Paasch, Oliver (b. Oct. 21, 1971, Malmedy, Belgium), minister-president of the German community of Belgium (2014- ).
Paasikivi, Juho Kusti, original name Johan August Hellstén (b. Nov. 27, 1870, Tampere, Finland - d. Dec. 14, 1956, Helsinki, Finland), prime minister (1918, 1944-46) and president (1946-56) of Finland. He was elected to the Finnish Eduskunta (parliament) in 1907 and became finance minister in 1908. He resigned from the government in 1909 in protest against illegal attempts at Russification. As the first prime minister after the war of independence in 1918, he favoured a pro-German policy and a monarchy for Finland. He headed the Finnish delegation at the peace talks with Soviet Russia in 1920. Appointed minister to Sweden in 1936, he was recalled in October 1939 to lead the delegation that unsuccessfully attempted to reach a peaceful settlement with the U.S.S.R. over that nation's territorial demands. During the Winter War of 1939-40 he did much to speed up the conclusion of peace; as chairman of the Finnish-Russian peace commission, he signed the treaty whereby Finland ceded to Russia about 10% of its territory in March 1940. The same month he was appointed minister to Moscow, but he resigned this post in May 1941 when it became clear that his government would side with Germany and "continue" the war. He was recalled to service to take part in abortive peace negotiations between Finland and the U.S.S.R. in the spring of 1944. In November 1944, the approaching Soviet victory was obvious to all, and the conciliatory Paasikivi was asked to serve as prime minister of a government pledged to peaceful cooperation with the Soviet Union. As president, he stood farther aloof from party politics than any of his predecessors. His policy was to remain uncompromising over Finnish independence and to resist Communist penetration in Finland, but otherwise to cultivate harmonious relations with the Soviet Union.
Paasio, Pertti (Kullervo) (b. April 2, 1939, Helsinki, Finland), foreign minister of Finland (1989-91).
Paasio, (Kustaa) Rafael, original surname Hällström (b. June 6, 1903, Uskela, Finland - d. March 17, 1980, Turku, Finland), prime minister of Finland (1966-68, 1972). He was editor in chief (1942-66) of Turun Päivälehti, a Social Democratic newspaper, and a member of the municipal council of Turku from 1945. He was a member of Parliament from 1948 to 1975 and from 1949 to 1966 was chairman of its Foreign Affairs Committee; he was speaker in 1966 and 1970-72. He succeeded Väinö Tanner as chairman (1963-75) of the Social Democratic Party, which under his leadership became Finland's largest party. As prime minister (heading a coalition government in 1966-68 and a Social Democratic minority government in 1972) he sought to stabilize the country's economy and to reassure the Soviet Union of Finland's reliability as a neighbour.
Pablo Pardo (Gosset), Luis María de (b. Aug. 15, 1912, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. May 27, 2007, Buenos Aires), foreign minister of Argentina (1955, 1970-72). In 1955 the appointment of Pablo Pardo, regarded as an ultra-nationalist, as interior minister led to the overthrow on the following day of Pres. Eduardo Lonardi. He also served as ambassador to Chile (1960-61) and to Switzerland (1976-77).
Pabriks, Artis (b. March 22, 1966, Jurmala, Latvian S.S.R.), foreign minister (2004-07) and defense minister (2010-14) of Latvia.
Pacari Vega, Nina, original name (until age 24) María Estela Vega Cornejo (b. Oct. 9, 1961, Cotacachi, Imbabura province, Ecuador), foreign minister of Ecuador (2003).
Pace, Frank, Jr. (b. July 5, 1912, Little Rock, Ark. - d. Jan. 8, 1988, Greenwich, Conn.), U.S. government official. In 1936 he became assistant district attorney in the 12th judicial district in Arkansas. From 1938 to 1940 he was general counsel of the Arkansas state department of revenue. In 1942 he was commissioned a second lieutenant in the army air corps, and served for four years in the air transport command, reaching the rank of major. Early in 1946 he was made a special assistant to the U.S. Department of Justice dealing with tax matters, and in May of that year he became executive assistant to the postmaster general. In January 1948 he was appointed assistant director of the bureau of the budget, and a year later Pres. Harry S. Truman nominated him to the position of director of the budget. Late in March 1950 the president nominated him to become secretary of the army. He participated in the emergency planning involved in the defense of South Korea after the outbreak of the Korean War, and in the defense mobilization planning. It was under his authority, delegated from the president, that the U.S. Army seized the railroads of the nation on August 27 to avert a nationwide strike of trainmen and conductors. He served as army secretary until 1953 and later was a member of the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (1961-73) and chairman of the board of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (1968-72).
Pachachi, Adnan, Arabic in full `Adnan Muzahim al-Bajaji (b. May 14, 1923, Baghdad, Iraq), foreign minister (1965-67) and president of the Governing Council (2004) of Iraq. He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1959-65, 1967-69).
Pacheco, (José Antonio) Romualdo (b. Oct. 31, 1831, Santa Barbara, Alta California, Mexico [now Calif.] - d. Jan. 23, 1899, Oakland, Calif.), acting governor of California (1875). He was also U.S. minister to Guatemala and Honduras (1891-93) and Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and El Salvador (1891).
Pacheco Areco, Jorge (Alejandro) (b. April 9, 1920, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. July 29, 1998, Montevideo), president of Uruguay (1967-72). He was also ambassador to Spain (1972-79), Switzerland (1979-80), and the United States (1980-82).
Pacheco de la Espriella, Abel (de Jesús) (b. Dec. 22, 1933, San José, Costa Rica), president of Costa Rica (2002-06).
Pacolli, Behgjet (Isa) (Albanian), Serbian Behdjet (often incorrectly Bedzet) Pacoli (b. Aug. 30, 1951, Marec [Marevce], near Pristina, Kosovo), president of Kosovo (2011). In April 2011 he became first deputy prime minister.
Paddon, (William) Anthony (b. July 10, 1914, Indian Harbour, Labrador - d. Jan. 5, 1995), lieutenant governor of Newfoundland (1981-86). He was the first Labradorian to hold the position.
Paderewski, Ignacy (Jan) (b. Nov. 18, 1860, Kurylówka, Podolia province, Russian Poland [now Kurylivka, Ukraine] - d. June 29, 1941, New York City), prime minister of Poland (1919). A world-famous pianist, he was also a staunch patriot. In 1910, on the 500th anniversary of the Battle of Grunwald, he presented the city of Kraków with a monument commemorating the victory of the Poles over the Teutonic Order. During World War I he donated the income from his public appearances to the aid of Polish war victims. He became a member of the Polish National Committee and was appointed its representative to the United States. In 1916-17 he urged Pres. Woodrow Wilson to support the cause of Polish independence, and Wilson included it as the thirteenth of his Fourteen Points of Jan. 8, 1918. After the war the provisional head of state, Józef Pilsudski, asked Paderewski to form a government of experts; this was done on Jan. 17, 1919. Paderewski also took the portfolio of foreign affairs. He had difficulties with professional politicians, and his premiership was not a success. No political party supported him in his ambition to be elected president of the republic. On Nov. 27, 1919, he resigned as premier and returned to Switzerland, where he had settled in 1898. He never revisited Poland. At the beginning of World War II, in October 1939, a Polish government-in-exile was formed in Paris with Gen. Wladyslaw Sikorski as prime minister, and Paderewski accepted the chairmanship of the Polish National Council (exile parliament) in January 1940 but because of his physical condition went back to Switzerland. He later decided to go to the United States, where he arrived in November. He died soon after and, by order of Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt, was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
Padilla (Peñaloza), Ezequiel (b. Dec. 31, 1890, Coyuca de Catalán, Guerrero, Mexico - d. Sept. 6, 1971, Mexico City, Mexico), foreign minister of Mexico (1940-45). He was minister to Hungary in 1930-32 and a presidential candidate in 1946.
Padilla Arancibia, (José) David (b. 1927, Sucre, Bolivia), president of Bolivia (1978-79).
Padilla Nervo, Luis (b. Aug. 19, 1894, Zamora, Michoacán, Mexico - d. Sept. 9, 1985, Mexico City, Mexico), president of the UN General Assembly (1951-52) and foreign minister of Mexico (1952-58). He was also minister to Costa Rica (1934-37), Paraguay (1937), and Denmark (1939-40) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1945-52, 1958-63).
Padilla Tonos, Pedro (Luciano) (b. Jan. 18, 1937, Barahona, Dominican Republic), foreign minister of the Dominican Republic (1982). He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2000-03) and ambassador to Italy (2003-04).
Padiyara, Antony Cardinal (b. Feb. 11, 1921, Manimala, India - d. March 23, 2000, Cochin, India), Major Archbishop of Ernakulam-Angamaly of the Syro-Malabar rite (1992-96). The Syro-Malabar rite dates back to the Apostle Saint Thomas who brought the faith to India and Ceylon. Through the influence of the missionary priests in his village he entered the regional seminary of St. Peter in Bangalore and left the Syro-Malabar rite behind in favour of the Latin rite which he was ordained into on Dec. 19, 1945, in the diocese of Coimbatore. Ten years later Pope Pius XII made him the first bishop of the diocese of Ootacamund on July 3, 1955, and he was installed on Oct. 15, 1955. He remained there for fifteen years until June 14, 1970, when Pope Paul VI accepted his request to return to his roots of the Syro-Malabar rite and he was made Archbishop of Changanacherry, about 500 km due north of Bombay on the western side of the country. The official title was Metropolitan Archbishop. With his return to his original rite, he was able to better inform his flock as to the similarities and unity of the two rites, both in union with Rome. On April 23, 1985, Pope John Paul II named him the first archbishop of Ernakulam-Angamaly. Three years later he was elevated to the cardinalate in the consistory of June 28, 1988, receiving the titular church of St. Mary Queen of Peace in Monte Verde and given curial membership in the Congregation for the Oriental Churches. On Dec. 16, 1992, his archdiocese was made a Major Archbishopric in the Syro-Malabar Church and he was enthroned on May 20, 1993, as the first Major Archbishop. Because of age, he retired on Nov. 11, 1996.
