassador to Mexico (1977-79). In 1980 he was the running mate of independent presidential candidate John B. Anderson.
Lucinschi, Petru (Chiril), Russian Pyotr Kirillovich Luchinsky (b. Jan. 27, 1940, Radulenii Vechi village, Romania [now in Soroca county, northern Moldova]), president of Moldova (1997-2001). He led the Communist Party of the Moldavian S.S.R. as first secretary from 1989 until the Soviet collapse in 1991, and was a member of the expanded Soviet Politburo. He became parliament speaker in 1993 and ran for president as an independent in 1996. In the first round of voting, incumbent Mircea Snegur garnered 39% of the vote, Lucinschi took 28%, and several other candidates split the rest. But Lucinschi won the runoff and was sworn in on Jan. 15, 1997. Lucinschi had campaigned on pledges to reverse Moldova's economic decline. Snegur favoured economic reforms and increased integration with the rest of Europe. He accused parliament of blocking his efforts and trying to maintain a Soviet-style economy. Some voters feared that a Snegur victory could upset a fragile peace in Trans-Dniester, along Moldova's eastern border with Ukraine. The region had been tense since a bloody 1992 conflict between ethnic Slav separatists and government troops. Lucinschi was more conciliatory on the Trans-Dniester issue, and vowed to grant the region more autonomy. He also pledged to pursue neutrality and improve relations with Russia. Moldova's presidency became an increasingly ceremonial post as lawmakers seeking to weaken Lucinschi's authority stripped the presidency of powers. In November 2000 he announced he would not stand for reelection.
Lúcio, Álvaro (José Brilhante) Laborinho (b. 1941, Nazaré, Portugal), justice minister of Portugal (1991-95) and minister of the republic in the Azores (2003-06).
Lucio Paredes, Antonio José (b. Dec. 13, 1923), foreign minister of Ecuador (1972-75). He was also chargé d'affaires in Spain (1956-57, 1960) and ambassador to Belgium (1968-71), France (1976-80), and the Netherlands (1980-85).
Luckhoo, Sir Edward Victor (b. May 24, 1912, New Amsterdam, British Guiana [now Guyana] - d. March 2, 1998, Yorkshire, England), acting governor-general (1969-70) and acting president (1970) of Guyana; knighted 1970. He was also high commissioner to India and Sri Lanka (1976-83).
Luckievich, Anton (Ivanavich), also spelled Lutskevich (b. Jan. 29 [Jan. 17, O.S.], 1884, Siauliai, Russia [now in Lithuania] - d. March 23, 1942, near Saratov, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the People's Secretariat (1918) and of the Council of Ministers (1918-19) of the Belorussian People's Republic.
Luddington, Sir Donald (Collin Cumyn) (b. Aug. 18, 1920, Edinburgh, Scotland - d. Jan. 26, 2009, Easingwold, Yorkshire, England), high commissioner for the Western Pacific (1973-74) and governor of the Solomon Islands (1974-76); knighted 1976.
Luder, Italo (Argentino) (b. Dec. 31, 1916, Rafaela, Santa Fe province, Argentina - d. May 25, 2008, Buenos Aires, Argentina), acting president (1975) and defense minister (1989-90) of Argentina.
Ludwig, Siegfried (b. Feb. 14, 1926, Wostitz [Vlasatice], Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic] - d. April 16, 2013, Sankt Pölten, Austria), Landeshauptmann of Niederösterreich (1981-92).
Luedtke, Roland (Alfred) (b. Jan. 4, 1924, Lincoln, Neb. - d. July 22, 2005, Lincoln), mayor of Lincoln (1983-87). He was lieutenant governor of Nebraska in 1979-83.
Lueger, Karl (b. Oct. 24, 1844, Vienna, Austria - d. March 10, 1910, Vienna), Austrian politician. The establishment of Austro-Hungarian dualism in 1867, which seemed to orthodox Austrians a humiliating capitulation, coloured his views and inspired violent tirades against "Judeo-Magyars." He was elected to Vienna's municipal council as a liberal in 1875 and became leader of an anti-corruption movement. Though he was not generally an anti-Semite and was skeptical about pan-German nationalism, he exploited prevalent anti-Semitic and nationalistic currents in Vienna for his own demagogic purposes. In 1882 he united his Democratic Party with the Reform and German National organizations under the name Anti-Semitic Party, which later became the Christian Social Party. In 1885 he was elected to the Austrian Reichsrat (parliament); although the only member of his party, he soon assumed a leading role. When the Christian Social Party won two-thirds of the seats in the Viennese municipal council in 1895, he was elected mayor, but the emperor, Franz Joseph I, refused to confirm his appointment. The council repeatedly reelected him, and finally, after the brilliant victory of his party in the Reichsrat elections of 1897, the emperor confirmed the choice. He was reelected in 1903 and 1909 and died in office. Under his administration, Vienna was transformed into an efficient, modern metropolis. He incorporated the suburbs; brought tramway, gas, and electric services under the city government; and developed parks and gardens, schools, and hospitals. He spoke the language of the "small man," and his popularity turned into veneration. He also decisively influenced the Christian Social Party's platform of creating a federal state to solve the empire's nationalities problem.
Lugar, Richard (Green) (b. April 4, 1932, Indianapolis, Ind.), U.S. politician. He was mayor of Indianapolis (1968-76), U.S. senator (1977-2013), and candidate for the Republican presidential nomination (1996).
Lugard of Abinger, Frederick (John Dealtry) Lugard, (1st) Baron (b. Jan. 22, 1858, Fort St. George, Madras, India - d. April 11, 1945, Little Parkhurst, Abinger Common, Surrey, England), British colonial administrator. After briefly attending the Royal Military College at Sandhurst, he joined the Norfolk Regiment and went to India. Swept into the British imperial advance of the 1880s, he took part in operations in Afghanistan, Sudan, and Burma. In 1890-92 he served as administrator of Uganda. Later that decade, he raised the famous West African Frontier Force, which led to his appointment as high commissioner for Northern Nigeria (1900-06). He was knighted (K.C.M.G.) in 1901. Because his wife could not stand the Nigerian climate, he felt obliged to leave Africa and to accept the governorship of Hong Kong (1907-12). He could not, however, resist the great opportunity offered to him in 1912 to unite the two parts of Nigeria into one vast state. He became governor of both Northern and Southern Nigeria, and from Jan. 1, 1914, governor-general of unified Nigeria. The wide contrasts between the north and south in their original character and in their traditions of British rule made it an immense task to unify their administration. Instead of attempting a complete fusion of their systems, he retained a degree of dualism. World War I brought additional difficulties, with its interruption of communications, its resultant shortages of staff, and the war with the Germans in the Cameroons along his eastern frontier. He retired from the colonial service in 1919. He was raised to the peerage in 1928 and spoke with authority in the House of Lords on colonial subjects. He was a member of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations in 1922-36.
