Man, Hendrik de (b. Nov. 17, 1885, Antwerp, Belgium - d. June 20, 1953, Murten, Switzerland), finance minister of Belgium (1936-38).
Manabe, Takeki (b. April 3, 1940), governor of Kagawa (1998-2010).
Mañach (y Robato), Jorge (b. Feb. 14, 1898, Sagua la Grande, Las Villas province, Cuba - d. June 25, 1961, San Juan, Puerto Rico), foreign minister of Cuba (1944).
Manara Linga, Didier (b. Oct. 29, 1964), governor of Maniema (2007-10).
Mancham, Sir James R(ichard Marie) (b. Aug. 11, 1939, Victoria, Seychelles), chief minister (1970-75), prime minister (1975-76), and president (1976-77) of Seychelles; knighted 1976.
Mancini, Alessandro (b. Oct. 4, 1975), captain-regent of San Marino (2007).
Mancini, Ange (b. June 15, 1944, Beausoleil, Alpes-Maritimes, France), prefect of French Guiana (2002-06) and Martinique (2007-11).
Mancino, Nicola (b. Oct. 15, 1931, Montefalcione, Avellino province, Campania, Italy), acting president of Italy (1999). He was president of the Senate from 1996 to 2001.
Mandaba, Jean-Luc (b. Aug. 15, 1943 - d. Oct. 22, 2000, Bangui, Central African Republic), prime minister of the Central African Republic (1993-95). On Oct. 21, 2000, he attended a dinner to commemorate Pres. Ange-Félix Patassé's first year in power in his "second administration." Suddenly, after Mandaba got back home he felt sick and a heart attack put an end to his life. Some family relatives reported that Mandaba was in fact poisoned at the dinner party. Mandaba was not reliable anymore for the presidential elite; he was thought to be planning a coup to overthrow Patassé from power.
Mandal, Bindeyyeshwari Prasad (b. 1918, Madhepura district, Bihar, India - d. 1982), chief minister of Bihar (1968).
Mande, Bala (Mohammed) (b. Jan. 8, 1958, Zurmi [now in Zamfara state], Nigeria), administrator of Nasarawa (1998-99). He served as environment minister of Nigeria in 2003-05.
Mandela, Nelson (Rolihlahla), original name Rolihlahla Mandela (he was given the name Nelson by his teacher at age 7), Xhosa clan name Madiba (b. July 18, 1918, Mvezo village, near Umtata, Cape province [now in Eastern Cape], South Africa), president of South Africa (1994-99). With Oliver Tambo, he founded the African National Congress (ANC) Youth League in 1944. He soon became one of the ANC's leaders. He was given a nine-month sentence for his political activities in 1952, and eventually went on trial for treason in 1956 (acquitted 1961). After police opened fire on unarmed Africans in Sharpeville in 1960, and the ANC was banned, Mandela began advocating controlled violence. He clandestinely went abroad in 1962 to seek support elsewhere in Africa and in Britain. On his return home he was arrested. He was sentenced first to five years' imprisonment in November 1962, and was given a life sentence on June 11, 1964. Incarcerated at Robben Island Prison until 1982 and then at the maximum-security Pollsmoor Prison until 1988, he came to symbolize the struggle against apartheid. The South African government under Pres. F.W. de Klerk finally released Mandela on Feb. 11, 1990. On March 2 he was chosen deputy president of the relegalized ANC, and he replaced Tambo as president in July 1991. In 1993 Mandela and de Klerk were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts to end apartheid and bring about a peaceful transition to nonracial democracy in South Africa. In April 1994 Mandela was elected president of South Africa in the country's first all-race elections. He introduced a redevelopment and construction program designed to improve the living standards of the country's majority black population; the program emphasized housing and education. He stepped down as ANC leader in December 1997 and retired from active politics after the end of his presidential term. His second wife (1958-96) Winnie Madikizela-Mandela herself became a political figure; after divorcing her, he married Graça Machel, widow of former president of Mozambique Samora Machel, in 1998.
Mandela, Winnie: see Madikizela-Mandela, Winnie.
Mandelson, Peter (Benjamin) Mandelson, Baron (b. Oct. 21, 1953, London, England), British politician. He was president of the Board of Trade (1998, 2008-10), Northern Ireland secretary (1999-2001), and lord president of the council (2009-10). In 2004-08 he was European trade commissioner. He was made a life peer in 2008.
Mandloi, Bhagwantrao (b. Dec. 10, 1892 - d. Nov. 3, 1977), chief minister of Madhya Pradesh (1957, 1962-63).
Mandungu Bula Nyati, (Antoine) (b. 1934 - d. 2000, Benin), foreign minister of Zaire (1975-76, 1986) and governor of Kinshasa (1978-80) and Shaba (1980-85).
Mané, Ansumane (b. 1940?, Gambia - d. [killed] Nov. 30, 2000, Quinhamel, Guinea-Bissau), foreign minister (1995-96) and commander of the Military Junta (1999) of Guinea-Bissau.
Manès, (Louis Evenor) Édouard, governor of French India (1886-88) and Réunion (1888-93).
Manescu, Corneliu (b. Feb. 8, 1916, Pitesti, Romania - d. June 26, 2000, Bucharest, Romania), foreign minister of Romania (1961-72). On Sept. 19, 1967, he was elected chairman of the 22nd session of the UN General Assembly (1967-68). Following arguments with the regime in the early 1980s, he was forced to retire in 1982. In March 1989, he and Gheorghe Apostol, Alexandru Barladeanu, Silviu Brucan, Constantin Parvulescu, and Grigore Raceanu signed a document denouncing the policy of the Romanian Communist Party, which went into history as "The Letter of the Six." In December 1989 he was a member of the Council of the National Salvation Front.
Manescu, Manea (b. Aug. 9, 1916, Braila, eastern Romania - d. Feb. 27, 2009), finance minister (1955-57) and prime minister (1974-79) of Romania. Claims that he was a brother-in-law of Nicolae Ceausescu are dubious.
Mangalaza, Eugène (Régis) (b. July 13, 1950, Ambodivoanio, Madagascar), prime minister of Madagascar (2009).
Mangefel, John (Avila) (b. May 10, 1932, Gal, Kanifay municipality, Yap, Micronesia [now in Federated States of Micronesia] - d. April 11, 2007, Colonia, Yap), governor of Yap (1979-87).
Manglapus, Raul S(evilla) (b. Oct. 20, 1918, Manila, Philippines - d. July 25, 1999, Alabang, Muntinlupa City, Philippines), foreign secretary of the Philippines (1987-92). He spent 14 years in self-imposed exile in the United States after Pres. Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law in 1972, returning home only after Marcos was overthrown in a "people's power" revolt in 1986. While in exile in the United States, Manglapus headed a group called Movement for a Free Philippines, which lobbied in the U.S. Congress for an end to U.S. economic and military assistance to the Marcos dictatorship. Washington persuaded Marcos to step down during the 1986 uprising. Manglapus served as foreign secretary to Marcos's successor, Corazon Aquino.
Mangope, Lucas (Lawrence Manyane) (b. Dec. 27, 1923, Motswedi, Transvaal [now in North West province], South Africa), chief minister (1972-77) and president (1977-94) of Bophuthatswana.
Mangwende, Witness (Pasichigare Magunda) (b. Oct. 15, 1946, Buhera province, Southern Rhodesia [now Zimbabwe] - d. Feb. 26, 2005, Harare, Zimbabwe), foreign minister of Zimbabwe (1981-88). One of the less controversial figures in Pres. Robert Mugabe's administration, he was subsequently minister of information, posts, and telecommunications (1988-90), lands, agriculture, and rural resettlement (1990-92), education and culture (1992-95), sports, recreation, and culture (1995-97), and transport and communications (2002-04). From 2004 to his death he was provincial governor of Harare.
Manigat, Edmé (Thalès) (d. Feb. 9, 1950, Caracas, Venezuela), foreign minister of Haiti (1947-48).
Manigat, (Saint-Roc) Leslie (François) (b. Aug. 16, 1930, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), president of Haiti (1988). He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 2006.
Manikya, Kirit Vikrama (b. Dec. 13, 1933 - d. Nov. 28, 2006, Kolkata, India), raja of Tripura (1947); brother-in-law of Madhavrao Scindia. He was elected to the Lok Sabha in 1967, 1977, and 1989 from East Tripura constituency as a Congress candidate.
Manin, Josette (b. March 16, 1950), president of the General Council of Martinique (2011- ).
Maniscalco, Albert V. (b. 1908, Manhattan, New York City - d. Sept. 2, 1998, Staten Island, New York City), borough president of Richmond (1955-65).
Manjappa, Kadidal (b. 1910, Haragolige village, Shimoga district [now in Karnataka], India - d. ...), chief minister of Mysore (1956).
Manley, John (Paul) (b. Jan. 5, 1950, Ottawa, Ont.), Canadian politician. He first ran for parliament in 1988 when the Liberals were in opposition and was critic for the portfolios of science, finance, and transportation. He represented the electoral district of Ottawa South. He was appointed industry minister in 1993 and foreign minister in 2000. Aides credited Manley with making the work of the industry ministry much more focused and on insisting on the need to pay more attention to the booming high-technology industry. Manley's willingness to put himself on the line for the party was shown best in January 2000, when he was forced to make a humiliating about-turn over whether Ottawa would bail out the country's six top-level professional ice hockey teams. Although sports had nothing to do with his portfolio Manley agreed to look into the viability of the clubs and then announced that the government would give them a total of C$20 million (U.S.$13 million) a year. But the decision unleashed howls of protest and just three days later a chastened Manley announced the plan was dead. His rowback prompted many to write off his chances of ever replacing Prime Minister Jean Chrétien but he soon bounced back and within weeks was even making fun of himself over the controversy. Manley's only other real brush with controversy came in September 1997 when he suggested Canada should ditch the monarchy; protests from cabinet colleagues quickly forced him to drop the idea. The low-profile Manley had shown no obvious interest in foreign affairs although he had won respect for his considered, if stolid, approach. Manley, who sat firmly on the right wing of the Liberal Party, was much more of a cabinet team player than his high-profile predecessor Lloyd Axworthy. In 2002 he was first promoted to deputy prime minister and then took the additional post of finance minister. He retired in 2003.
Manley, Michael (Norman) (b. Dec. 10, 1924, St. Andrew, Jamaica - d. March 6, 1997, Kingston, Jamaica), prime minister of Jamaica (1972-80, 1989-92); son of Norman Manley. In the 1950s he became involved in the trade-union movement, gaining recognition as a skilled negotiator. He was given an appointed senator's seat in 1962 and was elected to the House of Representatives in 1967. He succeeded his father as president of the People's National Party in 1969. He defeated the Labour Party to become prime minister in 1972 and was reelected in 1976. From 1972 to 1975 he was also foreign minister. In his first two terms as prime minister, the popular Manley was a firebrand socialist and champion of the nonaligned movement. A powerful orator, he was often called "Joshua," after the Old Testament prophet. He forged close ties with Cuban leader Fidel Castro, railed against capitalist domination, and discouraged foreign investment. In 1973 he was one of the founders of the Caribbean Community and Common Market (Caricom). By the end of 1980, Jamaica was nearly bankrupt and Manley was defeated by conservative Edward Seaga, who became the Reagan administration's closest ally in the Caribbean. In 1989, a new Manley emerged. Though he still claimed to be a socialist, the anti-imperialist rhetoric was gone, along with his trademark bush jacket. He espoused private investment and good relations with the United States. Helped by a worsening economy, he trounced Seaga in national elections. He then pursued free-market policies and privatized many state-owned enterprises. Manley said he had learned from his mistakes. But he never toned down his tendency to speak out when he felt it was necessary. Citing health reasons, he quit as prime minister in 1992.
Manley, Norman (Washington) (b. July 4, 1893, Roxborough, Manchester parish, Jamaica - d. Sept. 2, 1969, St. Andrew, Jamaica), chief minister (1955-59) and prime minister (1959-62) of Jamaica; cousin of Sir Alexander Bustamante. He began his political career after the Jamaican labour riots of 1938 by founding the People's National Party (September 1938). In 1944 he ran unsuccessfully for the legislative assembly, but five years later he won. He took the post of chief minister after his party's first electoral victory in 1955 and became the first premier of Jamaica in 1959. His administration was credited with stimulating industrial growth, attracting much foreign capital, and achieving significant gains in agrarian reform and education. He was also a pioneer in the movement to establish a West Indies federation and developed the West Indies Federal Labour Party. The federation came into being in 1958, but a strong anti-federalist movement began in Jamaica, based on fears that Jamaica would have to support the rest of the federation; a referendum was held in 1961 and a majority decided against continued membership, a result Manley accepted with regret. His government was defeated in elections in 1962, and he became leader of the opposition. He campaigned again in Jamaica's first post-independence election, in 1967, but was unsuccessful. He retired from politics early in 1969.
Mann, David S(cott) (b. Sept. 25, 1939), mayor of Cincinnati (1980-82, 1991).
Mann, Edgar (b. June 24, 1926, London), chairman of the Executive Council of the Isle of Man (1985-86).
Mannerheim, Carl Gustaf (Emil friherre) (friherre in Finnish vapaaherra) (b. June 4, 1867, Villnäs, Finland - d. Jan. 27, 1951, Lausanne, Switzerland), president of Finland (1944-46). He entered the Russian army in 1889 as a lieutenant in the cavalry and rose to the rank of lieutenant general and corps commander. After the outbreak of the Russian Revolution in November 1917 he returned to Finland, which declared its independence from Russia. He assumed command of the "White" (anti-Bolshevik) forces in January 1918 during the Finnish Civil War and, with the aid of German forces, defeated the Finnish Bolsheviks and expelled Russian forces in a bloody four-month campaign. He became regent of Finland in December 1918, holding this post for seven months (during which he signed his name Kustaa Mannerheim) until a republic was declared in 1919. Defeated in the first presidential election in July 1919, he mostly retired from public life until he became chairman of the national defense council (1931-39); during his tenure Finland constructed the Mannerheim Line of fortifications across the Karelian Isthmus facing Leningrad. In 1933 he was given the rank of field marshal. When Soviet forces attacked Finland in December 1939, he served as commander in chief, and his brilliant leadership won considerable successes against vast numerical superiority, but the end result was defeat, resulting in a relatively harsh peace settlement in 1940. Hoping to win back some territory, Finland successfully joined Nazi Germany in its invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. He was named the only Marshal of Finland in June 1942. But as Russian strength grew and Germany weakened, his troops were forced to retreat. He was named president in August 1944 and signed an armistice with the Soviets in September, which ultimately led to a peace treaty by which Finland was forced to make concessions more extensive than those made in 1940. He remained president until ill health forced his retirement in 1946.
Manning, Ernest C(harles) (b. Sept. 20, 1908, Carnduff, Sask. - d. Feb. 19, 1996, Calgary, Alberta), Canadian politician. As a young man he studied under the charismatic evangelist William Aberhart, the founder of the populist Social Credit political movement. After Aberhart's Social Credit Party captured 56 of 63 seats in the 1935 election, Aberhart became premier and Manning joined the cabinet as provincial secretary. When Aberhart died in 1943, Manning was elected party leader and premier. Reelected seven consecutive times, he served until 1968 while concurrently enjoying a career as an evangelist on radio, where he was heard weekly on the North American broadcast of "Back to the Bible Hour." He was credited with guiding the province through the Great Depression and shaping it into a model of economic prosperity, in part owing to the discovery of a major oil field at Leduc in 1947 and his innovative rules concerning the proper management of petroleum reserves. That allowed him to expand social services while maintaining the lowest taxes in Canada. He was a Canadian senator from 1970 to 1983.
Manning, Patrick (Augustus Mervyn) (b. Aug. 17, 1946, San Fernando, Trinidad), prime minister of Trinidad and Tobago (1991-95, 2001-10). He was leader of the People's National Movement from 1987 to 2010.
Manning, (Ernest) Preston (b. June 10, 1942, Edmonton, Alberta), Canadian politician; son of Ernest C. Manning. He followed in his father's footsteps as a populist and an evangelical Christian fundamentalist and gave sermons on the elder's radio program. He ran unsuccessfully as a candidate for the Social Credit Party in the 1965 federal election. He returned to the political arena in 1987. In May, delegates of the Reform Association of Canada voted to create a new federal political party. The Reform Party of Canada was founded in Winnipeg, Manitoba, in October, and Manning, a key organizer of the association, was elected leader of the party. The Reform Party grew out of the feeling of alienation prevalent in Canada's western provinces, and its aim was to advance the interests of western Canada by sending members of Parliament to Ottawa. The slogan was "The West Wants In," and the purpose was to pursue economic and political equality for the West within Canada. In 1991, however, the party changed its focus to that of a national party that would organize across Canada. The slogan became "Building a New Canada," and the party aimed to place all provinces on an equal footing within the nation. In 1993 he was voted into Parliament for the riding of Calgary Southwest. In the 1997 general election, the Reform Party received 19% of the popular vote and won 60 seats in the House of Commons. Thus, barely 10 years after its founding, it had risen from a western fringe party to become the official opposition, with Manning becoming leader of the opposition. Although the party was disappointed that no party candidates were elected outside the western provinces, it expected that the strong showing of the party would give the Canadian West a greater voice in the federal government. In 2000 the Reform Party became the Canadian Alliance and he lost a leadership vote to Stockwell Day. He resigned from Parliament in 2002.
Manoli, Mihai (b. Sept. 20, 1954, Valea Mare, Moldavian S.S.R.), finance minister of Moldova (1999-2002).
Manolic, Josip (b. March 22, 1920, Kalinovac, Croatia), prime minister of Croatia (1990-91). He was president of the House of Districts in 1993-94.
Manopakornnitithada, Phraya (b. July 15, 1884, Bangkok, Siam [now Thailand] - d. Oct. 1, 1948, Penang, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), prime minister of Siam (1932-33).
Manorohanta (Dominique), Cécile (Marie Ange), defense minister (2007-09), interior minister (2009-10), and prime minister (2009) of Madagascar.
Mansfield, Sir Alan (James) (b. Sept. 30, 1902, Indooroopilly, Queensland - d. July 17, 1980), governor of Queensland (1966-72); knighted 1958.