Padmanabhan, Anandam (b. 1928), governor of Mizoram (1998-2000).
Pado, Martin (b. May 15, 1959, Michalovce, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia]), interior minister of Slovakia (2006).
Paek Nam Sun, formerly known as Paek Nam Jun (b. March 13, 1929, North Hamgyong province, Korea [now in North Korea] - d. Jan. 2, 2007), foreign minister of North Korea (1998-2007). He was ambassador to Poland in 1974-79.
Paeniu, Bikenibeu (b. May 10, 1956, Tarawa, Gilbert and Ellice Islands [now in Tuvalu]), prime minister (1989-93, 1996-99) and finance minister (2002-06) of Tuvalu.
Paet, Urmas (b. April 20, 1974, Tallinn, Estonian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Estonia (2005-14). Previously he was minister of culture (2003-05).
Pagan Min1 (b. June 21, 1811, Amarapura, Kingdom of Awa [now in Myanmar] - d. March 14, 1880, Ratnapura [Innwa], Kingdom of Awa), king of Awa (1846-53). He and his brothers confined their father, the insane king Tharawadi Min, in 1845. Killing his rival brothers, he became king when Tharawadi died in 1846. Although he was not one of Awa's more enlightened monarchs, he acted with tact and restraint during the crisis preceding the Second Anglo-Burmese War. In 1851 the governor of Pegu at Rangoon, Maung Ok, charged the captains of two British merchant ships with murder, embezzlement, and evading customs fees, forcing them to pay several hundred rupees before being allowed to return to Calcutta. On their complaints, Lord Dalhousie, the governor-general of India, sent an emissary, Commodore George Lambert, with a letter to the king requesting compensation that amounted to £920 and the dismissal of Maung Ok. Pagan agreed to replace Maung Ok, but on Jan. 6, 1852, when the new governor declined to meet with a British delegation, Lambert evacuated all British subjects and blockaded the coast. Within days British warships were firing on Rangoon. On February 7, Pagan wrote Dalhousie to protest the acts of aggression. A few days earlier, the governor had offered to pay the compensation for the two ship captains. On February 13, however, Dalhousie sent an ultimatum to the king, demanding the equivalent of £100,000 as compensation for the British war expenses, to be paid by April 1. Pagan did not answer the ultimatum, and a few days after its expiry British troops entered Burmese territory; in December Britain annexed the province of Pegu. On Feb. 18, 1853, Pagan was deposed by his brother Mindon Min, who favoured reconciliation with the British.
1 Literally "Prince of Pagan," a style conferred before accession; used colloquially instead of the very complex official name as king.
Page, Sir Earle (Christmas Grafton) (b. Aug. 8, 1880, Grafton, N.S.W. - d. Dec. 20, 1961, Sydney, N.S.W.), Australian statesman. He was living in northern New South Wales at a time when a strong movement was developing there in favour of the establishment of a new state, free from the allegedly overbearing effect of Sydney urban interests. This agitation, which attracted him into politics, also gave great impetus to the growth of a primary producers' party. In 1919 he entered the federal parliament as one of the first representatives of what in 1920 became the Country Party (now the National Party), and as its leader from 1921 to 1939 he was a spokesman for its goal of rural economic development. The Country Party's influence forced the withdrawal of William Morris Hughes from the leadership of the Nationalist Party and the premiership in 1923. A Nationalist-Country coalition was then formed, in which Page led 5 Country Party members in a cabinet of 11. He had the portfolio of treasurer and was scarcely less influential than the prime minister, Stanley Melbourne Bruce. The Bruce-Page ministry, lasting until 1929, gave exclusive priority to the development of the national economy. Never again did Page or his party exercise so much influence as in the 1920s. He was minister of commerce (1934-39, 1940-41), was knighted in 1938, and served as prime minister for 19 days following the death of Joseph Lyons in 1939, but his deposition from the party leadership shortly afterward marked the deepening of a very long political twilight. As minister of health (1949-56), he introduced a comprehensive national health scheme in 1953. He remained in parliament until being defeated immediately before his death in 1961; he had represented Cowper, N.S.W., for 42 years.
Page, Théogène François (b. March 31, 1807, Vitry-le-François, Marne, France - d. Feb. 2 or 3, 1867, Paris), commandant of the French Settlements in Oceania (1852-54) and governor of Cochinchina (1859-61).
Pagès, Pierre (André Michel) (b. Sept. 5, 1893, Argelès-sur-Mer, Pyrénées-Orientales, France - d. Dec. 12, 1980, Canet-en-Roussillon, Pyrénées-Orientales), governor of Cochinchina (1934-39).
Pahadia, Jagannath (b. Jan. 15, 1932, Bhusawar village [now in Bharatpur district, Rajasthan], India), chief minister of Rajasthan (1980-81) and governor of Bihar (1989-90) and Haryana (2009-14).
Pahor, Borut (b. Nov. 2, 1963, Postojna, Slovenia), prime minister (2008-12) and president (2012- ) of Slovenia. He was speaker of the National Assembly in 2000-04.
Pahr, Willibald (b. June 15, 1930, Vienna, Austria), foreign minister of Austria (1976-83). He was also ambassador to West Germany (1983-85) and secretary-general of the World Tourism Organization (1986-89).
Paige, Rod(erick Raynor) (b. June 17, 1933, Monticello, Miss.), U.S. secretary of education (2001-05).
Paik Too Chin (b. Oct. 7, 1908 - d. 1993), prime minister of South Korea (1952-54, 1970-71).
Paine, Thomas (b. Jan. 29, 1737, Thetford, Norfolk, England - d. June 8, 1809, New York City), English-American political pamphleteer. He went to America in 1774, where the conflict between the colonists and England was just reaching its height, and after blood was spilled at the Battles of Lexington and Concord in April 1775, he argued that the cause of America should not just be a revolt against taxation but a demand for independence. He put this idea into Common Sense, a 50-page pamphlet which came out on Jan. 10, 1776, and sold more than 100,000 copies within three months. It impacted public opinion and the deliberations of the Continental Congress more than any other single publication, paving the way for the Declaration of Independence of July 4, 1776. During the war of independence, Paine served as volunteer aide-de-camp to Gen. Nathanael Greene. He revived the flagging morale of the troops and the civilian population with his 16 Crisis papers. In 1777-79 he was secretary to the congressional committee of foreign affairs. After the war, he devoted his time to inventions, and in 1787 he left for Europe to promote his plan to build a single-arch bridge across the wide Schuylkill River near Philadelphia. But it was the French Revolution that soon filled his thoughts. He published Rights of Man (1791-92), which was banned in Britain. Paine himself was indicted for treason, but before he could be arrested, he went to France and was elected to a seat in the National Convention. When the radicals under Robespierre held power, Paine was imprisoned (1793-94). His last great treatises, The Age of Reason (1794-96), opposing organized religion, and Agrarian Justice (1797), attacking inequalities in property ownership, added to his many enemies in establishment circles. He returned to the U.S. in 1802.
Pairin Kitingan, (Datuk Seri Panglima) Joseph (b. Aug. 17, 1940, Papar, North Borneo [now Sabah, Malaysia]), chief minister of Sabah (1985-94).
Paisley, Ian: see Bannside, Ian Paisley, Baron.
Pajak, Antoni (b. 1893 - d. Nov. 26, 1965, London, England), prime minister of the Polish government in exile (1955-65).
Pajic, Dragan (b. March 14, 1956, Brcko, Bosnia and Herzegovina), mayor of Brcko (2009-11).
Pajtic, Bojan (b. May 2, 1970, Senta, Vojvodina, Serbia), chairman of the Executive Council (2004-09) and chairman of the government (2009- ) of Vojvodina.
Pak Hon Yong (b. 1889 - d. [executed] Dec. 18, 1955), foreign minister of North Korea (1948-53).
Pak Pong Ju (b. April 10, 1939, Songjin [now Kimch'aek], North Hamgyong province, Korea [now in North Korea]), premier of North Korea (2003-07, 2013- ). He was also minister of chemical industry (1998-2003).
Pak Pong Ju
Pak Song Chol
Pak Song Chol (b. Sept. 2, 1913, Kyongju, North Kyongsang province, Korea [now in South Korea] - d. Oct. 28, 2008), foreign minister (1959-70) and premier (1976-77) of North Korea. He was a vice president in 1977-98.
Pakhno, Viktor (Stepanovich) (b. Dec. 23, 1938), acting head of the administration of Kaluga oblast (1996).