Luginbühl, Werner (b. Jan. 4, 1958), president of the government of Bern (2001-02, 2006-07).
Lugo (Méndez), Fernando (Armindo) (b. May 30, 1951, San Solano, Paraguay), president of Paraguay (2008-12).
Lugo (Gómez), José Inocente (b. Dec. 28, 1871, Santa Ana del Águila, Ajuchitlán municipality, Guerrero, Mexico - d. Nov. 25, 1963, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Guerrero (1911-13, 1935-37) and Baja California (1922-23) and interior minister of Mexico (1920).
Lugo Gil, Humberto (b. May 4, 1934, Huichapan, Hidalgo, Mexico - d. May 9, 2013, Mexico City, Mexico), interim governor of Hidalgo (1998-99).
Lugo Guerrero, José (b. Sept. 17, 1897 - d. Aug. 26, 1980, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Hidalgo (1941-45).
Lugo Verduzco, Adolfo (b. March 24, 1933, Huichapan, Hidalgo, Mexico), governor of Hidalgo (1987-93); son of José Lugo Guerrero; nephew of Bartolomé Vargas Lugo; cousin of Jorge Rojo Lugo and Humberto Lugo Gil.
Lui, Frank F(akaotimanava) (b. Nov. 19, 1935, Niue), premier of Niue (1993-99).
Luik, Jüri (b. Aug. 17, 1966, Tallinn, Estonian S.S.R.), defense minister (1993-94, 1999-2002) and foreign minister (1994-95) of Estonia. He has also been ambassador to the Benelux countries and NATO (1996-99), to the United States (2003-07, also accredited to Canada and Mexico), and to Russia (2012- ).
Luís Pereira de Sousa, Washington (b. Oct. 26, 1869, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil - d. Aug. 4, 1957, São Paulo, Brazil), president of Brazil (1926-30). He started a political career in the state of São Paulo in 1897, first as a municipal officer in the town of Batatais, later becoming mayor of São Paulo (1914-20) and governor of São Paulo state (1920-24). He was elected president of Brazil without a contest on March 1, 1926. At that time the country was under martial law and its currency was deliberately inflated. After taking office, he quickly restored the disaffected parts of the country to order, stabilized the currency, and initiated a vast highway construction program. He was hampered by an enormous foreign debt and the collapse of the coffee market. In spite of attempts to limit the production of coffee, the coming of the world economic decline in 1929 left Brazil with huge unsellable reserves. When the next presidential election approached, it was assumed that his successor would be from Minas Gerais, continuing the alternation of the presidency between the country's two leading states. Luís, however, endorsed another São Paulo politician, Júlio Prestes, who went on to defeat Getúlio Vargas in the March 1930 election. But a revolt broke out in Minas Gerais and other states in early October 1930 and in a successful coup d'état, Vargas deposed Luís on October 24, just before he was to complete his term. He was imprisoned for a time and then exiled in November 1930. He spent 17 years in Europe and the United States, then returned to Brazil in 1947 to a tumultuous welcome.
Luisi, Héctor (Ángel) (b. Sept. 19, 1919, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. Aug. 5, 2013, Bethesda, Md.), foreign minister of Uruguay (1967-68). He entered politics in the 1960s as chief adviser to Pres. Óscar Diego Gestido and was one of the authors of reforms to Uruguay's constitution in 1966. He was elected to the Senate in 1967. After serving as foreign minister, he was ambassador to the United States in 1969-73 - resigning when the government was overthrown by the military and remaining in the U.S. - and again in 1985-89. He became a U.S. citizen in 1998.
Luizet, Charles (b. Nov. 10, 1903, Saint-Ginaval, Rhône, France - d. Aug. 21, 1947, Paris, France), governor-general of French Equatorial Africa (1947).
Luka, Faimalaga (b. 1940 - d. Aug. 19, 2005, Suva, Fiji), home affairs minister (1999-2001), prime minister (2001), and governor-general (2003-05) of Tuvalu. First elected to parliament in 1993, he also served as health minister (1994-96) and speaker of parliament (2003).
Lukanov, Andrey (Karlov) (b. Sept. 26, 1938, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Oct. 2, 1996, Sofia, Bulgaria), Bulgarian politician; son of Karlo Lukanov. He entered the Bulgarian foreign service in 1963, the same year that he became a member of the Bulgarian Communist Party. From 1968 to 1972 he was Bulgaria's official representative to he United Nations in Geneva. In 1976 he was appointed Bulgaria's representative to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON). In 1980-81 he presided over COMECON's Executive Council. He was minister of foreign economic relations (1987-89) before helping to orchestrate the overthrow of longtime dictator Todor Zhivkov in November 1989. In September 1990 he was elected vice-chair of the Bulgarian Socialist Party. He served as prime minister from February to November 1990, when he resigned owing to Bulgaria's rapid economic deterioration. Soon he also resigned from the vice-chair position because of the BSP's lax stance on the coup in the Soviet Union. On July 9, 1992, during the rule of Prime Minister Filip Dimitrov, Lukanov was arrested and was held in custody for six months during a period when he was investigated for allegedly having enriched (1980s) his purse from the public coffers. Lukanov was never brought to trial, however. When Bulgaria's socialist government came to power in January 1995, his sharp criticism and vociferous support for democratic reform attracted publicity. He was shot and killed as he left his downtown apartment building in Sofia. Witnesses said Lukanov was shot twice from close range, once in the head and once in the chest, by a lone gunman, who ran away afterward to a car parked nearby.