Mansfield, Mike, byname of Michael Joseph Mansfield (b. March 16, 1903, New York City - d. Oct. 5, 2001, Washington, D.C.), U.S. politician. He built a solid reputation in the House of Representatives for a decade (1943-53) before moving to the Senate, where he became assistant Democratic leader under the tutelage of majority leader Lyndon B. Johnson in 1957. Four years later, Mansfield became Senate majority leader when Johnson became vice president under Pres. John F. Kennedy in 1961. He held the post for 16 years - longer than anyone in Senate history. While a close associate of Johnson, Mansfield was one of the most vocal critics of America's role in the Vietnam War. He was also instrumental in establishing a Senate committee that investigated the Watergate scandal that proved Richard Nixon's downfall. Mansfield's career in the Senate included membership on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He was a strong advocate for national health insurance and played a leading role in lowering the voting age to 18 and in the 1964 Civil Rights Act. In Congress, Mansfield represented Montana for 34 years until in 1977 he was named by Pres. Jimmy Carter as U.S. ambassador to Tokyo. In an unusual move, Republican president Ronald Reagan reappointed Mansfield as ambassador to Japan, a post he held until 1988.
Mansholt, Sicco (Leendert) (b. Sept. 13, 1908, Ulrum, near Groningen, Netherlands - d. June 30, 1995, Wapserveen, Drenthe, Netherlands), Dutch politician. After playing an important role in the Dutch resistance during World War II and in feeding people in Amsterdam during the winter of 1944-45, he helped rebuild domestic food production as minister of agriculture, fisheries, and food (1945-58). In 1946 he represented the Netherlands at the UN and in the negotiations for the creation of the Benelux Economic Union with Belgium and Luxembourg. In 1953 he introduced the original guidelines for the Mansholt Plan, a proposed radical restructuring of Western European agriculture that became the basis for the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Economic Community (EEC) and its successor, the European Community (EC). From 1958 to 1972 he served as vice president of the EEC (from 1967, EC) Commission and as commissioner for agriculture. In 1972-73 he was president of the Commission.
Mansor (bin) Othman (b. 1923? - d. Jan. 21, 1999, Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia), chief minister of Negeri Sembilan (1969-78).
Mansour, Adnan, Arabic `Adnan Mansur (b. Jan. 5, 1946, Borj el-Barajné, Lebanon), foreign minister of Lebanon (2011- ).
Mansur, Ali (b. 1895 - d. 1974), prime minister of Iran (1940-41, 1950).
Mansur, Hassan Ali (b. 1923 - d. Jan. 26, 1965, Tehran, Iran), prime minister of Iran (1964-65); son of Ali Mansur. He was shot by right-wing Muslim extremists while on his way to parliament on Jan. 21, 1965, and died five days later.
Mansur (bin Tengku Muhammad Adil), Tengku (b. Jan. 17, 1897, Tanjung Balai, Netherlands East Indies [now in Sumatera Utara, Indonesia] - d. Oct. 7, 1955, Medan, Sumatera Utara, Indonesia), Walinegara of Sumatera Timur (1947-50); grandson of Husain Syah bin Ali and nephew of Ahmad Syah bin Husain (sultans of Asahan).
Manteuffel, Edwin (Hans Karl) Freiherr von (b. Feb. 24, 1809, Dresden, Saxony - d. June 17, 1885, Karlsbad, Austria-Hungary [now Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic]), Reichsstatthalter of Alsace-Lorraine (1879-85).
Mantik, G(ustaaf) H(endrik) (b. April 26, 1928, Bandung, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Barat, Indonesia]), governor of Sulawesi Utara (1980-85).
Mantra, Ida Bagus (b. May 8, 1928, Badung, Bali, Netherlands East Indies [now Indonesia] - d. 1995), governor of Bali (1978-88).
Manuel II, in full Manuel Maria Filipe Carlos Amélio Luís Miguel Rafael Gabriel Gonzaga Xavier Francisco de Assis Eugénio (b. Nov. 15, 1889, Lisbon, Portugal - d. July 2, 1932, Twickenham, London, England), king of Portugal (1908-10). He was the younger son of King Carlos and Queen Maria Amalia. On Feb. 1, 1908, Carlos and his elder son, Luís Filipe, were assassinated by anarchists in the streets of Lisbon; Manuel (then known as the Duque de Beja), who was in the same carriage and was wounded in the arm by one of the bullets, unexpectedly found himself king at the age of 18. The dictatorial prime minister João Franco resigned, and Manuel asked Adm. Francisco Joaquim Ferreira do Amaral to head a government composed of equal numbers of the two main parties, the Regenerators and the Progressists, with one or two others. Amaral proceeded with elections in Lisbon, which the republicans won. They intensified preparations for a revolution, while the monarchist parties formed ineffective coalitions, alternately advising the young king and blaming him for taking their advice. In the summer of 1910 Manuel went to Buçaco, but on his return a revolution, supported by the fleet on the Tagus River, broke out. His palace was shelled, and Manuel fled into exile. The republic was proclaimed, and Manuel settled near London, at Richmond and later at Twickenham. Although he never abdicated officially, he took no action to regain his throne. When royalists attempted a coup in 1919, and actually proclaimed him king, he resented the move and said so in a telegram to the royalist leaders. On Sept. 4, 1913, he married Augusta Victoria, the daughter of Prince Wilhelm of Hohenzollern. He left no issue. Patching up a feud between two rival branches of the house of Bragança, he met with his cousin Miguel in 1927 and agreed that upon his death another cousin, Duarte Nuno, would succeed as head of the house.
Manuel, Trevor (Andrew) (b. Jan. 31, 1956, Cape Town, South Africa), finance minister of South Africa (1996-2009). A former trade unionist, Manuel introduced the government's sober macroeconomic policy which has been welcomed by investors. He is also credited with encouraging a strict monetary and fiscal policy, which helped South Africa weather an emerging markets crisis in 1998 better than many other African nations. In 2009 he was appointed minister in the presidency in charge of a new National Planning Commission.
Manuel de Vilhena (dos condes de Vila Flor), António (b. May 28, 1663, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Dec. 12, 1736), grand master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (1722-36).
Manuilsky, Dmytro (Zakharevych) (b. 1883, Sviatets, near Kremianets, Volhynia - d. Feb. 22, 1959), foreign minister of the Ukrainian S.S.R. (1944-52).
Manukyan, Vazgen (Mikayeli) (b. Feb. 13, 1946, Leninakan, Armenian S.S.R. [now Gyumri, Armenia]), Armenian politician. Before 1988, he was a member and founder of several political organizations. From February 1988 he was a member, and from June 1988 the coordinator, of the Karabagh Committee. On Oct. 10, 1988, he was imprisoned along with the other members of the Karabagh Committee, and spent 6 months in the Moscow Motrosskaya Tishina jail. He was the first chairman of the board and the author of the ideology and of the first program of the All-Armenian National Movement (ANM). In May 1990, he was elected a deputy of the Supreme Council of Armenia. On Aug. 13, 1990, he was appointed prime minister. On Sept. 25, 1991, he resigned from this post. Further, jointly with David Vardanyan, Arshak Sadoyan, and Shavarsh Kocharyan, Manukyan initiated the establishment of the centre-right National Democratic Union (NDU), which brought together the former ANM activists and sharers of the same ideology. In 1992-93 he was defense minister. In 1995, he was elected a deputy of the National Assembly. In 1996, he was the single presidential candidate from the opposition, and received 41.3% of the votes; he accused Pres. Levon Ter-Petrosyan of stealing power through fraud. Manukyan came third in the 1998 presidential election, behind Robert Kocharyan and Karen Demirchyan. In the campaign he pledged to revive Armenian heavy industry.
Manusama, Johannes Alvarez (b. Aug. 17, 1910, Bandjermasin, Borneo, Netherlands East Indies [now Indonesia] - d. Dec. 29, 1995, Rotterdam, Netherlands), president of the South Moluccas in exile (1966-93). In 1975 and 1977, he played a key role as a negotiator when South Moluccan extremists took hostages on Dutch passenger trains.
Mao Guangxiang (b. 1893, Tongzi, Guizhou, China - d. November 1947, Chishui, Guizhou), chairman of the government of Guizhou (1929-31). Having participated in the war against Yuan Shikai in 1916 on the side of the South, he was named the vice-commander of the 25th Army and concurrently head of the Guizhou provincial Military Bureau. Having expelled Chairman Li Shen, Mao was nominated the chief commander of the 25th Army, also taking up the headquarters of the 18th Route Army. In 1935, he launched a war against Wang Jialie, but was defeated; he then left politics.
Mao Zedong, Wade-Giles Mao Tse-tung (b. Dec. 26, 1893, Shaoshan, Hunan, China - d. Sept. 9, 1976, Beijing, China), Chinese leader. In July 1921 he attended the First Congress of the Chinese Communist Party. In 1923, when the young party entered into an alliance with Sun Yat-sen's Kuomintang (Nationalist Party), Mao was one of the first Communists to join the Kuomintang and to work within it. In 1925 he became aware of the revolutionary potential inherent in the peasantry, and in 1927 he embarked on a new type of revolutionary warfare in the countryside in which the Red Army would play the central role. He became chairman of the Chinese Soviet Republic founded in Kiangsi province in 1931, but it was unable to stand up against Chiang Kai-shek's elite units, and in 1934 the Red Army set out for the northwest of China, on what is known as the Long March, during which Mao was chosen leader of the party (Jan. 8, 1935); he formally became chairman in March 1943. The revolution was victorious, and the People's Republic of China was proclaimed in 1949, with Mao as its chairman. In 1958 he launched the Great Leap Forward, which resulted in the starvation of millions. In 1959 he was replaced as head of state but he remained party chairman until his death. A campaign to reestablish his ideological line culminated in the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966-76), a mass mobilization of youth against party bureaucrats and "bourgeois values"; many people died and the economy was disrupted. Soon after his death, the Maoists were purged. The official Chinese view, defined in June 1981, is that his leadership was basically correct until 1957, but from then on it was mixed at best and frequently quite wrong.
Maoate, Sir Terepai (Tuamure-) (b. Sept. 1, 1934, Rarotonga, Cook Islands - d. July 9, 2012, Rarotonga), deputy prime minister (1985-89, 2003, 2005-09), prime minister (1999-2002), finance minister (2005-09), and foreign minister (2009) of the Cook Islands; knighted 2007.
Maope, Kelebone Albert (b. Sept. 15, 1945, Ha Maope Lekokoaneng, Berea district, Basutoland [now Lesotho]), Lesotho politician. In November 1986 he became attorney general, a position he held even after becoming a minister in February 1990. In May 1993, he was appointed as member of the Senate, and he was sworn in as minister of justice, human rights, law, and constitutional affairs in June. After the July 1995 cabinet reshuffle he became minister of foreign affairs. He was elected deputy leader of the Lesotho Congress for Democracy at the party's annual conference in February 1998. He was elected member of parliament for the Seqonoka constituency in the 1998 general elections, and appointed deputy prime minister and minister of agriculture, cooperatives, and land reclamation. The July 1999 cabinet reshuffle made him minister of finance and of development planning, and he still remained deputy prime minister, as he did in July 2001 when he was moved to justice and constitutional affairs. In September 2001, however, he resigned from the cabinet after an exchange of insults with Foreign Minister Tom Thabane. In October he formed an opposition party, the Congress of the People of Lesotho.
Mappus, Stefan (b. April 4, 1966, Pforzheim, West Germany), minister-president of Baden-Württemberg (2010-11).
Mara, Ratu Sir Kamisese (Kapaiwai Tuimacilai), Tui Nayau, Tui Lau (b. May 13, 1920, Sawana, Vanua Balavu island, Lau province, Fiji - d. April 18, 2004, Suva, Fiji), chief minister (1967-70), prime minister (1970-87, 1987-92), foreign minister (1970-82, 1985, 1986-87, 1987, 1988-92), and president (1993-2000) of Fiji; knighted 1969. He was the paramount chief of the eastern Lau Islands and was revered as the last surviving giant of a feudal hierarchy who was able to hold together bickering Fijian tribes as he struggled to weld the islands into a stable, united multiracial nation following independence from Britain in 1970 after 96 years of colonial rule. However, his reputation was tainted by coups that tore the country apart in 1987 and again in 2000. His tenure ended abruptly during the 2000 coup, when he was forced to resign. Rebels accused the elderly president of working to keep power in the hands of a small group of native chiefs and ethnic Indian businessmen, at the expense of ordinary Fijians. Mara was also a major figure in trade and aid negotiations between the European Union and more than 70 Africa, Caribbean and Pacific countries and a staunch supporter of the Commonwealth of former British colonies and the British monarchy, which he felt underwrote the security of Fiji's chieftains and his own place in that system.
Marace, Martial Beti, foreign minister of the Central African Republic (2003).
Maragall (i Mira), Pasqual (b. Jan. 13, 1941, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain), president of the Generalitat of Catalonia (2003-06). He was mayor of Barcelona in 1982-97.
Marais, Jaap, byname of Jacob Albertus Marais (b. Nov. 2, 1922, Vryburg, South Africa - d. Aug. 8, 2000, Pretoria, South Africa), South African politician. He helped found the far-right Herstigte Nasionale Party in 1969 with a group of right-wing parliamentarians who were thrown out of the ruling National Party - the architect of apartheid - after disputes with party leaders. Marais became party leader in 1977. Though his party never held much power and attracted few votes, it was considered the voice of ultraconservative Afrikaners. As the apartheid state was crumbling in the early 1990s, Marais accused Pres. F.W. de Klerk of behaving like a dictator for proposing compromises that would likely bring a black head of state to power. Apartheid ended with the country's first all-race elections in 1994.
Marais, Peter, byname of Petrus Jacobus Marais (b. Sept. 4, 1948), premier of Western Cape (2001-02). He was mayor of Cape Town in 2000-01. He resigned as premier on May 31, 2002, following claims of sexual misconduct which might have led to a criminal prosecution. On October 9 it was announced that he would not be prosecuted.
Maraj, Ralph (b. Jan. 21, 1949, Rousillac, La Brea, Trinidad), foreign minister of Trinidad and Tobago (1991-95, 1995-2000).
Marak, Salseng C. (b. 1941?), Indian politician. A protégé of the first Meghalaya chief minister, Capt. Williamson Sangma, who initiated him into politics, Marak contested the 1972 Meghalaya assembly election. He won it as a nominee of the then composite All Party Hill Leaders's Conference from the Resubelpara constituency. His first break into the ministerial office came in 1975, when he was inducted into the ministry headed by Captain Sangma as a minister of state, a post he held until 1978. In 1976, he joined the Indian National Congress. In the 1978 assembly election, he contested from Resubelpara on a Congress ticket and won. Subsequently, in 1979, he was inducted into the B.B. Lyngdoh ministry as cabinet minister. Contesting from the same constituency in the assembly poll, on the same ticket, Marak was returned in 1983. On the formation of the Sangma ministry soon after, he was again made a cabinet minister, in charge of public health engineering. In 1985, however, he resigned on moral grounds over the Jowai PHE scandal. In 1986, he was re-inducted into the ministry. In the ministry headed by P.A. Sangma, Marak was, yet again, a cabinet minister. He held the post till the government was voted out in 1990. Marak also served as general secretary of the Meghalaya Pradesh Congress Committee (MPCC) from 1979 to 1988. From 1992 to 1993 and again from 2000 he was the president of the MPCC. Following his victory in 1993 to the Meghalaya assembly, which was his fifth consecutive win from the constituency, Marak became the popular choice to head the government as chief minister. He completed his five-year tenure, and in the midst of a fractured verdict in the 1998 election, was sworn in as chief minister for a second time, but resigned a month later.
Marandi, Babulal (b. Jan. 11, 1958, Kodai Bank village, Giridih district, Bihar [now in Jharkhand], India), chief minister of Jharkhand (2000-03).
Maranhão, Alberto (Frederico de Albuquerque) (b. Oct. 2, 1872 - d. Feb. 1, 1944), governor of Rio Grande do Norte (1900-04, 1908-14).
Maranhão, José Targino (b. Sept. 6, 1936, Araruna, Paraíba, Brazil), governor of Paraíba (1995-2002, 2009-11).
Marani, Primo (b. Dec. 9, 1922, San Leo, Italy - d. Jan. 10, 2013, Borgo Maggiore, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (1957, 1980).
Maras, Vukasin (b. Feb. 5, 1938, Podgorica, Yugoslavia [now in Montenegro] - d. Sept. 12, 2008, Podgorica, Montenegro), interior minister of Montenegro (1998-2001).
Marazov, Ivan (Roussev) (b. March 15, 1942, Pirne village, near Burgas, Bulgaria), Bulgarian politician. He entered politics as deputy culture minister in the first post-communist caretaker government in 1991. He later became culture minister. As Bulgarian Socialist Party candidate he trailed a humiliating 17 points behind Petur Stoyanov after the first round of presidential elections in 1996. A little-known scholar of Thracian mythology, Marazov had been drawn into the presidential race on a joint ticket with Foreign Minister Georgi Pirinski, whose candidacy was rejected because he was born in the United States. He modeled himself on other East European intellectuals who became heads of state after the fall of Communism in 1989. He prefered open-necked shirts and sweaters to the formal wear of party functionaries, but diligently attended party rallies commemorating dates in communist history and spoke nostalgically of the low prices in pre-1989 Bulgaria and lost Russian markets for Bulgaria's lacklustre industrial goods. His "Together for Bulgaria" campaign had the difficult task of appealing equally to the Socialists' two main constituencies - private entrepreneurs and older voters nostalgic for the security of the former one-party regime.
Marcellin, Raymond (b. Aug. 19, 1914, Sézanne, Marne, France - d. Sept. 8, 2004, Paris, France), French minister of public health and population (1962-69), industry (1966-67), interior (1968-74), and agriculture and rural development (1974), and president of the Regional Council of Bretagne (1978-86).
Marchais, Georges (René Louis) (b. June 7, 1920, La Hoguette, Calvados, France - d. Nov. 16, 1997, Paris, France), French politician. He joined the Communist Party in 1947, became a member of the central committee in 1956 and of the Politburo in 1959 and organizational secretary in 1961. He effectively took over as party leader in 1970 when General Secretary Waldeck Rochet fell ill, and was formally named to the top post on Rochet's death two years later. In 1972, with Socialist leader François Mitterrand and Left Radical leader Robert Fabre, he developed a joint electoral platform between the leftist parties in France. He won a seat in the National Assembly from the Val-de-Marne district outside Paris in March 1973 and was continually reelected thereafter. He supported Mitterrand's unsuccessful candidacy in the 1974 presidential elections. After the breakup of the Communist-Socialist alliance in 1977, he adopted a more pro-Soviet, hard-line policy (he had refused to support the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, but backed the 1979 invasion of Afghanistan and Poland's crackdown on the Solidarity movement in 1981). But his orthodox and dogmatic stance alienated many sympathizers and failed to restore the Communists to their former dominance of the left. In the first round of the 1981 presidential election, he ran against Mitterrand but polled only 15.3% of the vote, the worst showing for a Communist presidential candidate since 1935. The Communists entered the Socialist-led government as a minority partner, holding four cabinet seats until Marchais pulled them out three years later in protest at the Socialists' switch to austerity policies. Support for the Communist Party declined further; in parliamentary elections in 1986 and 1993 the party received less than 10% of the vote. Only in June 1993 did he agree to give up the Leninist principle of "democratic centralism." He retired as party leader in January 1994.