Paksas, Rolandas (b. June 10, 1956, Telsiai, Lithuanian S.S.R.), president of Lithuania (2003-04). Elected to the Vilnius city council in March 1997, he was shortly thereafter (April 10) elected mayor by his fellow councilmen. He was celebrated for his revitalization of the capital's historic old town, among the largest in Europe. He transformed the Rotushes (City Hall) building from a stuffy museum to an international conference and reception hall and relit and repainted much of the decaying capital. In 1999 he was appointed prime minister after Gediminas Vagnorius resigned. Paksas, a member of Vagnorius' Conservative Party, was a relative political novice and analysts doubted whether he had the power to pilot the government for the next 18 months until elections or the know-how to stabilize the economy. He had little influence in his party and no experience at high level politics, but he had the highest approval rating of any Conservative, making him an ideal compromise candidate and giving him the popular backing that Vagnorius lacked for many of his final months in office. Even Paksas himself had shown some reluctance to take the post. In October 1999 he stepped down after a 5½-month stint as prime minister, during which time he saw his ratings skyrocket to over 70%. He quit over the sale of the state-owned oil concern to U.S. energy group Williams, which he said forced too many obligations on the small Baltic state. He served again as prime minister in 2000-01, founded the Liberal Democratic Party in 2002, and was elected president in 2003. In 2004 the Constitutional Court ruled that he broke the constitution and his oath by granting his supporter Jurij Borisov citizenship, telling him he was under investigation by special services, and illegally influencing companies; the parliament then voted to remove him from office.
Pala, Ano, foreign minister of Papua New Guinea (2011-12).
Palacio (González), (Luis) Alfredo (b. Jan. 22, 1939, Guayaquil, Ecuador), vice president (2003-05) and president (2005-07) of Ecuador.
Palacio (Vallelersundi), Ana (Isabel) (surname shortened from de Palacio del Valle-Lersundi) (b. July 22, 1948, Madrid, Spain), foreign minister of Spain (2002-04).
Palacio (del Valle-Lersundi), (Ignacia de) Loyola de (b. Sept. 16, 1950, Madrid, Spain - d. Dec. 13, 2006, Madrid), Spanish politician; sister of Ana Palacio. She was minister of agriculture, fisheries, and food (1996-99) in the first conservative government of José María Aznar. Elected to the European Parliament in June 1999 as head of the right-wing Popular Party list, she was appointed one month later as vice-president of the European Commission and commissioner for transport and energy, a post she held until 2004.
Palaitis, Raimundas (b. Oct. 23, 1957, Palanga, Lithuanian S.S.R.), interior minister of Lithuania (2008-12).
Palamarchuk, Luka (Fomich) (b. Sept. 19 [Sept. 6, O.S.], 1906, Troshcha, Russia [now in Vinnytsia oblast, Ukraine] - d. Jan. 2, 1986, Kiev, Ukrainian S.S.R.), foreign minister of the Ukrainian S.S.R. (1953-65). He was also Soviet ambassador to Morocco (1965-72).
Palas, Jaroslav (b. Oct. 2, 1952, Bruntál, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), governor of Moravskoslezský kraj (2008-12). He was agriculture minister of the Czech Republic in 2002-05.
Palasne de Champeaux, Louis Eugène (b. Jan. 1, 1840, Brest, Finistère, France - d. Aug. 29, 1889, Marseille, France), acting resident-general of Cambodia (1887-89).
Paleckis, Justas, Russian Yustas Ignovich Paletskis (b. Jan. 22, 1899, Telsiai, Lithuania - d. Jan. 26, 1980, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), Lithuanian politician. He was the pro-Soviet agent who was appointed head of the puppet government of Lithuania by Soviet high commissar Vladimir G. Dekanozov on June 17, 1940, two days after the Soviet army invaded Lithuania. Paleckis immediately dissolved the Seimas (parliament) and staged a July 14 election featuring only pro-Soviet candidates. On July 21 the new Seimas voted unanimously for a resolution requesting the U.S.S.R. to annex Lithuania. On August 3 the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. granted the request. On June 22, 1941, however, when Germany invaded the U.S.S.R., Paleckis fled to Moscow. When the Soviet army reoccupied Lithuania in 1944, he resumed his post as chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Lithuanian S.S.R. (until 1967). From 1966 to 1970 he was also chairman of the Soviet of Nationalities, part of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.
Palen, Konstantin (Ivanovich), Graf (Count), German in full Magnus Konstantin Ferdinand Graf von der Pahlen (b. Dec. 1, 1830, Mitava, Russia [now Jelgava, Latvia] - d. May 2, 1912, St. Petersburg, Russia), justice minister of Russia (1867-78). He was also governor of Pskov (1864-67).
Palihakkara, H(ewa) M(athara) G(amage) S(iripala) (b. 1947, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka]), governor of Northern province, Sri Lanka (2015- ). He was also ambassador to Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and Cambodia (2000-04) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2008-09).
Palin, Sarah (Louise Heath), née Heath (b. Feb. 11, 1964, Sandpoint, Idaho), governor of Alaska (2006-09). Her political career began in 1992, when she won a seat on the Wasilla city council. Beating a three-term incumbent, she became mayor (1996-2002) of Wasilla, a place of 6,000 people northeast of Anchorage. In December 2006 she arrived at the state capitol on an ethics reform platform after defeating incumbent Frank Murkowski in the Republican primary and former Democratic governor Tony Knowles in the general election. Her growing reputation as a maverick for bucking her party's establishment and Alaska's powerful oil industry gained her national attention. She distanced herself from the old guard, powerful Republicans in the state GOP, even calling on tight-lipped veteran U.S. Sen. Ted Stevens to explain to Alaskans why federal authorities were investigating him. She asked Alaska's congressional delegation to be more selective in seeking earmarks after what came to be known as the "Bridge to Nowhere" turned into a national symbol of pork-barrel spending. She stood up to the powerful oil industry and with bipartisan support in the statehouse won a tax increase on oil companies' profits. Her approval ratings in Alaska hovered in the 80% range. Still it came as a surprise when in August 2008 Republican presidential candidate John McCain, passing over many other better known prospects, picked her as his running mate. Her strong anti-abortion and pro-gun stance (she is a hunter and life member of the National Rifle Association) pleased the conservatives in the party, but her lack of experience in high-level politics (having served only 20 months as governor at the time of her nomination) tended to neutralize Republicans' possibilities of raising similar concerns about the Democratic candidate Barack Obama (a U.S. senator since January 2005). In the course of the campaign she was increasingly considered unqualified for the presidency and the selection might have contributed to McCain's ultimate defeat. She resigned as governor in July 2009.
Paliudju, Bandjela (b. March 3, 1945, Palu, Netherlands East Indies [now in Sulawesi Tengah, Indonesia]), governor of Sulawesi Tengah (1996-2001, 2006-11).
Pallayev, Gaibnazar Pallayevich (b. May 5, 1929, Osh, Kirgiz A.S.S.R. - d. Sept. 8, 2000), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Tadzhik S.S.R. (1984-90).
Pallu de La Barrière, Léopold Augustin Charles (b. Aug. 19, 1828, Saintes, Charente-Inférieure [now Charente-Maritime], France - d. Feb. 16, 1891, Lorient, Morbihan, France), governor of New Caledonia (1882-84).
Palma Gálvez, Roberto (b. 1917 - d. Aug. 12, 1998), foreign minister of Honduras (1976-79). He was secretary in the military junta that ousted dictator Julio Lozano Díaz in 1956. He orchestrated peace efforts with El Salvador after the Salvadoran army invaded Honduras, provoking a 100-hour war in 1969. He also served as military attaché for the Honduran embassies in Guatemala and Mexico.
Palme, (Sven) Olof (Joachim) (b. Jan. 30, 1927, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Feb. 28, 1986, Stockholm), prime minister of Sweden (1969-76, 1982-86). He joined the National Swedish Union of Students and became politically committed to the left. He strongly opposed the 1948 Communist coup in Czechoslovakia, and in 1949 he married (and later divorced, in accordance with their agreement) a Czech girl to help her emigrate. After joining the Social Democrats, he became Prime Minister Tage Erlander's personal secretary in 1953 and entered the Swedish parliament in 1958. He joined the government in 1963 as minister without portfolio, advancing to the post of minister of communications in 1965 and to the dual post of minister of education and ecclesiastical affairs in 1967. A critic of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, he achieved some notoriety when, in 1968, he marched in protest outside the U.S. embassy in Stockholm. He also condemned the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia that same year. When Erlander retired, Palme succeeded him as party secretary and as prime minister in 1969. His attacks on U.S. war policy in Vietnam and his acceptance of U.S. Army deserters who sought refuge in Sweden led to strained relations between the two countries. In the 1976 election the Social Democrats were defeated after 44 years in power. He served as president of the Nordic Council in 1979-80 and also played an important part in the Socialist International. In 1979 he led his party to a second defeat, but he won in 1982. Although he was criticized for domestic economic policies and for inadequate protests against Soviet submarine intrusion into Swedish waters, he was returned to power in the 1985 election. In 1986 he was gunned down while walking home from a cinema; the murder remains unsolved.
Palmeira, Guilherme Gracindo Soares (b. Dec. 25, 1938, Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil), governor of Alagoas (1979-82). He was also mayor of Maceió (1989-90).
Palmer, Sir Geoffrey (Winston Russell) (b. April 21, 1942, Nelson, South Island, N.Z.), prime minister of New Zealand (1989-90). He declined an invitation to enter politics as a National Party candidate in Nelson in 1972, but was recruited for Labour by Wallace Edward Rowling, the party leader and a Nelson resident, in 1975 and was elected to parliament for Christchurch Central in a by-election in 1979. Appointment as personal assistant to Prime Minister Rowling was the foot of the escalator. With Labour out of power and Rowling defeated for the leadership by David Lange in 1983, Palmer narrowly was chosen deputy leader. In 1984, with Labour back in government, he became deputy prime minister, leader of the House of Representatives, and minister of justice and attorney general. As Lange's deputy, he provided a steady hand. It was needed, whether in fort-holding during Lange's forays to other countries or in providing solid backup for a leader whose forte was the bon mot and the footlights. It was Palmer who warned his colleagues against "speed wobbles" in Labour's frantic policies based on deregulation. After the reelection of Labour in 1987, he dropped the role as leader of the House and took up the portfolio of environment minister. In August 1989 Lange, suffering serious setbacks in party loyalties and public opinion, resigned and nominated Palmer as his successor; party leaders confirmed the choice. On becoming prime minister, Palmer dropped the legal portfolios. In September 1990, he resigned for reasons similar to Lange's a year before. Polls indicated that Labour would be routed in the October elections with him at its helm. He continued to serve as minister for the environment outside the cabinet until the election, then left politics. He was knighted in 1991.