Lukanov, Karlo (Todorov) (b. Nov. 1 [Oct. 20, O.S.], 1897, Pleven, Bulgaria - d. July 15, 1982, Sofia, Bulgaria), foreign minister of Bulgaria (1956-62). He was also ambassador to the Soviet Union (1954-56) and Switzerland (1963-66).
Lukashenka, Alyaksandr (Ryhoravich), Russian Aleksandr (Grigoryevich) Lukashenko (b. Aug. 31, 1954, Kopys village, Orsha rayon, Vitebsk oblast, Belorussian S.S.R. [now Kopys, Vorsha rayon, Vitsebsk voblast, Belarus]), president of Belarus (1994- ). He held a series of minor posts in the Komsomol (Young Communist League) in the Shklov region of Mogilyov oblast. From 1982 he held management and Communist Party posts at collective and state farms and at a construction materials factory. He was elected to the Belorussian Supreme Soviet (parliament) in 1990. There he created a faction called Communists for Democracy. He was the only deputy to oppose the December 1991 agreement that effectively dissolved the Soviet Union. He maintained close association with "conservative" Communist factions, such as the Belaya Rus Slavic Congress and the Union of Officers, and was known to have links with similar groups in Russia. He emphatically won the runoff presidential election on July 10, 1994, against Prime Minister Vyachaslau Kebich, who had controlled the politics of the country through strong backing in parliament. Lukashenka was known to the population only from his role as chairman of the parliamentary commission on corruption. His campaign message was simple - return to a "clean" government, fight corruption, and move the country closer to Russia in orientation. In 1995-96 he extended his powers as absolute ruler and his term from five to seven years. The opposition derecognized him as president when his original term ended in July 1999. In elections in 2001 he reportedly won over 75% of the vote. A referendum in 2004 removed the two-term limit for presidents and in 2006 he was reelected with 83% of the vote, a result that was denounced as fraudulent by the EU, the U.S., and the country's opposition. Another reelection in 2010 was similarly criticized. Western media and governments often describe him as "Europe's last dictator."
Lukashin, Sergey Lukyanovich, original name Sarkis Srapionyan (b. 1885 - d. 1937), first secretary of the Communist Party (1921-22) and chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1922-25) of the Armenian S.S.R.
Luke, Desmond (Edgar Fashole) (b. Oct. 6, 1935), foreign minister of Sierra Leone (1973-75). He was also ambassador to West Germany (1969-73), ambassador to France and permanent representative to the EEC (1971-73), health minister (1977-78), and chief justice (1998-2002).
Luken, Charlie, byname of Charles J. Luken (b. July 18, 1951, Cincinnati, Ohio), mayor of Cincinnati (1984-91, 1999-2005); son of Thomas A. Luken; nephew of James T. Luken.
Luken, James T. (b. Dec. 31, 1921 - d. July 12, 1979), mayor of Cincinnati (1976-77).
Luken, Thomas A(ndrew) (b. July 9, 1925, Cincinnati, Ohio), mayor of Cincinnati (1971-72); brother of James T. Luken.
Lukic, Vladimir (b. 1933, Tabar village, near Sanski Most, Yugoslavia [now in Bosnia and Herzegovina]), prime minister of the Republika Srpska (1993-94).
Lukic, Vojin (b. Dec. 4, 1919, Subotica, Yugoslavia [now in Vojvodina, Serbia]), interior minister of Yugoslavia (1963-65).
Lukman, Rilwanu (b. Aug. 26, 1938, Zaria [now in Kaduna state], Nigeria - d. July 21, 2014, Vienna, Austria), foreign minister of Nigeria (1989-90) and secretary-general of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (1995-2000). He was also minister of petroleum resources (2008-10).
Luksic, Igor (b. June 14, 1976, Bar, Montenegro), finance minister (2004-10), prime minister (2010-12), and foreign minister (2012- ) of Montenegro.
Lula da Silva, Luiz Inácio, original name Luiz Inácio da Silva (he incorporated his nickname Lula into his regular name in 1982) (b. Oct. 27, 1945, Garanhuns, Pernambuco, Brazil), president of Brazil (2003-11). As a labourer (starting as a shoeshine boy at age 12) he became involved in the trade union movement in 1969, rising to become president of a metallurgists' union in 1975. In 1980, along with intellectuals and union leaders, he founded the Workers' Party (PT), which grew to 400,000 members by 1982. In the latter year he first ran for political office as candidate for governor of São Paulo state, but finished fourth. In 1983 he helped found the Central Única dos Trabalhadores (CUT), a national union association. He was elected to the House of Representatives from São Paulo state in 1986. He then ran three times unsuccessfully for president, first in 1989, when he lost to Fernando Collor de Mello, then in 1994 and 1998, when he came second to Fernando Henrique Cardoso. Finally, in 2002, he was elected in a landslide, defeating José Serra. Although he launched a "Zero Hunger" program, he generally pursued an economic policy which calmed the worries of financial circles about a left-wing president. In his first year in office his popularity remained at record highs. From mid-2005, he was blamed for a series of political scandals involving the PT, but his popularity rebounded to ensure his reelection in 2006; although he missed a first-round victory, he decisively defeated Geraldo Alckmin in the runoff. In 2009 his approval ratings hit 80%, much of the reason for this being the Bolsa Família program, launched in October 2003 and subsequently expanded, which provides financial aid to poor families on condition that their children attend school and meet some other requirements.
Lule, Yusufu K(ironde) (b. April 10, 1912, Kampala, Buganda, Uganda - d. Jan. 21, 1985, London, England), president of Uganda (1979). From 1955 he was one of three African ministers in the colonial government, and in 1962 he became chairman of the Uganda Public Service Commission. In 1964 he became principal at Makerere, a constituent college of the University of East Africa. In 1970 Makerere became an independent university under the direct control of Pres. Milton Obote, with whom Lule had political differences. Lule left Uganda for England, where he served as assistant secretary-general in charge of education on the Commonwealth Secretariat for two years. He then spent seven years as secretary-general of the Association of African Universities. In March 1979 he became the head of the Uganda National Liberation Front, a coalition of forces opposed to Ugandan dictator Idi Amin. Following the Tanzanian-backed invasion of Uganda and Amin's overthrow, Lule was chosen to lead a provisional administration. Sworn in as president on April 13, he soon encountered difficulties because of his refusal to include supporters of Obote in his government and his failure to consult with others. After a vote of no confidence by the National Consultative Council, he resigned and was replaced on June 20 by Godfrey L. Binaisa. He returned to exile in London. After Obote became president again in December 1980, Lule was an outspoken opponent of Obote's government. In 1981 he became chairman of the National Resistance Movement, the political wing of the National Resistance Army, which was engaged in guerrilla operations in Uganda.
