Mfume, Kweisi, original name Frizzell Gray (b. Oct. 24, 1948, Baltimore, Md.), U.S. politician. By his own account, he had a vision of a golden cloud of light on a street corner in West Baltimore in 1972, which helped him turn his previously desperate life around; for his new self he adopted the name Kweisi Mfume, an African name said to mean "conquering son of kings." In 1979 he was elected to the Baltimore City Council, and in 1986 to the U.S. House of Representatives where - as a member of the Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs committee - he was active in housing, welfare reform, and environmental legislation. He became chairman of the influential Congressional Black Caucus in 1992. Mfume left his congressional seat in December 1995 to become chief executive of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The post had been vacant for two years following the dismissal of Benjamin Chavis. Mfume pledged to restore strict financial controls to the organization, to improve its management and fund-raising operations, and to reverse the decline in membership. He succeeded in bringing the NAACP out of a $3.2 million debt and restoring its reputation. Under his leadership, the organization began pushing for more minority representation at the top levels of the sports, entertainment, and media industries. He announced his resignation on Nov. 30, 2004 (effective Jan. 1, 2005). In 2006 he sought the Democratic nomination for senator from Maryland, but lost to Ben Cardin.
Mgaloblishvili, Grigol (Zurab dze), byname Gega Mgaloblishvili (b. Oct. 7, 1973, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), prime minister of Georgia (2008-09). He was ambassador to Turkey in 2004-08.
Mhindi, Abdou Mohamed, also spelled Mindhi, prime minister of Anjouan (1998).
Mhlaba, Raymond (M. Phakamisa) (b. Feb. 12, 1920, Kwamazoka village, Fort Beaufort district, Cape province [now in Eastern Cape], South Africa - d. Feb. 20, 2005, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape), premier of Eastern Cape (1994-97). In 1943, he joined the Communist Party, which was banned in 1950. He also joined the African National Congress in 1944. After the ANC was banned in 1960, he fled to China for military training. He returned to South Africa in 1962 and became commander of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the military wing of the ANC. He was arrested in a sweep by security forces on the ANC's underground headquarters at a farm in Rivonia in northern Johannesburg in 1963. Nelson Mandela, Mhlaba, and six others including Govan Mbeki, the father of future president Thabo Mbeki, stood trial for sabotage and conspiracy to overthrow the government. In June 1964 they were sentenced to life in prison and sent to Robben Island, the notorious prison on a remote island near Cape Town. Together with other Rivonia defendants, Mhlaba was released in 1989. When the ANC swept to power in the first democratic multiracial elections in 1994, "Oom Ray," as he was widely known, became premier of the newly created province of the Eastern Cape. He resigned in 1997 for health reasons and subsequently was high commissioner to Uganda and ambassador to Rwanda and Burundi until 2001.
Mi Zhenbiao (b. 1860, Qingjian, Shaanxi, China - d. July 20, 1929), governor of Rehe (1924). He was a general of the Yi Jun (Army of Perseverance, led by Jiang Guiti) in Rehe region. He was a vice-governor of Rehe after the founding of the republic. After Jiang Guiti's death in 1922, he turned to Duan Qirui but later switched to Cao Kun, and then in 1924 to Feng Yuxiang, who named him vice-governor of Henan (under Hu Jingyi).
Mibenge, Benjamin (Ndabila), foreign minister of Zambia (1990-91).
Miceli, Felisa (Josefina) (b. Sept. 26, 1952, Luján, Buenos Aires province, Argentina), economy minister of Argentina (2005-07). She was president of the state-owned Banco de la Nación, Argentina's largest bank, in 2003-05. She resigned as minister in 2007 as prosecutors stepped up an investigation into a bag of cash found in her ministry offices. She said the funds (over $60,000) were a loan from her brother for a personal real estate transaction.
Michael, Alun (b. Aug. 22, 1943, Bryngwran, Ynys Môn, Wales), first secretary of Wales (1999-2000). He was a Cardiff city councillor from 1973 to 1989. As Labour MP for Cardiff South and Penarth from 1987, he was opposition whip (1987-88) and opposition spokesperson on Welsh affairs (1987-92) and home affairs (1992-97). He was appointed deputy to the home secretary in 1997 and secretary of state for Wales in 1998. When the Welsh National Assembly was created in 1999, he became the first First Secretary.
Michael, Ken(neth Comninos) (b. 1938, Perth, Western Australia), governor of Western Australia (2006-11).
Michaelis, Georg (b. Sept. 8, 1857, Haynau, Prussia - d. July 24, 1936, Bad Saarow-Pieskow, Germany), chancellor of Germany (1917). He joined the Prussian administrative service in 1879 and in 1885-89 taught in the school of German law at Tokyo, Japan. Returning to Prussia, he was public prosecutor before reentering the administrative service in 1892. He became undersecretary of state in the Finance Ministry in 1909, director of the wartime department for cereals in 1915, and Prussian state commissioner for food supply in early 1917. When Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg resigned in the summer of 1917, the military high command, headed by Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff, Germany's actual rulers, secured the appointment of the colourless Michaelis as his successor. He was totally unqualified for the chancellorship and could maintain himself only with the backing of the army. When the majority in the Reichstag called for his assent to its peace resolution of July 19 (indicating that Germany desired no annexations), he evasively agreed to it "as I understand it," thus not committing himself further than the military might decide. In September, when he acknowledged Pope Benedictus XV's peace proposals of August 16, he likewise avoided any specific statement of Germany's territorial aims. When he supported allegations that the leaders of the Independent Social Democratic Party were to blame for a mutiny in the navy, he lost the favour of the Reichstag and so became useless to Ludendorff, and he was forced to resign on October 31. In 1918-19 he was head of the administration (Oberpräsident) of the Prussian province of Pommern.
Michailidis, Alekos (English Alecos Michaelides), byname of Alexandros Michailidis (b. Aug. 13, 1933, Milikouri, Cyprus - d. Jan. 6, 2008, Paphos, Cyprus), foreign minister of Cyprus (1993-97). He was president of the House of Representatives in 1977-81.
Michailidis, Ntinos (English Dinos Michaelides), byname of Konstantinos Michailidis (b. 1937, Limassol, Cyprus), interior minister of Cyprus (1985-88, 1993-97, 1998-99). He joined the diplomatic service in 1961. Before his first period as interior minister, he served as minister to the presidency. In 1991 he became an MP and two years later, Pres. Glafkos Kliridis appointed him again interior minister. In 1997 he withdrew from the government following a decision by the Democratic Party (DIKO) to leave its partner in government, but he returned to the post four months later. In 1999 he resigned shortly after being cleared of corruption allegations by the cabinet. The cabinet had absolved him despite an independent report which questioned the judgement of town planning authorities in changing building zones in an area where the minister later built a luxury house. The town planning department came under Michailidis' authority. Michailidis briefly quit in the midst of the row in late 1998 but then withdrew his resignation when Kliridis refused to accept it. He repeatedly denied any wrongdoing. His 1999 resignation came a day after the shock resignation of government spokesman Christos Stylianidis, who strongly disagreed with the cabinet decision to absolve Michailidis.
Michaudel, Maurice Marie Auguste (b. April 6, 1901 - d. April 13, 1975), interim commissioner of Laos (1947-48).
Michaux, Antoine Léonce (b. Nov. 6, 1822, Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe - d. ...), commandant of the French Settlements in Oceania (1876-77).
Michel, James (Alix) (b. Aug. 16, 1944, Anse Boileau district, Mahé island, Seychelles), finance minister (1989-2006), defense minister (1993-96, 2004- ), vice president (1996-2004), president (2004- ), interior minister (2004-07), and foreign minister (2009-10) of Seychelles. He was secretary-general of the Seychelles People's Progressive Front (1994-2009) and then became president of its successor, the People's Party (2009- ).
Michel, Louis (Omer Hortense Charles) (b. Sept. 2, 1947, Tienen [Tirlemont], Belgium), foreign minister of Belgium (1999-2004). He became Belgium's EU commissioner in 2004, responsible for development and humanitarian aid.
Michel, (Georges Jean-Jacques) Smarck (b. March 29, 1937, Saint-Marc, Haiti - d. Sept. 1, 2012, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), prime minister of Haiti (1994-95).
Micheletti (Baín), Roberto (b. Aug. 13, 1948, El Progreso, Yoro department, Honduras), president of Honduras (2009-10).
Michelotti, Maria Domenica (b. Oct. 8, 1952, Bourg St. Maurice, France), captain-regent of San Marino (2000).
Michelsen, (Peter) Christian (Hersleb Kjerschow) (b. March 15, 1857, Bergen, Norway - d. June 28, 1925, Fjøsanger, near Bergen), prime minister of Norway (1905-07). He was first elected to the Storting (parliament) from Bergen in 1891, adhering to the "Pure" Left Party. In 1894 he returned to business and municipal affairs but he reappeared in 1903, when he was again elected to the Storting for Bergen, now as a member of the Coalition Party (conservatives and moderate liberals). Almost immediately he joined Georg Francis Hagerup's coalition government, first as a member of the Norwegian Council of State Division in Stockholm, then in 1904 becoming finance minister, but he abandoned the government in February 1905 in protest against Hagerup's extremely moderate policy in the growing conflict with Sweden. In March he was appointed prime minister in a new coalition; thenceforth he was the unquestioned leader of the Norwegians in the conflict that led to the dissolution of the union with Sweden. After the king of Sweden vetoed a law for separate consular representation, the Storting declared the union dissolved on June 7. On August 13, Michelsen called for a plebiscite, which overwhelmingly favoured independence. He met with some opposition, however, because of his willingness to compromise with the Swedes in the Karlstad negotiations in September and because of his definite stand for monarchy against republicanism. Haakon VII, a member of the Danish royal house, was chosen as king of Norway. Trying to preserve the unity of the coalition, Michelsen remained in office until 1907, when he retired because of illness. In 1909 he took part in the organization of the moderately conservative Liberal Left Party, but refused to be its leader; after 1910 he retired from political life.