Palmer, Sir Reginald (Oswald) (b. Feb. 15, 1923), governor-general of Grenada (1992-96); knighted 1992.
Palmerston (of Palmerston, County Dublin), Henry John Temple, (3rd) Viscount, (3rd) Baron Temple of Mount Temple (b. Oct. 20, 1784, Broadlands, Hampshire, England - d. Oct. 18, 1865, Brocket Hall, Hertfordshire, England), British prime minister (1855-58, 1859-65).
Palmieri, Stefano (b. Sept. 18, 1964, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2009-10).
Paloheimo, Martti Olavi, byname Olli Paloheimo, original surname (until 1906) Brander (b. May 23, 1894, Helsinki, Finland - d. Nov. 7, 1974, Loppi, Finland), commandant of the Finnish military administration of Karelia (1943-44).
Palomba, Federico (b. Jan. 21, 1937, Cagliari, Sardegna, Italy), president of Sardegna (1994-99).
Palomino Dena, Benito (b. May 1914, Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Mexico - d. Oct. 20?, 2003), governor of Aguascalientes (1953-56).
Pálsson, Thorsteinn (b. Oct. 29, 1947, Selfoss, Iceland), prime minister of Iceland (1987-88). He was editor of the conservative afternoon newspaper Visir in 1975-79 and managing director of the Employers' Federation in 1979-83. He was first elected to the Althing (parliament) in the 1983 general elections. He had barely entered the Althing when the leader of the Independence Party, former prime minister Geir Hallgrímsson, resigned from the leadership and threw the succession open to the party convention. Pálsson won the contest by a wide margin, defeating two other contenders, and became party chairman on Nov. 8, 1983. In 1985 he became finance minister in the government of Steingrímur Hermannsson, and he remained in that capacity until he became prime minister in July 1987. He also served briefly as minister of industry in 1987. At the age of 39 Pálsson was the youngest prime minister in the history of the republic. He headed a coalition government in which the two outgoing coalition partners - the Independence Party and the Progressive Party - were joined by the Social Democratic Party. The new government was formed after protracted negotiations following the April 25 general elections, which had resulted in the worst parliamentary stalemate in the country's post-World War II history. He owed much of the success of his political career to the fact that he was a good orator and had proved to be a patient negotiator, with a reputation for reaching acceptable agreements in difficult circumstances. However, his government resigned in September 1988 after failing to agree on a program to deal with acute economic problems. In 1991 he lost the party leadership to Davíd Oddsson, under whom he became minister of justice and fisheries (1991-99). Later he was ambassador to the United Kingdom (1999-2002) and Denmark (2002-05).
Paluku Kahongya, Julien (b. Dec. 13, 1968), governor of Nord-Kivu (2007- ).
Pámanes Escobedo, Fernando (b. Feb. 19, 1909, Ojocaliente, Zacatecas, Mexico - d. March 10, 2005, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Zacatecas (1974-80). He was also Mexican ambassador to Cuba (1965-67).
Pampuro, José (Juan Bautista) (b. Dec. 28, 1949, Buenos Aires, Argentina), defense minister of Argentina (2003-05). In 2006-11 he was provisional president of the Senate.
Pamuk, Mustafa (b. Feb. 1, 1937, Brda, near Sarajevo, Yugoslavia [now in Bosnia and Herzegovina]), governor of Sarajevo canton (2001-02).
Pan Fu (b. 1883, Jining, Shandong, China - d. Sept. 12, 1936, Beijing, China), finance minister (1926-27) and premier (1927-28) of China.
Panariti, Edmond (Qamil) (b. June 1, 1960, Tiranë, Albania), foreign minister of Albania (2012-13). In 2013 he became minister of agriculture.
Panchen Lama, 10th (Bskal-bzang Tshe-brtan) (b. Feb. 3, 1938, Xunhua, Qinghai province, China - d. Jan. 28, 1989, Zhikatse, Tibet), Panchen Lama from 1943 to 1989. He was recognized as the successor of the 9th Panchen Lama (who died in 1937) by the Chinese government but without having gone through the usual exacting tests that determine rebirth. He was brought to Tibet in 1952 under communist military escort and enthroned as head abbot of Tashilhunpo. The Panchen Lama remained in Tibet in 1959 after the popular revolt and the Dalai Lama's flight into exile, but his refusal to denounce the Dalai Lama as a traitor brought him into disfavour with the Chinese government, which imprisoned him in Beijing in 1964. He was rehabilitated in 1978 and maintained an uneasy alliance with Chinese government officials. As a vice-chairman of the National People's Congress (China's parliament), he was instrumental in helping Beijing deal with militant Tibetans protesting Chinese occupation of their homeland. Though the Panchen Lama denounced the anti-Chinese activities of separatist Tibetan monks, he also criticized the violent way in which Chinese authorities handled riots in Tibet during 1988. A week before his death from a heart attack, the Panchen Lama presided at the dedication of the new Great Stupa at the Tashilhunpo monastery, where the remains of five Panchen Lamas were reburied. Their remains had been dismembered and thrown away by Red Guards during the Cultural Revolution, but local people had recovered them. Government officials indicated that a shrine would be erected to entomb the Panchen Lama's remains.
Panday, Basdeo (b. May 25, 1933, Princes Town, Trinidad), foreign minister (1986-88) and prime minister (1995-2001) of Trinidad and Tobago. In 1988 he was dismissed from the cabinet and expelled from the National Alliance for Reconciliation (NAR), and in 1989 he formed the United National Congress (UNC). In the 1995 elections the UNC and the governing People's National Movement (PNM) won the same number of seats, and he formed a coalition with the NAR. In 2001 the PNM returned to power. He was arrested on corruption charges on May 31, 2005, and remained in jail for eight days, refusing to post bail until persuaded by religious leaders to do so on June 8. "I did it because I thought I had to prove to myself, first of all, that I was capable of enduring any kind of pressure the PNM intends to inflict upon me," he told supporters. On April 24, 2006, he was sentenced to two years in prison for failing to disclose details of a bank account he had held in London in 1997-99. He then resigned as UNC chairman. On March 13, 2007, an appeals court overturned the ruling and ordered a retrial. On April 29 he was reelected party leader. However, in January 2010 he was defeated in a leadership contest by Kamla Persad-Bissessar.
Pande, Bishambhar Nath (b. Dec. 23, 1906, Umreth [now in Madhya Pradesh], India - d. June 1, 1998, New Delhi, India), governor of Orissa (1983-88).
Pande, Kabinga (Jacus) (b. March 5, 1952), foreign minister of Zambia (2007-11).
Pande, Vinod Chandra (b. 1932 - d. Feb. 7, 2005, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India), governor of Bihar (1999-2003), Jharkhand (2002), and Arunachal Pradesh (2003-04). Known for his proximity to Vishwanath Pratap Singh, Pande became cabinet secretary when Singh was prime minister during 1989-90. During his term as Bihar governor, he shot into controversy when he invited the Samata Party leader Nitish Kumar to form a short-lived government in 2000. Pande was charged with acting under the pressure of the BJP-led central government. Controversy also dogged Pande when he was transferred to Arunachal Pradesh, where he was accused of honouring the demand of Chief Minister Gegong Apang by dissolving the Assembly. Later, he sought to backtrack on it.
Pandey, Mahendra (Bahadur) (b. 1948, Nuwakot district, Nepal), foreign minister of Nepal (2014- ).
Pandey, Ramesh Nath (b. February 1944, Kathmandu, Nepal), foreign minister of Nepal (2005-06). After King Gyanendra had to give up his absolute rule, Pandey and other former ministers of the royalist government were arrested on May 12, 2006. He was released on June 4.
Pandit, Vijaya Lakshmi, original name (until marriage in 1921) Swarup Kumari Nehru (b. Aug. 18, 1900, Allahabad, India - d. Dec. 1, 1990, Dehra Dun, India), Indian diplomat; sister of Jawaharlal Nehru. She became active in the Indian freedom movement and was imprisoned three times, the first in 1932. She gained experience in government as a member of the municipal board of Allahabad and in 1937-39 was minister for local self-government and public health of the United Provinces (later Uttar Pradesh) - the first Indian woman to hold a cabinet portfolio. She argued for Indian independence at the UN charter conference in San Francisco (1945), attracting attention away from the official British-sponsored delegation. As leader of the first Indian delegation to the UN (1946), she made an impassioned speech to the General Assembly on the treatment of the Indian population in South Africa that resulted in a two-thirds vote against South Africa. She led a number of succeeding delegations to the UN and was also - after India became independent (1947) - her country's ambassador to the U.S.S.R. (1947-49), the U.S. and Mexico (1949-51), Ireland (1955-61), Spain (1958-61), and high commissioner to the U.K. (1954-61). She was elected president of the UN General Assembly in 1953 (the first female in that position), serving until the following year. During the 1960s she was active in politics in India, being governor of Maharashtra (1962-63, 1963-64) and a member of the Lok Sabha (1964-68). Pandit was close to her brother, but in 1977 she actively opposed the authoritarian policies of his daughter, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, and successfully campaigned against Gandhi's party, Congress (I). Gandhi reportedly never forgave her aunt.