Marchaisse, Jean Ernest (b. May 5, 1814, Rochefort, Charente-Inférieure [now Charente-Maritime], France - d. ...), commandant of Nossi-Bé (1848-51).
Marchak, Nikolay Makarovich (Russian), Ukrainian Mykola Makarovych Marchak (b. Jan. 5, 1904 [Dec. 23, 1903, O.S.] - d. [executed] September 1938), acting chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Ukrainian S.S.R. (1937-38).
Marchal, Charles (Emmanuel Joseph) (b. October 1855, Grand-Bourg, Marie-Galante island, Guadeloupe - d. June 26, 1917, Paris), governor of French Guiana (1905) and Dahomey (1906-08).
Marchal, Léon (b. June 8, 1900 - d. Sept. 24, 1956), secretary-general of the Council of Europe (1953-56).
Marchand, René (André) (b. Nov. 19, 1903 - d. Nov. 30, 1955), administrator of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1946-47).
Marchand Stens, Luis (Ernesto) (b. April 5, 1930, Lima, Peru - d. Aug. 1, 2012), foreign minister of Peru (1990-91). He was ambassador to the United States in 1984-86.
Marchant et d'Ansembourg, Max(imilien Victor Eugène Hubert Joseph Marie) graaf de (b. Jan. 18, 1894, Gulpen, Limburg, Netherlands - d. Jan. 24, 1975, Heerlen, Limburg), provincial commissioner of Limburg (1941-44).
Marchat, Jean (b. June 17, 1897, Saint-Jean-d'Angély, Charente-Inférieure [now Charente-Maritime], France - d. Jan. 13, 1949), resident of Wallis and Futuna (1928-31).
Marchena (Dujarric), Enrique de (b. Oct. 13, 1908, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic - d. Feb. 25, 1988, Santo Domingo), foreign minister of the Dominican Republic (1955-56).
Marchenko, Pyotr (Petrovich) (b. Jan. 2, 1948), head of the administration of Stavropol kray (1995-96).
Marchessou, (Marcel Alix) Jean (b. June 24, 1879, Puy, Haute-Loire, France - d. April 6, 1964, Chamalières, Haute-Loire), acting governor-general of French Equatorial Africa (1927, 1934, 1935-36), acting lieutenant governor of Middle Congo (1929-30), and governor of New Caledonia (1936-38).
Marchuk, Yevhen (Kyrylovych) (b. Jan. 28, 1941, Dolynivka village, Haivoron district, Kirovograd oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.), prime minister (1995-96) and defense minister (2003-04) of Ukraine.
Marcinkiewicz, Kazimierz (b. Dec. 20, 1959, Gorzów Wielkopolski, northwestern Poland), prime minister of Poland (2005-06). In July 2006 he became acting mayor of Warsaw; in the mayoral election in November he was the candidate of the Law and Justice party but lost to Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz.
Marcos, Ferdinand (Emmanuel) E(dralin) (b. Sept. 11, 1917, Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, Philippines - d. Sept. 28, 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii), president (1965-86) and prime minister (1978-81) of the Philippines. He was a member of the House of Representatives (1949-59) and of the Senate (1959-65) and served as Senate president (1963-65). He was a prominent member of the Liberal Party, but broke with it in 1964 after failing to get its nomination for president. He then ran as the Nationalist Party candidate against the Liberal incumbent, Diosdado Macapagal. The campaign was expensive and bitter, but Marcos won and he was reelected in 1969, the first Philippine president to serve a second term. On Sept. 21, 1972, he imposed martial law, citing the presence of communist and subversive forces. He jailed opposition politicians, dissolved Congress, and tripled the size of the armed forces. He announced the end of martial law in January 1981 but continued to rule in an authoritarian fashion. He won election as president against token opposition in June 1981. After a dubious victory in the Feb. 7, 1986, presidential election over opposition candidate Corazon Aquino, Marcos held fast to his presidency as the military split between supporters of his and of Aquino's legitimate right to the presidency. The standoff ended only when Marcos fled the country on February 25, at U.S. urging, and went into exile in Hawaii. Evidence emerged that during his years in power, Marcos, his family, and close associates had looted the Philippine economy of billions of dollars through embezzlements and other corrupt practices. In October 1988 Marcos was indicted by the U.S. government on racketeering charges, but in April 1989 he was declared too ill to stand trial.
Marcos, Imelda (Remedios Visitacion Trinidad Romualdez) (b. July 2, 1929, Tolosa, Leyte, Philippines), Philippine politician; widow of Ferdinand E. Marcos. She made headlines first as Miss Manila of 1953, and again when she married Marcos in 1954. After moving into the presidential palace as first lady in 1966, she quickly took advantage of her new position. There was much talk about her growing wealth and the appointments of relatives to highly-paid governmental and industrial positions. In 1975 her husband appointed her governor of metropolitan Manila. She spent $500 million in 1977 for the construction of 14 hotels and only some $13 million for badly needed public housing. In June 1978 she joined the cabinet to head the newly created Department of Ecology and Human Settlements, with responsibility for planning and developing 1,500 cities and towns. Because she had been warmly received during state visits to China, Cuba, and Libya, she was stunned by the welcome accorded her in August 1978, when she traveled to Washington, D.C.: 15 of the 114 congressmen who signed a letter protesting the alleged rigging of the Philippine elections in April asked pointed and serious questions about her personal wealth and alleged torture. She continued to hold the posts of governor of Manila and minister of human settlements until 1986, when she and her husband fled to Hawaii. They were subsequently indicted by the U.S. government for stealing $103 million from the Philippines to buy art and real estate in Manhattan. Ferdinand died in 1989, and in 1990 Imelda was acquitted of all charges by a federal court. She was allowed to return to the Philippines in 1991; in 1993 a Philippine court found her guilty of corruption, but in 1998 she was again acquitted. She lost a bid for the presidency in 1992, but in 1995 won a seat in the House of Representatives, serving until 1998; she cancelled a planned second presidential candidacy in 1998.
Marcos, Subcomandante, Mexican guerrilla leader. He was the leader of the Zapatista National Liberation Army (EZLN), which launched a rebellion in Chiapas state on New Year's Day 1994 to demand indigenous rights and greater democracy, liberty, and justice. On Feb. 9, 1995, Mexico's Pres. Ernesto Zedillo broke a ceasefire and ordered thousands of troops into the area of Chiapas held by the EZLN. The stated purpose of the crackdown was to prevent further violence by capturing Zapatista leaders, in particular Subcomandante Marcos, their eloquent but elusive spokesperson. As part of the offensive, Zedillo unmasked Marcos as Rafael Sebastián Guillén Vicente (b. July 10, 1957, Tampico, Tamaulipas), a middle-class "maverick philosopher and university professor," in an attempt to discredit him as the voice of the peasant-led EZLN and to strip him of the charismatic guerrilla mystique that had captured the imagination of many. One of the EZLN's few non-Indian fighters, Marcos had become internationally known for his literate communiqués, issued in the name of the Revolutionary Indigenous Clandestine Committee of the General Command (CCRI-CG) of the EZLN. These letters to the Mexican people often combined humour, poetry, and storytelling with sharp political critiques. More than 100,000 demonstrators in Mexico City and elsewhere answered Zedillo by proclaiming, "We are all Marcos." The government move to isolate the rebels politically thus met with limited success. The military push and reported abuse of civilians galvanized the support of students, union leaders, human rights advocates, and leftists outside Chiapas. While Zedillo proclaimed Marcos a terrorist, the National Autonomous University awarded him Mexico's highest honour - an honorary degree. In 2006 he embarked on a political tour through all of Mexico's 31 states and said he wanted to be known as Delegado Zero rather than Subcomandante.
Marcoz, Oreste (b. Nov. 17, 1905 - d. April 25, 1972), president of Valle d'Aosta (1959-63).
Marcucci, Gian Marco (b. July 25, 1954, Borgo Maggiore, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2000); son of Giovanni Vito Marcucci.
Marcucci, Giovanni Vito (b. June 15, 1927, San Marino - d. April 11, 2011), captain-regent of San Marino (1961-62, 1966-67, 1975-76).
Marcucci, Marco (b. June 16, 1949, Viareggio, Toscana, Italy), president of Toscana (1990-92).
Mardiyanto (b. Nov. 21, 1946, Solo, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia), governor of Jawa Tengah (1998-2007) and home affairs minister of Indonesia (2007-09).
Maret, Hugues Bernard, duc de (duke of) Bassano (b. May 1, 1763, Dijon, France - d. May 13, 1839, Paris), French statesman. The interest aroused by the debates of the first National Assembly suggested to him the idea of publishing them in the Bulletin de l'Assemblée, and he was persuaded to merge this in a larger paper, the Moniteur universel, which gained a wide repute for correctness and impartiality. He entered the diplomatic service in 1792 and went on two missions to Great Britain before becoming ambassador to Naples. He was arrested by the Austrian government and held for 32 months (1793-95). After the coup d'état of 18 Brumaire (Nov. 9, 1799), Napoléon appointed him secretary of state to the consuls. The Moniteur, which became the official journal of the state in 1800, was placed under his control. He grew in Napoléon's esteem and acted as his confidential adviser. He was created a count in 1807 (confirmed in May 1809) and duke of Bassano in August 1809. In 1811-13 he served as minister of foreign affairs; he concluded the treaties with Prussia (February 1812) and with Austria (March 1812) that preceded the French invasion of Russia. In 1813 he reverted to the post of secretary of state, until the first Bourbon restoration in 1814. In 1815 he helped arrange Napoléon's return from Elba and again resumed his functions as secretary of state. Exiled during the second Bourbon restoration, Maret returned to France in 1820 and was made a peer of France by Louis-Philippe (1831). In November 1834 he was appointed prime minister and interior minister but his government lasted only days.
Mareuilh de Villeboi, Pierre François de (d. Oct. 22, 1788), governor of French Guiana (1787-88).
Marga, Andrei (b. May 22, 1946, Bucharest, Romania), foreign minister of Romania (2012).
Margai, Sir Albert (Michael) (b. Oct. 10, 1910, Bonthe, Sierra Leone - d. Dec. 18, 1980, Washington, D.C.), prime minister of Sierra Leone (1964-67). Together with his elder brother, Milton, he formed the Sierra Leone People's Party. He was then elected by the protectorate assembly to a seat in the Legislative Council. Margai held ministerial portfolios in education, local government, and social welfare. In 1957 he broke away from his brother and founded the People's National Party with Siaka Stevens. He was reconciled with his brother in 1960 and was made minister of finance. After Sir Milton died, Margai succeeded him as prime minister in 1964 and was knighted in 1965. He tried to establish a one-party state with an executive president; following demonstrations he declared his adherence to the multiparty system. His party was defeated in the 1967 election; minutes after a new government led by Siaka Stevens was sworn in on March 21, Army chief Brig. David Lansana took power (at the instigation of Margai), on the grounds that the election results were still incomplete. Two days later, however, a group of young officers seized power and all political leaders were taken into custody. Margai was released on April 11, and went into exile in New York in February 1968.
Margai, Sir Milton (Augustus Strieby) (b. Dec. 7, 1895, Gbangbatok, Sierra Leone - d. April 28, 1964, Freetown, Sierra Leone), prime minister of Sierra Leone (1958-64). The grandson of a paramount chief, his active political career began in 1946 when he was elected to Bonthe district council and entered the protectorate assembly. He was concerned to uphold the rights of the protectorate tribes (including his own people, the Mende) against what he regarded as suppression by the Creole political leaders of the colony area. Having first been active in the Sierra Leone Organization Society, he later helped develop this into the Sierra Leone People's Party, of which he became leader in 1951, when it became the majority group in the Legislative Council. He then was appointed to the Executive Council, and in 1953 became minister of health, agriculture, and forestry, one of the first Africans to hold a ministerial post. In 1954 he was named chief minister, and in 1958, prime minister; he also held the posts of minister for internal affairs (1957-64) and defense (1961-64). Although he easily won the elections of 1957, Margai was challenged within the People's Party by his younger brother Albert, who accused him of being too moderate and cautious. In 1958 Albert left to form his own party, the People's National Party, which was defeated in district elections in 1959. In 1960 Margai formed a united front to hold talks in London for independence, which was granted in 1961. He kept all the British civil servants he could, and was quite unafraid of complaints that he lacked true nationalistic fervour. His coalition government, with many former opposition leaders in his cabinet, lasted until his death, after which he was succeeded by his brother Albert. Margai had been knighted in 1959.
Margiani, Avtandil (b. Dec. 24, 1945), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Georgian S.S.R. (1990-91).
Margrethe II, in full Margrethe Alexandrine Thorhildur Ingrid (b. April 16, 1940, Copenhagen, Denmark), queen of Denmark (1972- ); daughter of Frederik IX. Born a week after the Nazi invasion of Denmark, she attended school in Copenhagen and then continued her studies (focusing on political science and archaeology) at Copenhagen University; Girton College, Cambridge; Aarhus University; the Sorbonne; and the London School of Economics. Her interest in archaeology was acquired from her maternal grandfather, King Gustav VI Adolf of Sweden, whom she accompanied on expeditions. In 1953, following a change in the Danish constitution to permit female succession to the throne, Margrethe, the king's eldest daughter, assumed the title of "throne heiress" (i.e., crown princess, although that title, in Denmark, had denoted the wife of a male heir to the throne). As such, from her 18th birthday she regularly took part in meetings of the Council of State in preparation for her future regal duties. On June 10, 1967, she married Count Henri de Laborde de Monpezat, a French diplomat, who afterward took the title of Prince Henrik. Their first child, Crown Prince Frederik, was born on May 26, 1968, and a second son, Prince Joachim, on June 7, 1969. On the death of her father on Jan. 14, 1972, she became Denmark's first queen regnant (the first Margrethe was queen dowager of Norway and regent of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway from 1388 to 1412).
Maria I, in full Maria Francisca Isabel Josefa Antónia Gertrudes Rita Joana (b. Dec. 17, 1734, Lisbon, Portugal - d. March 20, 1816, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), queen of Portugal (1777-1816) and Brazil (1815-16). She was the daughter of King José I. In 1760 she married her uncle Pedro who after Maria's accession (February 1777) was given the courtesy style of king as Pedro III; coins were struck in the joint names of Maria I and Pedro III, but he was not a co-ruler. Maria, the first ruling queen of Portugal, attempted to compensate the people for years of misery under the despotic administration of her father's minister, the marquês de Pombal, freeing his political prisoners and banishing him to Pombal, although an inquiry ended in his pardon. She abandoned some of his trading enterprises but developed small industries in Portugal and new crops in Brazil. She created the Maria Pia House, a foster house for destitute orphans, and ordered the construction of the Estrela Basilica in Lisbon; in economic affairs, passing laws protecting foreign trade became her greatest concern. A treaty of alliance was signed with Spain (1778), after an agreement to map the common frontier in South America. Maria had always shown a tendency toward religious mania. The deaths of Pedro in 1786 and of her eldest son José and daughter Mariana in 1788, combined with news of the excesses of the French Revolution, so affected her that she suffered a mental collapse in January 1792. She entrusted power to her only surviving child, João (the future João VI), who officially became prince regent in 1799, when her condition was deemed incurable. When Napoléon's armies invaded Portugal in November 1807, she went with the rest of the royal family to Brazil, where she died.
Maria II da Glória, in full Maria da Glória Joana Carlota Leopoldina Isidora da Cruz Francisca Xavier de Paula Micaela Gabriela Rafaela Luisa Gonzaga (b. April 4, 1819, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Nov. 15, 1853, Lisbon, Portugal), queen of Portugal (1828, 1834-53); daughter of Pedro I of Brazil (Pedro IV of Portugal). When Pedro, already emperor of Brazil, succeeded to the Portuguese throne in 1826, he quickly made a conditional abdication in favour of Maria, the proviso being that she should marry her uncle, Dom Miguel. However, before Maria arrived in Europe (September 1828), Miguel had renounced his allegiance to her and to Pedro and had been proclaimed king. As a result, Maria did not definitively become queen until 1834 when Miguel was defeated by Pedro, who was regent for her. When Pedro died later that year, Maria was declared of age at 15. Her reign was characterized by the continuing struggle between liberals and conservatives, and by foreign intervention. Maria married in 1835 Augustus, duke of Leuchtenberg, who died the same year, and in 1836, Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg, by whom she had 11 children and who was proclaimed king consort as Fernando II upon the birth in 1837 of their first son (the future Pedro V). She died in childbirth.
Maria, Victor Saúde (b. 1939 - d. Oct. 25, 1999, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau), foreign minister (1974-82) and prime minister (1982-84) of Guinea-Bissau.
Mariátegui (La Chira), José Carlos, baptized José del Carmen Eliseo Mariátegui La Chira (b. June 14, 1894, Moquegua, Peru - d. April 16, 1930, Lima, Peru), Peruvian political leader. In 1919 Pres. Augusto B. Leguía, to rid himself of a critical journalist, sent Mariátegui to Europe by naming him "Peruvian Agent of News, Propaganda, and Publicity" in Italy. In Europe he established strong ideological ties with some of the leading Socialist thinkers of the time, among them Henri Barbusse, Antonio Gramsci, and Maksim Gorky. He returned to Lima in 1923 and became a strong supporter of Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre's Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (APRA). After a dispute with Luis Alberto Sánchez, a leading Aprista, he left the Alliance to establish the Peruvian Socialist Party in 1928 (in 1930, shortly after his death, it was renamed Communist Party). A supporter of indigenismo, he proposed a revolutionary path to social change predicated on an alliance between Peruvian workers and peasants. Though confined to a wheelchair after the amputation of a leg in 1924, he also founded Amauta (1926-30), a Marxist cultural and literary journal that published avant-garde writing. In La escena contemporánea (1925; "The Contemporary Scene"), a collection of essays, he attacked Fascism and defined the responsibilities of the intellectual in countries where social oppression reigns. César Vallejo, Peru's greatest poet, was deeply influenced by him. Mariátegui's masterpiece is another collection of essays, Siete ensayos de interpretación de la realidad peruana (1928; Seven Interpretive Essays on Peruvian Reality). Still harassed by the Leguía regime, he made plans to go into exile in 1930 but died before he could leave.
Mariátegui Chiappe, Sandro (Tiziano Romeo) (b. Dec. 5, 1922, Rome, Italy), prime minister and foreign minister of Peru (1984); son of José Carlos Mariátegui.
Maric, Jozo (b. 1948, Grude [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), governor of West Herzegovina (1996-2000).