Michener, (Daniel) Roland (b. April 19, 1900, Lacombe, Alberta - d. Aug. 6, 1991, Toronto, Ontario), governor-general of Canada (1967-74). A Conservative, he was elected to the Ontario legislature in 1945 and represented Toronto-St. Paul's in the federal House of Commons from 1953 to 1962; he was speaker in 1957-62. He retired from politics after losing a reelection bid in 1962 but served as Canada's representative at various international conferences. He was serving (1964-67) as Canada's high commissioner to India when he was recalled to take the post of governor-general. During his tenure he presided over the opening of Expo 67, Montreal's international exhibition, and he was required to sign the War Measures Act into law during the 1970 October Crisis, when members of the FLQ (Front de Libération du Québec) kidnapped a British trade commissioner and Quebec's labour minister from their Montreal homes. Michener, who maintained a high profile, made frequent state visits abroad and abolished some ceremonial rituals, including the curtsy.
Micic, Natasa, née Jovanovic (b. Nov. 8, 1965, Titovo Uzice [now Uzice], Serbia), acting president of Serbia (2002-04).
Mickelson, George S(peaker) (b. Jan. 31, 1941, Mobridge, S.D. - d. [plane crash] April 19, 1993, near Zwingle, Iowa), governor of South Dakota (1987-93).
Micombero, Michel (b. 1940 - d. July 16, 1983, Mogadishu, Somalia), president of Burundi (1966-76). A member of the politically dominant Tutsi tribe, he helped foil a coup by members of the more numerous Hutu after his appointment as minister of defense in 1965, then became involved in moves to replace the king, Mwambutsa IV, by his son. When the new king took power, he made Micombero prime minister, but Micombero deposed him in November 1966. Micombero made himself president and pursued a conciliatory policy up to 1969, releasing political prisoners and trying to gain support from the Hutu. In October 1969, however, he announced the discovery of a plot led by Hutu officers, many of whom were executed. In 1972 the Hutu rebelled, killing some 2,000 Tutsi. The Tutsi reacted with a savage repression of the Hutu, in which an estimated 100,000 died. The government's role in this, and that of the Army, remained obscure, but the division between the two peoples was now irreconcilable. In 1976 Micombero was overthrown by Col. Jean-Baptiste Bagaza and remained quietly in exile in Somalia.
Middlemore, George (d. Nov. 18, 1850, Tunbridge Wells, Kent, England), lieutenant governor of Grenada (1833-35) and governor of Saint Helena (1836-42).
Midfai, Jamil (Bey) al-, Arabic Jamil (Bay) al-Midfa`i (b. 1890, Mosul - d. 1958), prime minister of Iraq (1933-34, 1935, 1937-38, 1941, 1953).
Midkiff, Frank Elbert (b. Nov. 15, 1887, Anna, Ill. - d. Aug. 7, 1983), high commissioner of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (1953-54).
Mierlo, Hans van, byname of Henricus Antonius Franciscus Maria Oliva van Mierlo (b. Aug. 18, 1931, Breda, Netherlands - d. March 11, 2010, Amsterdam, Netherlands), Dutch politician. He set up the centrist D66 party in September 1966 with the aim of shaking up the political system. He led the new party to a spectacular success a few months later, when they gained almost 5% of the national vote in their first parliamentary elections. He served two separate terms as party leader in parliament (1967-73, 1986-94); he was defense minister in 1981-82. His return as elder statesman in 1986 culminated in D66's inclusion in the coalition with Labour and the right-wing Liberals in 1994. He got the foreign affairs portfolio, which he had long coveted. He stepped down as D66 leader in 1997. Elections in May 1998 returned the ruling coalition of Labour, Liberals, and D66 strengthened overall, but delivered a blow to D66. The junior partner lost 10 of its 24 seats and agreed to surrender one of its three ministerial posts. Mierlo said he would not return in the new cabinet nor would he take a seat in the new parliament.
Miettunen, Martti (Juhani) (b. April 17, 1907, Simo, Lapland, Finland - d. Jan. 19, 2002, Kauniainen, near Helsinki, Finland), prime minister of Finland (1961-62, 1975-77). He was a lawmaker in the Agrarian Party from 1945 to 1958 and served in several governments in the 1950s and '60s, including as finance minister in 1957. He was governor of Lapland in 1958-73.
Mifsud, Sir Ugo Pasquale (b. Sept. 12, 1889, Valletta, Malta - d. Feb. 11, 1942), prime minister of Malta (1924-27, 1932-33); knighted 1927.
Mifsud Bonnici, Carm(elo) (b. Feb. 17, 1960, Floriana, Malta), home affairs minister (2008-12) and justice minister (2008-12) of Malta; son of Ugo Mifsud Bonnici.
Mifsud Bonnici, Carmelo, Maltese spelling Karmenu (b. July 17, 1933, Cospicua, Malta), prime minister of Malta (1984-87); cousin of Ugo Mifsud Bonnici. He was elected deputy leader of the Labour Party in 1980 and designate leader to succeed Dom Mintoff in 1982. The following year, upon the resignation of a government member, he was co-opted as a member of parliament by the House of Representatives and held the portfolios first of labour and social services and then of education before rising to the premiership on Dec. 22, 1984, succeeding Mintoff in that office and also as party leader. He had yet to contest a general election. Under his leadership the ruling Labour government did not change any of its hard-line policies, although he adopted a somewhat different approach. He continued his predecessor's intransigent attitude toward the opposition Nationalist Party but endeavoured to woo the hostile private commercial and industrial sector and to mend Malta's fences with Western Europe, the U.S., and the Commonwealth. At the same time, he maintained Malta's strong ties with Communist countries and strengthened relations with Libya.
Carmelo Mifsud Bonnici
Mifsud Bonnici, Ugo (b. Nov. 8, 1932, Cospicua, Malta), Maltese politician. He contested the general elections of 1966 for the Nationalist Party. He was elected from the 2nd District which comprised Cospicua, Vittoriosa, Senglea, Kalkara, and Fgura. He was reelected in all subsequent general elections. For fifteen years (1972-87) he was the Nationalist Party's spokesman for education. In 1977 he was also elected president of the party's General and Administrative Councils. In 1987 the Nationalist Party was elected to government and Mifsud Bonnici was appointed to the cabinet as minister of education. His portfolio included Education, Environment, Broadcasting, Culture, Youth, Museums, and Sport. In 1990 he became minister of education and the interior. Following the 1992 elections Mifsud Bonnici was appointed minister of Education and Human Resources. As a member of parliament, he took an active interest in the updating of Malta's legislation. He was a member of numerous Select Committees including the Committee set up to draft the constitutional changes that declared Malta a republic. As a minister, he worked on the drafting of important legislation such as the Education Act, the Environment Act, the National Archives Act, and the Occupational Health and Safety Promotion Act. In 1994-99 he was president of Malta.
U. Mifsud Bonnici
Migiro, Asha-Rose (Mtengeti) (b. July 9, 1956, Songea, Tanganyika [now in Tanzania]), foreign minister of Tanzania (2006-07). In 2007 she was appointed UN deputy secretary-general.
Miguel Gil, José María de (b. April 15, 1950, Logroño, Spain), president of the Council of Government of La Rioja (1983-87).
Mihai I (b. Oct. 25, 1921, Sinaia, Romania), king of Romania (1927-30, 1940-47).
Mihail, original name Metodij Gogov (b. March 20, 1912, Novo Selo, near Strumica, Ottoman Empire [now in Macedonia] - d. July 6, 1999, Skopje), archbishop of Ohrid, head of the Macedonian Orthodox Church (1993-99). He went to a seminary at the age of 15. Nine years later he graduated with top honours from the theological faculty of Belgrade University. It seemed his vocation would be teaching. However, World War II disrupted these plans, and he returned to Macedonia, advocating independence and working for the restoration of the archbishopric of Ohrid, a symbol of the independence movement. In 1945 he was one of the prime movers in gathering 300 clergy to debate the issue, and was instrumental in persuading them to vote unanimously for independence. Soon afterwards, at a time when Yugoslavia pursued a stronger anti-religious policy than it did in President Tito's later years, Mihail was imprisoned for six months. He was jailed again in 1948-53. After 13 years back in Skopje, he began a kind of exile in Australia, establishing in Melbourne the first Macedonian (as opposed to Serbian) Orthodox parish outside Yugoslavia. The Macedonian Orthodox Church proclaimed autocephaly (independence) unilaterally in 1967, to the universal condemnation of all other Orthodox churches. After that declaration of autocephaly, only possible in a domestic climate which was less severe on religion, he became assistant to the Macedonian "Bishop of Australia, America and Canada." At this time, he won the nickname of the flying Macedonian priest as he lectured tirelessly around the world, including London in 1969. He was consecrated as bishop of Vardar in 1988. This was possible only because his wife had died, enabling him, according to Orthodox tradition, to take monastic orders and thus be eligible for a bishopric. He was translated to the metropolitan see of Ohrid in 1993.
Mihailova, Nadezhda (Nikolova) (b. Aug. 9, 1962, Sofia, Bulgaria), foreign minister of Bulgaria (1997-2001).
Mihailovic, Draza, byname of Dragoljub Mihailovic, Mihailovic also spelled Mihajlovic (b. March 27, 1893, Ivanjica, Serbia - d. July 17, 1946, Belgrade, Yugoslavia), Yugoslav resistance leader. He fought in the Balkan Wars (1912-13) and in World War I. When, on April 6, 1941, Germany attacked Yugoslavia, he was a colonel and chief of staff of a motorized unit in Bosnia. After the swift conquest and partition of Yugoslavia, he organized underground bands of resistance (Chetniks), mainly in Serbia, to act in conjunction with King Petar's government-in-exile and the Allies. He was appointed general in December 1941 and minister of war in January 1942 by the government-in-exile. Another underground organization, the communist-dominated Partisans, led by Josip Broz Tito, was operating mainly in Bosnia and Montenegro. In the autumn of 1941 the Chetniks and Partisans fought the Germans together, but their divergent political aims led to distrust and by the end of the year they were fighting each other. Mihailovic, fearful of brutal reprisals against Serbians, came to favour a cautious strategy against the Germans and Italians and there were reports of his collaboration with them against the Partisans. Favouring the more aggressive policy of Tito, the Allies withdrew their support from Mihailovic in 1944. After the war he went into hiding, but was captured on March 13, 1946, and charged by the Yugoslav government with treason and collaboration with the Germans. He was sentenced to death and was shot in Belgrade. Throughout the trial he denied any collaboration with the Germans and a U.S. commission of inquiry later cleared him and those under his immediate command of the charge.
Mihailovic, Vojislav (b. Sept. 3, 1951, Belgrade, Yugoslavia), acting president of Serbia (2004); grandson of Draza Mihailovic. He was mayor of Belgrade in 1999-2000 and Yugoslav presidential candidate in 2000 for the Serbian Renewal Movement, winning 2.9% of the vote.