Pandolfi (Arbulú), Alberto (b. Aug. 20, 1940), prime minister of Peru (1996-98, 1998-99). The surprise resignation of Prime Minister Dante Córdova in 1996 gave Pres. Alberto Fujimori the opportunity to give the cabinet a more homogeneous and technocratic look, with less resistance to free-market reforms and privatization. Within 36 hours of Córdova's resignation, half of his cabinet had their formal offers to step down accepted. Those replaced generally shared the concerns of Córdova on the social impact of the economic reform program. The appointment of Alberto Pandolfi to the premiership - and the fisheries ministry - was unexpected but welcomed by businessmen and foreign analysts. Pandolfi had been involved in several privatizations and had presided over the process of selling off the state oil producer, Petroperú. International investor confidence was crucial as Peru was soon to launch an estimated U.S.$1.4 billion offering of state-owned shares in privatized Telefónica del Perú. With disappointing production and inflation indicators for the start of the year, and large trade and current account deficits, the Peruvian government was keen to present an image of unity.
Pandor, (Grace) Naledi (Mandisa), née Matthews (b. Dec. 7, 1953, Durban, South Africa), home affairs minister of South Africa (2012-14). She was chairperson of the National Council of Provinces (1999-2004), minister of education (2004-09), and minister of science and technology (2009-12).
Pandt, Theodore M(axwell), byname Max Pandt (b. Feb. 16, 1939, Sint Eustatius), administrator of Sint Maarten (1975-81).
Paneerselvam, O(ttakaara Thevar), also spelled Panneerselvam (b. Jan. 14, 1951, Periyakulam, Madurai district [now in Theni district], Madras [now Tamil Nadu], India), chief minister of Tamil Nadu (2001-02, 2014- ).
Panetta, Leon (Edward) (b. June 28, 1938, Monterey, Calif.), U.S. defense secretary (2011-13). He was White House chief of staff (1994-97) and CIA director (2009-11).
Pang Bingxun (b. 1879, Xinhe, Hebei, China - d. Jan. 12, 1963, Taichung, Taiwan), chairman of the government of Hebei (1940-43).
Pangalos, Theodoros (Michail) (b. Jan. 11, 1878, Salamis, Greece - d. Feb. 26, 1952, Athens, Greece), prime minister (1925-26) and president (1926) of Greece. After service in World War I, he became chief of staff of the Greek army in Asia Minor in 1919, until he was placed on the retired list in 1920. After the abdication of King Konstantinos in 1922 he was again placed on the active list and was appointed minister of war in December. He headed the military court that condemned to death those supposed to have been responsible for the rout of Greek forces at Afyon, Turkey, in August 1922 and the later massacre of Greeks in Smyrna (now Izmir). In 1923 he served as commander in chief in Thrace but then entered politics. In June 1925 he seized power by a coup. Installed as prime minister, his rule was erratic and irresponsible, and war with Bulgaria was only narrowly averted (October 1925). On Jan. 3, 1926, he assumed dictatorial powers to put an end to the rivalry of political parties. In April he procured his own election as president. He was deposed, however, on August 22, in a coup by his own Republican Guard. During his rule he made unsuccessful attempts to regulate public morality, including the length of women's skirts. He was imprisoned after his ouster, awaiting trial on charges of treason, but those were dismissed in July 1928 and he was released. In April 1930 he was sentenced to two years' imprisonment for irregularities in connection with the building of a gambling casino, but his earlier time in prison was counted against it. He suffered further temporary arrests subsequently, being accused of subversive activities. At the end of World War II he was accused of having collaborated with the Germans and Italians, but the charges could not be substantiated.
Pangalos, Theodoros (Georgiou) (b. Aug. 17, 1938, Elefsis, near Athens, Greece), foreign minister (1996-99) and deputy prime minister (2009-12) of Greece; grandson of Theodoros Pangalos (1878-1952). He was also minister of transport and communications (1994) and culture (2000).
Pangelinan, Del S. (b. June 3, 1937, Ponape [now Pohnpei], Micronesia [now in Federated States of Micronesia]), governor of Pohnpei (1996-2000).
Panhuys, Jan Ernst (from May 12, 1874, baron) van (b. July 12, 1808, Groningen, Holland - d. Oct. 25, 1878, The Hague, Netherlands), governor (1848-50) and king's commissioner (1850-78) of Friesland.
Pani (Arteaga y Terán), Alberto J(osé) (b. June 12, 1878, Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Mexico - d. Aug. 25, 1955, Mexico City, Mexico), foreign minister (1921-23) and finance minister (1923-27, 1932-33) of Mexico. He was also minister of industry, commerce, and labour (1917-19), minister to France (1919-20, 1927-31), and ambassador to Spain and minister to Portugal (1931-32).
Paniagua (Corazao), Valentín (Demetrio) (b. Sept. 23, 1936, Cusco, Peru - d. Oct. 16, 2006, Lima, Peru), president of Peru (2000-01). He was also minister of justice (1965-66) and education (1984), president of the Chamber of Deputies (1982-83), and president of Congress (2000-01).
Panic, Milan (b. Dec. 20, 1929, Belgrade, Yugoslavia), prime minister of Yugoslavia (1992-93). As an adolescent he joined the Yugoslav anti-Nazi resistance during World War II and served as a messenger for the communist partisans. In 1955 he defected to the West, arriving in the U.S. the following year, where he later founded the International Chemical & Nuclear (ICN) pharmaceuticals company. On July 2, 1992, after receiving permission from the U.S. government to travel to Yugoslavia, he left on what he called a "peace mission" to end the bloodshed in the Balkans. Chosen prime minister by Serb leaders wanting to establish better relations with the U.S., Panic was sworn in July 14 and immediately criticized Serb-backed attacks on Bosnia and Herzegovina. "We respect the fact that Bosnia-Herzegovina is an independent state. The most important thing for all Serbs is to stop shooting." He also said that "ethnic cleansing is the disgrace of our nation. People are thinking that we are barbarians. I am determined to bring order to Belgrade, Serbia, and Yugoslavia." Panic began to draw praise from critics who earlier had viewed him as a puppet of Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic. He formed a cabinet consisting of both pro- and anti-Milosevic elements and removed Serb extremists from positions of power in the Yugoslav government. "We are removing the causes of cancer," he said. A citizens' group nominated the American millionaire to run for president of Serbia. Although an electoral commission barred Panic from challenging Milosevic, the Serbian Supreme Court overturned that decision. On December 20 Milosevic won a decisive reelection victory, and nine days later Panic lost a unanimous parliamentary vote of no confidence. In 1993 he returned to California to run ICN.
Panigrahi, Chintamani (b. March 22, 1922, Biswanathpur, Orissa, India - d. April 29, 2000, Bhubaneswar, Orissa), Indian politician. He began his political career in the Communist Party of India after being inspired by his cousin and noted revolutionary Bhagabati Charan Panigrahi. Later, he joined the Congress. He was elected to the Lok Sabha five times and held portfolios of home and defense production in the Rajiv Gandhi ministry. He was also elected to the Manipur state assembly. He was governor of Manipur in 1989-93. He was the president of the All India Freedom Fighters' Association till his death.
Panin, Viktor (Nikitich), Graf (Count) (b. March 28, 1801, Moscow, Russia - d. April 24, 1874, Nice, France), justice minister of Russia (1839-62 [acting to 1841]). He was also chargé d'affaires in Greece (1829-31).
Panjikidze, Maia (Guramovna) (b. Oct. 16, 1960), foreign minister of Georgia (2012-14). She was ambassador to Germany (2002-04, 2004-07) and the Netherlands (2007-10).
Pankin, Boris (Dmitriyevich) (b. Feb. 20, 1931, Frunze, Kirgiz A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. [now Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan]), foreign minister of the Soviet Union (1991). He was also Soviet/Russian ambassador to Sweden (1982-90), Czechoslovakia (1990-91), and the United Kingdom (1991-94).
Panon du Hazier, Charles Henri Jules (b. Feb. 7, 1827, Pondicherry, French India - d. April 23, 1897, Paris), commandant-particular of Gabon (1873-75) and commandant of the Naval Division of the Western Coasts of Africa (1874-75).
Panou, (Pierre) Koffi (b. 1947 - d. March 15, 2003, Kara, northern Togo), foreign minister of Togo (1996-98, 2000-02). He was also minister of communication and civic education (1998-2000).
Pant, (Pandit) Govind Ballabh (b. Sept. 10, 1887, Khoot village, Almora district, North-Western Provinces [now in Uttarakhand], India - d. March 7, 1961), chief minister of the United Provinces/Uttar Pradesh (1946-54).
Pantelides, Mike, byname of Michael John Pantelides (b. Sept. 5, 1983), mayor of Annapolis (2013- ).
Panting Wilson, Leonel (b. July 25, 1950), governor of the North Atlantic Autonomous Region, Nicaragua (1990-92).
Papadimos, Loukas (D.), also spelled Lucas Papademos (b. Oct. 11, 1947, Athens, Greece), prime minister of Greece (2011-12). He was governor of the Bank of Greece in 1994-2002, overseeing his country's move from the drachma to the euro. In 2002-10 he was vice-president of the European Central Bank.