Maricar, M.O. Hasan Farook (b. Sept. 6, 1937, Karikal, French India [now in Puducherry, India] - d. Jan. 26, 2012, Chennai, India), chief minister of Pondicherry (1967-68, 1969-74, 1985-89) and governor of Jharkhand (2010-11) and Kerala (2011-12). He was also Indian ambassador to Saudi Arabia (2004-09).
Marie, Aurelius (John Baptist Lamothe) (b. Dec. 23, 1903 - d. Sept. 28, 1995), president of Dominica (1980-83).
Marie-Adélaïde (Thérèse Hilda Antoinette Wilhelmine) (b. June 14, 1894, Colmar-Berg, Luxembourg - d. Jan. 24, 1924, Hohenburg castle, Lenggries, Bavaria, Germany), grand duchess of Luxembourg (1912-19). She succeeded her father Guillaume IV, the last male in the House of Nassau, on the throne in 1912. When in World War I the Germans demanded passage of their armies through Luxembourg on the way to attack France, she demurred, but there is no truth in the story that was widely printed at the time that, in way of a formal protest, she drew her motor car across the street through which the German columns were about to pass. In any case, no attempt was made to oppose the Germans forcibly, and they quietly occupied Luxembourg. Whether, after that, she was frightened or conciliated is uncertain. Her enemies said that she was pro-German; her friends that she was humiliating herself in the hope of saving her country from the fate of Belgium. In September 1914, she invited the Kaiser to dinner and toasted "the glorious German Army," which probably cost her the throne. The fury of the people was intensified by a telegram which she sent to the Kaiser in 1915, congratulating him on his victories, and by her ready assent to her sister Antoinette's marriage to Crown Prince Rupert of Bavaria. She abdicated in favour of her sister Charlotte in January 1919, and in September 1920 became a nun in the Carmelite convent of Modena, Italy, her name in religion being Marie des Pauvres.
Mariere, (Samuel) Jereton (b. 1906, Evwreni [now in Delta state], Nigeria - d. [car crash] May 9, 1971), governor of Midwest Region, Nigeria (1964-66?).
Marijnen, Victor (Gerard Maria) (b. Feb. 21, 1917, Arnhem, Netherlands - d. April 5, 1975, The Hague, Netherlands), prime minister of the Netherlands (1963-65).
Marín (Millie viuda de Muñoz), Gladys (del Carmen) (b. July 16, 1941, Curepto locality, near Curicó, Chile - d. March 6, 2005, La Florida, near Santiago, Chile), Chilean politician. She joined the Communist Party at age 16 and was elected to Congress for three consecutive terms before the 1973 coup in which Augusto Pinochet toppled Marxist Pres. Salvador Allende. After Allende won the 1970 election, the youth organization she was heading increased its activities. She had to go underground after the September 1973 coup. She took refuge, against her will, in the Dutch embassy in Santiago in December of that year, complying with a party decision, and later traveled into exile in Amsterdam. She then assumed tasks of solidarity with the Chilean cause, touring several countries to denounce the crimes committed in Chile. Marín returned clandestinely to Chile in early 1978, and began to lead the Communist Party in the interior of the country until she assumed the post of general undersecretary in 1984. Following the return of democracy in 1990, she sought legal proceedings against General Pinochet. In 1994 she was elected general secretary of her party, and in 1998 she was proclaimed presidential candidate for the 1999 election, in which she won 3% of the vote.
Marín (González), Manuel (b. Oct. 21, 1949, Ciudad Real, Spain), acting president of the European Commission (1999). He was a vice president of the Commission from 1986 to 1999 and chairman of the Congress of Deputies (lower house of the Spanish Cortes) in 2004-08.
Marín, Rubén (Hugo) (b. May 1, 1934, Trenel, La Pampa, Argentina), governor of La Pampa (1983-87, 1991-2003).
Marín Iglesias, Alejandro (d. Oct. 29, 1988, Asunción, Paraguay), president of the Council of Ministers of Paraguay (1940).
Marín Torres, Mario (Plutarco) (b. June 28, 1954, Nativitas Cuautempan, Coyotepec municipality, Puebla, Mexico), governor of Puebla (2005-11).
Marini, Catiuscia (b. Sept. 25, 1967, Todi, Umbria, Italy), president of Umbria (2010- ).
Marinkovic, Vojislav (b. May 13 [May 1, Old Style], 1876, Belgrade, Serbia - d. Sept. 18, 1935, Belgrade), prime minister of Yugoslavia (1932). In 1901 he entered government service in the Ministry of Finance. He became a member of the Serbian parliament as a Progressist in 1906, and was a member of every Serbian and Yugoslav parliament until May 1935. He represented Serbia at the Paris Conference (1913) for the financial settlement of the Balkan Wars and became minister of national economy (1914-17). As the leader of the Progressists from 1915, he took part in the drafting of the Corfu Declaration calling for a South Slav state in 1917. In 1919, he became Yugoslavia's first minister of trade and merged the Progressists with the second most powerful political party in the new state, the Democratic Party. As interior minister (1921-22), he organized the electoral law. He later served twice as foreign minister (1924, 1927-32) and, in April-July 1932, as prime minister. As foreign minister he signed a treaty of friendship with France (1927), ratified the Nettuno Conventions concluded in 1925 to improve economic and cultural relations with Italy (1928), represented Yugoslavia at the assemblies of the League of Nations, and was a member of the League Council (1929-32) and its president (1930). At the League of Nations in Geneva in 1931, he so energetically opposed the formation of an Austro-German customs union that the Austrians had to disavow their signature to the agreement. He also took part in the negotiations for establishing the Balkan Entente and for the new statute of the Little Entente, but both were signed (1934 and 1933, respectively) after his resignation. After the murder of King Aleksandar in 1934, he entered the cabinet as minister without portfolio at the request of Regent Prince Pavle.
Marion, Daniel Joseph (b. Dec. 6, 1945, St. Malo, Manitoba), commissioner of the Northwest Territories (1999-2000).
Mariz, Antonio Marques da Silva (b. May 12, 1937 - d. Sept. 16, 1995), governor of Paraíba (1995).
Mariz, Dinarte de Medeiros (b. Aug. 23, 1903, Serra Negra do Norte, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil - d. July 9, 1984, Brasília, Brazil), governor of Rio Grande do Norte (1956-61).
Marjan, `Abd al-Wahhab (b. 1910?, Hilla, Iraq - d. 1964), prime minister of Iraq (1957-58).
Marjanovic, Mirko (b. July 27, 1937, Knin, Croatia, Yugoslavia - d. Feb. 21, 2006, Belgrade, Serbia), prime minister of Serbia (1994-2000). He served as director of the Yugoslav Chamber of Commerce, and had brief stints as deputy head of the Yugoslav soccer association and as president of Belgrade soccer team Partizan. He was elected Serbian prime minister in March 1994, and reelected in 1998, all the time still running Progres, an import-export company that handled lucrative deals for Russian oil, gas, and minerals, where he stayed on as manager until 2002. He is mostly remembered for mistakenly saying in 1998 the Kosovo armed ethnic Albanian separatists had been defeated - the conflict in the restive Serbian province was only beginning. When a pro-democracy movement toppled autocratic ruler Slobodan Milosevic and set up new, democratic authorities in October 2000, Marjanovic resigned as prime minister. He was for a long time close to Milosevic but fell out of the former Serb strongman's favour after Milosevic's 2001 extradition to the UN war crimes tribunal at The Hague, Netherlands. From his detention cell at The Hague, Milosevic initially appointed Marjanovic as acting chief of the Socialists, only to remove him from the top of the party in 2002.
Marjolin, Robert (b. July 27, 1911, Paris - d. April 15, 1986, Paris), secretary-general of the Organization for European Economic Cooperation (1948-55). He was also a vice president of the Commission of the European Economic Community (1958-67).
Mark, David (Bonaventure Alechenu) (b. April 8, 1948, Otukpo [now in Benue state], Nigeria), governor of Niger state, Nigeria (1984-86). In 2007 he became president of the Senate of Nigeria.
Mark, Heinrich (b. Oct. 1, 1911, Krootuse, Võrumaa, Russia [now in Estonia] - d. Aug. 2, 2004, Stockholm, Sweden), acting prime minister (1971-90) and prime minister acting as president (1990-92) of Estonia in exile. In 1940, he registered as a candidate to run against the Estonian Working People's Union in the parliamentary elections but was crossed off the list of candidates by Soviet authorities. In 1943, he fled to Finland and, one year later, settled down in Sweden. He was active in many exile organizations and over several decades was chairman of the Estonian Committee's Board of Education, later on director of the bureau and deputy chairman of the committee, from 1975 to 1982 chairman, and from 1982 honorary chairman. In 1951-79, he was secretary-general of the Estonian National Council. In the Estonian exile government, he was state secretary (1953-71), deputy prime minister and minister of war (1971-90), and then prime minister with presidential powers (1990-92). In October 1992, before the Riigikogu, he devolved his powers to Lennart Meri who had been elected president of the republic.
Markar, (Alhaj) M(ohamed Abdul) Bakeer (b. May 12, 1917, Beruwela, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. Sept. 10, 1997), governor of Southern province, Sri Lanka (1988-93).
Markaryan, Andranik (Nahapeti) (b. June 12, 1951, Yerevan, Armenian S.S.R. - d. March 25, 2007, Yerevan, Armenia), prime minister of Armenia (2000-07). He became active in opposition to the Soviet Union in the 1960s and was arrested in 1974 and imprisoned for two years for espousing Armenian independence, according to his official biography. He was chairman of the board (1993-2005) and chairman (1997-99, 2005-07) of the conservative Republican Party. A National Assembly deputy from 1995, he became leader of the Unity faction in 1999. He was appointed prime minister in 2000 amid rising discontent over Armenia's economic troubles. He died in office.
Markell, Jack (A.) (b. Nov. 26, 1960, Newark, Del.), governor of Delaware (2009- ).
Markelov, Leonid (Igorevich) (b. June 25, 1963), president (2001-11) and head of the republic (2011- ) of Mari El.
Markezinis, Spyros, byname of Spyridon (Vasiliou) Markezinis (b. April 22, 1909, Athens, Greece - d. Jan. 4, 2000, Athens), prime minister of Greece (1973). He was the founder of two conservative parties and got elected a total of five times in parliament from 1946 to 1964. Markezinis, one of the country's most controversial political figures, is best remembered for devaluing the drachma by 50% to the dollar in 1952 in his capacity as coordination minister. He held the post until 1954 and introduced significant changes in the economy which included deregulation of foreign trade, introduction of domestic loans for industrial investments, and the securing of European credits. In 1967 a military dictatorship seized power and Markezinis was the only mainstream politician to maintain contact with the junta's leaders. He agreed with the regime to become prime minister in October 1973 saying that he would lead the country to free elections and a return to democracy. But his government was toppled a month later by one of the junta leaders after a student uprising at the Athens Polytechnic. The dictatorship collapsed in 1974 and Markezinis played a major role in negotiations with political leaders for a return to democratic rule and the formation of a national unity government under Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis.
Markovic, Ante (b. Nov. 25, 1924, Konjic, Yugoslavia [now in Bosnia and Herzegovina] - d. Nov. 28, 2011, Zagreb, Croatia), chairman of the Executive Council (1980-86) and president of the Presidency (1986-88) of Croatia and premier of Yugoslavia (1989-91).
Markovic, Dragoslav (b. June 28, 1920, Popovic, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia] - d. April 20, 2005, Belgrade), Yugoslav politician. He was president of the National Assembly of Serbia (1969-74) and, ex officio, member of the Presidency of Yugoslavia (1971-74), then president of the Presidency of Serbia (1974-78), president of the Federal Assembly (1978-82), and president of the Presidium of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (1983-84).
Markovic, Predrag (b. Dec. 7, 1955, Cepure, Serbia), acting president of Serbia (2004).
Marois, Pauline (b. March 29, 1949, Québec, Quebec), premier of Quebec (2012- ).
Maron, Amour (Émile Valentin) (b. 1891 - d. 1948), commissioner (1933-41) and governor (1941-46) of Elisabethville province.
Marovic, Svetozar (b. March 31, 1955, Kotor, Montenegro), president of Serbia and Montenegro (2003-06). He was president of the Skupstina of Montenegro in 1994-2001.
Marques, Jaime Silvério (b. 1914, Nazaré, Portugal), governor of Macau (1959-62).
Marques, Silvino Silvério (b. March 23, 1918, Nazaré, Portugal), governor of Cape Verde (1958-62) and governor-general of Angola (1962-66, 1974).
Marqués Fernández, Sergio (b. Aug. 4, 1946, Gijón, Spain - d. May 8, 2012, Gijón), president of the government of Asturias (1995-99).
Marquès Oste, Nemesi (b. May 17, 1935, Cabó, Lleida province, Catalonia, Spain), personal representative of the episcopal coprince of Andorra (1993-2012).
Márquez Sterling y Loret de Mola, (Carlos) Manuel (Agustín) (b. Aug. 28, 1872, Lima, Peru - d. Dec. 9, 1934, Washington, D.C.), foreign minister of Cuba (1933-34).
Marquié, Jean-Pierre (b. May 6, 1938, Paris), prefect of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1989-91).
Marraco Solana, Santiago (b. July 25, 1938, Canfranc, Huesca province, Aragón, Spain), president of the Diputación General of Aragón (1983-87).
Mars, Louis (Price-) (b. Sept. 5, 1906 - d. May 20, 2000, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), foreign minister of Haiti (1958-59); son of Jean Price-Mars.
Marsal bin Maun, Dato Seri Paduka Haji (b. 1913? - d. March 28, 2000, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei), chief minister of Brunei (1962-67).
Marsh, Reginald (b. Dec. 25, 1906, Braidwood, N.S.W., Australia - d. May 2005, Sydney, N.S.W.), administrator of Norfolk Island (1966-68).
Marshall, David Saul (b. March 12, 1908, Singapore - d. Dec. 12, 1995, Singapore), chief minister of Singapore (1955-56). He served in the colonial army in World War II, during which he was captured (1942) by the Japanese and forced to work in the coal mines in Hokkaido, Japan. He entered Singapore politics in the early 1950s, during the struggle for independence. He was a co-founder of the socialist Labour Front and was elected to the Legislative Assembly in April 1955 under Singapore's new constitution. He formed a centre-left coalition government with the United Malays National Organization and the Malayan Chinese Association, and became the state's first chief minister. When he led an unsuccessful mission to London at the end of 1955 for independence talks, he accused the British of offering Singapore "Christmas pudding with arsenic sauce"; when a second mission in 1956 also failed, he resigned as chief minister. In 1957 he founded the Workers' Party, which, however, was unsuccessful at the polls. After the authoritarian People's Action Party (PAP) took over (1959), he consistently and unequivocally spoke out against the government's repressive policies. Though he was quick to praise the economic progress achieved by the PAP, he condemned what he saw as the resultant loss of a sense of humanity. He remained active in politics until 1972. Later, he served as ambassador to France (1978-93), Portugal (1981-93), Spain (1981-93), and Switzerland (1990-93). Upon his return to Singapore, he resumed his outspoken criticism of the government. In 1994 he was one of the very few citizens publicly to oppose the caning of the U.S. teenager Michael Fay as punishment for vandalism.
Marshall, George C(atlett) (b. Dec. 31, 1880, Uniontown, Pa. - d. Oct. 16, 1959, Washington, D.C.), U.S. secretary of state (1947-49). He advanced steadily through the ranks of the army, ultimately becoming general of the army in December 1944. He was sworn in as chief of staff of the U.S. Army on Sept. 1, 1939. As the chief representative of the U.S. chiefs of staff at the international conferences at Casablanca; Washington, D.C.; Quebec; Cairo; and Tehran, he led the fight for an Allied drive on German forces across the English Channel, in opposition to the so-called Mediterranean strategy of the British. A few days after he resigned as chief of staff on Nov. 21, 1945, Pres. Harry Truman persuaded him to attempt, as his special representative, to mediate the Chinese Civil War. Though his efforts were unsuccessful, on Jan. 7, 1947, he was appointed secretary of state. In June of that year he proposed a European Recovery Program, which, known as the Marshall Plan, played a decisive role in the reconstruction of war-torn Europe. Also significant during his secretaryship were the provision of aid to Greece and Turkey, the recognition of Israel, and the initial discussions that led to the establishment of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. He left his position because of ill health in January 1949. In September he was named president of the American Red Cross. In 1950, Truman called him to the post of secretary of defense. After 1951 he remained on the active-duty list as the highest ranking general of the army, available for consultation by the government. In 1953 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of his contributions to the economic rehabilitation of Europe after World War II and his efforts to promote world peace and understanding.
Marshall, Helen M(arie) (b. Sept. 30, 1929, Manhattan, New York City), borough president of Queens (2002- ).
Marshall, Sir John Ross (b. March 5, 1912, Wellington, New Zealand - d. Aug. 30, 1988, Snape, Suffolk, England), prime minister of New Zealand (1972). He was first elected to Parliament in 1946. He held a wide variety of ministerial posts, including minister of health (1951-54), minister of justice (1954-57, 1969), attorney general (1954-57, 1969-71), minister of commerce and industry (1960-69), and minister of labour and immigration (1969-72). He achieved his greatest success in 1971 when, as minister of overseas trade, he stalled Britain's admission to the European Economic Community (EEC) until the EEC agreed to continue the importation of New Zealand dairy products for at least five years. As deputy leader of the National Party from 1957, he was chosen to succeed retiring prime minister Sir Keith Jacka Holyoake in February 1972, but the party was defeated in the November general election by Norman Kirk's Labour Party. Marshall was also a representative to the United Nations (1970) and chairman of the National Development Council (1969-72). He was ousted as leader of the opposition by his party rival, Robert David Muldoon, in 1974, and retired from parliament in 1975. He was knighted in 1974.
Marshall, (Cedric) Russell (b. Feb. 15, 1936, Nelson, New Zealand), foreign minister of New Zealand (1987-90). He was high commissioner to the United Kingdom in 2002-05.
Marshall, Thomas R(iley) (b. March 14, 1854, North Manchester, Ind. - d. June 1, 1925, Washington, D.C.), vice president of the United States (1913-21).
Marshoff, (Frances) Beatrice (b. Sept. 17, 1957, Bloemfontein, Orange Free State [now Free State], South Africa), premier of the Free State (2004-09).
Marsicanin, Dragan (b. Jan. 26, 1950, Belgrade, Serbia), acting president of Serbia (2004).
Marson, Evariste (b. Oct. 3, 1938, Vohipeno, Madagascar), foreign minister of Madagascar (1996-97).
Marsters, Tom (John) (b. Aug. 4, 1945, Palmerston island, Cook Islands), foreign minister of the Cook Islands (2004-05, 2010- ).