Lumbi (Okongo), Pierre (b. 1950?), foreign minister of Zaire (1992-93). He was also minister of posts and telecommunications (1994-96) and infrastructure, public works, and reconstruction (2007-10).
Lumumba, Patrice (Emery) (b. July 2, 1925, Onalua, Kasaï province, Belgian Congo [later Congo (Léopoldville), now Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. Jan. 17, 1961, Katanga, Congo [Léopoldville]), prime minister of Congo (Léopoldville) (1960). In October 1958 he founded the Congolese National Movement, the first nationwide political party in the Congo. It came out far ahead in elections in May 1960, and he emerged as the leading nationalist politician of the country. He was asked to form the first government, which he succeeded in doing on June 24 (he also took the defense portfolio). Independence came on July 1, and a few days later, some army units rebelled, which caused a confusion during which the province of Katanga proclaimed its secession. Belgium sent in troops, ostensibly to protect Belgian nationals, but in effect principally sustaining the secessionist regime in Katanga. Lumumba's government appealed to the United Nations to expel the Belgians and help restore internal order. The UN forces, however, refused to help suppress the revolt, nor did the Belgians evacuate. Lumumba then appealed to the Soviet Union for assistance and asked the independent African states to meet in Léopoldville in August to unite their efforts. These moves alarmed the Western powers and the supporters of Pres. Joseph Kasavubu, who on September 5 dismissed Lumumba, which was not recognized by Lumumba or by the parliament. On September 14 Col. Joseph Mobutu seized effective power. Lumumba was provided protection by the UN in Léopoldville, but when he tried to travel to Stanleyville, where his supporters had control, he was caught by the Kasavubu forces and arrested on December 2. On Jan. 17, 1961, he was delivered to the Katanga regime, where he was killed.
Lunda Bululu, (Vincent de Paul) (b. Oct. 15, 1942, Mwena Mulota, Katanga, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)]), prime minister (1990-91) and foreign minister (1994-95) of Zaire. He was a presidential candidate in 2006, winning 1.4% of the vote.
Lunde, Gulbrand (Oscar Johan) (b. Sept. 14, 1901, Fana, near Bergen, Norway - d. [car accident] Oct. 25, 1942, Romsdalsfjord, Norway), Norwegian politician. He was minister of social affairs (1940) and culture minister and propaganda chief (1940-42) during the German occupation.
Lundgren, Bo (Axel Magnus) (b. July 11, 1947, Kristianstad, Sweden), Swedish politician. A member of the Riksdag from 1976 to 2004, he was finance minister in 1991-94 and became leader of the Moderate Party on Sept. 4, 1999, serving until 2003.
Lundsteen, Poul Hugo (b. July 18, 1910, Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. Nov. 24, 1988), governor of Greenland (1950-60).
Lungu, Edgar (Chagwa) (b. Nov. 11, 1956, Chadiza, Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia]), home affairs minister (2012-13), defense minister (2013- ), and president (2015- ) of Zambia.
Lungu, Effron (Chakupa) (b. Dec. 25, 1952), foreign minister of Zambia (2013).
Luns, Joseph (Marie Antoine Hubert) (b. Aug. 28, 1911, Rotterdam, Netherlands - d. July 17, 2002, Brussels, Belgium), foreign minister of the Netherlands (1956-71) and secretary-general of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1971-84). He served in eight successive Dutch cabinets until 1971, when the NATO council invited him to become secretary-general. He was regarded as one of the most vigorous and effective architects of postwar European unity and held an unshakable belief in Atlantic partnership. He brought a breezy personal style to NATO, making him a favourite of newsmen; asked once how many people worked at NATO headquarters in Brussels, Luns quipped: "About half of them." He continued the trend of increasing the European share of the Atlantic defense, pushing reluctant governments, including his own, into making a greater defense effort. He laid heavy emphasis on building a stronger, more united Europe and took great satisfaction in the French change of heart on Britain's entry into the common market, which he had worked tirelessly to achieve. With the United States there were occasional disagreements, especially over the Dutch loss of western New Guinea. In 1981, he criticized the U.S. for the "tactless" way in which it announced the decision to go ahead with production of the neutron bomb. But Luns was deeply convinced the free world existed by virtue of U.S. strength. In 1979 a major storm erupted over disclosures of his 1933-36 membership in the Dutch national socialist movement (NSB). Luns first flatly denied joining the NSB, then said he was put on party lists without his knowledge by a brother who also later canceled the membership. The conflicting statements angered a broad section of the Dutch parliament, but legislators decided against holding an inquiry to check out Luns' story.
Luo Peijin (b. June 4, 1878, Chengjiang, Yunnan, China - d. May 3, 1922), civil governor of Yunnan (1913) and Guangxi (1916) and military and civil governor of Sichuan (1916-17). A graduate of the Japanese College of Army Commanders, he joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance in 1905 and returned to China in 1909. He rose up together with Gen. Cai E in Yunnan upon another famous uprising in Wuhan on Oct. 10, 1911, and then held the post of minister of army and political affairs in the Yunnan military government. He was also the chief of staff of the 1st Army in Yunnan. As Cai's close colleague, he took over the Sichuan government after Cai sailed to Japan for medical treatment and later became governor upon Cai's death. Having lost his forces, which were totally defeated in a war against Gen. Tang Jiyao of Yunnan, he was finally captured and killed by Pu Xiaohong, head of a local bandit group.