Mihajlovic, Svetozar (b. 1949), co-prime minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1999-2000). He was a member of the Western-backed Bosnian Serb Sloga coalition.
Mihanovic, Nedjeljko (b. Feb. 16, 1930, Sitno Donje, Dalmatia, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia]), president of the Sabor of Croatia (1994-95).
Mihov, Nikola (Mihailov) (b. Nov. 29, 1891, Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria - d. [executed] Feb. 2, 1945, Sofia, Bulgaria), member of the Regency Council of Bulgaria (1943-44).
Mikanba, Vladimir (Tachevich) (b. Sept. 23, 1931, Novy Afon, Abkhaz A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R. - d. February 2010), defense minister of Abkhazia (1996-2002).
Mikasinovic, Branko (b. Nov. 6, 1938, Belisce, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia]), foreign minister of Serbia (1991).
Mikati, Najib, Arabic in full Najib `Azmi Miqati (b. Nov. 24, 1955, Tripoli, northern Lebanon), prime minister of Lebanon (2005, 2011- ). He previously served as public works and transport minister (1998-2004).
Mikerevic, Dragan (b. Feb. 12, 1955, Doboj [now in Republika Srpska], Bosnia and Herzegovina), prime minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2002) and of the Republika Srpska (2003-05).
Mikhailov, Aleksandr (Nikolayevich) (b. Sept. 15, 1951), head of the administration of Kursk oblast (2000- ).
Mikhailov, Viktor (Grigoryevich) (b. April 1, 1936), head of the administration of Magadan oblast (1991-96).
Mikhailov, Yevgeny (Eduardovich) (b. March 17, 1963), head of the administration of Pskov oblast (1996-2004).
Mikhalchuk, Ilya (Filipovich) (b. Jan. 2, 1957, Kuybyshev, Russian S.F.S.R. [now Samara, Russia]), governor of Arkhangelsk oblast (2008-12). He was mayor of Yakutsk in 1998-2007.
Miki, Takeo (b. March 17, 1907, Donari, Japan - d. Nov. 13, 1988, Tokyo, Japan), prime minister of Japan (1974-76). He was elected to the Diet in 1937. He publicly opposed the drift toward war with the United States, and thus his political career was not hindered by the postwar American occupation. At various times he occupied 10 cabinet posts, including communications (1947-48), transport (1954-55), international trade and industry (1965-66), and foreign affairs (1966-68). He was chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (1961-62) and director of the Environmental Agency (1972-74) while also serving as deputy prime minister (1972-74). After the ruling Liberal-Democratic Party (LDP) suffered severe losses in the June 1974 elections, Miki resigned from the cabinet in July in protest at the heavily financed electoral campaign directed by Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka and at rumours about Tanaka's financial irregularities. This was the first of a chain of events that ultimately led to the resignation of Tanaka in December 1974. Party faction leaders then agreed on the irreproachable Miki as the compromise choice for the party presidency and the prime ministry. He adopted the policy of limiting defense spending to no more than 1% of gross national product. His plans to reform the LDP foundered on the developing scandal over Tanaka's acceptance of large bribes paid to him by high executives of the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation. He demanded a full inquiry into the affair, but Tanaka's indictment in August 1976 still deeply hurt the LDP in the general election of December 1976, when the LDP lost its majority (though not control of the government). Miki, accepting responsibility for the setback, resigned but remained a powerful leader within the party.
Mikichura, Gennady (Ivanovich) (b. 1951), prime minister of Adygeya (2003).
Miklas, Wilhelm (b. Oct. 15, 1872, Krems, Austria - d. March 20, 1956, Vienna, Austria), president of Austria (1928-38). A member of the Christian Social Party, he sat in the imperial parliament, the Reichsrat, from 1907 to the end of the empire in 1918, and was a member of the Council of State and of the Provisional National Assembly (1918-19), of the Constituent National Assembly (1919-20), and then of the National Council (1920-28) of the new Austrian republic. He was president of the National Council in 1923-28, presiding over stormy sessions with philosophic calm and impartiality. With this reputation he was elected to the federal presidency. But despite the increased powers granted the president by the constitutional revision of 1929, he kept consistently in the background, drifting with the rightward, anti-democratic current of Austrian politics after 1930 without protest. In 1938, however, he refused Adolf Hitler's ultimatum to cancel a plebiscite on national independence, and another ultimatum to form a Nazi government. At Germany's threat to invade, Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg resigned (March 11) to make way for Hitler's appointee, Arthur von Seyss-Inquart, but Miklas still refused to appoint the latter, only giving way early on March 12, hours before the German invasion. On March 13 Miklas refused to sign the law uniting Austria with Nazi Germany, declaring that he was incapacitated from exercising his authority to "certify that the act in question had been constitutionally adopted." He then retired from public life. After World War II he explicitly declared that he had not resigned in 1938; indeed the constitution had no provision for vacating the presidential office by resignation.
Miklushevsky, Vladimir (Vladimirovich) (b. Sept. 15, 1967, Sverdlovsk, Russian S.F.S.R. [now Yekaterinburg, Russia]), governor of Primorsky kray (2012- ).
Mikolajczyk, Stanislaw (b. July 18, 1901, Holsterhausen [now part of Dorsten, Nordrhein-Westfalen], Germany - d. Dec. 13, 1966, Chevy Chase, Md.), Polish anti-Communist leader. He was born in Westphalia where his father had gone as a migrant worker, but he was still a young boy when the family returned to its native province of Poznan (Posen), which was then part of Germany but was given to Poland after World War I. He fought in the Polish-Russian war of 1920 and became involved in the People's (or Peasant) Party. A disciple of Wincenty Witos, he was in the Sejm (parliament) by 1930. By 1937 he was head of the party. After the outbreak of World War II, he became president of the Polish National Council, which had been formed to replace the Sejm for the duration of the war. In the Polish government-in-exile in London he became deputy prime minister and interior minister in 1941 and after the death of Wladyslaw Sikorski in 1943 succeeded him as prime minister. In 1944 he was persuaded by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to join Poland's postwar cabinet as a political counterweight to the Soviet-backed Communist takeover, and he returned to Poland in 1945 to become a deputy premier and minister of agriculture. His Polish People's Party gained widespread public support, but the Communist regime arrested and intimidated its activists, manipulated elections, and accused him of being a British spy. In fear of his life, he fled to Britain aboard a British cargo ship in October 1947 and then in 1948 to the United States. He got involved in exile politics and published a book entitled The Rape of Poland. But many Polish émigrés never forgave him for joining a Communist-led government. He was reburied in a cemetery of honour in the city of Poznan in June 2000, 34 years after his death.
Mikoyan, Anastas (Ivanovich), Armenian Anastas Hovhannesi Mikoyan (b. Nov. 25 [Nov. 13, Old Style], 1895, Sanain, Tiflis province, Russia [now Sanahin, Armenia] - d. Oct. 21, 1978, Moscow), Soviet statesman. He joined the Bolshevik party in 1915 and became one of the leaders of the revolutionary movement in the Caucasus. He remained in Baku during the British occupation that started in July 1918, but in September, when Germans and Turks entered the city, he left by sea for Astrakhan with a group of comrades. A gunboat under British command intercepted them and escorted their ship to Krasnovodsk, and 26 commissars were shot. Mikoyan was held in Ashkhabad prison until February 1919 when he returned to Baku. In 1922-23 he aligned himself with the forces supporting Iosif Stalin against Lev Trotsky. He entered the Central Committee of the party in 1923 and was appointed people's commissar for external and internal trade in 1926. In 1926 he became candidate member and in 1935 full member of the Politburo. In 1946 he became a deputy premier (vice chairman of the Council of Ministers) with responsibility for directing the country's trade. Although he was apparently in danger of losing Stalin's favour, Stalin died (1953) before he could purge him, and Mikoyan retained his membership in the party's Presidium (formerly the Politburo). He subsequently supported Nikita Khrushchev in his rise to power, and ultimately became Khrushchev's close adviser and a first deputy premier (1955-64). In 1964, months before Khrushchev's ouster, he was elected to the largely ceremonial position of chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (head of state); he stepped down in 1965, citing ill health. He was excluded from the party's Presidium in April 1966 and left the Central Committee in March 1976.
Mikulic, Andjelko (b. Jan. 23, 1959, Kocerin village, near Grude [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), premier of West Herzegovina (1999-2003).
Mikulic, Branko (b. June 10, 1928, Podgradje village, near Gornji Vakuf, Bosnia and Herzegovina - d. April 12, 1994, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), premier of Yugoslavia (1986-89). A Croatian by nationality, he joined Tito's National Liberation Army in 1943 and in 1945 became a member of the Communist Party, for which he served on many committees in subsequent years. In 1964 he was secretary of the Central Committee in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which he served as president in 1969-74. From 1969 to 1978 he was a member of the Presidium of the League of Communists (Communist Party). As chairman of the Organizing Committee of the XIV Olympic Winter Games, "Sarajevo-84," held in the republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, he demonstrated strong organizational skills and acquired a reputation for being a tough and interventionist manager. In the same year, he was made a member of the Central Commitee Presidium (CCP) of the League of Communists. In 1986 he was appointed premier under the unique collective system of leadership that had existed since the death of Tito in 1980. The premier was responsible mainly for Yugoslavia's financial affairs, foreign policy, defense, and regional funds; political matters were handled almost entirely by the CCP. When Mikulic was elected, however, there were hopes that because he had been a member of the CCP, he would also be able to influence it when necessary to enable him to bring about badly needed economic and political reforms. Social tensions were being exacerbated by the country's poor economy. Solving economic problems was difficult because the constituent republics, with their often "nationalistic" leaders, had so much power. It soon became apparent that he lacked the power and perhaps the will to carry out the reforms that he stated in his inaugural speech were necessary.
Mikulowski Pomorski, Józef (Karol Mateusz), h. Rawicz (b. July 1, 1868, Malice, Sandomierz county, Poland - d. May 4, 1935, Warsaw, Poland), acting chairman of the Provisional Council of State of Poland (1917).
Milam Tang, Ignacio (b. June 20, 1940, Evinayong, Spanish Guinea [now Equatorial Guinea]), prime minister of Equatorial Guinea (2008-12). He was ambassador to Spain in 2006-08. In 2012 he became vice president.