Papadopoulos, Georgios (Christou) (b. May 5, 1919, Eleochorion village, northern Peloponnese, Greece - d. June 27, 1999, Athens, Greece), prime minister (1967-73), foreign minister (1970-73), and regent (1972-73) of Greece. He fought in the front line after Italy attacked Greece in 1940 during World War II. In the 1960s he joined a secret group of right-wing junior officers determined to enlarge the military's political power, and the military managed to thwart much of the reformist policies of the ruling Centre Union party. It was fear of another Centre Union victory in the May 1967 elections that led the junta ("the colonels") to stage its bloodless coup on April 21, 1967. He appointed himself prime minister and imposed restrictions on press freedom and personal liberty. His regime was notorious for attempting to control university education and rewrite textbooks; its drastic conservatism led to bans on miniskirts for women and long hair for men and on the writings of Aristophanes, William Shakespeare, and others. The regime was widely condemned by other Western countries, though it was supported by the U.S. government for its anticommunist stance. When royalist navy officers purportedly plotted a coup in May 1973, he formally abolished the monarchy on June 1, and named himself president of a new republic for an eight-year term. His downfall came when he called in troops in November 1973 to crush a student uprising at the Athens Polytechnic school. At least 50 people were killed and more than 1,000 injured. The chief of the military police, Gen. Dimitrios Ioannides, took power and the army put Papadopoulos under house arrest on November 25. When the junta collapsed in July 1974. Papadopoulos was tried under the new civilian administration and in January 1975 was sentenced to death for high treason, later commuted to life in jail.
Papadopoulos, Tassos, byname of Efstathios Nikolaou Papadopoulos (b. Jan. 7, 1934, Nicosia, Cyprus - d. Dec. 12, 2008, Nicosia), president of Cyprus (2003-08). A member of the EOKA resistance group during the last years of British rule, he took part in the negotiations leading to independence in 1960. In 1959, he became minister of the interior - the youngest member of the cabinet - and he subsequently became minister of labour and social insurance (1960-70), agriculture and natural resources (1964-67), and health (1967-70). For years he was a political ally of Glafkos Kliridis, and he succeeded him as Greek Cypriot negotiator in the intercommunal talks (1976-78). In 2000 he took over the leadership of the centre-right Democratic Party (DIKO). In the 2003 elections, he convincingly defeated Kliridis, president for the preceding 10 years. Although his EOKA credentials tended to identify him with the right, he was elected with Communist and Social Democrat support. He said Kliridis, whose administration he characterized as being "in tatters," had given too much away in the UN-sponsored unification talks and had allowed domestic issues to drift while he concentrated on unifying the Greek and Turkish sectors and gaining European Union membership. As president Papadopoulos had to overcome a perception of being anti-Turkish, and allegations that his law firm had assisted Serbia in circumventing the UN embargo in the 1990s. Turkish Cypriot Pres. Rauf Denktas, who had enjoyed a productive personal relationship with Kliridis despite their differences, remarked that he could not do business with the new Greek Cypriot president. His tearful appeal on television for the Greek Cypriots to reject a UN peace plan in a 2004 referendum won him few friends abroad but reinforced his image of a hardline advocate of his community's majority status and rights. Just a week after the referendum, he took a split Cyprus into the European Union. He lost a reelection bid in 2008.
Papagos, Alexandros (Leonidou) (b. Dec. 9, 1883, Athens, Greece - d. Oct. 4, 1955, Athens), prime minister of Greece (1952-55). Commissioned in 1906, he served in the Balkan Wars of 1912-13 and in the Anatolian campaign of 1919-22. He was promoted to the rank of major general in 1927 and became a corps commander in 1935. In the latter year he was appointed minister of war and played a leading part in the restoration of the monarchy. In 1936 he was named chief of staff, a post he held until 1940 when he became commander-in-chief. By the time of the Italian attack on Greece (Oct. 28, 1940), he had silently built up an armed force of 500,000 men of the highest order and morale. He succeeded in stemming the attack and driving the Italians back into Albania. He was unable to hold the line against the German onslaught of April 1941, however, and in 1943 was taken to Germany as a hostage. Liberated in March 1945, he was in 1947 promoted to the rank of general on the retired list. Recalled to active service as commander-in-chief from Jan. 28, 1949, he was responsible for the final victory over communist guerrillas in the Grammos-Vitsi campaign. He was appointed field marshal on Oct. 28, 1949. In May 1951 he resigned as commander-in-chief and subsequently formed a new political party, the Greek Rally (Ellinikos Synagermos), which soon became the strongest political force in the country. Enjoying wide popularity and modeling himself after Charles de Gaulle, Papagos led his party to a decisive victory (241 of 300 seats) in the elections of Nov. 16, 1952. He became prime minister and provided Greece with the first stable government that it had known since World War II. He died in office.
Papakonstantinou, Michalis (b. Nov. 1, 1919, Kozani, Greece - d. Jan. 17, 2010), foreign minister of Greece (1992-93). He was also agriculture minister (1990-91) and justice minister (1991-92).
Papaligouras, Panagiotis (b. 1917, Kerkyra, Corfu, Greece - d. 1993), foreign minister of Greece (1977-78). He was also minister of commerce (1953-54, 1956-58), agriculture (1953-54), coordination (1954-55, 1961-63, 1974-77), industry (1956-58), and defense (1967).
Papandreou, Andreas (Georgiou) (b. Feb. 5, 1919, Chios, Greece - d. June 23, 1996, Ekali, near Athens, Greece), prime minister of Greece (1981-89, 1993-96); son of Georgios Papandreou. He was imprisoned briefly (1939) by the dictator Ioannis Metaxas and, when freed (1940), fled to the United States, obtaining U.S. citizenship in 1944. After his father became prime minister in 1963, Andreas gave up his U.S. citizenship in 1964 and won election to parliament. He was associated with the left wing of his father's party, the Centre Union, and held posts (including minister of the presidency of the government in 1964) in his father's government, which fell in 1965. When it became clear that the Papandreous were headed for power in elections scheduled for May 1967, a military junta seized power one month before the elections. He was jailed for eight months, then went into exile again, leading the democratic resistance from Sweden and Canada. When the dictatorship collapsed in 1974, he returned home and formed the Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK). In the 1974 elections his party won just over 13% of the vote, in 1977 its share of votes increased to 25%, and in 1981 it almost redoubled to 48%, capturing 172 of 300 seats in parliament. Although he had called for the removal of U.S. military bases from Greece and Greece's withdrawal from NATO, he pursued more moderate policies once in power. He also was minister of Northern Greece (1981-85) and defense (1981-86). His party won a decisive victory in the 1985 elections, but in 1989 PASOK lost its majority. Parliament indicted him, ordering him and four PASOK ministers to stand trial on charges including bribery and embezzlement stemming from a financial scandal. In 1992 he was acquitted, and he continued as the leader of PASOK, which won a landslide victory in the 1993 elections. He again became prime minister until ill health forced him to retire in January 1996.
Papandreou, Georgios (Andrea), original surname Stavropoulos1 (b. Feb. 13, 1888, Kalentzi, Greece - d. Nov. 1, 1968, Athens, Greece), prime minister of Greece (1944-45, 1963, 1964-65). He became prefect of Lesbos in 1915, then served as governor of the Aegean Islands in 1917-20, and in 1923 was elected to parliament and first held ministerial office; he was minister of interior (1923, 1947, 1950), economy (1925, 1947), education (1930-32, 1951, 1963, 1964-65), communication (1933), finance (1944), justice (1944), foreign affairs (1944-45), military (1944-45), aviation (1944, 1944), public order (1950), and coordination (1950-51, 1964). A disciple of Eleftherios Venizelos, he was a successful minister of education (1930-32) in Venizelos's liberal anti-monarchist government. He broke away from the left wing of the Liberal Party and in 1935 founded the Democratic Party, later renamed Democratic Socialist Party. He was in internal exile in 1936-40 during the dictatorship of Ioannis Metaxas, and after the German occupation was imprisoned from 1942 until he escaped in 1944. He then headed a government-in-exile from April 1944, which returned to Greece in October, but he resigned in December as the country slipped into civil war. During a period in opposition, he merged his party with the Liberal Party in 1953 and after a series of political shifts organized the Centre Union in 1961. In 1963 he led the Centre Union to a plurality victory, and he became prime minister, but he resigned soon to seek an absolute majority, which he obtained in new elections in 1964. He introduced a program of far-reaching social reforms, criticized United States influence in Greece, and moved on a collision course with the monarchy. In 1965 King Konstantinos II dismissed him, and a period of political instability ensued. In April 1967, when it became clear that his party was again headed for victory in upcoming elections, a military junta seized power. He was placed under house arrest until Oct. 8, 1967, and again from April 15 to Sept. 23, 1968.
1 The family name became Papandreou because Georgios was the son of Priest Andreas (Stavropoulos).
Papandreou, Georgios (Andrea), byname Giorgos Papandreou, also called in English George A. Papandreou (b. June 16, 1952, St. Paul, Minn.), foreign minister (1999-2004, 2009-10) and prime minister (2009-11) of Greece; son of Andreas Papandreou. Born in the U.S. and educated in Sweden, England, and Canada, he was more comfortable speaking English than Greek. A member of parliament for Achaia (Patras) from 1981 to 1996, then for the first district of Athens (1996-2004) and for the first district of Thessaloniki (2004- ), he was elected to the Central Committee of the Panhellenic Socialist Party (PASOK) in 1984 and to the Political Bureau in July 1996. He was undersecretary for cultural affairs (1985-87) in charge of Greeks of the Diaspora, adult education, and youth affairs; minister of education and religious affairs (1988-89, 1994-96); deputy minister of foreign affairs (1993-94) responsible for U.S.-Greek relations; alternate minister of foreign affairs (October 1996-February 1999); and then minister of foreign affairs, in which post he worked hard to repair relations with Greece's archrival and NATO partner Turkey. On Feb. 8, 2004, he was elected leader of the PASOK, but despite his strong personal popularity the party, which had held power for 19 of the previous 23 years, was defeated in the March 7 elections. In 2006 he became president of the Socialist International. Again unsuccessful in the 2007 elections, he finally led PASOK to victory in 2009 on a promise to combat a slumping economy with higher wages and spending. However, he was forced to do the opposite after announcing that Greece's debts were higher than thought. To stave off bankruptcy, he imposed severe spending cuts, leading to violent street protests and the crumbling of PASOK's popularity. In 2011 he agreed to resign in order to bring the opposition into a unity government to implement an EU-led bailout plan before leading the country to elections. In January 2015, shortly before parliamentary elections, he founded a new party, Movement of Democratic Socialists, which with only 2.5% of the vote failed to win any seats.