Luo Wengan (b. April 11, 1889, Fanyu, Guangdong, China - d. Oct. 16, 1941, Lechang, Guangdong), justice minister (1922, 1926-27), finance minister (1922), and foreign minister (1928) of China. Having studied abroad in the U.K., he returned to China and was nominated as head of the court of Guangdong province. After the founding of the republic, he was named director of the Justice Bureau of the Guangdong provincial government. He took up the leadership of the procuratorate after the capital moved to Beijing, and was named a cabinet member soon. He continued his ministerial career after the founding of the National Government led by Chiang Kai-shek; he was also a senior professor of the United University in Southwestern China (a Beijing-Qinghua united university which moved to Yunnan after the fall of Beijing in 1937).
Luo Zhuoying (b. May 1, 1896, Dapu, Guangdong, China - d. Nov. 6, 1961, Taipei, Taiwan), chairman of the government of Guangdong (1945-47). He joined the Guangdong Army and in 1927 became the commander of the 11th Division. Later he also took over 18th Army. During World War II, he was named commander of the 19th Group Army, and commander-in-chief of the Chinese Expeditionary Army (to Burma and India). He was also the chief executive of the Training Department of the Military Committee. He became chairman of Guangdong upon the end of the war. He fled to Taiwan in 1949, serving as a "strategic adviser" of Chiang Kai-shek.
Lupu, Marian (Ilie) (b. June 20, 1966, Beltsy, Moldavian S.S.R. [now Balti, Moldova]), parliament speaker (2005-09, 2010-13) and acting president (2010-12) of Moldova.
Lusaka, Paul J(ohn) F(irmino) (b. Jan. 10, 1935, Moomba village, near Lusaka - d. Nov. 11, 1996), president of the UN General Assembly (1984-85). He was Zambia's ambassador to the Soviet Union, Romania, and Yugoslavia (1968-72) and the United States (1989-91) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1972-73, 1979-87) as well as minister of rural development (1973-77), power, transport, and communications (1977-78), and health (1978-79).
Lusinchi, Jaime (Ramón) (b. May 27, 1924, Clarines, Anzoátegui state, Venezuela - d. May 21, 2014, Caracas, Venezuela), president of Venezuela (1984-89). He joined the Acción Democrática (AD) party on its foundation by Rómulo Betancourt in 1941. By November 1948 he was party deputy secretary, and after the military coup that month he was imprisoned and then expelled from the country. He went first to Argentina, then to Chile and the U.S. He returned to Venezuela in 1958 when the military dictatorship ended. He then represented his state in the Congress and held top positions within the AD (parliamentary leader, 1967-80; general secretary, 1981-83). He failed to secure the AD presidential nomination for the 1978 election, but he ran successfully in the December 1983 election, winning 56.8% of the votes, defeating Rafael Caldera of the Social Christian Party. As president he was faced with two major tasks: revitalization of an economy hurt by falling oil prices and elimination of corrupt practices that had flourished under previous administrations. He was under intensive pressure from his AD as well as from the Confederation of Venezuelan Workers - the two legs of his successful presidential campaign - to improve the lot of his electorate or at least to protect it from the effects of the economic crisis and the austerity measures needed to stabilize the situation. In 1986 he signed an agreement with the country's bank creditors rescheduling the public sector's foreign debt over 12 years. Show trials of officials in the Corporación Venezolana de Fomento (Venezuelan Development Corporation) and a court-martial of military chiefs over arms purchases were held in order to discourage officeholders from participating in the pervasive bribery and corruption.
Lusquiños, Luis (Bernardo) (b. Nov. 27, 1951), acting cabinet chief of Argentina (2001).
Lutali, A(ifili) P(aulo), original name Aifili Paulo Lauvao (b. Dec. 24, 1919, Aunu'u island, American Samoa - d. Aug. 1, 2002, Pago Pago, American Samoa), governor of American Samoa (1985-89, 1993-97). The founder of the U.S. commonwealth's Democratic Party, he had a long career in the legislature and the judiciary in American Samoa. From 1951 to 1954, he served as administrative supervisor for public schools. He was chairman of the Samoan Culture Curriculum Committee from 1952 to 1954, a member of the Board of Education from 1955 to 1958, and chairman of the first American Samoa Board of Higher Education, which established the American Samoa Community College, Mapusaga, in 1974. He was admitted to practice in the High Court of American Samoa in 1954 and was one of the founders of the American Samoa Bar Association in 1972. He served as chief judge of the Lands and Titles Division. He was elected to the Samoan House of Representatives in 1955 and served as its speaker in 1955-58. He was chairman of the 1966 Constitution Convention and was elected American Samoa's Washington, D.C., delegate-at-large in 1974. He was selected for the American Samoa Senate in 1977 and was elected president in his first year. He was first elected governor of American Samoa in 1984 and lost his bid for a second term in 1988. In 1989, he was returned by his district Sa'ole to the Senate where he served as chairman of the Committee on Government Operations until he was again elected governor in 1992. Lutali played a key role in working with Samoan chiefs and the U.S. Congress to create the 50th national park of the United States in American Samoa. He lost his bid for a third term as governor in the 1996 elections.
Lutaud, Charles (Étienne) (b. Sept. 15, 1855, Mâcon, Saône-et-Loire, France - d. Oct. 27, 1921, Paris), governor-general of Algeria (1911-18).
Luteijn, David (b. July 11, 1943, Zuidzande, Zeeland, Netherlands), acting queen's commissioner of Zuid-Holland (1999-2000).
Lutfi, Ali (Lutfi Mahmoud) (b. Oct. 6, 1935), finance minister (1978-80) and prime minister (1985-86) of Egypt.
Lutfullayev, Nusratulla (Maksum) (Nusrat Allah Maqsum Lutf Allah) (b. July 1 [June 19, Old Style], 1881, Choshma Kubi, Garm region, Khanate of Bukhara - d. [executed] Nov. 1, 1937, near Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Tadzhik S.S.R. (1926-33) and co-chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the U.S.S.R. (1931-34).