Milan I (b. Aug. 22 [Aug. 10, Old Style], 1854, Marasesti, Moldavia [now in Romania] - d. Feb. 11 [Jan. 29, O.S.], 1901, Vienna, Austria), prince (1868-82, as Milan Obrenovic IV) and then king (1882-89) of Serbia.
Milanovic, Zoran (b. Oct. 30, 1966, Zagreb, Croatia), prime minister of Croatia (2011- ).
Milatovic, Veljko (b. Dec. 5, 1921, Niksic, central Montenegro - d. Oct. 19, 2004, Herceg Novi, Montenegro), president of the People's Assembly (1967-69) and of the Presidency (1974-82) of Montenegro.
Milazzo, Silvio (b. Sept. 4, 1903, Caltagirone, Sicilia, Italy - d. Dec. 24, 1982), president of Sicilia (1958-60).
Milbradt, Georg (b. Feb. 23, 1945, Eslohe, Prussia [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen], Germany), minister-president of Sachsen (2002-08).
Milczanowski, Andrzej (Stanislaw) (b. May 26, 1939, Równe, Poland [now Rivne, Ukraine]), interior minister of Poland (1992-95). In 1995 he accused Prime Minister Józef Oleksy of having been a Soviet, and subsequently Russian, agent since the 1980s. This caused Oleksy's resignation in 1996, though he was exonerated later that year. In 2002 Milczanowski was charged with revealing state secrets.
Miletic, Slavko (b. 1869, Novi Sad, Vojvodina, Austria-Hungary [now in Serbia] - d. 1934, Belgrade, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia]), president of the Great People's Council of Vojvodina (1918-19).
Mili, Mohamed Ezzedine, Arabic Muhammad `Izz ad-Din Mili (b. Dec. 4, 1917, Djemmal, Tunisia), secretary-general of the International Telecommunication Union (1967-82).
Miliband, David (Wright) (b. July 15, 1965, London, England), British foreign secretary (2007-10).
Miliband, Ed(ward Samuel) (b. Dec. 24, 1969, London, England), British Labour Party leader (2010- ); brother of David Miliband. He was chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in 2007-08 and energy secretary in 2008-10.
Milla (Pineda Arriaga), José Justo (b. 1794, Gracias, Lempira, Honduras - d. 1838, Mexico City, Mexico), superior political chief and intendant of Nicaragua (1824) and acting supreme chief of state of Honduras (1827).
Milla (Pineda Arriaga), José Santiago (b. 1783, Gracias, Lempira, Honduras - d. 18...), member of the Supreme Executive Power of Central America (1824-25).
Millán Lizárraga, Juan S(igfrido) (b. June 15, 1943, El Rosario, Sinaloa, Mexico), governor of Sinaloa (1999-2005).
Miller, Arnold R(ay) (b. April 25, 1923, Cabin Creek, W.Va. - d. July 12, 1985, Charleston, W.Va.), president of the United Mine Workers of America (1972-79).
Miller, Dame Billie (Antoinette) (b. Jan. 8, 1944, Barbados), Barbadian politician. Her father, Frederick Edward Miller, was himself a parliamentarian of distinction, holding the ministerial portfolios of health and social services in 1956-61. She began her political career in 1976 when she was elected member of parliament for the City of Bridgetown in a by-election. A few months later she fought and won her seat again in the general elections. She served as minister of health and national insurance in 1976-81 and was the first female to sit in the cabinet of Barbados. Reelected to parliament in 1981, she was appointed minister of education with the culture portfolio being added in 1985. Following the 1986 elections when the Barbados Labour Party (BLP) lost at the polls, she was appointed to the Senate where she served as leader of opposition business. She was again elected MP for the City of Bridgetown in the general elections of 1991, and served as deputy leader of the opposition from 1993 until 1994, when the BLP was returned to government. She was reelected as the member for the City of Bridgetown for the fourth time. She was appointed deputy prime minister and minister of foreign affairs, foreign trade, and international business on Sept. 7, 1994. She was also charged with the responsibility of Leader of the House. In June 1995, her portfolio changed with tourism and international transport replacing foreign trade and international business. She was also, among other positions, chairperson of the Executive of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association and of the Inter-American Development Bank's Women in Development Unit and president of the International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region. She was replaced as deputy prime minister in May 2003. Later that year she was knighted. She served as foreign minister until the BLP's defeat in the 2008 elections.
Miller, Bob, byname of Robert Joseph Miller (b. March 30, 1945, Chicago, Ill.), governor of Nevada (1989-99). A Democrat, he was elected district attorney in Las Vegas in 1978 and was reelected in 1982; he was elected lieutenant governor in 1986 and became governor after Richard Bryan was elected senator in 1988. He represented a second generation in Nevada public life - knowledgeable about the gaming industry, but utterly clean ethically - and was concerned about issues like education, workers' compensation reform, and welfare. With a rising population, Nevada was one state that needed to build new schools; Miller was proud of reducing class size. But he also held spending down and when he ran for reelection in 1994 boasted that Nevada was the third-lowest-taxed state, with a business climate rated near the top of the country (well ahead of California). He pressed for doubled penalties for crimes on school grounds and against the elderly and boot camps for non-violent offenders. He also tried to stop the nuclear waste depository in Yucca Mountain and opposed a federal gaming tax. He won reelection easily in 1990, but in 1994, despite the booming economy, he had serious opposition. In the primary he was attacked by Las Vegas Mayor Jan Laverty Jones for being too cozy with the gaming industry and not doing enough about crime. But she lost 63%-28%. In the general, Jim Gibbons, who upset Secretary of State Cheryl Lau 52%-32% in the Republican primary, pushed for his ballot measure to require a two-thirds vote in the legislature or a vote of the people to increase taxes. Gibbons was a rough-hewn candidate: his truck boasted a bumper sticker saying, "Fight crime - shoot back." But the strong economy and a big margin in Las Vegas and Clark County helped Miller win 53%-41%.
Miller, Cyrus C(hace) (b. 1867?, Claverack, N.Y. - d. Jan. 21, 1956, New York City), borough president of Bronx (1910-13).
Miller, Dan, byname of Arthur Daniel Miller (b. Dec. 24, 1944), premier of British Columbia (1999-2000). He was a Prince Rupert city councillor before he was elected as an MLA in 1986, representing the riding of North Coast. He served as minister of employment and investment; minister of municipal affairs; minister of skills, training and labour; and minister of forests. He then was minister of energy and mines and minister responsible for northern development, and he retained those portfolios when he became premier. An intimidating debater known for his crankiness and salty language, Miller took over from Glen Clark, who resigned as premier following the release of a court document alleging he used his influence to help a friend get a lucrative casino license.
Miller, David (b. Dec. 26, 1958, San Francisco, Calif.), mayor of Toronto (2003-10).
Miller, G(eorge) William (b. March 9, 1925, Sapulpa, Okla. - d. March 17, 2006, Washington, D.C.), U.S. treasury secretary (1979-81). In 1978 Pres. Jimmy Carter plucked Miller from the business world (he was chief executive officer of the Textron Inc. conglomerate) to replace Arthur F. Burns as chairman of the Federal Reserve Board. Miller was considered ineffectual as Fed chairman, serving one of the shortest tenures in Fed history. Already in 1979 Carter named Miller to replace the dismissed W. Michael Blumenthal as treasury secretary, making Miller the first person to have guided both the nation's central bank and the Treasury Department. He received mixed reviews as treasury secretary. While a capable manager of the department and the administration's point man on economic matters, he was not seen as a policy innovator or as a potent force against double-digit inflation. He directed the Chrysler Corp. bailout, with a $1.5 billion loan guarantee begun in 1980 that kept the automaker afloat. At first, he opposed providing more than $750 million in assistance, but Carter and Congress approved the deal despite fears that the government would be left to pay off private lenders if Chrysler slipped into bankruptcy. Chrysler recovered financially in the early 1980s and even paid off its debts seven years ahead of schedule.
Miller, Laura (b. Nov. 18, 1958, Baltimore, Md.), mayor of Dallas (2002-07).
Miller, Leszek (Cezary) (b. July 3, 1946, Zyrardów, Poland), interior minister (1997) and prime minister (2001-04) of Poland.
Miller, William E(dward) (b. March 22, 1914, Lockport, N.Y. - d. June 24, 1983, Buffalo, N.Y.), U.S. politician. A seven-term (1951-65) conservative Republican congressman from upstate New York, he achieved fleeting fame when, in 1964, he became the vice-presidential running mate on Barry Goldwater's unsuccessful presidential ticket. From 1961 to 1964 Miller served as Republican national chairman and in this office gained a reputation for stinging partisan commentary. After his loss in the 1964 election, Miller retired from politics, but in 1975 he reemerged briefly in an American Express credit-card commercial posing the question, "Do you know me?"
Miller, Zell (Bryan) (b. Feb. 24, 1932, Young Harris, Ga.), governor of Georgia (1991-99). A Democrat, he was elected to the Georgia Senate in 1960, at 28; he worked for Lester Maddox in his last two years as governor, ran the state Democratic Party when Jimmy Carter was governor, was elected lieutenant governor in 1974 and held the office 16 years. In 1990 he finally ran for governor. In the Democratic primary he faced former Atlanta mayor, congressman, and UN ambassador Andrew Young; in this first statewide contest with a major black candidate, Miller won 62%-38%. In the general he beat Republican Johnny Isakson 53%-45%. He won by advocating a state lottery for increased education spending. He spoke in populist tones natural to him but, perhaps, was also inspired by - or helped inspire - consultant James Carville. In office Miller pushed through the lottery, appointed the first black woman to the state Supreme Court, strengthened drunk driving laws, and started boot camps for first-time offenders. He played a role in national politics as an early and effective Bill Clinton supporter. He got the Georgia primary rescheduled from Super Tuesday to a week earlier, on March 3; Clinton easily won, while Paul Tsongas and Bob Kerrey used up their resources. At the convention in New York, Miller delivered one of the keynotes, a riproaring "Give 'em Hell, Zell" effort; he worked Georgia hard for Clinton in the fall, and helped him win 13 unexpected electoral votes. Approaching 1994, Miller was in some trouble. He broke his earlier pledge to serve only one term, and he admitted his ties to Clinton hurt: "There is no doubt he has gone into areas that were not the highest priority for a lot of us." He finally won, by 51%-49%, over Republican Guy Millner.