Papegoja, Johan (d. March 23, 1667, Ramstorp manor, Ångarp parish, Skaraborg county, Sweden), governor of New Sweden (1653-54); son-in-law of Johan Björnsson Printz.
Papen, Franz (Joseph Hermann Michael Maria) von, Erbsälzer zu Werl und Neuwerk (b. Oct. 29, 1879, Werl, Germany - d. May 2, 1969, Obersasbach, West Germany), chancellor of Germany (1932). He decided to enter politics after World War I. In 1921-32 he was a deputy in the Prussian Landtag and belonged to the extreme right wing of the (Catholic) Centre Party. He remained without a following, and it was to the surprise of the public that Pres. Paul von Hindenburg appointed him chancellor on June 1, 1932. The appointment was engineered by Hindenburg's adviser Gen. Kurt von Schleicher. But Papen's reactionary policies alienated Schleicher, who in November refused to participate in them any longer and induced a number of other cabinet ministers to reject them likewise; in December Papen resigned and was succeeded by Schleicher. Papen, in resentment, outwitted Schleicher. He came to terms with Adolf Hitler (Jan. 4, 1933) and persuaded Hindenburg to appoint the Nazi leader to the chancellorship. Papen, who became vice chancellor and whose fellow non-Nazi nationalists received a majority of the ministerial posts, naively thought he could restrain the Nazis from any excesses. He soon realized how mistaken he had been, narrowly escaping with his life during Hitler's purge of the SA on June 30, 1934. He nevertheless continued to put himself at Hitler's disposition; resigning the vice chancellorship, he was sent as ambassador to Austria (1934-38) and Turkey (1939-44). Arrested by the Allies in April 1945, he was placed on trial as a war criminal, but was found not guilty of conspiracy to prepare aggressive war by the Nürnberg tribunal in 1946. However, in 1947 he was sentenced to eight years' imprisonment by a German denazification court. On his appeal, he was released and fined in 1949.
Papinaud, (Pierre Louis) Clovis (b. March 10, 1844, Cuxac d'Aude, Aude, France - d. July 8, 1900, Suez, Egypt), governor of Mayotte (1888-93, 1899-1900) and of the French Settlements in Oceania (1893-96).
Papineau, Denis Benjamin (b. Nov. 13, 1789, Montreal, Quebec - d. Jan. 20, 1854, Sainte-Angélique, Canada East [now Quebec]), joint premier of Canada (1846-48); brother of Louis Joseph Papineau.
Papineau, Louis Joseph (b. Oct. 7, 1786, Montreal, Quebec - d. Sept. 23, 1871, Montebello, Quebec, Canada), Canadian politician. He was first elected to the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada (now Quebec) in 1809 and became its speaker in 1815, a position he occupied almost continuously until 1837. He was a leader of the French-Canadian people in their struggle against the English-dominated government of Lower Canada. After going to England in 1822 to speak out in behalf of the French-Canadians, he remained bitterly opposed to British government in Canada. In 1827 the governor, Lord Dalhousie, adjourned parliament and resigned rather than confirm Papineau's speakership. Papineau inspired the 92 Resolutions, a statement of French-Canadian grievances and demands, passed by the assembly in 1834. In March 1837 Governor Lord Gosford was authorized to reject the demands and to appropriate provincial revenues without the assembly's consent. In the movement of protest that followed, Papineau made inflammatory speeches. When he attended a meeting in which an armed rebellion was decided upon, a warrant was issued for his arrest for treason. When hostilities commenced in November, he fled to the United States. He went to Paris in 1839; after a general amnesty was granted, he returned to Canada in 1845. During his absence, Upper and Lower Canada had been united in 1841. He entered the parliament of the united Province of Canada in 1848, but never regained his former dominance, having been displaced by Louis Hippolyte Lafontaine as leader of the French-Canadian majority. He inspired the group of young French-Canadians who formed the Rouge party, a forerunner of the Liberal Party in Quebec. He retired to private life in 1854.
Papon, Maurice (Arthur Jean) (b. Sept. 3, 1910, Gretz-Armainvilliers, Seine-et-Marne, France - d. Feb. 17, 2007, Paris, France), prefect of police of Paris (1958-67). He was also French budget minister (1978-81). In 1998 he was convicted of "crimes against humanity" relating to his arrests and deportations of Jews in 1942-44 when he was a local official in Gironde serving the Vichy government. He was sentenced to 10 years in prison but was released in 2002 because of ill health.
Papoulias, Karolos (Grigoriou) (b. June 4, 1929, Ioannina, Greece), foreign minister (1985-89, 1993-96) and president (2005- ) of Greece. A close associate of Andreas Papandreou, the founder of the PASOK party, he joined the PASOK central committee and entered politics on returning to Greece from Germany after the fall of the dictatorship in 1974. First elected to parliament in 1977, he was reelected until he decided not to run in 2000. His first government post was with the newly-elected PASOK government of 1981, when he was appointed deputy foreign minister, becoming alternate foreign minister in 1984 and foreign minister in 1985. He played a leading role in Greece's controversial decision to establish formal ties with Palestine Liberation Organization leader Yasir Arafat and maverick Libyan leader Muammar al-Qaddafi. He left office when PASOK lost the elections in 1989 but was reappointed when PASOK was reelected in 1993. In between he served as deputy defense minister under a 1989-90 coalition government. In 2005 he was elected president with an unprecedented 279 votes in the 300-seat unicameral parliament - winning support from his own party and from the governing conservatives who nominated him as the candidate most likely to generate the "strongest possible consensus."
Paprikov, Stefan (Georgiev) (b. April 12, 1858, Pirdop, Ottoman Empire [now in Bulgaria] - d. May 30, 1920, Sofia, Bulgaria), foreign minister of Bulgaria (1908-10). He was also minister of war (1899-1903) and minister to Russia (1910-12).
Parant, André (Marie Jules) (b. March 7, 1897, Belfort, France - d. March 15, 1941, Yaoundé, Cameroon), governor-delegate of Gabon (1940-41). He was injured in a plane crash at Bitam on Feb. 7, 1941, and subsequently died in a Yaoundé hospital.
Parant, Philippe (Gaston Maurice) (b. April 8, 1932, Besançon, Doubs, France), prefect of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1982-83); son of André Parant. He was also prefect of the départements of Yonne (1986-88), Morbihan (1988-92), and Seine-Saint-Denis (1992-93).
Paranuk, Kazbek (Ismailovich) (b. 1948), acting prime minister of Adygeya (2006-07).
Paravac, Borislav (b. Feb. 18, 1943, Kostajnica, Doboj county, Croatia [now in Bosnia and Herzegovina]), chairman of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2003, 2004-05).
Pardede, Rudolf (Matzuoka) (b. April 4, 1942, Balige, Netherlands East Indies [now in Sumatera Utara, Indonesia]), governor of Sumatera Utara (2005-08).
Pardo García-Peña, Rodrigo (b. Nov. 15, 1958), foreign minister of Colombia (1994-96).
Pardo y Barreda, José (Simón) (b. Feb. 24, 1864, Lima, Peru - d. Aug. 3, 1947, Lima), prime minister and foreign minister (1903-04) and president (1904-08, 1915-19) of Peru.
Paredes (del Río), Rubén Darío (b. Aug. 11, 1933, Panama City, Panama), commander of the National Guard of Panama (1982-83).
Paredes Peña, Diego, foreign minister of Ecuador (1992-94). He was also ambassador to Belgium (1987-89) and Guatemala (1989-91).
Paredes Rangel, Beatriz (Elena) (b. Aug. 18, 1953, Tizatlán, Tlaxcala, Mexico), governor of Tlaxcala (1987-92). She was also Mexican ambassador to Cuba (1993-94), president of the Chamber of Deputies (2001-03), and president of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (2007-11).
Pareja Diezcanseco, Alfredo (b. Oct. 12, 1908, Guayaquil, Ecuador - d. May 3, 1993, Quito, Ecuador), foreign minister of Ecuador (1979-80). He was also ambassador to France (1983-84).
Parfitt, Harold R(obert) (b. Aug. 6, 1921, Coaldale, Pa. - d. May 21, 2006, Dallas, Texas), governor of the Panama Canal Zone (1975-79). He was commissioned second lieutenant of the U.S. Army in 1943 and advanced through the ranks to major general in 1971. He served as commanding general, United States Army Engineer Center/Commandant, United States Engineer School at Fort Belvoir, Va., from late 1973 to March 1975. He was deputy, and later district engineer of the Engineer Division, South Atlantic, in Jacksonville, Fla., from August 1962 to May 1965. In June 1965, he became lieutenant governor of the Canal Zone and vice president of the Panama Canal Company, serving until September 1968. From December 1969 to August 1973, he was division engineer, U.S. Army Engineer Division, Southwest, Dallas, Texas. Parfitt was commanding officer of the 20th Engineer Brigade in Vietnam from November 1968 to November 1969. He was appointed as governor of the Panama Canal Zone on April 1, 1975, and served in that position until Sept. 30, 1979, when the zone was returned to Panama. Under his administration, General Parfitt was more aware of the realities and sensitivities arising from operation of the Panama Canal in Panamanian territory than most other canal administrators. Much support was given to the learner-apprenticeship programs as vital phase of the company/government agencies; he recommended the termination of separate schools for Latin American students, and changed the housing regulations to consolidate housing formerly assigned separately to U.S. citizens and non-U.S. citizens. Under his government, also, the canal had its second increase of toll rates in 1976, and the United States and Panama signed the new Panama Canal treaty on Sept. 7, 1977.