Luther, Hans (b. March 10, 1879, Berlin, Germany - d. May 11, 1962, Düsseldorf, West Germany), chancellor of Germany (1925-26). He joined the local civil service in Berlin. From 1907 to 1913 he was a city councillor at Magdeburg. He was elected mayor of Essen in 1918, and gained a reputation as one of the best local administrative officials in the western part of Germany. He became minister of food under Chancellor Wilhelm Cuno in December 1922, and finance minister under Cuno's successor, Gustav Stresemann, in October 1923. He successfully stabilized the inflated national currency with the help of Hjalmar Schacht, later Adolf Hitler's minister of economics. He kept the finance post in the following ministry of Chancellor Wilhelm Marx, and took part in the negotiations of the Dawes Plan to settle Germany's war reparations (1924). After the elections of December 1924 Marx was unable to form a new cabinet, and Luther was appointed chancellor in January 1925, in a Centre-People's Party-Nationalist coalition. He carried through significant taxation and trade measures, but most importantly joined with his foreign minister, Stresemann, in securing Germany's adhesion to the various treaties known as the Locarno Pact. The Locarno signings (December 1925) caused the breakup of the coalition, but he was recalled in January 1926 to form a short-lived minority cabinet that fell in May 1926. Previously unaffiliated, he joined the People's Party in 1927. He was president of the Reichsbank (Germany's central bank) in 1930-33 (succeeding and later being succeeded by Schacht) and German ambassador to the United States in 1933-37. He then retired into private life, though after World War II he served as an informal adviser to the West German government.
Lüthi(-Affolter), Ruth, née Affolter (b. Sept. 14, 1947, Grenchen, Solothurn, Switzerland), president of the Council of State of Fribourg (1996, 2000, 2005). She was an unsuccessful candidate to the Federal Council in December 2001.
Luthuli, Albert (John Mvumbi), Luthuli also spelled Lutuli (b. 1898, Bulawayo [now in Zimbabwe] - d. July 21, 1967, Stanger, South Africa), president-general of the African National Congress (1952-67). In 1936 he became the elected chief of the Zulu community of Groutville. He joined the African National Congress (ANC) in 1945 and in 1951 was elected president of its Natal branch. He helped organize a countrywide defiance campaign by the ANC and the South African Indian Congress against what were deemed unjust laws; to crush it the government jailed 8,500 people in 1952. The government demanded that Luthuli give up his ANC post or his paid chieftainship. When he refused to do either, the government deposed him, but he continued to be affectionately regarded as "chief" and his reputation spread. Within the same year, the ANC elected him president-general. Henceforth, between repeated bans, he attended gatherings and toured the country to address mass meetings. In December 1956 he was one of 156 leaders who were rounded up and charged with high treason. A long trial failed to prove treason, a Communist conspiracy, or violence, and in 1957 he was released. During this time his quiet authority and inspiration to others impressed foreign observers. In 1959 the government banished him for five years to his farm near Groutville for "promoting feelings of hostility" between the races. In 1960, when police shot down Africans demonstrating against the pass laws at Sharpeville, he burned his own pass in protest and called for national mourning. The ANC was outlawed. In 1961 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for 1960, in recognition of his nonviolent struggle against racial discrimination. He died when he was struck by a train.
Lutsenko, Yuriy (Vitaliyovych) (b. Dec. 14, 1964, Rovno, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Rivne, Ukraine]), interior minister of Ukraine (2005-06, 2007-10). In December 2010 he was arrested on charges of abuse of office. In February 2012 he was sentenced to four years in prison.
Luukka, Eemil (Vihtori) (b. Dec. 1, 1892, Muola, Finland - d. June 1, 1970), interior minister (1960-62) and acting prime minister (1961) of Finland.
Luz, Hercílio Pedro da (b. May 29, 1860, Desterro, Santa Catarina, Brazil - d. Oct. 20, 1924, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina), governor of Santa Catarina (1894-98, 1918-24).
Luz, Kadish, original name Kadish Lozinsky (b. Jan. 10, 1895, Bobruysk, Russia [now in Belarus] - d. Dec. 4, 1972, Kfar Sava, Israel), interim president of Israel (1963). He was agriculture minister (1955-59) and speaker of the Knesset (1959-69).
Luzhkov, Yury (Mikhailovich) (b. Sept. 21, 1936, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), Russian politician. First appointed to the Moscow city council in 1977, he rose to the position of executive committee leader under Mayor Gavriil Popov in 1990 and became deputy mayor when Popov was reelected in 1991. After Popov's resignation in June 1992, Pres. Boris Yeltsin named Luzhkov the new mayor. Often appearing in public in an open collar and peaked leather cap, he took a populist stance in his public battles with the Kremlin. Although he backed Yeltsin in times of crisis - the coup attempt of August 1991, the parliamentary revolt of October 1993, and the presidential elections of June and July 1996 - he was often critical of the president and his young reform-minded advisers, particularly Anatoly Chubais, with whom he frequently squared off over the handling of the privatization process in Moscow. In 1994 Luzhkov persuaded Yeltsin to give him control over all state property in Moscow, and in 1996 the city took in $1 billion in privatization revenues. Moscow became the engine of post-Soviet state capitalism, with a wave of entrepreneurialism and a construction boom that pushed office rents higher than those of New York City, although in terms of quality of life Moscow still ranked low. While cognizant of mafia influence in some new businesses, Luzhkov's administration was not tainted by major scandals and nearly 90% of voters reelected him over a communist challenger in June 1996. He was for some time considered a likely successor of Yeltsin, being cited as the front-runner in a poll published in October 1997, but he was eclipsed by Vladimir Putin in 1999. In 1999 and 2003 he was reelected as mayor with 70% and 75% of the vote respectively. In 2007 he was reappointed by President Putin. In 2010 Pres. Dmitry Medvedev dismissed Luzhkov, citing a loss of trust.