Martel, Damien (Joseph Alfred Charles comte) de (b. 1878 - d. Jan. 21, 1940, Paris), French high commissioner of Syria and Lebanon (1933-38). He was French ambassador to Japan in 1929-33.
Martelly, Michel (Joseph), stage name Sweet Micky (b. Feb. 12, 1961, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), president of Haiti (2011- ).
Martens, Wilfried (Achiel Emma) (b. April 19, 1936, Sleidinge, near Ghent, Belgium), prime minister of Belgium (1979-81, 1981-92). Active in the Flemish federalist movement, he staged an unofficial "Flemish Day" at the Brussels world's fair in 1958. A member of the executive of the "Vlaamse Volksbeweging" (a federalist lobby) from 1960 until 1964, he joined the Social Christians in 1962. By 1965 he had moved up to the national committee of the party, and as a member of the personal staffs of two prime ministers he acquired firsthand political experience. Elected chairman of the Young Social Christians in 1967, he joined the staff of the then minister for community affairs, Léo Tindemans. By 1969 Martens was on the Social Christian Party executive staff and in the directorate of the party's Flemish wing. His entry into parliament came two years after he was chosen as chairman of the Social Christians in March 1972. Together with the leaders of the other parties in the Tindemans coalition of 1974-78, Martens masterminded the Egmont and Stuyvenberg agreements on the transformation of Belgium's political structure into a federal one. As chairman of a special agreements commission, he helped to push them through the legislature despite their many unconstitutional aspects. On April 3, 1979, the latest and longest of Belgium's almost perennial governmental crises ended when Martens, who had not previously held ministerial office, became prime minister at the head of a five-party coalition. In 1988, he became the longest-serving Belgian prime minister since 1918. His government configurations were centre-left (1979-80, 1980-81, 1988-92), centre-right (1981-88), and a grand coalition (1980). In 1994-99 he was a member of the European Parliament where he led the European People's Party group. In 2000-01 he was president of the Christian Democrat International.
Martí (Rodríguez), Agustín Farabundo, byname El Negro (b. May 5, 1893, Teotepeque, El Salvador - d. Feb. 1, 1932, San Salvador, El Salvador), Salvadoran rebel leader. In Guatemala, he organized the Socialist Party of Central America (Partido Socialista Centroamericano) in 1925. After his return he became one of the leaders of the Federación Regional de Trabajadores de El Salvador and fought in 1928-29 with Augusto César Sandino in the mountains of Segovia. After his split with Sandino and a short stay in Mexico he returned to El Salvador, where he became a founding member of the Salvadoran Communist Party (Partido Comunista Salvadoreño; 1930). He was responsible for the military preparation of the uprising of Jan. 20, 1932, against the government of Gen. Maximiliano Hernández Martínez, but he and other leaders were arrested three days before the rebellion. The uprising began after the government refused to seat Salvadoran Communist Party candidates who won municipal and legislative elections. On January 20 the government began to crush the uprising by killing 4,000 people. With rebel communications severed, unarmed peasants and farmworkers followed a plan to march into the nation's cities. The army decided to teach the insurgents a lesson. It launched a genocidal campaign known as La Matanza ("The Slaughter"). Within a few weeks, the killings by the army and the coffee barons' private militias, the infamous Guardias Blancas (White Guards), numbered more than 30,000. By the time La Matanza was over, 4% of the Salvadoran population were dead, the Communist Party liquidated, and the Indian population forced to abandon its native dress, languages, and customs. On January 30 a military tribunal sentenced Martí to death, and he was shot on February 1.
Martí (y Pérez), José (Julián) (b. Jan. 28, 1853, Havana, Cuba - d. May 19, 1895, Dos Ríos, Oriente province, Cuba), Cuban political leader. At age 16 he founded a newspaper, La patria libre ("The Free Fatherland"). During a revolutionary uprising that broke out in Cuba in 1868, he sympathized with the patriots, for which he was sentenced to six months of hard labour and, in 1871, deported to Spain. He spent a few years in France, Mexico, and Guatemala, and returned to Cuba in 1878. Because of his continued political activities, however, Martí was again exiled from Cuba to Spain in 1879. From there he went to France, to New York City, and, in 1881, to Venezuela, where he founded the Revista Venezolana ("Venezuelan Review"). The politics of his journal, however, provoked Venezuela's dictator, Antonio Guzmán Blanco, and Martí returned that year to New York City, where he remained, except for occasional travels, until the year of his death. In New York he achieved international fame as a writer. His best-known poem (later put to music) is "Guantanamera." His literary fame helped him to unite most of the Cuban exile factions in the U.S. In 1892 he was elected delegado ("delegate"; he refused to be called president) of the Partido Revolucionario Cubano (Cuban Revolutionary Party) that he had helped to form. Making New York City the centre of operations, he began to draw up plans for an invasion of Cuba. He left New York for Santo Domingo on Jan. 31, 1895, accompanied by the Cuban revolutionary leader Máximo Gómez and other compatriots. They arrived in Cuba to begin the invasion on April 11. He was killed a month later in a skirmish with a detachment of Spanish troops on the plains of Dos Ríos.
Marti, Robert (b. July 11, 1953), Landammann of Glarus (2006-08, 2010-12).
Martí Alanís, Joan (Catalan), Castilian Juan Martí Alanis (b. Nov. 29, 1928, Milá [El Milà], Spain - d. Oct. 11, 2009, Barcelona, Spain), coprince of Andorra (1971-2003).
Martí Petit, Antoni, byname Toni Martí (b. July 30, 1963, Escaldes-Engordany, Andorra), head of government of Andorra (2011- ).
Martian, Dan (b. Nov. 23, 1935, Soimus-Petreasa, Bihor county, Romania - d. March 8, 2002, Lisbon, Portugal), member of the Council of the National Salvation Front of Romania (1989). In 1990-92 he was president of the Chamber of Deputies. From 2001 he was ambassador to Portugal.
Martic, Milan (b. Nov. 18, 1954, Zagoric village, near Knin, Croatia), president of Krajina (1994-95). He surrendered to the UN war crimes tribunal on May 15, 2002. On June 12, 2007, he was sentenced to 35 years in jail for atrocities carried out in Croatia.
Martin, Clare (Majella) (b. June 15, 1952, Sydney, N.S.W.), chief minister of the Northern Territory (2001-07).
Martin, Sir David James (b. April 15, 1933 - d. Aug. 10, 1990), governor of New South Wales (1989-90); knighted 1988.
Martin, Harold (b. April 6, 1954), president of the government of New Caledonia (2007-09, 2011- ).
Martin, Jacques (b. May 11, 1933, Chapelle-sur-Moudon, Vaud, Switzerland - d. Dec. 2, 2005), president of the Council of State of Vaud (1994).
Martin, Jean-Auguste (b. May 21, 1814, Rochefort, Charente-Inférieure [now Charente-Maritime], France - d. ...), commandant-particular of Gabon (1849-50).
Martin, Sir John (Edward Ludgate) (b. May 10, 1918 - d. May 31, 2011), lieutenant governor of Guernsey (1974-80); knighted 1972.
Martin, John W(ellborn) (b. June 21, 1884, Plainfield, Fla. - d. Feb. 22, 1958, St. Augustine, Fla.), governor of Florida (1925-29).
Martin, Jules (b. Nov. 18, 1855, Béziers, Hérault, France - d. 19...), acting governor of Mayotte (1904-05).
Martin, Micheál, Irish Micheál Ó Máirtín (b. Aug. 1, 1960, Cork, Ireland), foreign minister of Ireland (2008-11). Earlier he was minister of education and science (1997-2000), health and children (2000-04), and enterprise, trade and employment (2004-08).
Martin, Paul (Edgar Philippe) (b. Aug. 28, 1938, Windsor, Ont.), finance minister (1993-2002) and prime minister (2003-06) of Canada; son of Paul Martin (1903-92). He represented Montreal's LaSalle-Émard region in parliament from 1988. When the Liberal Party won power in the 1993 elections and Jean Chrétien became prime minister, Martin became finance minister, and during his 9 years at that position, he could boast of five consecutive budget surpluses, erasing a Can$42 billion deficit and investing in healthcare. Canada's business leaders generally backed him, considering him one of their own. He was forced to resign in June 2002 during a controversial split within the party. Reacting to pressure, Prime Minister Chrétien of the rival Liberal faction (their rivalry dated back to their battle for the party leadership in 1990, which Chrétien won) announced his impending retirement in 2003. Martin was elected party leader in November and succeeded as prime minister on Chrétien's resignation in December. He led the Liberal Party to a fourth successive election victory in June 2004, but it lost many seats and he had to lead a minority government. An inquiry into a sponsorship scheme in Quebec that allegedly involved the Liberals funneling money to advertising firms associated with the party for little or no work while Martin was finance minister ultimately caused him to lose a no-confidence vote on Nov. 28, 2005, and the Liberals were defeated in the new elections on Jan. 23, 2006. He stepped down as party leader in March 2006.
Martin, Paul (Joseph James) (b. June 23, 1903, Ottawa, Ont. - d. Sept. 14, 1992, Windsor, Ont.), Canadian politician. Stricken with polio at the age of four, he experienced a miraculous recovery, but his affliction left a lasting impression on the legislation he supported. He was elected to the House of Commons in 1935 and represented the Windsor riding of Essex East until 1968. He was appointed parliamentary assistant to the minister of labour in 1943, and in 1945 he joined the cabinet as secretary of state. As minister of national health and welfare (1946-57), he guided important legislation through parliament, including the National Health Program (1948), the federal Old Age Security Act (1951), and the Hospital Insurance and Diagnostic Services Act (1957). He was also responsible for ordering the manufacture of vast quantities of the polio vaccine developed by Jonas Salk so that, when it was approved safe for distribution, Canadians could quickly be vaccinated. A skilled diplomat, Martin was a delegate to the League of Nations in the 1930s, the principal architect of an expanded UN membership plan (1955), secretary of state for external affairs (1963-68), and high commissioner to Britain (1974-79). Twice he sought the Liberal Party leadership, losing to Lester Pearson (1958) and Pierre Trudeau (1968).
Martin, Roy B(utler), Jr. (b. May 13, 1921, Norfolk, Va. - d. May 20, 2002), mayor of Norfolk (1962-74). In 1953, he was appointed to City Council by Mayor W. Fred Duckworth. Six years later, Martin crossed him by casting the lone vote against closing the public schools beyond sixth grade as part of Massive Resistance, the statewide effort to shut down public schools rather than racially integrate them. Martin succeeded Duckworth as mayor in 1962. He helped bring the Chrysler Museum of Art and the Gen. Douglas MacArthur memorial to downtown and gave the green light for the Scope arena complex redevelopment project. He left City Council in 1974, but continued to serve on numerous boards and act as a goodwill ambassador for the city.
Martin, Wayne (Stewart) (b. Dec. 28, 1952), acting governor of Western Australia (2011- ).
Martin, William M(cChesney) (b. Dec. 17, 1906, St. Louis, Mo. - d. July 27, 1998, Washington, D.C.), chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (1951-70). His career began as a bank examiner in his native St. Louis and included appointments as head of the Export-Import Bank in Washington and as an assistant treasury secretary during the Harry Truman administration. He was dubbed the "Boy Wonder" of Wall Street when he became the first paid president of the New York Stock Exchange at the age of 31. During his nearly two decades as Fed chairman, the longest tenure in the central bank's history, Martin presided over a golden age for the U.S. economy. The United States enjoyed strong economic growth, low unemployment, low inflation, and the biggest gains in living standards of any time in the post-World War II period. His tenure also covered the longest economic expansion in the nation's history, from 1961 to 1969, a period of uninterrupted growth that ended when the central bank was forced to begin raising interest rates to fight a buildup of inflation caused by government spending during the Vietnam War. Martin was known as a consensus builder who sought to establish a collegial atmosphere at the central bank. As chairman, he always waited until last to cast his vote on whether to change interest rates, insisting that he did not want to influence his Fed colleagues. The central bank, through its control over short-term interest rates, seeks to promote the fastest economic growth possible without triggering inflation. True to his Missouri roots, Martin favoured a plainspoken approach to interest-rate policy, complaining once in an interview in the mid-1980s that he believed there was too much double-talk in discussions about monetary policy.
Martín Huerta, Ramón (b. Jan. 24, 1957, San Juan de los Lagos, Jalisco, Mexico - d. [helicopter crash] Sept. 21, 2005, near San Miguel Mimiapan village, México state, Mexico), governor of Guanajuato (1999-2000). He was serving as secretary of public security in the Mexican cabinet since 2004.
Martina, Dominico F(elipe) (b. May 1, 1935, Curaçao), prime minister of the Netherlands Antilles (1979-84, 1986-88).
Martina, Ornelio, byname Kees Martina (b. Nov. 14, 1930, Curaçao), administrator of Curaçao (1976-82).
Martineau, (Albert) Alfred (b. Dec. 18, 1859, Artins, Loir-et-Cher, France - d. Jan. 25, 1945, Varennes, Dordogne, France), governor of French Somaliland (1899-1900) and Mayotte (1902-04), lieutenant governor of Gabon (1907), acting commissioner-general of French Congo (1907), and governor of French India (1910-11, 1913-18). He was appointed (Sept. 18, 1900) but not installed as governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.
Martineau, Gilbert (Roger) (b. July 26, 1918, Rochefort-sur-Mer, France - d. Aug. 23, 1995, La Rochelle, France), conservator of the French possessions on St. Helena (1956-87).
Martínek, Radko (b. June 6, 1956, Brno, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), governor of Pardubický kraj (2008-12). He also was Czech minister of regional development (2005-06).
Martinelli (Berrocal), Ricardo (Alberto) (b. March 11, 1952, Panama City, Panama), president of Panama (2009- ).
Martinet, Henri Étienne (b. May 5, 1896 - d. Jan. 28, 1941), acting governor of Dahomey (1937, 1938).
Martínez, Diógenes (b. April 9, 1947, Villarrica, Paraguay), foreign minister of Paraguay (1993).
Martínez (Bonilla), Hugo (Roger) (b. Jan. 2, 1968, Concepción de Oriente, El Salvador), foreign minister of El Salvador (2009- ).
Martinez, Mel(quiades Rafael) (b. Oct. 23, 1946, Sagua La Grande, Cuba), U.S. secretary of housing and urban development (2001-03) and general chairman of the Republican National Committee (2007).
Martínez (Guerrero), Tomás (b. Dec. 21, 1820, Nagarote, León, Nicaragua - d. March 12, 1873, León), member of the Government Junta (1857) and president (1857-67) of Nicaragua.
Martínez Domínguez, Alfonso (b. Jan. 7, 1922, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico - d. Nov. 6, 2002, Monterrey), chief of government of the Distrito Federal (mayor of Mexico City; 1970-71) and governor of Nuevo León (1979-85). He was removed from his post as mayor shortly after the violent suppression of a pro-democracy demonstration. It was called in June 1971 after the student demonstrators involved in the huge Tlatelolco protest of 1968 were released from jail. Security forces in civilian clothes beat and shot at student demonstrators, leaving an estimated 30 protesters dead. In 2002, government prosecutors visited him in hospital to question him about his alleged role in the 1971 incident. Martínez denied any involvement and said the security forces involved were under the control of then-president Luis Echeverría Álvarez, who also was under investigation for both the 1971 incident and the larger student massacre of 1968. Echeverría also denied responsibility. Human rights groups charged that Mexico City's government, under the supervision of Echeverría, recruited and trained a paramilitary group called the "Falcons" to eliminate political activists. Pres. Vicente Fox named a special prosecutor in 2001 after the government's National Human Rights Commission confirmed at least 275 "disappearances" in the 1970s and early 1980s. Fox, whose election ended the Institutional Revolutionary Party's 71-year rule, promised to end government-sponsored corruption and violence.
Martínez García, María Antonia (b. May 18, 1953, Molina de Segura, Murcia, Spain), president of the government of Murcia (1993-95).
Martínez García, Patricio (b. March 17, 1948, Chihuahua, Mexico), governor of Chihuahua (1998-2004). He was shot and wounded in an assassination attempt on Jan. 17, 2001.
Martínez Jiménez, (José) Fernando, foreign minister of Honduras (1998-99). He was fired by Pres. Carlos Flores after criticizing government reconstruction efforts in the wake of Hurricane Mitch.
Martínez Lacayo, Roberto (b. Dec. 18, 1899 - d. Feb. 16, 1984), member of the National Government Junta of Nicaragua (1972-74).
Martínez Ordóñez, Roberto (b. 1921? - d. Oct. 16, 2001, New York), Honduran politician. A member of the Liberal Party, he served as minister of communications and public works from 1957 to 1963 and on three occasions served as the Honduran ambassador to the United Nations. He also served as ambassador to the Organization of American States, as well as ambassador to Chile and Ecuador. He ran for president unsuccessfully in 1980. He was serving as Honduras' alternate ambassador to the United Nations when he died.
Martínez Somalo, Eduardo Cardinal (b. March 31, 1927, Baños de Río Tobía, La Rioja, Spain), chamberlain of the Roman Catholic Church (1993-2007).
Martínez Sotomayor, Carlos (b. Aug. 7, 1929, Copiapó, Chile - d. Feb. 24, 2006, Santiago, Chile), foreign minister of Chile (1961-63).
Martínez Trueba, Andrés (b. 1884, Florida, Uruguay - d. 1959, Montevideo, Uruguay), president (1951-52) and president of the National Council of Government (1952-55) of Uruguay.
Martini, Claudio (b. Jan. 10, 1951, Le Bardo, Tunis, Tunisia), president of Toscana (2000-10).
Martini, Ferdinando (b. July 30, 1841, Florence, Tuscany - d. April 24, 1928, Monsummano Terme, Toscana, Italy), governor of Eritrea (1897-1907). He was also Italian minister of public instruction (1892-93) and colonies (1914-16).
Martinière, Dominique (Machet) de la (b. Oct. 25, 1927, La Roche-sur-Yon, Vendée, France - d. Nov. 4, 2002), acting president of the Regional Council of Poitou-Charentes (2002).
Martino, Antonio (b. Dec. 22, 1942, Messina, Italy), foreign minister (1994-95) and defense minister (2001-06) of Italy; son of Gaetano Martino.
Martino, Gaetano (b. Nov. 25, 1900, Messina, Italy - d. July 21, 1967, Rome), foreign minister of Italy (1954-57).
Martins, Paulo Egydio (b. 1928, São Paulo, Brazil), governor of São Paulo (1975-79).
Martonyi, János (b. April 5, 1944, Kolozsvár, Hungary [now Cluj-Napoca, Romania]), foreign minister of Hungary (1998-2002, 2010- ).