Millerand, (Étienne) Alexandre (b. Feb. 10, 1859, Paris - d. April 7, 1943, Versailles, France), president of France (1920-24). He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1885 and became the leader of the socialist left, but when he joined René Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet of "republican defense" as minister of commerce (1899-1902), he was bitterly denounced by many socialists as a traitor. When the various socialist factions united in 1905, Millerand dissociated himself from the party. He became minister of public works (1909-10) in Aristide Briand's first cabinet and helped suppress the railway strike of October 1910. He was minister of war (1912-13, 1914-15) under Raymond Poincaré and René Viviani. In 1919-20 he was general commissioner in Alsace-Lorraine. In January 1920 he became premier and foreign minister. His main activities were in regard to the application of the Treaty of Versailles; he also frustrated attempts to organize revolutionary strikes in May 1920 and supplied materiel to Poland during the Polish-Russian war. In September 1920 Pres. Paul Deschanel resigned, and Millerand, then head of the centre-right Bloc National, was elected his successor. During his candidature he expressed his wish to strengthen the power of the president by constitutional revision. This brought him into collision with the radical and socialist majority, which, under the name of the Cartel des Gauches, was successful in the elections of May 1924. Their press accused him of having exceeded his powers by intervening in the party struggle. Édouard Herriot, leader of the Cartel, when asked by Millerand to become premier, said he would do so only on Millerand's resignation. Millerand then invited Frédéric François-Marsal to form a cabinet, but this was immediately defeated, and Millerand resigned. He was a senator in 1925-27 and 1927-40.
Millet, René (Philippe) (b. Sept. 14, 1849, Paris - d. 1919), resident-general of Tunisia (1894-1900).
Milligan, Keith (b. Feb. 8, 1950, Inverness, P.E.I.), premier of Prince Edward Island (1996).
Millot, Constant (b. Dec. 7, 1863, Lyon, France - d. 19...), commandant of Chad (1908-09).
Mills, Sir Charles (Piercy) (b. Oct. 4, 1914 - d. July 27, 2006), lieutenant governor of Guernsey (1969-74); knighted 1968.
Mills, Terry, byname of Terrance Kennedy Mills (b. Dec. 22, 1957, Geraldton, W.Aus.), chief minister of the Northern Territory (2012-13).
Milo, Paskal (Kozo) (b. Feb. 22, 1949, Himarë, Albania), foreign minister of Albania (1997-2001).
Milongo, André (Ntsatouabantou) (b. Oct. 20, 1935, Mankondi, Pool region, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)] - d. July 23, 2007, Paris, France), prime minister (1991-92) and president of the National Assembly (1993-97) of Congo (Brazzaville). He was a candidate in the 2002 presidential elections, but withdrew claiming irregularities.
Milosevic, Slobodan (b. Aug. 20, 1941, Pozarevac, Serbia - d. March 11, 2006, The Hague, Netherlands), president of Serbia (1989-97) and of Yugoslavia (1997-2000). He joined the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (from 1963, League of Communists of Yugoslavia) at age 18. In 1984 he became head of the Belgrade party organization. In 1986 he succeeded his mentor Ivan Stambolic as leader of the League of Communists of Serbia (LCS), and in 1989 the Serbian assembly elected him president. He reformed the LCS into the Socialist Party of Serbia and in the first popular presidential election in December 1990 he was returned by a huge majority. In May 1991 Serbia blocked the accession of a Croat to the chairmanship of Yugoslavia's collective presidency, prompting Croatia and Slovenia and later Macedonia and Bosnia to quit the federation, leaving only Serbia and Montenegro, who constituted a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in April 1992. He was reelected in December 1992. In 1997, he finessed his way around a law barring him from running again for president of Serbia by being elected president of Yugoslavia, turning the formerly figurehead post into the seat of real power. Armed conflict in Kosovo between the Kosovo Liberation Army and the Yugoslav military intensified in 1998, and when Milosevic defied demands that he withdraw his forces, NATO launched air strikes in March 1999. Significant parts of Yugoslavia's infrastructure were damaged or destroyed, while Milosevic's forces inflicted enormous suffering in Kosovo. The Yugoslav parliament accepted the terms of a peace settlement on June 9, and within a week Serb forces were withdrawing as NATO peacekeepers entered Kosovo. In the September 2000 presidential elections he was defeated by opposition leader Vojislav Kostunica. Milosevic was arrested on April 1, 2001, and handed over to the UN war crimes tribunal on June 28. He was found dead in his cell before the completion of his trial.
Milososki, Antonio (b. Jan. 29, 1976, Tetovo, Macedonia), foreign minister of Macedonia (2006-11).
Milovic, Antun (b. Dec. 22, 1934), chairman of the Executive Council of Croatia (1986-90).
Milutinovic, Milan (b. Dec. 19, 1942, Belgrade), foreign minister of Yugoslavia (1995-98) and president of Serbia (1997-2002). He surrendered to the international war crimes tribunal in The Hague on Jan. 20, 2003, to face trial on charges relating to the 1999 Kosovo conflict. He was acquitted on Feb. 26, 2009.
Milverton (of Lagos and of Clifton), Arthur Frederick Richards, (1st) Baron (b. Feb. 21, 1885 - d. Oct. 27, 1978), governor of North Borneo (1930-33), Gambia (1934-36), Fiji (1936-38), Jamaica (1938-43), and Nigeria (1943-47). He was knighted in 1935 and created a baron in 1947.
Milyukov, Pavel Nikolayevich, Milyukov also spelled Miliukov (b. Jan. 27 [Jan. 15, Old Style], 1859, Moscow - d. March 3, 1943, Aix-les-Bains, France), foreign minister of Russia (1917).
Mimiko, Olusegun (Rahman) (b. Oct. 3, 1954, Ondo [now in Ondo state], Nigeria), governor of Ondo (2009- ).
Mims, Livingston (b. January 1830, Edgefield, S.C. - d. March 5, 1906, Atlanta, Ga.), mayor of Atlanta (1901-02).
Mimura, Shingo (b. April 16, 1956), governor of Aomori (2003- ).
Mina, Oscar (b. Sept. 24, 1958, Serravalle, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2009).
Minah, Francis (Mishek) (b. Aug. 19, 1929, Sawula, near Pujehun, Sierra Leone - d. [executed] Oct. 7, 1989), foreign minister (1975-77), justice minister (1977-78, 1982-84, 1985-87), finance minister (1978-80), health minister (1980-82), second vice president (1984-85), and first vice president (1985-87) of Sierra Leone. Following an alleged coup plot in Freetown on March 23, 1987, he was arrested and charged for treason, with 15 others, on April 6, 1987. All were found guilty and sentenced to death.
Mindaoudou (Souleymane), Aïchatou (b. Oct. 14, 1959, Birni-N'Konni, Niger), foreign minister of Niger (1999-2000, 2001-10).
Mindon Min1 (b. July 8, 1808, Amarapura, Kingdom of Awa [now Myanmar] - d. Oct. 1, 1878, Mandalay, Awa), king of Awa (1853-78). He was a brother of Pagan Min, who ruled during the Second Anglo-Burmese War in 1852. Mindon was the leader of the peace faction during the war. Wresting the throne from his brother, he sued for peace and began negotiations with the British on the status of Pegu, which the British had occupied. Failing to persuade them to return Pegu, he accepted a much-reduced dominion, cut off from the sea and deprived of some of the richest teak forests and rice-growing regions. In order to retain the kingdom's independence, he cultivated good relations with Britain, remaining neutral during the Indian Mutiny of 1857-58 and signing a commercial treaty in 1867 that gave the British generous economic concessions. In 1872 he sent his chief minister, the Kinwun Mingyi U Gaung, on a diplomatic mission to London, Paris, and Rome to secure international recognition as an independent country and to appeal for restoration of the lost territory. Domestically, he conserved Burmese tradition while modernizing the administration. His reign is sometimes considered a golden age of Burmese culture and religious life. In 1857 he founded a new capital, Mandalay, with palaces and monasteries that are masterpieces of traditional Burmese architecture. He also sought to make Mandalay a centre of Buddhist learning and convoked the Fifth Buddhist Council there in 1871 in an effort to revise and purify the Pali scriptures. Among his reforms were the thathameda, the assessed land tax, and fixed salaries for government officials. He standardized the country's weights and measures, built roads and a telegraph system, and was the first Awa king to issue coinage.
1 Literally "Prince of Mindon," a style conferred before accession; used colloquially instead of the very complex official name as king.
Mineta, Norman Y(oshio) (b. Nov. 12, 1931, San Jose, Calif.), U.S. secretary of commerce (2000-01) and of transportation (2001-06). In 1971-74 he was mayor of San Jose, the first Asian-American mayor of a major U.S. city.
Minic, Milos (b. Aug. 28, 1914, Preljina, Serbia - d. Sept. 5, 2003, Belgrade, Serbia), mayor of Belgrade (1955-57), president of the Executive Council (1957-62) and of the National Assembly (1967-69) of Serbia, and foreign minister of Yugoslavia (1972-78). He was a close associate of Josip Broz Tito, who took power in Yugoslavia after World War II and ruled it until he died in 1980. Minic joined Tito's Communist Party in 1936 and fought in its units against the Nazis during the war. After the war, he became the state prosecutor and held that post until 1950. He was instrumental in the prosecution of the Serbian anti-communist guerrilla leader Draza Mihailovic, who was sentenced for alleged treason and executed by the communist authorities in 1945.
Minner, Ruth Ann, née Coverdale (b. Jan. 17, 1935, Slaughter Neck, near Milford, Del.), governor of Delaware (2001-09). In 1972 she landed a job as a receptionist in the office of Gov. Sherman Tribbitt. In 1974 she ran for the state House and won. In 1982 she was elected to the state Senate. In the legislature, she helped build the state's open space protection program, worked on education and public safety, and chaired a commission that reorganized state agencies. In 1992 she ran for lieutenant governor as Democratic Congressman-at-Large Tom Carper's running mate, but the offices are elected separately. She was easily reelected in 1996, so when she ran for governor in 2000, she had already won two statewide elections. She was unopposed in the Democratic primary. The Republican primary was won by former state Senate majority leader John Burris, who defeated former judge Bill Lee by 46 votes. Minner ran as a successor to Carper, who had continued former governor Pete du Pont's policy of cutting income taxes even as, helped by the state's surging economy, he increased state spending by 40%. Burris called for addressing the state's high rates of cancer and drug abuse, and for addressing environmental problems by smart planning. Minner was ahead in polls all along; she won 59%-40%. She failed to get the legislature to increase the cigarette tax, but did get it to pass a law banning smoking in public buildings, including restaurants and bars. It took effect in November 2002, and Minner was picketed by bar owners with signs saying, "Ban Ruth Ann." She faced controversies about the state police - a demand in 2001 from the state NAACP for the firing of the agency's superintendent, a lawsuit in 2002 brought by white troopers who claimed there were racial quotas. She was reelected in 2004, defeating Lee 51%-46%.