Lvov, Knyaz (Prince) Georgy Yevgenyevich (b. Nov. 2 [Oct. 21, Old Style], 1861, Popovka, near Tula, Russia - d. March 7, 1925, Boulogne-Billancourt, near Paris, France), head of the provisional government of Russia (1917). He worked in the civil service until 1893, when he became a member (in 1902, president) of the Tula zemstvo (local government council), promoting the welfare of the peasants. He organized relief work in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) and in 1905 joined the new liberal Constitutional Democratic (Kadet) Party, for which he was elected to the first Duma (parliament), which convened in May 1906. With the outbreak of World War I he was placed at the head of the All-Russian Union of Zemstvos (1914) and became a leader of Zemgor (the Union of Zemstvos and Towns; 1915), which helped in the provisioning of the army and in supplying medical aid, winning him the respect of many political liberals and army commanders. When the imperial government was overthrown in March 1917, he became the prime minister of the provisional government and also served as interior minister. His government, composed initially of liberals and from May also of moderate socialists, was unable to check the drift towards increasingly radical demands by the population. In July, after a riotous demonstration threatened to overthrow the provisional government, he resigned his posts, making way for Aleksandr Kerensky to succeed him. When the Bolsheviks seized power in November, Lvov was arrested at imprisoned at Yekaterinburg, but he escaped, passed into Siberia, and thence to Japan, then took a ship to France and settled in Paris. As head of the Association of Russian Zemstvos Outside Russia, he visited the U.S. in 1922 to raise money for his expatriated countrymen.
Ly, Oumar Tatam (b. Sept. 28, 1963, Paris, France), prime minister of Mali (2013- ).
Lyapchev, Andrey (Tasev), also spelled Liapchev (b. Nov. 30, 1866, Resen, Macedonia, Ottoman Empire - d. Nov. 6, 1933, Sofia, Bulgaria), prime minister of Bulgaria (1926-31). As a student he took part in the movement for the unification of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia (1885) and in the following years he provided journalistic support for the Macedonian revolutionary cause, becoming editor of the Democratic Party organ, Priaporets. He became known as a pioneer in the cooperative movement. A member of parliament almost continuously from 1908, he served as minister of trade and agriculture (1908-10) and of finance (1910-11). In 1908 he signed the treaty establishing Bulgaria's independence from Ottoman Turkey. Again serving as finance minister in 1918, he signed the armistice (September 1918) that marked Bulgaria's defeat in World War I, and in November 1918 he was appointed as the first civilian minister of war. Opposing the dictatorship of Aleksandur Stamboliyski, he was jailed in 1922 but released after Stamboliyski's fall in 1923. Thereafter he became leader of the newly-formed "Democratic Entente," and in 1926 succeeded Aleksandur Tsankov as prime minister. He did much to reestablish the prestige of Bulgaria, which in 1927-28 obtained two League of Nations stabilization loans to assist in repatriating Bulgarian refugees in Yugoslavia. The tolerance of his government for the violent Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, which virtually controlled certain areas of Bulgaria, reinforced tensions with Greece and Yugoslavia. The Great Depression brought economic distress, which, combined with the unpopularity of some of his allies and officials, led to the defeat of his government in the 1931 elections.
Lyashko, Aleksandr Pavlovich (Russian), Ukrainian Oleksandr Pavlovych Lyashko (b. Dec. 30 [Dec. 17, O.S.], 1915, Rodakovo, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. Oct. 9, 2002), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1969-72) and chairman of the Council of Ministers (1972-87) of the Ukrainian S.S.R.
Lyashko, Yury (Gavrilovich) (b. April 22, 1943, Vladivostok, Russian S.F.S.R.), head of the administration of Amur oblast (1996-97). He was also mayor of Blagoveshchensk (1985-96).
Lyautey, (Louis) Hubert (Gonzalve) (b. Nov. 17, 1854, Nancy, France - d. July 21, 1934, Thorey [now Thorey-Lyautey], Meurthe-et-Moselle, France), French resident-general of Morocco (1912-25) and minister of war (1916-17).
Lykke, Ivar (b. Jan. 9, 1872, Trondhjem [now Trondheim], Norway - d. Dec. 6, 1949, Trondheim), prime minister of Norway (1926-28).
Lykketoft, Mogens (b. Jan. 9, 1946, Copenhagen, Denmark), finance minister (1993-2000) and foreign minister (2000-01) of Denmark. From 2002 to 2005 he was chairman of the Danish Social Democrats. In 2011 he became speaker of the Folketing.
Lynch, John (b. Nov. 25, 1952, Waltham, Mass.), governor of New Hampshire (2005-13).
Lynch, John (Mary) (byname Jack Lynch), Irish Seán Ó Loinsigh (b. Aug. 15, 1917, Cork, County Cork, Ireland - d. Oct. 20, 1999, Dublin, Ireland), prime minister of Ireland (1966-73, 1977-79). He entered the Dáil (House of Representatives) as a member of the Fianna Fáil in 1948 and worked closely with Eamon de Valera. After his party came to power in 1951, he became parliamentary secretary (1951-54) and minister for the Gaeltacht (Gaelic-speaking districts) (1957), education (1957-59), industry and commerce (1959-65), and finance (1965-66). When Sean Lemass announced his retirement as prime minister in 1966, there was an inner-party conflict over the succession that led to Lynch's selection as a compromise candidate. In November he became head of Fianna Fáil and prime minister. He is best remembered for his rhetorical intervention in August 1969 as violence spilled onto the streets of British-ruled Northern Ireland. As Protestant police battled Catholic rioters in Londonderry for three days straight, Lynch declared that "the Irish government can no longer stand by and see innocent people injured and perhaps worse." But the north's Catholic militants waited in vain for the tiny Irish army to come to their rescue. In 1972 he secured a referendum on Ireland's entry into the European Economic Community, leading to Irish membership on Jan. 1, 1973. Defeated in the 1973 elections, his party returned to power with a record majority in 1977. But the lavish overspending in his 1978 budget produced soaring deficits and inflation, kept taxes high, and fueled an immediate voter backlash. In December 1979, discouraged about his party's prospects, he resigned his leadership. He resigned from the Dáil in 1981.
Lynden van Sandenburg, Constant Theodore Emo graaf van (b. Feb. 10, 1905, Langbroek, Utrecht, Netherlands - d. Jan. 9, 1990, Langbroek), queen's commissioner of Utrecht (1954-70); son of Frederik Alexander Carel graaf van Lynden van Sandenburg.
Lynden van Sandenburg, Frederik Alexander Carel graaf van, byname Alex graaf van Lynden van Sandenburg (b. Nov. 17, 1873, The Hague - d. Dec. 25, 1932, The Hague), queen's commissioner of Utrecht (1914-24).