Martos, Borys Mykolayovych (b. May 20, 1879, Gradizk settlement, Poltava province, Russia [now Hradyzk, Ukraine] - d. Oct. 19, 1977, United States), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the non-communist Ukraine (1919).
Martynau, Syarhey (Mikalayevich), Russian spelling Sergey (Nikolayevich) Martynov (b. Feb. 22, 1953), foreign minister of Belarus (2003-12).
Martz, Judy, née Morstein (b. July 28, 1943, Big Timber, Mont.), governor of Montana (2001-05). She worked for Republican candidates in the 1960s and became a field representative for Sen. Conrad Burns (1989-95). In 1996 she was Gov. Marc Racicot's running mate. Racicot's job approval was around 75%, and the Racicot-Martz ticket won with 79% of the vote. In 1999, she began running for governor. She said she wanted to make Montana "open for business." In the primary, she defeated anti-tax crusader Rob Natelson 57%-43%. Racicot appeared in TV spots for Martz, and she defeated Democrat Mark O'Keefe 51%-47% in the November 2000 election. In August 2001, state House Majority Leader Paul Sliter was killed in the crash of a car driven by Martz's chief policy adviser, Shane Hedges, who was intoxicated. Martz took him from the hospital at 4 AM and washed his bloodstained clothes, which the police later sought as evidence; when this was made public in January 2002, she admitted she had acted wrongly. In November 2001, it was revealed that Martz and her husband in 1999 purchased an 80-acre parcel of land next to their home from Arco for $300 an acre. As governor, she was the trustee for the state in litigation against Arco ongoing since the 1980s. The Martzes had paid $833 an acre for a nearby parcel; Democrats charged that Arco made a gift to Martz in violation of the state's ethics law. In September 2002 the state Political Practices Commissioner ruled that Martz did not violate the law. She was also criticized for saying she would willingly serve as a "lapdog to industry," a comment she said was taken out of context. In November 2002, she had a 20% positive job approval, the lowest of any of the 50 governors. In August 2003 she decided not to seek a second term.
Marurai, Jim (b. July 9, 1947, Mangaia, Cook Islands), prime minister of the Cook Islands (2004-10).
Marwa, Mohammed (Buba) (b. Sept. 9, 1953), governor of Borno (1990-92) and administrator of Lagos (1996-99).
Marwah, Ved (Prakash) (b. Sept. 15, 1932, Peshawar, India [now in Pakistan]), governor of Manipur (1999-2003), Mizoram (2000-01), Jharkhand (2003-04), and Bihar (2004).
Marx, Jean-Luc (b. Sept. 14, 1954, Metz, France), prefect of Réunion (2012- ).
Marx, Karl (Heinrich) (b. May 5, 1818, Trier, Prussia [now in Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany] - d. March 14, 1883, London, England), German socialist. In 1842 he became an editor of the Rheinische Zeitung in Cologne. In 1843, the newspaper was suppressed and he emigrated to Paris. There he became acquainted with French socialist writers and established his friendship with Friedrich Engels. In 1847, he wrote Misère de la philosophie (1847; The Poverty of Philosophy), in which he developed the fundamental propositions of his economic interpretation of history. Against the utopian socialists' quest for the most morally desirable social order he put his own search for a system that would inevitably and by necessity result from the operation of historical forces. Another even more important document originated from Marx's (and Engels') pen during the stay in Brussels - Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei (1848), commonly known as The Communist Manifesto, which contains a summary of his whole social philosophy. It was written to serve as the platform of the Communist League. The Communist Manifesto appeared at a moment most favourable to its effectiveness: on the eve of the February (1848) revolution in France during which socialism showed its power. The revolutionary atmosphere in Germany in 1848 enabled Marx to return to Cologne and revive his newspaper, now under the title of Neue Rheinische Zeitung, but in 1849 he was expelled. He then settled in London, where he spent most of the remainder of his life. His most important theoretical work was Das Kapital (1867), an analysis of the economics of capitalism. He also became the leading spirit of the International Working Men's Association (the First International). The impact of his ideas was relatively small during his lifetime, but expanded enormously after his death.
Marx, Wilhelm (b. Jan. 15, 1863, Cologne, Prussia [now in Germany] - d. Aug. 5, 1946, Bonn, Germany), chancellor of Germany (1923-24, 1926-28). He rose from a judgeship to the presidency of the senate of the Court of Appeal at Berlin (1922). After joining the Centre Party, he served as deputy in the Prussian Landtag (1899-1918) and the Reichstag (1910-32). He was elected the party's leader in the Reichstag in 1921 and its chairman in 1922, chiefly due to the part he played as a delegate to the National Assembly that drafted the Weimar constitution. He first became chancellor in November 1923; his minority government consisted of Centrists, Democrats, and People's Party members. That cabinet had to its credit that it led the Reich out of the chaos of inflation and securing acceptance of the Dawes Plan for war reparations payments. On the strength of the Dawes vote he tried to form a majority cabinet, but failed. After a period as prime minister of Prussia (February-April 1925), Marx ran for the presidency of the Reich as candidate of the republican parties (Socialists, Democrats, and Centrists) but lost to Paul von Hindenburg. He became minister for justice and occupied territories in January 1926 and returned as chancellor in May 1926. It was another minority government for half a year until he invited the Nationalists to join. While the republicans never forgave him for this move, he managed to hold the reins of his reshuffled government until June 1928 when he resigned after the electoral success of the Social Democrats. In December 1928 he resigned from the chairmanship of the Centre Party and withdrew from politics. The Nazi regime indicted him of fraud, but the charges were never pressed and he was allowed to slip back into retirement.
Mary II (b. May 10 [April 30, O.S.], 1662, St. James Palace, London - d. Jan. 7, 1695 [Dec. 28, 1694, O.S.], Kensington Palace, London), queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1689-95; jointly with her husband William III); daughter of King James II.
Marzorati, Alfred (Frédéric Gérard) (b. Sept. 28, 1881, Tournai [Doornik], Hainaut province, Belgium - d. Dec. 11, 1955, Elsene [now in Brussels-Capital region], Belgium), royal commissioner for Belgian-occupied East Africa (1919-24), royal commissioner for Ruanda-Urundi (1924-26), and governor of Ruanda-Urundi (1926-29).
Marzouki, (Mohamed) Moncef, Arabic Muhammad al-Munsif al-Marzuqi (b. July 7, 1945, Grombalia, Tunisia), president of Tunisia (2011- ).
Mas Canosa, Jorge (b. Sept. 21, 1939, Santiago de Cuba - d. Nov. 23, 1997, Miami, Fla.), Cuban exile leader. He was an early opponent of dictator Fulgencio Batista and was arrested at the age of 14 for his role in an anti-Batista radio broadcast. His initial admiration for Fidel Castro, who gained power in 1959, soon turned to disenchantment, however, and Mas was again implicated in antigovernment activities. He fled in 1960 to the U.S., where he trained with the Brigade 2506, the exile force that undertook the disastrous Bay of Pigs invasion, although he did not take part in the operation. Following a stint in the U.S. Army, Mas worked in a variety of jobs while devoting much of his time to the anti-Castro cause. After turning away from advocating a violent overthrow of Castro, Mas concentrated on political advocacy, forming the Cuban-American National Foundation (CANF) in 1981, a powerful and wealthy lobbying group that had considerable influence over politicians from both parties. Through the foundation, Mas created the political base to get three Cuban-Americans elected to Congress and a Cuban mayor of Dade County. He got the Cuban Democracy Act of 1992 and the Helms-Burton Act of 1996 through Congress, tightening the embargo to keep the economic pressure on Cuba. He was also instrumental in founding Radio Martí, the U.S. government-financed station broadcasting to Cuba. He was reviled by Havana, which painted him as little more than a fascist gangster, while his admirers lionized him as president-in-waiting of his island nation. Critics charged, though, that he fostered intolerance in the Cuban-American community, where any perceived lack of zeal in denouncing Castro can spark threats and violence.
Mas i Gavarró, Artur (b. Jan. 31, 1956, Barcelona, Spain), president of the Executive Council (2001-03) and president of the Generalitat (2010- ) of Catalonia.
Mas Ribó, Manuel (b. Feb. 26, 1946 - d. July 30, 2001), foreign minister of Andorra (1994-97).
Masakhalia, (Yekoyada) Francis (Omoto) (b. 1938, Entebbe, Uganda), finance minister of Kenya (1999). His six-month tenure was regarded as a retrograde step by foreign donors and investors who saw him as lacking the charisma and competence of his predecessor Simeon Nyachae.
Masala, Italo (b. April 15, 1937, Guamaggiore, Sardegna, Italy), president of Sardegna (2003-04).
Masaliyev, Absamat Masaliyevich (b. April 10, 1933, Alysh village, Osh oblast, southern Kirgiz A.S.S.R. - d. July 31, 2004, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan), first secretary of the Communist Party (1985-91) and chairman of the Supreme Soviet (1990) of the Kirgiz S.S.R. In 1961, he became an instructor at the Osh regional branch of the Communist Party and worked his way up the ranks. He became the party leader in Kirgiziya after changes in the Soviet Communist leadership that saw Mikhail Gorbachev take power in Moscow. He remained in power until 1990 when he lost to Askar Akayev in the country's first-ever presidential elections, as the Soviet republics sought to assert their sovereignty in moves that led the next year to the disintegration of the Soviet Union. In 1992 Masaliyev took control of the surviving Communist Party, and in 1995 he won a seat in the upper chamber of parliament representing his southern home region of Osh. Later that year, he challenged Akayev unsuccessfully again, but drew strong support in the south. In 2000, he won a lower house seat and held that post until his death.
Masangu, Jacques, foreign minister of Katanga (1960) and deputy prime minister of Congo (Léopoldville) (1962-64).
Masaryk, Jan (Garrigue) (b. Sept. 14, 1886, Prague, Bohemia, Austria-Hungary [now in Czech Republic] - d. March 10, 1948, Prague, Czechoslovakia), Czechoslovak politician; son of Tomás Masaryk. He served as first lieutenant in a Hungarian regiment during World War I and when the Czechoslovak Republic was established, he entered the diplomatic service. In 1919 he went to Washington, D.C., as first secretary to the Czechoslovak legation and remained for a year. Thereafter he was chancellor at the legation in London before becoming secretary to Foreign Minister Edvard Benes in 1923. He was ambassador to Great Britain from 1925 until 1938, when he resigned in protest against the Munich agreement that had "sold Czechoslovakia down the river." During World War II he was foreign minister (from 1940) of the Czechoslovak émigré regime in London. A leading spokesman for that government, he made wartime broadcasts to occupied Czechoslovakia, published in English in 1944 under the title Speaking to My Country, and became a popular figure at home. It was chiefly because of his efforts that the U.S. recognized the exile government in July 1941. Retaining the portfolio of foreign minister after his government's return to Prague in 1945, he accompanied President Benes to Moscow and also participated in the inauguration of the United Nations in San Francisco. He was convinced that Czechoslovakia must remain friendly to the Soviet Union, and he was greatly disappointed by the Soviet veto of Czechoslovak acceptance of postwar U.S. reconstruction aid under the Marshall Plan. At Benes's request, Masaryk remained at his post after the Communist takeover of Feb. 25, 1948, but two weeks later he apparently committed suicide by throwing himself out of a window at the foreign office, though the possibility of a murder can not be ruled out.
Masaryk, Tomás Garrigue1 (b. March 7, 1850, Göding, Moravia, Austria-Hungary [now Hodonín, Czech Republic] - d. Sept. 14, 1937, Lány, Bohemia, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), president of Czechoslovakia (1918-35). From 1891 to 1893, as a member of the Young Czech party, and from 1907 to 1914 as the leader of his own small Realist Party, he served as a deputy in the Austrian Reichsrat. He criticized Austria's aggressive policy in the Balkans, particularly in regard to the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. When World War I broke out, he definitely became the champion of Czechoslovak independence. Britain aided him almost from the first, while Austria condemned him to death as a traitor. With the help of France, he and his aides formed Czech legions from prisoners of war the Allies had captured. When Russia collapsed he had organized a Czechoslovak army in Russia; in May 1918 he went to the United States. When Austria sued for peace, expressing willingness to federalize the empire, Masaryk checkmated the move by immediately issuing a proclamation of independence. The U.S. adopted his point of view on the future of Czechoslovakia, and with Allied victory, independence was won. He was elected the country's first president in November 1918 while he was still in the U.S., and returned to Prague in December 1918. He was reelected in 1920, 1927, and 1934, resigning in 1935 because of his age.
1 Garrigue is the family name of Charlotte Garrigue, which he adopted as a second name upon their marriage (1878).
Mascarenhas (Gomes) Monteiro, António (Manuel) (b. Feb. 16, 1944, Santa Catarina, Santiago island, Cape Verde), president of Cape Verde (1991-2001).
Masefield, (John) Thorold (b. Oct. 1, 1939), governor of Bermuda (1997-2001).
Maseng (Nalo), Alfred (b. 19... - d. Nov. 18, 2004, Luganville, Espirito Santo island, Vanuatu), acting president (1994), foreign minister (1995-96), and president (2004) of Vanuatu.
Masengo, Ildephonse (b. c. 1935, Mufu village, near Mitwaba, Katanga province, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. [executed] April 8, 1969, Lubumbashi, Congo [Kinshasa]), head of a provisional government of Katanga (1964).
Maseribane, Sekhonyana Nehemia (b. May 4, 1918, Mount Moorosi, Quthing district, Basutoland [now Lesotho] - d. Nov. 3, 1986), prime minister of Basutoland (1965).
Mashatile, Paul (Shipokosa) (b. Oct. 21, 1961, Geraldsville [now in Tshwane municipality, Gauteng], South Africa), premier of Gauteng (2008-09).
Masheke, Malimba (Nathaniel) (b. June 17, 1941, Nonge village, Senanga district, Western province, Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia]), defense minister (1985-88), home affairs minister (1988-89), and prime minister (1989-91) of Zambia.
Mashkovtsev, Mikhail (Borisovich) (b. Jan. 1, 1947), governor of Kamchatka oblast (2000-07).
Mashudi (b. Sept. 11, 1920, Cibatu, Garut, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Barat, Indonesia] - d. June 22, 2005, Jakarta, Indonesia), governor of Jawa Barat (1960-70).
Masi, Tito (b. Jan. 20, 1949, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (1977-78).
Masimov, Karim (Kazhimkanovich) (b. June 15, 1965, Tselinograd, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Astana, Kazakhstan]), prime minister of Kazakhstan (2007-12).
Masire, Sir (Quett) Ketumile (Joni) (b. July 23, 1925, Kanye, Bechuanaland [now Botswana]), president of Botswana (1980-98). He served first on his tribal council (he belonged to the Bangwaketse tribe) and subsequently on the legislative and executive councils under the British administration. However, his real political mark was made as the hardworking secretary-general of the Botswana Democratic Party (BDP). When Sir Seretse Khama, founder of the BDP, became prime minister of the then British protectorate of Bechuanaland in 1965, Masire became deputy prime minister; when the country gained independence in 1966, he was made Khama's vice-president and finance minister. In 1967 he was made minister of development planning, a post well suited to his energy and enthusiasm for tackling difficult problems head-on. Much of the financial discipline and prudent economic management that led to Botswana's economic success is generally attributed to his leadership qualities. For a time in 1969 his promising political career received a setback when he was defeated in his home constituency of Kanye-South by the former Bangwaketse chief, but after spending some years as a nominated member of Parliament, he made a strong comeback and regained his seat in the 1974 elections. Like Khama, he was a passionate enemy of South Africa's system of racial separation. Masire strongly believed in the ideals of a nonracial society and favoured political moderation. Quett Masire became president after Khama's death in 1980, and he became known as Sir Ketumile Masire in 1991, when he was knighted (G.C.M.G.). Masire's party steadily gained in popularity until the 1994 poll, when it lost some ground to the opposition Botswana National Front. He retired in 1998.
Masisi, Edison (Setlhomo K.) (b. March 31, 1921 - d. Feb. 14, 2003, Gaborone, Botswana), foreign minister of Botswana (1969-71).
Maskhadov, Aslan (Aliyevich) (b. Sept. 21, 1951, Shakoi, Karaganda oblast, Kazakh S.S.R. - d. March 8, 2005, Tolstoy-Yurt, Chechnya), president of Chechnya (1997-2005). His parents were caught up (1944) in mass deportations of Chechens by Iosif Stalin, who wanted them punished for allegedly collaborating with the Nazis in World War II. The family returned in 1957. In January 1991, as a colonel in one division's missile and artillery forces, he took part in the Soviet Army's attempt to capture the television tower in Vilnius, as part of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's attempts to halt the drive for independence in the Baltics. A career as a high-ranking officer in the Soviet army was rare for ethnic Chechens, who were not viewed in the Soviet system as politically reliable enough for leading military positions. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, he returned to the southern republic in 1992. From 1992 to 1996, he served in the Chechen Armed Forces; in December 1993 he was promoted to chief of staff. He kept a low profile during the early stage of the 1994-96 Chechen war, being overshadowed by the flamboyant separatist leader Dzhokhar Dudayev. In his most important move, he led a successful campaign to recapture Grozny, the capital, in August 1996. He served as prime minister in the Chechen coalition government from October 1996 until January 1997. On Aug. 31, 1996, following talks with Aleksandr Lebed, he signed the Khasavyurt agreements, effectively ending the conflict with Russian troops. This paved the way for presidential elections in January 1997, which Maskhadov won. He was unable to bring law and order to Chechnya or rebuild the fractured economy. As a result, a number of wartime colleagues deserted him. They tried to impeach Maskhadov and accused him of violating Chechnya's constitution, but the country's top Islamic court ruled in his favour. After Chechen rebel forces crossed into Dagestan in 1999, Russia sent troops back into Chechnya, and Maskhadov had to leave Grozny in 2000. Five years later he was killed by Russian forces.
Masloff, Sophie, née Friedman (b. Dec. 23, 1917, Pittsburgh, Pa.), mayor of Pittsburgh (1988-94).
Maslov, Viktor (Nikolayevich) (b. Oct. 4, 1950, Ferghana, Uzbek S.S.R.), head of the administration of Smolensk oblast (2002-07).
Masmoudi, Mohamed, Arabic Muhammad al-Masmudi (b. May 29, 1925), foreign minister of Tunisia (1970-74).
Masol, Vitaliy (Andriyovych) (Ukrainian), Russian Vitaly (Andreyevich) Masol (b. Nov. 14, 1928, Olishevka, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Olyshivka, Chernihiv oblast, Ukraine]), premier of the Ukrainian S.S.R. (1987-90) and prime minister of Ukraine (1994-95).
Mason, Sandra (Prunella) (b. Jan. 17, 1949), acting governor-general of Barbados (2012).