Minnikhanov, Rustam (Nurgaliyevich) (b. March 1, 1957, Novy Arish, Tatar A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister (1998-2010) and president (2010- ) of Tatarstan.
Minoves Triquell, Juli (F.) (b. Aug. 15, 1969, Andorra la Vella, Andorra), foreign minister of Andorra (2001-07).
Minto, Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, (4th) Earl of, (4th) Viscount Melgund, (4th) Baron Minto, (7th) Baronet (b. July 9, 1845, London - d. March 1, 1914, Minto, Roxburgh, Scotland), governor-general of Canada (1898-1904) and viceroy of India (1905-10). He was present in an unofficial capacity during part of the Second Afghan War in 1879 and fought in the Egyptian campaign of 1882. He went to Canada as a military secretary in 1883 and took part in the suppression of the Riel rebellion of 1885. In 1886 he returned to England, where he succeeded to his father's titles in 1891. As governor-general of Canada, he reconciled the policies of Canadian prime minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier and British colonial secretary Joseph Chamberlain. As viceroy of India, he worked closely with John Morley, the secretary of state for India. The two introduced major reforms in 1909 designed to satisfy educated Indians, strengthen the hands of moderate leaders of the Indian National Congress party, and prevent the rising tide of nationalism from being diverted into extremist channels. Two Indian members were appointed to the council of the secretary of state and one to the viceroy's executive council, and separate Hindu and Muslim electorates were established to increase Muslim representation. Minto also encouraged the foundation of the Muslim League as a rival organization to the Congress in what has been criticized as a "divide and rule" policy that ultimately led to the partition of India in 1947. He believed in decisive action against resistance to British rule. He revived a regulation of 1818 to deport without trial the revolutionaries Lajpat Rai and Ajit Singh (1907) and took fresh powers to control the press and to deal with the making of explosives (1908).
Mintoff, Dom(inic) (b. Aug. 6, 1916, Cospicua, Malta - d. Aug. 20, 2012, Tarxien, Malta), prime minister (1955-58, 1971-84), finance minister (1955-58), foreign minister (1971-81), and interior minister (1983-84) of Malta. He was general secretary of the Labour Party in 1936-37. In 1945 he was elected to the Council of Government and in 1947 was elected to parliament. He served as deputy prime minister and minister for works in 1947-49. In 1949 he became leader of the reorganized Malta Labour Party. He was prime minister from 1955 but resigned in 1958 to lead the movement for independence, which was achieved in 1964. From 1962 to 1971 he was leader of the opposition to the Nationalist government of Giorgio Borg Olivier. When Olivier lost the general election in June 1971, Mintoff returned to power. Under his leadership Malta's relations with Britain fell to a low ebb, especially when he declared that the use of Malta as a "NATO aircraft carrier" was humiliating and must be ended. The withdrawal of British forces began in January 1972, but on March 26 the U.K. government undertook to pay Malta £14 million annually for the next seven years for the use of Malta as a naval base. When this agreement expired in 1979 and was not renewed, the British base was finally closed down on March 31. He also had expelled British journalists and many businessmen and drawn close to the leftist governments in Libya and Algeria. However, relations with Libya were strained in 1980 by a dispute over the continental-shelf boundary, and he then entered into an agreement with Italy guaranteeing Malta's neutrality. In the 1981 elections Mintoff's government won a third term, although it lost the popular vote. He resigned as Labour Party leader and prime minister in 1984, but remained in parliament until 1998.
Minuto Rizzo, Alessandro (b. Sept. 10, 1940, Rome, Italy), deputy secretary-general (2001-07) and acting secretary-general (2003-04) of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
Mir Osman Ali Khan Asaf Jah VII, Fath Jang (b. April 5, 1886, Hyderabad [India] - d. Feb. 24, 1967, Hyderabad), nizam (1911-50) and rajpramukh (1950-56) of Hyderabad.
Miramende, Jacques Louis (b. Oct. 23, 1869 - d. Oct. 1, 1968), French resident commissioner of the New Hebrides (1913-16, 1920-21).
Miramón (y Tarelo), Miguel (Gregorio de la Luz Atenógenes) (b. Nov. 17, 1831, Mexico City - d. June 19, 1867, near Querétaro, Mexico), Mexican politician. He fought against the United States in the battles of 1847 and rose to the rank of colonel in 1855. The next year he participated in the struggle against the Liberal forces who were then led by the provisional president Ignacio Comonfort. Miramón led the Conservative forces in the bitter, three-year civil war which followed (1857-60). In 1858 he helped establish Félix Zuloaga as Conservative president in opposition to the Liberals led by Benito Juárez. Miramón succeeded Zuloaga as interim president in August 1860 only to be overthrown when Liberal troops took Mexico City in December. He fled to Cuba and then went to Europe. Following various manoeuvres he offered his services to Napoléon III of France, who, for imperialistic reasons, persuaded Archduke Maximilian of Austria to assume the crown of Mexico. Miramón returned to Mexico in 1863 as the grand marshal of Maximilian's empire. He served as the Mexican minister in Berlin (1864-66) but rushed back to Mexico when it appeared that Maximilian would abdicate his tottering throne. Miramón persuaded the emperor to continue the struggle and again entered the army. He fell back to defend the remnant of the court at Querétaro, and after the capture of that city by the forces of Juárez in May 1867, he was taken prisoner and executed on a nearby hill together with Maximilian and another general, Tomás Mejía.
Miranda, Antônio Guedes de (b. May 16, 1888, Porto Calvo, Alagoas, Brazil - d. Aug. 1, 1961, Maceió, Alagoas), governor of Alagoas (1945-47).
Miranda, João Bernardo de (b. July 18, 1951, Caxito-Dande [now in Bengo province], Angola), foreign minister of Angola (1999-2008).
J.B. de Miranda
Miranda, Julio (Antonio) (b. Oct. 17, 1946, Manuel García Fernández, Tucumán, Argentina), governor of Tucumán (1999-2003).
Miranda, Julius Caesar de (b. April 3, 1906, Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana [now Suriname] - d. Nov. 28, 1956, Paramaribo, Suriname), prime minister of Suriname (1949-51).
Miranda, Marcelo de Carvalho (b. Oct. 10, 1961, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil), governor of Tocantins (2003-09).
Miranda, Pedro Pires de (b. Nov. 30, 1928, Leiria, Portugal), foreign minister of Portugal (1985-87).
Miranda Ferreira da Silva, Aníbal (d. Aug. 26, 2004, Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil), governor of Acre (1962-63).
Mirfendereski, (Soltan-)Ahmad (b. 1918 - d. May 2, 2004, France), foreign minister of Iran (1979).
Mirgazyamov, Marat (Parisovich) (b. 1942, Karaidel, Bashkir A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Bashkortostan (1986-92).
Mirghani, Ahmad (Ali) al- (b. Aug. 16, 1941, Khartoum North, Sudan - d. Nov. 2, 2008, Alexandria, Egypt), chairman of the Supreme Council of The Sudan (1986-89). In 2001 he left Egypt to return to Sudan from 12 years of exile.
Miró Cardona, José (b. 1902, Cuba - d. Aug. 10, 1974, San Juan, Puerto Rico), premier of Cuba (1959).
Mirza, Iskander (Ali) (b. Nov. 13, 1899, Bombay [now Mumbai], India - d. Nov. 13, 1969, London), governor-general (1955-56) and president (1956-58) of Pakistan.
Mirza-Akhmedov, Mansur Siyayevich (b. 1909 - d. May 3, 1971), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Uzbek S.S.R. (1957-59).
Mirza Ali Asghar Khan, styled Amin-e Soltan, Atabak-e Azam (b. 1856 - d. [assassinated] Aug. 31, 1907), prime minister of Iran (1907).
Mirza Hassan Khan, styled (from age 8) Mustaufi ul-Mamalek (or Mostofi al-Mamalek) (b. 1874 - d. Aug. 27, 1932), prime minister of Iran (1910-11, 1914-15, 1915, 1915, 1917, 1918-21, 1923, 1926-27).
Mirza Hassan Khan Pirnia, styled Mushir ul-Mulk (1899-1907) and Mushir ud-Daula (from October 1907) (b. 1872 - d. Nov. 21, 1935, Tehran, Iran), foreign minister (1907-08, 1925-26) and prime minister (1922, 1923) of Iran; son of Mirza Nasrollah Khan.
Mirza Nasrollah Khan, styled Mushir ud-Daula (b. 18... - d. 1907), prime minister of Iran (1907).
Mirzabekov, Abdurazak (Mardanovich) (b. 1938), prime minister of Dagestan (1987-97).
Mirziyayev, Shavkat (Miromonovich) (b. 1957, Samarkand oblast, Uzbek S.S.R. [in present Dzhizak region, Uzbekistan]), prime minister of Uzbekistan (2003- ). He was hokim (head) of Dzhizak region from 1996 to September 2001 and hokim of Samarkand region from September 2001 to December 2003.
Mirzoyan, Karen (Ambartsumovich) (b. Dec. 7, 1965, Yerevan, Armenian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Nagorno-Karabakh (2012- ).
Misák, Stanislav (b. Nov. 9, 1952), governor of Zlínský kraj (2008- ).
Misharin, Aleksandr (Sergeyevich) (b. Jan. 21, 1959, Sverdlovsk, Russian S.F.S.R. [now Yekaterinburg, Russia]), governor of Sverdlovsk oblast (2009-12).
Mishra, Brajesh Chandra (b. Sept. 29, 1928 - d. Sept. 28, 2012, New Delhi, India), UN commissioner for Namibia (1982-87).
Mishra, Kailashpati (b. Oct. 5, 1926, Dudharchak, Buxar district, Bihar, India - d. Nov. 3, 2012, Patna, Bihar), governor of Gujarat (2003-04) and Rajasthan (2003-04).