Lyng, John (Daniel Fyrstenberg) (b. Aug. 22, 1905, Trondhjem [now Trondheim], Norway - d. Jan. 18, 1978, Bærum, Norway), prime minister (1963) and foreign minister (1965-70) of Norway.
Lyng, Richard (Edmund) (b. June 29, 1918, San Francisco, Calif. - d. Feb. 1, 2003, Modesto, Calif.), U.S. agriculture secretary (1986-89). He spent four years fighting in the Pacific during World War II. Working in the Department of Agriculture during the Richard Nixon administration, he helped develop the food stamp program, which provides coupons for poverty-stricken and lower-income families to purchase food. Later he was appointed secretary of agriculture by Pres. Ronald Reagan.
Lyngdoh, Brington Buhai (b. Feb. 2, 1922, Laitlyngkot village, Assam [now in Meghalaya], India - d. Oct. 27, 2003, Shillong, Meghalaya), chief minister of Meghalaya (1979-81, 1983, 1990-91, 1998-2000). He took part in the movement that resulted in the creation of the autonomous state of Meghalaya in 1970, which was separated from Assam in 1972. In the first Meghalaya government of 1970 he was finance minister. Considered one of the most colourful politicians of the state and of India's northeastern region, Lyngdoh had a lot of political acumen. In 1979, he entered into an agreement with Williamson A. Sangma, who was the Congress leader, and split the All-Party Hill Leaders' Conference (APHLC) to form a coalition government with the Congress. Lyngdoh and Sangma agreed to share the chief minister's post for two years each. Lyngdoh took over the reign of power as the chief minister for the first two years. As there was no formal agreement, it came to be known as a "gentlemen's agreement" in political circles. The experiment was tried in Uttar Pradesh much later. In 1990, he was leader of the Hill Peoples Union and in 1998 of the United Democratic Party. Later he became a member of the Meghalaya Democratic Party.
Lynn, James T(homas) (b. Feb. 27, 1927, Cleveland, Ohio - d. Dec. 6, 2010, Bethesda, Md.), U.S. secretary of housing and urban development (1973-75).
Lyon, Anne-Catherine (b. April 12, 1963, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland), president of the Council of State of Vaud (2005).
Lyon, Sterling (Rufus) (b. Jan. 30, 1927, Windsor, Ont. - d. Dec. 16, 2010, Winnipeg, Man.), premier of Manitoba (1977-81).
Lyons, Joseph Aloysius (b. Sept. 15, 1879, Stanley, Tasmania [Australia] - d. April 7, 1939, Sydney), prime minister of Australia (1932-39). In 1909 he was elected for the Labor Party to the Tasmanian House of Assembly as member for Wilmot. In 1914, when the second Labor government was formed in Tasmania, he was appointed treasurer, minister of education, and minister of railways. In 1916 the party went into opposition and he became its leader. In 1923 he became premier, holding also the portfolios of treasurer and minister of railways; a little later he exchanged the latter office for that of minister of mines. He sponsored bills to encourage industry and to provide welfare benefits for public employees. In 1928 his ministry was defeated. At the 1929 federal election, Labor won a sweeping victory and he was returned for Wilmot, the same constituency he had represented in the Tasmanian parliament. He served as postmaster general and minister for public works and railways until Jan. 30, 1931, when he resigned because he supported a more conservative financial policy than that which Treasurer Ted Theodore represented. In May he formed the new United Australia Party, and he led it to victory in the November elections. Benefiting from worldwide economic recovery, he achieved a government surplus in 1934 along with declining unemployment and diversification of industry. He won two more general elections in September 1934 and October 1937, becoming the first Australian prime minister to survive three successive appeals to the voters. He expanded the military forces and gave some aid to cultural activity, scientific research, and public health. He died in office. His wife, Dame Enid Lyons, in 1949 became the first woman to hold ministerial office in Australia.
Lyosik, Iosif Yuryevich (b. Nov. 6, 1884, Nikolayevshchina village, Minsk region, Russia [now in Belarus] - d. 1940, Saratov, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Rada of the Belorussian People's Republic (1918).
Lyra, Augusto Tavares de (b. Dec. 25, 1872, Macaíba, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil - d. Dec. 21, 1958, Rio de Janeiro), governor of Rio Grande do Norte (1904-06) and justice and interior minister (1906-09) and finance minister (1918) of Brazil.
Lytton, (Edward) Robert Bulwer-Lytton, (1st) Earl of, Viscount Knebworth (of Knebworth), (2nd) Baron Lytton (of Knebworth), literary pseudonym Owen Meredith (b. Nov. 8, 1831, London, England - d. Nov. 24, 1891, Paris, France), viceroy of India (1876-80). He was also minister to Portugal (1874-76) and ambassador to France (1887-91). He succeeded to the barony in 1873 and was created earl and viscount in 1880.
Lytton, Victor Alexander George Robert Bulwer-Lytton, (2nd) Earl of, Viscount Knebworth (of Knebworth), (3rd) Baron Lytton (of Knebworth) (b. Aug. 9, 1876, Simla, India - d. Oct. 26, 1947, Knebworth, Hertfordshire, England), governor of Bengal (1922-27); son of Robert Bulwer-Lytton, Earl of Lytton.
Lyubchenko, Panas Petrovich (b. Jan. 14 [Jan. 2, O.S.], 1897, Kagarlik, Kiev guberniya, Russia [now Kagarlyk, Ukraine] - d. Aug. 30, 1937), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Ukrainian S.S.R. (1934-37). On Sept. 2, 1937, Pravda wrote that he had committed suicide since "he became enmeshed in his anti-Soviet relations and he feared of being called to account for the betrayal of the interests of Ukraine."
Lyubimov, Vyacheslav (Nikolayevich) (b. Jan. 17, 1947), head of the administration of Ryazan oblast (1997-2004).
Lyzohub, Fedir Andriyovych (b. Oct. 6, 1851, Sedniv, Chernigov province, Russia [now in Chernihiv oblast, Ukraine] - d. 1928, Belgrade, Yugoslavia), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the non-communist Ukraine (1918).