Masood, Ahmad Shah (b. 1953, Jangalak, Afghanistan - d. Sept. 15, 2001, Khodja Bahauddin, Takhar province, Afghanistan), Afghan leader. A veteran guerrilla commander, the dashing Masood was dubbed the "Lion of Panjshir" for his military prowess defending the Panjshir Valley against the Soviet Union during its decade-long war in Afghanistan. He later held the valley in northern Afghanistan against the Taliban. Soviet forces withdrew from Afghanistan in 1989, and Masood rode triumphantly into Kabul on a tank in 1992, the year the pro-Moscow government fell. Masood was defense minister in the government of Burhanuddin Rabbani until they were thrown out of Kabul in 1996 by invading Taliban troops. Masood moved quickly to rally warring factions against the Taliban, forming a northern alliance that fought to prevent the Taliban from gaining full control of Afghanistan. But animosities within the alliance ran deep. The opposition comprised small groups mostly representing ethnic and religious minorities. When it ruled between 1992 and 1996, fighting sparked by internal feuds destroyed vast neighbourhoods of Kabul and killed 50,000 people, mostly civilians. Masood died of injuries suffered in a suicide bombing on Sept. 9, 2001. In the attack, two men posing as journalists detonated a bomb that may have been hidden in a television camera while they interviewed Masood in northern Afghanistan. The blast killed both bombers and a Masood spokesman. Masood's death threatened to strengthen the hand of the Taliban by splintering the Afghan opposition, which was held together by his charismatic leadership. The Taliban at the time ruled about 95% of Afghanistan, with the opposition alliance in control of the remaining 5%, mostly in the north.
Maspéro, Georges (René Gaston) (b. Aug. 21, 1872, Paris, France - d. Sept. 21, 1942, Saint-Tropez, France), acting governor of Cochinchina (1918-20) and acting resident-superior of Cambodia (1920).
Masri, Taher (Nashat) al- (b. March 5, 1942, Nablus, Palestine), foreign minister (1984-88, 1991) and prime minister and defense minister (1991) of Jordan. He was also ambassador to Spain (1975-78), France (1978-83), and the U.K. (1983-84). In 2009 he became president of the Senate.
Massa, Sergio (Tomás) (b. April 28, 1972, Buenos Aires, Argentina), cabinet chief of Argentina (2008-09).
Massaccesi, Horacio (b. Sept. 12, 1948, Villa Regina, Río Negro, Argentina), governor of Río Negro (1987-95).
Massamba-Débat, Alphonse (b. 1921, Nkolo, Pool region, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)] - d. [executed] March 25, 1977, Brazzaville), president of the National Assembly (1959-62), prime minister (1963), and president (1963-68) of Congo (Brazzaville).
Massano de Amorim, Pedro Francisco (b. Jan. 14, 1862, Fronteira, Portugal - d. June 2, 1929, Nova Goa, Portuguese India [now Panaji, Goa, India]), governor-general of Angola (1916-17), Mozambique (1918-19), and Portuguese India (1926-29).
Massenbach, (Ehrhard) Friedrich (Fabian) von (b. May 3, 1753, Bladiau, East Prussia [now Pyatidorozhnoye, Kaliningrad oblast, Russia] - d. June 3, 1819, Johrengen, near Bartenstein [now Bartoszyce], East Prussia [now in Poland]), governor of Danzig (1814).
Massera (Padula), Emilio Eduardo (b. Oct. 19, 1925, Parana, Entre Ríos, Argentina - d. Nov. 8, 2010, Buenos Aires, Argentina), Argentine junta member. He was head of the Navy and one of the most feared junta members for much of the period of military dictatorship in 1976-83. The junta's "Dirty War" against suspected leftist guerrillas claimed 15,000 victims according to the government, and 30,000 according to human rights groups. Massera and other top junta bosses were tried and jailed for their human rights abuses after the return of democracy, but were pardoned after Menem took power in 1989. The former military rulers and their henchmen managed to keep a low profile until 1995, when a guilt-tortured former naval officer recounted on television how he had helped to throw detainees from planes to their deaths in the sea. The ugly memories he revived prompted the armed forces to make unprecedented official apologies for their past atrocities, but also spurred new judicial investigations. Massera was arrested in November 1998 by a judge investigating the alleged systematic theft of the babies of Dirty War detainees. The mothers were usually killed and the babies handed over to childless military couples. In 2005, the courts ruled that Massera was unfit to stand trial and ordered that all of the investigations and charges against him be dropped.
Massey, (Charles) Vincent (b. Feb. 20, 1887, Toronto, Ontario, Canada - d. Dec. 30, 1967, London, England), governor-general of Canada (1952-59). He was appointed associate secretary of the cabinet war committee during World War I (1914-18) and became minister without portfolio in W.L. Mackenzie King's Liberal cabinet (September 1925). In 1926-30 he served as the first Canadian minister to the United States. He was president of the National Liberal Federation (1932-35) before becoming Canada's high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1935-46). In 1949-51 he was chairman of the Royal Commission on National Development in Arts, Letters, and Sciences; as such he spoke of Canada's need to break away culturally from the United States. He was named governor-general in 1952, becoming the first Canadian to serve in that post.
Massicault, Justin (Théophile Athanase) (b. Sept. 14, 1838, Ourouer-les-Bourdelins, Cher, France - d. Nov. 5, 1892), resident-general of Tunisia (1886-92).
Massiet, (Charles Gabriel) Renaud (b. 1877 - d. 1947), governor of Jebel Druze (1932-34).
Massingham, John Dudley (b. Feb. 1, 1930 - d. March 16, 2009), governor of Saint Helena (1981-84).
Massiot, Pierrick (b. April 22, 1948, Josselin, Morbihan, France), president of the Regional Council of Bretagne (2012- ).
Masson, Émile (b. April 21, 1832, Paris - d. ...), commandant-particular of Gabon (1881-83).
Masson, Fulgence (Paul Benoît) (b. Feb. 16, 1854, Dour, Belgium - d. Jan. 24, 1942, Mons, Belgium), war minister (1918-20) and justice minister (1921-25) of Belgium.
Masson, Georges Pierre (d. [suicide] Nov. 14, 1940), governor-delegate of Gabon (1938-40).
Masson, Paul (Jean Marie) (b. July 21, 1920, Ussel, Corrèze, France - d. May 28, 2009, Paris, France), high commissioner of Upper Volta (1959-60).
Masson de Saint-Félix, (Charles) Max de (d. 1939), lieutenant governor of Middle Congo (1931-32) and governor of French Guiana (1935-36) and Oubangui-Chari (1936-39).
Massounde, Tadjidine Ben Said (b. December 1933, Domoni, Anjouan, Comoros - d. March 1, 2004, Paris), prime minister (1996) and interim president (1998-99) of the Comoros.
Massu, Jacques (Émile) (b. May 5, 1908, Châlons-sur-Marne [now Châlons-en-Champagne], Marne, France - d. Oct. 26, 2002, Conflans-sur-Loing, Loiret, France), French general. He first rose to prominence in World War II. In June 1940, he followed Gen. Charles de Gaulle's call to resist the pro-Nazi Vichy government in France. Before rising to the rank of general in 1955, Massu fought in Chad, Tunisia, Vietnam, and other operations in the former French colonies across Africa and Asia. He took command of the 10th Parachute Division in 1956, France's elite force tasked with maintaining order in Algeria. Massu eventually led French troops to victory in the 1957 Battle of Algiers - a pivotal point in the war that ended with Algeria's independence from France in 1962. During the revolt of French Algerians in May 1958, which brought de Gaulle to power in France, he was president of the Committee of Public Safety. De Gaulle made him prefect of Algiers and commander of the Algiers Army Corps. In January 1960 he was dismissed from these functions after he criticized de Gaulle's Algerian policy. The 1954-62 Algerian war is considered the most troubling chapter of France's recent history. Through the years, it was recognized that torture was widespread during the conflict, though there was no official admission. Massu, in an interview with Le Monde in 2000, said he regretted the practices of torture and summary executions during the war, which were "generalized," then "institutionalized." "Torture was not indispensable during times of war," Massu said in the interview. "We could have done things differently." Massu was awarded the Distinguished Service Order and the prestigious Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour, among numerous other decorations, during his 40-year military career.
Mastenbroek, Emiel, byname of Emile Maria Mastenbroek (b. March 29, 1930, Sittard, Limburg, Netherlands - d. Jan. 20, 2005, Sittard), queen's commissioner of Limburg (1990-93).
Masuda, Hiroya (b. Dec. 20, 1951), governor of Iwate (1995-2007) and interior minister of Japan (2007-08).
Masum, Fuad (b. 1938), prime minister of Iraqi Kurdistan (1992-93). He was president of the interim Iraqi National Council (2004-05).
Mataga, Philippe (b. March 3, 1938, Edéa, French Cameroons [now in Littoral province, Cameroon] - d. Jan. 21, 2003, Madrid, Spain), foreign minister of Cameroon (1987-88). He also served as labour and social welfare minister (1986-87) and ambassador to the Vatican (2002-03).
Matane, Sir Paulias (Nguna) (b. Sept. 21, 1931, Viviran, Rabaul, New Guinea [now in Papua New Guinea]), governor-general of Papua New Guinea (2004-10); knighted 1986.
Matanovic, Mijo (b. Feb. 14, 1965, Donji Svilaj village, near Odzak [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), governor (2001-02) and premier (2007-11) of Bosnian Posavina.
Matanzima, George (Mzimvubu) (b. 1918, Qamata, Cape province [now in Eastern Cape], South Africa - d. Nov. 10, 2000, Queenstown, Eastern Cape), prime minister of Transkei (1979-87). He was named after Britain's King George. His better-known older brother Kaiser, born when World War I was at its height and the Germans looked like being the victors, was named after Kaiser Wilhelm. He was struck from the roll of attorneys in 1963 for stealing money from various trust funds. Six months later, he was made Transkei's minister of justice; his brother Kaiser was chief minister. In spite of an outer show of sophistication and the fact that he was a better-than-average political manipulator, he fired verbally from the hip, and this often made him seem a bit of a buffoon or at least hopelessly inconsistent. He wasted no time imposing on the newly independent Transkei the same draconian legislation in force in South Africa. Opponents were detained without trial, there were deaths in detention, and he even banned the Methodist Church. He became prime minister in 1979 when Kaiser became president. Although fond of warning his countrymen against the evils of corruption, Matanzima himself was incurably corrupt. Commissions of inquiry held soon after he fled Transkei in 1988 revealed mind-boggling levels of dishonesty. The auditor-general estimated that from the time Transkei became the first "independent" homeland in 1976 until Matanzima's rapid departure 12 years later, some R 200 million had been stolen or misappropriated by the government of the Matanzima brothers. Eventually, he returned to South Africa, and, after much wrangling, was extradited to Transkei. He stood trial for bribery and corruption and, in 1989, was sentenced to nine years. The next year he was released for health reasons by the government of Bantu Holomisa, who had ousted him in 1987.
Matanzima, Kaiser Daliwonga (b. June 15, 1915, Qamata, Cape province [now in Eastern Cape], South Africa - d. June 15, 2003, Queenstown, Eastern Cape, South Africa), chief minister (1963-76), prime minister (1976-79), and president (1979-86) of Transkei. He was initially head of a subordinate Thembu chiefdom that was called the Emigrant Thembu. A man of overweening personal ambition, he saw the South African government's Bantu Authorities Act, which it introduced in the 1950s, as a means of enhancing his power and status. Transkei under his leadership was intended as the showpiece of the South African government's policy of grand apartheid. In 1976 it became the first homeland to accept independence. In fact this independence was entirely spurious. Economically, militarily, and in every other way, Transkei was utterly dependent on Pretoria. Four-fifths of its budget came from the South African government. Matanzima was in every respect Pretoria's man, although once or twice he forgot this. The most celebrated occasion was in 1978 when he made a great show of severing diplomatic relations with South Africa - and even ending Transkei's nonaggression pact with the country - over unfulfilled territorial demands. He was forced embarrassingly soon to restore full relations without achieving his objectives because he needed money from the South African treasury. He accumulated considerable business and farming interests and became a wealthy man. Nelson Mandela once described him as "a sell-out in the proper sense of the word," though they came from the same royal family (Matanzima was Mandela's nephew according to Thembu custom) and for many years were inseparable.
Matas Palou, Jaume (b. Oct. 5, 1956, Palma de Mallorca, Spain), president of the government of Baleares (1996-99, 2003-07).
Mataskelekele (Mauliliu), Kalkot (b. April 24, 1949), president of Vanuatu (2004-09); brother-in-law of Walter Lini.
Matata Ponyo Mapon, Augustin (b. June 5, 1964, Kindu, Congo [Léopoldville (now Kinshasa)]), finance minister (2010- ) and prime minister (2012- ) of Congo (Kinshasa).
Mateo Sagasta (y Escolar), Práxedes (Mariano) (b. July 21, 1825, Torrecilla, Logroño province, Spain - d. Jan. 3, 1903, Madrid, Spain), prime minister of Spain (1871-72, 1874, 1881-83, 1885-90, 1892-95, 1897-99, 1901-02).
Mateparae, Sir Jerry, byname of Sir Jeremiah Mateparae (b. Nov. 14, 1954, Wanganui, New Zealand), governor-general of New Zealand (2011- ); knighted 2011.
Matesa, Zlatko (b. June 17, 1949, Zagreb, Croatia), prime minister of Croatia (1995-2000).
Mateu Pi, Meritxell (b. Jan. 19, 1966), foreign minister of Andorra (2007-09).
Matevski, Mateja (b. March 13, 1929, Istanbul, Turkey), acting president of the Presidency of Macedonia (1986).
Mathale, Cassel (Charlie) (b. Jan. 23, 1961), premier of Limpopo (2010- ).
Mathias, Marcelo Gonçalves Nunes Duarte (b. Aug. 15, 1903, Benfeita, Portugal - d. June 9, 1999, Estoril, Portugal), foreign minister of Portugal (1958-61).
Mathiesen, Mait Mihkel (b. 1949 - d. April 5, 2005), foreign minister of Estonia in exile (2003-05).
Mathiesen, Matthías Á(rnason) (b. Aug. 6, 1931, Hafnarfirdi, Iceland - d. Nov. 9, 2011, Hafnarfirdi), foreign minister of Iceland (1986-87).
Mathieu, Michel (b. July 25, 1944, Montpellier, Hérault, France - d. Sept. 30, 2010), high commissioner of French Polynesia (2001-05) and New Caledonia (2005-07).
Mathot, Guy (José Léopold Ghislain) (b. April 26, 1941, Nandrin, Belgium - d. Feb. 21, 2005, Liège, Belgium), Belgian politician. He was minister of public works and Walloon affairs (1977-80), minister of Francophone national education (1980), minister of the budget and the interior (1980-81), and vice-premier and minister of the budget (1981). He was also mayor of the town of Seraing (1971-88, 2000-05).
Mathur, Shiv Charan (b. Feb. 14, 1926, Marhi Kanungo [now in Madhya Pradesh], India - d. June 25, 2009, Delhi, India), chief minister of Rajasthan (1981-85, 1988-89) and governor of Assam (2008-09).
Matic, Bozidar, byname Bozo Matic (b. Sept. 8, 1937, Bogatic, near Sarajevo, Yugoslavia [now in Bosnia and Herzegovina]), prime minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2001).
Matin-Daftari, Ahmad (b. 1896, Tehran, Iran - d. 1971, Tehran), prime minister of Iran (1939-40); cousin and son-in-law of Mohammad Mossadegh.
Matochkin, Yury (Semyonovich) (b. Oct. 18, 1931 - d. July 6, 2006), head of the administration of Kaliningrad oblast (1991-96).
Matos (Páez), Manuel Antonio (b. Jan. 8, 1847, Puerto Cabello, Carabobo state, Venezuela - d. May 27, 1929, Paris, France), foreign minister of Venezuela (1910-12).
Matsepe-Casaburri, Ivy (Florence), née Matsepe (b. Sept. 18, 1937, Kroonstad, Orange Free State [now Free State], South Africa - d. April 6, 2009, Pretoria, South Africa), premier of the Free State (1996-99). From 1999 to her death she was communications minister of South Africa. In 2008 she was acting president for part of a day after Thabo Mbeki left office and before Kgalema Motlanthe was elected.
Matsui, Ichiro (b. Jan. 31, 1964), governor of Osaka (2011- ).
Matsumoto, Takeaki (b. April 25, 1959), foreign minister of Japan (2011).
Matsuzawa, Shigefumi (b. April 2, 1958, Kawasaki, Kagawa prefecture, Japan), governor of Kanagawa (2003-11).
Mattarella, Sergio (b. July 23, 1941, Palermo, Italy), defense minister of Italy (1999-2001).
Matter, Hans (b. Dec. 7, 1944), Landammann of Obwalden (2005-06, 2009).
Matthews, Francis P(atrick) (b. March 15, 1887, Albion, Neb. - d. Oct. 18, 1952, Omaha, Neb.), U.S. politician. He was active in Democratic Party work and from 1933 to 1949 was counsel for the Reconstruction Finance Corporation in Nebraska and Wyoming. In 1949, Pres. Harry S. Truman named him secretary of the navy, and he served in that post until 1951. Early in 1950 Matthews was under congressional fire over the ouster of Adm. Louis E. Denfeld as chief of naval operations, which came at the climax of interservice disputes over unification. On January 30 the Senate armed services committee accepted Matthews' explanation that the difference was one of policy that made harmony impossible. However, on March 1, 23 of the 32-member house armed services committee denounced the Denfeld ouster as reprisal for the latter's congressional testimony on the navy's role in unification. On August 25 Matthews in a speech at Boston, Mass., declared that the U.S. should "pay any price" for world peace, "even the price of instituting a war to compel cooperation for peace." The White House and State Department promptly disclaimed responsibility for any preventive war ideas. Matthews was U.S. ambassador to Ireland in 1951-52.
Matthews, Gabriel Bacchus (b. May 13, 1948 - d. Sept. 7, 2007, Monrovia, Liberia), foreign minister of Liberia (1980-81, 1990-94).
Mattila, Olavi J(ohannes) (b. Oct. 24, 1918, Hyvinkää, Uusimaa province [now in Etelä-Suomi], Finland), foreign minister of Finland (1971-72, 1975).
Matutes (Juan), Abel (b. Oct. 31, 1941, Ibiza, Spain), foreign minister of Spain (1996-2000). He was also a European commissioner (1986-94).
Matvienko, Anatoliy Serhiyovych (b. March 22, 1953, Bershad, Vinnitsa oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.), prime minister of Crimea (2005).