Mishra, Shyam Nandan (b. October 1920, Gonawan, Patna district, Bihar, India - d. Oct. 25, 2004, Kadamkuan locality, Patna, Bihar), foreign minister of India (1979-80). He was a member of the Constituent Assembly and was the parliamentary secretary to Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. He was elected to the Lok Sabha from Madhubani in 1952 and 1957. After a split in the Congress party, he joined Congress (O) and was leader of opposition in the Rajya Sabha. He came close to Jayaprakash Narayan and during the emergency in 1975 was lodged in Bangalore jail. He was minister for external affairs in the Charan Singh government.
Mishra, Sripati (b. Jan. 20, 1924, Shekhupur village [now in Uttar Pradesh], India - d. Dec. 7, 2002, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh), chief minister of Uttar Pradesh (1982-84).
Misick, Ariel (Rudolph) (b. Aug. 11, 1951), member of the Advisory Council of the Turks and Caicos Islands (1986-87).
Misick, Michael (Eugene) (b. Feb. 2, 1966, Bottle Creek, North Caicos, Turks and Caicos Islands), chief minister (2003-06) and premier (2006-09) of the Turks and Caicos Islands; brother of Washington Misick.
Misick, (Charles) Washington (b. March 13, 1950, Bottle Creek, North Caicos, Turks and Caicos Islands), chief minister of the Turks and Caicos Islands (1991-95). He was leader of the opposition in 1995-2002. In 2012 he became finance minister.
Misimoa, Afioga Afoafouvale, also called Harry Moors (b. Sept. 25, 1900, Samoa - d. Feb. 18, 1971, Tarawa, Gilbert and Ellice Islands [now in Kiribati]), secretary-general of the South Pacific Commission (1970-71).
Miskine, Idriss (b. March 15, 1948, N'Djamena, Chad, French Equatorial Africa - d. Jan. 7, 1984, N'Djamena), Chadian politician. A member of the Hadjarai tribe, he served under Pres. Félix Malloum as minister of transport, posts, and telecommunications before joining Hissène Habré's Armed Forces of the North (FAN) opposition movement in 1979. In June 1982 he helped in the recapture of N'Djamena, the country's capital, from Goukouni Oueddei's Transitional Government of National Union (GUNT). In October 1982 he became foreign minister under President Habré. In 1983 he was in command of government forces at the strategic northern town of Faya-Largeau against Oueddei's Libyan-backed troops, and he took a leading part in diplomatic moves against Libyan involvement in the conflict. By the end of 1983 he was negotiating in preparation for talks with the rebels to end the civil war, but he died shortly after his return from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, where he had been making the final arrangements for these talks. His death was viewed as a considerable personal and political blow to President Habré.
Miskovic, Milan (b. Jan. 8, 1918, Premantura, near Pula, Austria-Hungary [now in Croatia] - d. 1978), interior minister of Yugoslavia (1965-67).
Missoffe, François (b. Oct. 13, 1919, Toulon, Var, France - d. Aug. 28, 2003, Rouen, Seine-Maritime, France), French minister of repatriates (1962-64) and of youth and sports (1966-68).
Misuari, Nur(ullaji) (b. 1940, Sulu island, Philippines), governor of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (1996-2001).
Mitchell, Sir Charles Bullen Hugh (b. 1836 - d. Dec. 7, 1899, Singapore), acting governor of Natal (1881-82), governor of Fiji (1887-88), acting governor of the Leeward Islands (1888), governor of Natal (1889-93), and governor of the Straits Settlements (1894-99); knighted 1883.
Mitchell, Fred(erick Audley, Jr.) (b. Oct. 5, 1953, Nassau, Bahamas), foreign minister of The Bahamas (2002-07, 2012- ).
Mitchell, Sir James Fitz-Allen (b. May 15, 1931, Bequia island, Grenadines), prime minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1984-2000); cousin of Sir John Compton. He was first elected to parliament in 1966 and, from 1967 to 1972, served as minister for trade, agriculture, tourism, and labour. He was premier for two years from 1972 to 1974. In 1975, he became president of the New Democratic Party. It won 9 of the 13 parliamentary seats in the 1984 elections, and he became prime minister. He was also foreign minister (1984-92). He was reelected for a fourth successive term at the general election of June 15, 1998, but stepped down in 2000. He became a Privy Councillor in 1985 and was knighted in 1995.
J. F.-A. Mitchell
Mitchell, James P(aul) (b. Nov. 12, 1900, Elizabeth, N.J. - d. Oct. 19, 1964, New York City), U.S. secretary of labor (1953-61). He was named a special labour adviser to the director of the Works Progress Administration in New York state, and from 1942 to 1945 was director of the U.S. Army service forces' division of industrial personnel. On April 6, 1953, Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower appointed Mitchell assistant secretary of the army in charge of manpower and reserve affairs, and in the following October, secretary of labour. On Sept. 20, 1954, Mitchell berated the American Federation of Labor for its failure to make "an objective appraisal of the Eisenhower administration's achievements" in behalf of U.S. labour. Relations between Mitchell and the AFL and the Congress of Industrial Organizations were somewhat strained thereafter. On Feb. 1, 1955, the AFL executive council accused him of tolerating violations of minimum-wage rates on government construction projects - a charge Mitchell promptly denied. He also urged a 90-cent hourly minimum wage, against the $1.25 minimum asked by AFL and CIO officials. (Congress raised the rate to $1 per hour in August 1955.) The Eisenhower administration's "antiracketeering" labour bill of 1958 was largely the work of Mitchell, who recommended among other reforms that unions be required to file annual financial and organizational reports; that local union officers should be elected by direct secret ballot; and national officers in the same way or by delegates elected in this way. The bill died in the House of Representatives on August 18.
Mitchell, John N(ewton) (b. Sept. 5 or 15, 1913, Detroit, Mich. - d. Nov. 9, 1988, Washington, D.C.), U.S. attorney general (1969-72). He came to know Richard M. Nixon when their law firms merged on Jan. 1, 1967. He became a close confidant of Nixon's and successfully managed the latter's presidential campaign in 1968. He was then named attorney general and became controversial because he backed two of Nixon's nominees to the Supreme Court who were rejected by the Senate as unqualified, approved wiretaps without court authorization (until the Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional), prosecuted antiwar protesters, and brought suit to block publication of the classified Pentagon Papers on the Vietnam War (rejected by the Supreme Court). After resigning in March 1972 to become chairman of Nixon's reelection committee, he launched a "dirty tricks" campaign that included espionage, forged letters, and sabotage directed against Sen. Edmund Muskie of Maine, the Democratic front-runner for the presidency. He authorized the infamous overnight break-in (June 16-17, 1972) at the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee at the Watergate, an office-apartment-hotel complex in Washington, D.C., and was instrumental in the subsequent cover-up of the wiretapping and burglary. On July 1, he resigned from the reelection committee when the Watergate scandal began unfolding. He was indicted in 1974 on charges of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, and perjury. On Jan. 1, 1975, he was convicted and sentenced to 2½ to 8 years in prison. He entered prison in June 1977, becoming the first member of any U.S. cabinet to be jailed. Released on parole in January 1979, having served 19 months, he took no further part in politics.
Mitchell, Keith (Claudius) (b. Nov. 12, 1946, St. George's, Grenada), prime minister of Grenada (1995-2008, 2013- ). He used tax breaks and aggressive salesmanship to attract foreign investment to the three-island nation, which had seen its foreign and strategic importance evaporate with the end of the Cold War. He sought new trade agreements with Cuba, whose influence in Grenada had prompted a U.S.-led invasion in 1983, and led international overtures to Cuban president Fidel Castro as chairman of the Caribbean Community trade group in 1998. Mitchell also sank millions of dollars into new construction projects, including road repairs and a national stadium. In 1999 elections his New National Party (NNP) won all 15 parliamentary seats in a stunning victory just seven weeks after his government collapsed amid lawmakers' defections to the rival Grenada United Labour Party. The NNP retained a narrow majority in the 2003 elections, but was defeated in 2008, apparently hurt by allegations of autocratic tendencies leveled at Mitchell. In 2013 he came back triumphantly as the NNP scored another clean sweep of all 15 constituencies.
Mitchell, Dame Roma (Flinders) (b. Oct. 2, 1913, Adelaide, South Australia - d. March 5, 2000, Adelaide), governor of South Australia (1991-96). She became Australia's first female Queen's Counsel in 1962. She was a Supreme Court judge in South Australia from 1965 to 1983. Mitchell, who once described herself as a "conservative sort of feminist," was Australia's first female state Supreme Court judge and later also became the first female state governor. She was also the founding chairwoman of the Australian Human Rights Commission (1981). In 1982 she became a Dame Commander of the British Empire.
Mithi, Mukut (b. Jan. 1, 1952, Roing [now in Lower Dibang Valley district, Arunachal Pradesh], India), chief minister of Arunachal Pradesh (1999-2003) and lieutenant governor of Puducherry (2006-08).
Mitin, Sergey (Gerasimovich) (b. June 14, 1951), governor of Novgorod oblast (2007- ).
Mitra, Biren (b. Nov. 26, 1917, Bangalisahi, Cuttack district, Orissa, India - d. May 25, 1978, Cuttack), chief minister of Orissa (1963-65).
Mitre (Martínez), Bartolomé (b. June 26, 1821, Buenos Aires - d. Jan. 18, 1906, Buenos Aires), president of Argentina (1862-68). He moved with his family to Uruguay in 1837 and joined the liberal exiles from Argentina in their literary opposition to the dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas. He travelled to Bolivia, Peru, and Chile where he served in military campaigns, edited the newspaper El Mercurio, and plotted against Rosas. When Rosas was finally defeated in the Battle of Caseros (1852), Mitre played a prominent role as commander of Uruguayan artillery. The next year he became the leader of secessionist Buenos Aires province, which refused to accept the new federal constitution. He held a number of offices in the provincial government and became governor in 1860. His forces were defeated at Cepeda in 1859 but they finally defeated the federal forces at Pavón in 1861. The national capital was then moved again to Buenos Aires, and he was elected president of a united Argentina. He created and strengthened instruments of civil administration, suppressed provincial caudillos, extended the postal service and telegraph lines, and encouraged immigration and foreign trade. Paraguay declared war in 1864, and for a time he commanded the allied forces of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. After his presidency, he was elected to the Senate. In 1874 he ran again for president. When defeated, he claimed that he was defrauded and led a rebellion that was crushed by the government, though he was not punished. He tried for the presidency again in 1891 as the candidate of the new middle-class Unión Cívica party, but withdrew in favour of the Conservative candidate. He remained a respected elder statesman and symbol of Argentine unity.