Matvienko, Valentina (Ivanovna) (b. April 7, 1949, Shepetovka, western Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Shepetivka, Ukraine]), plenipotentiary of the president in Severo-Zapadny federal district (2003) and governor of Saint Petersburg (2003-11). She was Russian (originally Soviet) ambassador to Malta (1991-94) and Greece (1997-98) and a deputy prime minister of Russia (1998-2003). In 2011 she became chairwoman of the Federation Council.
Matyukhin, Georgy (Gavrilovich) (b. 1934, Barnaul, Russian S.F.S.R. [now in Altay kray, Russia]), chairman of the Central Bank of Russia (1990-92).
Matzkin, Jorge (Rubén) (b. Jan. 25, 1943, La Pampa, Argentina), interior minister of Argentina (2002-03).
Mauberna, Jean (b. Nov. 6, 1904, Arles, France - d. April 18, 1983, Paris), acting governor of Oubangui-Chari (1948) and French Guinea (1958).
Maude, Henry Evans, byname Harry Maude (b. Oct. 1, 1906, Bankipore, Patna, India - d. Nov. 4, 2006, Canberra, Australia), resident commissioner of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands (1946-49).
Maudling, Reginald (b. March 7, 1917, London - d. Feb. 14, 1979, London), British politician. He became private secretary to Air Minister Sir Archibald Sinclair during World War II. He then made a name for himself in economics in the Conservative Party's research department and entered Parliament as member for Barnet in 1950. Maudling was parliamentary secretary to the Ministry of Civil Aviation in 1952, economic secretary to the Treasury from 1952, minister of supply in 1955, and paymaster general in 1957-59. When he could not negotiate Great Britain's entry into the European Common Market because of French intransigence, he helped create the European Free Trade Association. After the 1959 general election he became president of the Board of Trade and in 1961 colonial secretary. After Prime Minister Harold Macmillan made him chancellor of the exchequer in 1962, he worked to create an expansionist boom, but the largely mythical £800 million balance of trade deficit helped to defeat his party in the 1964 general election. He narrowly missed being elected to the leadership of his party in 1964. During 1970-72 he served Edward Heath's government as home secretary. Maudling's career declined after his involvement in three financial scandals: he was chairman (1969) of swindler Jerome Hoffman's investment company but resigned some 17 months before its collapse; he was associated with architect John Poulson, who was tried in 1973 and convicted of bribery; and in 1965-70 he was adviser to corporation head Sir Eric Miller, who committed suicide in 1977. Maudling later served as shadow foreign secretary (1974-76) before slipping to the back benches.
Mauduit, Henry (Jean Marie) de (b. Dec. 13, 1897, Provins, Seine-et-Marne, France - d. Dec. 13, 1975, Paris), governor of Ivory Coast (1945-46), Mauritania (1947-49), and Chad (1949-51).
Maundrell, Ernest Barton (b. 1880 - d. May 18, 1916, Brunei), acting British resident of Brunei (1915-16). He was shot and killed while trying to arrest a native.
Maung Lwin (b. 1918 - d. June 23, 1998), foreign minister of Burma (1969-70).
Maung Maung (b. Jan. 11, 1925, Mandalay, Burma [now Myanmar] - d. July 2, 1994, Yangon, Myanmar), president of Burma (1988). He fought with the Burmese nationalists during and after World War II. After Burma gained its independence in 1948, he served in Prime Minister Nu's civilian administration. After a 1962 coup brought Gen. Ne Win to power, he was named supreme court chief justice and appointed to the central committee of the Burma Socialist Program Party. After Pres. Sein Lwin was forced out by antigovernment riots about two and a half weeks after taking office in 1988, Maung Maung became president. He lifted martial law, released political prisoners, and declared a free press, but his attempts at reform were undermined by his longtime association with the dictatorial rule of Ne Win. The riots continued until the military stepped in after only one month.
Maung Maung Kha (b. 1920 - d. April 30, 1995, Yangon, Myanmar), prime minister of Burma (1977-88).
Maurer, Andreas (b. Sept. 7, 1919, Trautmannsdorf, Niederösterreich, Austria - d. Oct. 25, 2010, Trautmannsdorf), premier of Niederösterreich (1966-81).
Maurer, Ion Gheorghe (Iosif) (b. Sept. 23, 1902, Bucharest, Romania - d. Feb. 8, 2000, Bucharest), Romanian politician. He joined the Communist Party in 1936 when it was illegal. He acted as an attorney for dozens of communist fighters, including later dictator Nicolae Ceausescu, during World War II. He was arrested for his communist views in 1941, when Romania was allied with Nazi Germany, and kept along with Ceausescu in jail until 1944. After Romania gave up its monarchy and turned to communism in 1947, Maurer began a political accession inside the party that led him to top posts. He served as foreign minister between 1957 and 1958 and chairman of the Presidium of the Grand National Assembly from 1958 to 1961. In 1961, he became prime minister and held that post until 1974. In the years that followed the demise of communism, analysts considered him a moderate. Apparently disappointed by the policies of Ceausescu, Maurer gave up political life at the age of 75. He never explained his withdrawal from public life.
Maurice-Bokanowski, Michel (b. Nov. 6, 1912, Paris - d. May 3, 2005, Paris), French minister of posts and telecommunications (1960-62) and industry (1962-66); son of Maurice Bokanowski.
Mauricius, Johan Jacob (b. May 3, 1692, Amsterdam, Netherlands - d. March 15, 1768, Hamburg [now in Germany]), governor-general of Dutch Guiana (1742-51).
Mauro, Max Freitas (b. March 11, 1937, Vila Velha, Espírito Santo, Brazil), governor of Espírito Santo (1987-91).
Mauroy, Pierre (b. July 5, 1928, Cartignies, Nord, France), prime minister of France (1981-84). At 16 he joined the youth wing of the Section Française de l'Internationale Ouvrière (SFIO), became its national secretary in 1950, and remained in that post until 1958. In 1963 he became a member of the national executive bureau of the SFIO, where he was an active supporter of Socialist unity. At the congress of Épinay-sur-Seine in 1971 he was one of those who helped François Mitterrand to gain control of the Socialist Party. With Mitterrand as first secretary, Mauroy joined the national secretariat and became a faithful ally of Mitterrand and his official deputy in the party. Although at the 1979 party congress Mauroy sided with Michel Rocard in the moderate minority faction within the party, he rallied again to Mitterrand when in November 1980 the latter decided to be a presidential candidate; during the campaign he was Mitterrand's spokesman. Mauroy owed his strength in the Socialist Party to his regionally based support. He gained his parliamentary seat as deputy for the Nord département in 1973 and in the same year was elected mayor of Lille (a post he held until 2001). In 1974 he was elected to the Regional Council for Nord-Pas-de-Calais and became its chairman until 1981. When Mitterrand was elected president in May 1981, he appointed Mauroy premier. He had the calm, the refusal to be swayed by haste or fashion, and the timeless style of la France profonde. He spoke in an old-fashioned way, with simple words straight from the heart. A born conciliator and a prudent man, the new premier was a reassuring presence. He was the apostle of "everyday Socialism" and the decentralization of power. In 1988-91 he was first secretary of the Socialist Party and in 1992-99 president of the Socialist International.
Maúrtua de Romaña, Óscar (José Ricardo) (b. Feb. 7, 1947, Lima, Peru), foreign minister of Peru (2005-06).
Maussion de Candé, Antoine Marie Ferdinand de (b. March 12, 1801, Beynac, Dordogne, France - d. Jan. 21, 1867, Vals-les-Bains, Ardèche, France), governor of Martinique (1859-64).
Mavoa, Jonati (M.) (b. 1922 - d. June 16, 1985, New Zealand), foreign minister of Fiji (1983-85).
Mavrokordatos, Alexandros (Nikolaou) (b. Feb. 11, 1791, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. Aug. 18, 1865, Aegina, Greece), Greek statesman. In 1812 he became secretary at the court of his uncle Ioan Caragea, prince of Walachia (now in Romania), and in 1817 went with his master into exile in Russia and Italy. In 1821, however, on the outbreak of the Greek war of independence, he joined the revolutionaries and soon established himself as head of a regional government at Missolonghi, in western Greece. During December 1821-January 1822 he presided over the first National Assembly, at Epidaurus, and led in the drafting of a constitution. He was elected first president of the Hellenic republic, but the new government exercised little actual power, and he soon returned to Missolonghi, where he conducted a successful defense against the Turks (November 1822-January 1823). He represented the national government as governor-general (1823-25) at Missolonghi, receiving there Lord Byron, the famous English poet-partisan of the Greek cause. He became the principal leader of the pro-English party, bringing him into opposition to the "Russian" party headed by Dimitrios Ypsilantis and Theodoros Kolokotronis, though he did not approve of the Greek demand for British protection (June-July 1825). Ignored during the presidency of the Russophile Ioannis Kapodistrias (1827-31), he became finance minister in 1832 and was made the principal minister in 1833 by Greece's first king, Othon. From 1834 he served as Greek envoy in Munich, Berlin, London, and Constantinople. Between his terms in London and Constantinople he was in Athens first to become foreign minister (February 1841) and then to head a short-lived government (July-August 1841). After the revolution of September 1843 he became minister without portfolio and in 1844 again prime minister. After a period in opposition, where he distinguished himself by his violent attacks on Ioannis Kolettis' government, he was prime minister once more in 1854-55.
Mavros, Georgios (I.) (b. March 15, 1909, Castellorizo island, Ottoman Empire [now in Greece] - d. May 6, 1995), foreign minister of Greece (1974). He was governor of the National Bank of Greece in 1964-66.
Mawlong, E(vansius) K(ek) (b. Feb. 1, 1946, Mawmih village, Assam [now in East Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya], India - d. Oct. 18, 2008, Shillong, Meghalaya), chief minister of Meghalaya (2000-01).
Maxamad Cabdille Xasan, Sayid (Somali), Arabic Sayyid Muhammad `Abd Allah al-Hasan, called "Mad Mullah" by the British (b. April 7, 1864, Dulbahante area [now Doli Bahanta, Somalia] - d. Dec. 21, 1920, Imi, Ethiopia), Somali leader. At a young age he showed great learning in the Qur´an, and, during a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1894, he joined the Salihiyah, a militant, reformist, and puritanical Sufi order. Soon after his return to Somaliland, he began urging the expulsion of the English "infidels" and their missionaries and a strict observance by all Somalis of the Islamic faith. Through his stirring oratory and didactic verse (some of his poems are considered classics in Somalia), he attracted a fanatical group of followers who became known as dervishes. In 1899 he declared a holy war (jihad) on the colonial powers and their Somali collaborators. In 1901-04, several major British, Ethiopian, and Italian expeditions were made against Maxamad. In March 1905 he concluded a truce, whereby he was assigned certain territories in the Italian protectorate. By 1908, however, he had begun his holy war again, and further operations against him were undertaken. In 1913 he won a major victory at Dulmadobe, near Burao, against the British-led Somali Camel Constabulary. But finally, in February 1920, the dervish stronghold at Taalex (Taleh) was bombed in an Anglo-Italian action, and Maxamad escaped to the Ogaden, where he died of influenza. With his death the dervish rebellion ceased, although in some Somali quarters he continued to be regarded as a national hero.
Maximiliano I, German in full Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph Maria (b. July 6, 1832, Vienna, Austria - d. June 19, 1867, near Querétaro, Mexico), emperor of Mexico (1864-67). The younger brother of Emperor Franz Joseph I, Archduke Maximilian became a rear admiral in the Austrian navy at age 22 and served as governor-general of the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom (1857-59). In 1863 he accepted the offer of the Mexican throne, the result of a scheme between conservative Mexicans, who wished to overturn the liberal government of Pres. Benito Juárez, and the French emperor Napoléon III, whose troops were occupying much of Mexico at the time on the pretext of collecting debts arising from the Mexican civil war of 1858-61. The archduke made the condition that the Mexican people approve of him in a plebiscite; this was arranged by the French commander and went overwhelmingly in his favour. Maximilian accepted the results, although Juárez continued to consider himself the constitutional president. Maximilian sailed for Mexico with his wife Carlota (daughter of Léopold I, king of the Belgians) and was crowned emperor on June 10, 1864. He intended to rule with paternal benevolence, upholding Juárez' sweeping reforms (to the indignation of the landed proprietors) and antagonizing the Roman Catholic hierarchy by refusing to restore vast church holdings confiscated by Juárez. By April 1865 the French army had driven Juárez northward almost into Texas. But later the French forces withdrew, and Juárez and his army moved back toward Mexico City. Refusing to abdicate, feeling that he could not honorably desert "his people," Maximiliano was made supreme commander of the imperial army by his conservative Mexican backers. At Querétaro, his small force was surrounded, starved, and finally betrayed into capitulation (May 15, 1867). The following month he was executed by firing squad.
Maximos V Hakim, civil name Georges Hakim (b. May 18, 1908, Tanta, northern Egypt - d. June 29, 2001, near Beirut, Lebanon), patriarch of the Melkite Catholic Church (1967-2000).
Maxwell, Sir Charles William (d. Sept. 23, 1848), governor of Senegal (1809-11), Sierra Leone (1811-15), and Dominica (1816-19); knighted 1836.
Maxwell, James L(ivingston) (b. May 12, 1926, Tulsa, Okla. - d. Oct. 18, 1984, Oklahoma City, Okla.), mayor of Tulsa (1958-66).
May, Sir Francis Henry (b. March 14, 1860, Dublin, Ireland - d. Feb. 6, 1922, Clare Priory, Suffolk, England), acting governor (1903-04, 1907) and governor (1912-19) of Hong Kong and governor of Fiji (1911-12).
Mayanja Nkangi, Jehoash (Sibakyalwayo) (b. Aug. 22, 1931), prime minister of Buganda (1964-66, 1993-94) and finance minister of Uganda (1992-98).
Mayawati (b. Jan. 15, 1956, Badalpur village, Ghaziabad district, Uttar Pradesh, India), chief minister of Uttar Pradesh (1995, 1997, 2002-03, 2007-12).
Mayer, René (b. May 4, 1895, Paris - d. Dec. 13, 1972, Paris), prime minister of France (1953).
Mayhew of Twysden (of Kilndown in the County of Kent), Patrick (Barnabas Burke) Mayhew, Baron (b. Sept. 11, 1929), British Northern Ireland secretary (1992-97). Earlier he was solicitor general (1983-87) and attorney general (1987-92). He was knighted in 1983 and made a life peer in 1997.
Maynard, Sir Clement T(ravelyan) (b. Sept. 11, 1928, Nassau, Bahamas - d. Oct. 2, 2009, Adelaide, The Bahamas), foreign minister of The Bahamas (1984-89, 1990-92); knighted 1989.
Mayorga (y Ferrer), Martín (Díaz) de (b. early 18th century - d. April 28, 1783, at sea near Cádiz, Spain), viceroy of New Spain (1779-83).
Maystadt, Philippe (M.P.J.) (b. March 14, 1948, Petit-Rechain, Belgium), finance minister of Belgium (1988-98) and president of the European Investment Bank (2000-11).
Maza, Ángel (Eduardo) (b. Dec. 18, 1954, La Rioja city, Argentina), governor of La Rioja (1995-2007).
Mazankowski, Donald (Frank) (b. July 27, 1935, Viking, Alberta), finance minister of Canada (1991-93).
Mazari, Balakh Sher (b. July 8, 1928, Rojhan, Punjab, India [now in Pakistan]), prime minister of Pakistan (1993).
Mazeaud, Pierre (b. Aug. 24, 1929, Lyon, France), president of the Constitutional Council of France (2004-07).
Mazepa, Isaak Prokhorovych (b. Aug. 16, 1884, Kostobobra village, Novgorod-Siversky district, Chernigov province, Russia [now in Chernihiv oblast, Ukraine] - d. March 18, 1951, West Germany), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the non-communist Ukraine (1919-20).
Mazepa(-Koledynsky), Ivan (Stepanovych) (b. March 20, 1639, Mazepyntsi, near Bila Tserkva, Poland [now in Ukraine] - d. Oct. 2, 1709, Bendery, Moldavia [now Tighina, Moldova]), hetman of Ukraine (1687-1709).
Mazikin, Valentin (Petrovich) (b. 1945), acting head of the administration of Kemerovo oblast (2001).
Maziol, Jacques (b. Jan. 13, 1918, Aurillac, Cantal, France - d. June 28, 1990), French minister of construction (1962-66).
Maziq, Hussein, Arabic in full Husayn Yusuf Maziq (b. 1918, Wadi Ghassal, near Tacnis, Libya - d. May 12, 2006, Benghazi, Libya), foreign minister (1964-65) and prime minister (1965-67) of Libya. He was governor of Cyrenaica in 1952-61. He was sentenced to a ten-year prison term in 1971 for political reasons, but was released three years later.
Mazoka, Anderson (Kambela) (b. March 22, 1943, Chobana village, west of Monze, Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia] - d. May 24, 2006, Johannesburg, South Africa), Zambian presidential candidate (2001).
Mazowiecki, Tadeusz (b. April 18, 1927, Plock, Poland), Polish politician. Upon being elected to the Sejm (parliament) in 1961, he joined the Znak group of Catholic deputies, an island of open opposition unique in Communist legislative assemblies. His name became linked with every major demonstration of dissent, culminating with his condemnation of the excesses that ended the 1968 student demonstrations. In the 1970s he forged links with the Workers' Defense Committee, which protected anticommunist labour activists in Poland from government persecution. When strikes in the Lenin shipyard in Gdansk sparked the birth of the Solidarity labour movement there in 1980, he became one of the principal advisers to the strikers and helped mobilize Polish intellectuals in support of them. With the imposition of martial law in 1981, he was interned. Emerging a year later, he gradually became Solidarity leader Lech Walesa's alter ego. An evocative image was that of the two men at the head of the apparently defeated workers leaving the Lenin Shipyard in May 1988. In early 1989 he served as the mediator in talks between the government and Solidarity that resulted in Solidarity's legalization and the holding of the freest national elections in Poland since 1947. Solidarity's stunning victory in those elections prompted Pres. Wojciech Jaruzelski to appoint Mazowiecki as prime minister of a coalition government of Solidarity and communist members, as well as those of minor parties. He undertook radical reforms aimed at moving Poland in the direction of a free-market economy. In presidential elections held in December 1990 to choose a successor to Jaruzelski, Mazowiecki finished third in a race won by Walesa. Mazowiecki continued as prime minister until Walesa's nominee succeeded him in early 1991.
Mazza, Alberto (José), public health minister of Argentina (1993-99).
Mazza, Luigi (b. Oct. 12, 1960, New York City), captain-regent of San Marino (1997-98).
Mazzilli, Pascoal Ranieri (b. April 27, 1910, Caconde, São Paulo, Brazil - d. April 21, 1975, São Paulo, São Paulo), acting president of Brazil (1961, 1964).