Mitreva, Ilinka (b. Feb. 11, 1950, Skopje), foreign minister of Macedonia (2001, 2002-06).
Mitropoulos, Efthimios E. (b. May 30, 1939, Piraeus, Greece), secretary-general of the International Maritime Organization (2004-11).
Mitrovic, Aleksandar (b. Aug. 4, 1933, Osladic village, near Valjevo, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia] - d. Sept. 19, 2012, Belgrade, Serbia), deputy president (1989-92) and acting president (1991-92) of the Federal Executive Council of Yugoslavia.
Mitsotakis, Konstantinos (Kyriakou) (b. Oct. 18, 1918, Khania, Crete, Greece), prime minister of Greece (1990-93). He came from a political family; his father and grandfathers were members of parliament, and the statesman Eleftherios Venizelos was his uncle. Active in the resistance during the Nazi occupation of Crete (1941-44), he was twice arrested and sentenced to death; he escaped execution first by a general amnesty and the second time by an exchange of prisoners between the Allies and the Germans. He was first elected to parliament in 1946 from Khania as a member of the Liberal Party. Joining the new Centre Union, he was finance minister (1963-64) and minister for economic coordination (1965) before quitting the party and bringing down the government of Georgios Papandreou. The military regime that took power in 1967 arrested Mitsotakis, who eventually fled to Paris, where he was active in the opposition; he returned to Greece in 1973. In 1974, after the fall of the military government, he stood for parliament as an independent liberal but failed to be elected. He was successful in 1977, when he founded the centrist New Liberal Party. In 1978 he again became minister of economic coordination, and shortly afterward he joined Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis' centre-right New Democracy party. In 1980 he became foreign minister, serving until the 1981 election of a socialist government led by Andreas Papandreou, son of Georgios. On Sept. 1, 1984, he was elected leader of New Democracy. When the party secured precisely half the seats in parliament on April 8, 1990, it was the third time in less than a year that general elections had failed to produce an absolute majority to lead the government, but the timely support of one centre-right deputy enabled Mitsotakis to be installed as prime minister. His economic austerity measures were unpopular, and in 1993 Papandreou returned to power. He then resigned as party leader.
Mitsuzuka, Hiroshi (b. Aug. 1, 1927, Miyagi prefecture, Japan - d. April 25, 2004, Tokyo, Japan), Japanese politician. He was elected to the Miyagi prefectural assembly before winning election to the House of Representatives in 1972. He was elected to the lower house 10 consecutive times, became head of his own faction in the Liberal-Democratic Party in 1991 (taking over the faction of Shintaro Abe upon Abe's death), and served in various LDP and government posts, including party secretary general and chairman of the Policy Research Council, as well as international trade and industry minister (1988-89) and foreign minister (1989). As finance minister (1996-98) under Ryutaro Hashimoto, he implemented a series of fiscal reform measures, but he resigned to take the blame for a scandal involving senior officials of the ministry. In December 1998, Yoshiro Mori took over the chairmanship of the Mitsuzuka faction. Mitsuzuka announced his retirement from the political world in August 2003 due to poor health and did not run in the lower house election that November.
Mitterrand, François (Maurice Adrien Marie) (b. Oct. 26, 1916, Jarnac, Charente, France - d. Jan. 8, 1996, Paris), president of France (1981-95). Following the liberation of Paris (August 1944), he was a member of Charles de Gaulle's provisional government. He represented Nièvre in the National Assembly (1946-58, 1962-81) and the Senate (1959-62). He held various cabinet posts during the Fourth Republic, including interior (1954-55) and justice (1956-57). Gravitating increasingly leftward, he emerged as a leading spokesman against de Gaulle, who became president in 1959. In 1965 Mitterrand stood as the sole candidate of the left for the presidency, getting 32% of the vote and forcing de Gaulle into an unexpected runoff election. In 1971 he was elected as first secretary of the Socialist Party. Although defeated by Valéry Giscard d'Estaing in his second bid for the presidency, in 1974, he managed to turn the Socialist Party, formerly of minor importance, into the majority party of the left while still allied with the Communist Party. In 1981 he made a rise of more than 30% in opinion polls in six months and defeated the incumbent Giscard. He abandoned his initial nationalization policies early in his presidency. In 1986 the parties of the right won a majority in the National Assembly, and he had to ask one of their leaders, Jacques Chirac, to be his prime minister. Under this unprecedented power-sharing arrangement ("cohabitation"), Mitterrand retained responsibility for foreign policy. He soundly defeated Chirac in the presidential elections of 1988, and was thus reelected to another 7-year term, accomplishing a feat that only de Gaulle had previously achieved in 1965. He called new parliamentary elections and the Socialists regained a working majority. But a number of scandals involving Socialist leaders tainted the party, and the 1993 elections resulted in a rout and made a new cohabitation necessary.
Mityukov, Ihor (Oleksandrovych) (b. Sept. 27, 1952, Kiev, Ukrainian S.S.R.), finance minister of Ukraine (1997-2001). He later was ambassador to the United Kingdom (2002-05).
Miyazawa, Hiroshi (b. Sept. 22, 1921, Tokyo, Japan - d. May 26, 2012), governor of Hiroshima (1973-81) and justice minister of Japan (1995-96); brother of Kiichi Miyazawa.
Miyazawa, Kiichi (b. Oct. 8, 1919, Tokyo, Japan - d. June 28, 2007, Tokyo), prime minister of Japan (1991-93). Born into a family of politicians, he became an official in the finance ministry (1942-52). After World War II he became a personal aide to Hayato Ikeda, who was to become his political mentor and the founder of the Liberal-Democratic Party (LDP) faction that Miyazawa would inherit from Zenko Suzuki in 1986. In 1953 he was elected to the upper house of the Diet from his father's old constituency in Hiroshima prefecture; later, in 1967, he moved to the more influential lower house. In 1962 he secured his first cabinet position, as director general of the Economic Planning Agency. Subsequently he served as minister of international trade and industry (1970-71), foreign affairs (1974-76), and finance (1986-88). He also acted as chief cabinet secretary (1980-82) and as deputy prime minister (1987-88). Like other senior politicians in the ruling LDP, Miyazawa was involved in the Recruit stocks-for-favours scandal, and he was forced to resign as deputy prime minister and finance minister in December 1988 after making contradictory remarks in the matter. Nevertheless, he was elected president of the LDP on Oct. 27, 1991, and took over as prime minister on November 5. His reascension tended to mark a return to old-style politics, but he proved unable to unite or control the warring factions within the LDP. In June 1993 some of these factions defected from the LDP and joined with opposition parties to pass a vote of no confidence, and in the general elections in July the LDP lost control of the Diet for the first time in its 38-year history. After its return to power in 1996, Miyazawa was again finance minister in 1998-2001, becoming Japan's longest-serving postwar finance minister. He retired from parliament in 2003.
Mizan Zainal Abidin ibni al-Marhum Sultan Mahmud, Tuanku (b. Jan. 22, 1962, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), sultan of Terengganu (1998- ) and paramount ruler of Malaysia (2006-11).
Mizoguchi, Zenbe (b. Jan. 20, 1946), governor of Shimane (2007- ).
Mizon, Louis (Alexandre Antoine) (b. July 16, 1853, Paris - d. [suicide] March 11, 1899, Dzaoudzi, Mayotte), administrator-superior of Mayotte (1897-99). He was appointed governor of French Somaliland on March 7, 1899, but did not take office as the telegram announcing the nomination arrived in Dzaoudzi 13 days after his suicide.
Mizzi, Enrico, byname Nerik Mizzi (b. Sept. 20, 1885, Valletta, Malta - d. Dec. 20, 1950, Valletta), prime minister of Malta (1950).
Mkapa, Benjamin (William) (b. Nov. 12, 1938, Masasi, Mtwara region, Tanganyika [now in Tanzania]), foreign minister (1977-80, 1984-90) and president (1995-2005) of Tanzania. He was also high commissioner to Nigeria (1976-77) and Canada (1982-83) and ambassador to the U.S. (1983-84).
Mkrtchyan, Anatoly (Ashotovich) (b. Oct. 6, 1931 - d. Oct. 26, 2011), foreign minister of the Armenian S.S.R. (1986-90). He was Soviet/Russian ambassador to Lesotho in 1990-92.
Mladenov, Nikolay (Evtimov) (b. May 5, 1972, Sofia, Bulgaria), defense minister (2009-10) and foreign minister (2010-13) of Bulgaria.
Mladenov, Petur (Toshev) (b. Aug. 22, 1936, Urbabintsi [now Toshevtsi], Bulgaria - d. May 31, 2000, Sofia, Bulgaria), Bulgarian politician. From 1969 to 1971 he was the first secreatary of the Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP) provincial committee in Vidin. He served 18 years as foreign minister under Todor Zhivkov (1971-89) and in 1977 became a member of the policy-making BCP Politburo. On Oct. 29, 1989, after tensions flared between him and Zhivkov, Mladenov resigned his position. The end of hard-line communist rule in Bulgaria did not come through street protests as in Romania, Czechoslovakia, and East Germany, but in a Communist Party coup (Nov. 10, 1989) in which reform-minded comrades ousted Zhivkov. Mladenov and Andrey Lukanov helped shape the reformist group, under the influence of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's perestroika. Mladenov replaced Zhivkov as president and first secretary of the BCP, overseeing the party's formal break with Stalinism. He was soon accused of almost using tanks against demonstrators in a Dec. 14, 1989, rally. This accusation, combined with an unending students' strike and pressure from the opposition parties, forced Mladenov to resign on July 6, 1990.
Mlinaric, Marijan (b. Feb. 13, 1944, Jalzebet, near Varazdin, Croatia - d. Sept. 4, 2007, Varazdin), interior minister of Croatia (2003-05).
Mlivo, Uzeir (b. Dec. 19, 1949, Bugojno [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), premier of Central Bosnia (1996-98).
Mmusi, Peter (Simako Otlaadisang) (b. 1929 - d. Oct. 2, 1994), finance minister (1980-89) and vice president (1983-92) of Botswana.
Mnisi, (Moses) Mhambi (Paul) (b. 1912 - d. January 1997, South Africa), foreign minister of Swaziland (1984-86). He left Swaziland in 1986 in the wake of allegations that donated funds were embezzled.