Parhon, Constantin I(on) (b. Oct. 28, 1874, Campulung-Muscel, Romania - d. Aug. 9, 1969), head of state of Romania (1948-52).
Parikh, Dilip (Ramanlal) (b. Feb. 14, 1937, Bombay [now Mumbai], India), chief minister of Gujarat (1997-98).
Paris, Jacques Camille (b. Nov. 22, 1902 - d. Sept. 17, 1953), secretary-general of the Council of Europe (1949-53).
París Gordillo, Gabriel (b. March 8, 1910, Ibagué, Colombia - d. March 21, 2008, Girardot, Cundinamarca department, Colombia), chairman of the Military Junta of Government of Colombia (1957-58). He was also minister of justice (1954) and war (1954-57).
Pariset, André Aimé (b. March 21, 1795, Paris - d. Jan. 25, 1872), governor of French Guiana (1846-50).
Parisot, Georges (Hubert) (b. Oct. 9, 1887, Algiers, Algeria - d. July 21, 1969), governor-delegate of Gabon (1937-38) and governor of Martinique (1945-46) and New Caledonia (1947-48).
Parizeau, Jacques (b. Aug. 9, 1930, Montreal, Quebec), premier of Quebec (1994-96). He served as an economic and financial consultant to the Council of Ministers of Quebec (1961-67) and to the premier of Quebec (1967-69). He became a member of the executive council of the Parti Québécois (PQ) and was president of the Leadership Office from 1970 to 1971. He was also president of the Standing Committee on Economic Development. As a candidate he ran unsuccessfully in the general elections of 1970 and 1973. In 1976 he was elected to the Quebec National Assembly, and he held this seat until he resigned in 1984. His knowledge of economics and finance proved invaluable to the PQ government of René Lévesque. Parizeau was appointed minister of finance in 1976 and held this post until 1984. He was also minister of revenue (1976) and minister of financial and cooperative institutions (1981). From 1976 to 1981 he served as president of the Treasury Board. On March 19, 1988, he became leader and president of the PQ. Taking time to rebuild his debt-ridden party, which had become disorganized and divided, he did not seek a seat in the Quebec National Assembly until the general election of September 1989. At that time he won in his former riding of L'Assomption, and on Sept. 25, 1989, he became leader of the opposition. Long an advocate of Quebec separation, he declared that a vote for the PQ was a vote for Quebec independence. In 1990 he was appointed to serve on the Committee on the Political and Constitutional Future of Quebec, a nonpartisan commission formed to draft a new constitution. In 1994 the PQ returned to power. He held a referendum on sovereignty for Quebec (Oct. 30, 1995) which lost by a small margin, whereupon he announced his resignation from public life.
Park Chung Hee (Pak Chong Hui; Revised Romanization Bak Jeong-hui) (b. Sept. 30 or Nov. 14, 1917, Sonsan, North Kyongsang province, Korea [now in South Korea] - d. Oct. 26, 1979, Seoul, South Korea), president of South Korea (1963-79). He served as a second lieutenant in the Japanese army during World War II and, after Korea was freed from Japanese rule after the war, he was commissioned (1947) a captain in the Korean army. In 1948 he was sentenced to death for taking part in a Communist revolt led by Korean officers, but he was later pardoned and returned to full rank. He was made a brigadier general in 1953, during the Korean War. On May 16, 1961, he led a bloodless coup that overthrew the short-lived Second Republic. He soon became a full general. He assumed power as leader of a junta, became acting president in 1962, and, after resigning from active military service, won his first term as president of the Third Republic in 1963, being reelected in 1967 and 1971. He adopted a policy of guided democracy, with restrictions on personal freedoms, suppression of the press and opposition parties, and control over the judicial system and the universities, and he organized the dreaded Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA), justifying all his measures as necessary to fight communism. During his rule South Korea experienced rapid economic development. In foreign affairs he maintained close relations with the United States. On Oct. 17, 1972, he declared martial law, and in November a new constitution was approved that gave him sweeping powers and vested presidential balloting in an electoral college, which confirmed him in December 1972 and again in 1978. An assassination attempt in 1974 killed his wife. In 1979 he was shot and killed by Kim Jae Kyu, the head of the KCIA, during a dinner party.
Park Chung Hee
Park Chung Soo (b. Feb. 9, 1932, Kimchon, North Kyongsang province, Korea [now in South Korea] - d. March 23, 2003), foreign minister of South Korea (1998).
Park Chung Soo
Park Geun Hye
Park Geun Hye, Revised Romanization Bak Geun-hye (b. Feb. 2, 1952, Daegu, South Korea), president of South Korea (2013- ); daughter of Park Chung Hee.
Park Tae Joon (b. Sept. 29, 1927, South Kyongsang province, Korea [now in South Korea] - d. Dec. 13, 2011, Seoul, South Korea), prime minister of South Korea (2000). In 1968 he founded the Pohang Iron and Steel Co. (POSCO), which became the world's second-largest steelmaker in terms of capacity and first in output; he managed the company until 1993. He was first elected to the National Assembly in 1981 and came to the forefront of politics in 1990 when he was named head of the Democratic Justice Party. He fled to Japan in 1993 after the incoming administration of Pres. Kim Young Sam accused him of tax evasion and bribe-taking. From late 1997 he served as president of the United Liberal Democrats (ULD), which forged an alliance with Kim Dae Jung to help him win the presidential election. South Korea's National Assembly confirmed Park as prime minister in January 2000. He replaced Kim Jong Pil, who had served as prime minister since Kim Dae Jung assumed the presidency in February 1998. Kim Jong Pil returned to the ULD that he founded to lead it during the upcoming parliamentary election campaign. In May 2000 Park resigned after he was implicated in a tax evasion case.
Park Tae Joon
Parkanová, Vlasta (b. Nov. 21, 1951, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), justice minister (1997-98), defense minister (2007-09), and a deputy prime minister (2009) of the Czech Republic.
Parke, Daniel (b. 1669, Williamsburg, Virginia [now in U.S.] - d. Dec. 7, 1710, Antigua), governor of the Leeward Islands (1706-10). He was killed in an uprising of the inhabitants.
Parker, Annise (Danette) (b. May 17, 1956, Houston, Texas), mayor of Houston (2010- ). Her accession made Houston the largest U.S. city with an openly gay mayor.
Parker, David S(tuart) (b. March 22, 1919, Ft. Huachuca, Ariz. - d. May 9, 1990, Greenbrae, Calif.), governor of the Panama Canal Zone (1971-75). He was commissioned second lieutenant of the U.S. Army in 1940, and advanced through the ranks to major general in 1967. He was assigned member of the administrative staffs of Adm. Chester Nimitz and Gen. Douglas MacArthur in 1945 and was chief of Construction Division, Office of the Chief Engineer, in Tokyo, Japan, from 1945 to 1948. He was instructor and then professor of military topography and graphics in the U.S. Military Academy at West Point from 1949 to 1952, assistant district engineer USACE in Portland, Ore., from 1954 to 1956, and chief of Strategic Planning Group, Office of the Chief Engineer, from 1957 to 1960. He was lieutenant governor of the Panama Canal Zone in 1963-65; in 1968-69, he was commander of the Engineer Troops in Vietnam. As governor of the Canal Zone, Parker was directly involved in the frequent changes and improvements. One was the guidance and leadership necessary to develop the basis and presentations for the first tolls increase in canal history. Still another change was a new Marine Traffic Control Center begun at La Boca and officially unveiled on the 60th anniversary of the canal opening. Under his tenure, the Office of Equal Opportunity and Federal Women's Program were established. Among his innovations in the personnel and organization field were the assignment of a Foreign Service Officer to the canal administration, the assignment of a Coast Guard officer to the Marine Bureau, the creation of a new Security Division, the creation of an advisory council on education, and major efforts to utilize the Canal Zone Civic Council for substantive input in the decision-making process.
Parker, James Roland Walter (b. Dec. 20, 1919 - d. Nov. 17, 2009, Somerset, England), governor of the Falkland Islands (1977-80).
Parks, George A(lexander) (b. May 29, 1883, Denver, Colo. - d. May 11, 1984, Juneau, Alaska), governor of Alaska (1925-33).
Parmanand, Babu (b. Aug. 10, 1932, Sarore village, Jammu district [now in Samba district], Jammu and Kashmir - d. April 23, 2008, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir), governor of Haryana (2000-04).
Parolin, Pietro Cardinal (b. Jan. 17, 1955, Schiavon, Veneto, Italy), Vatican secretary of state (2013- ). He was made a cardinal in 2014.
Paroubek, Jirí (b. Aug. 21, 1952, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), prime minister of the Czech Republic (2005-06). Previously he was minister of regional development (2004-05).
Parr, Thomas (d. [killed] 1807), resident of Malacca (1795-96) and Bencoolen (1805-07).
Parra Gil, Antonio (b. 1933, Guayaquil, Ecuador), foreign minister of Ecuador (2005); son of Antonio Parra Velasco. He was a vocal champion of autonomy from the United States; since taking office in April 2005, he opposed granting immunity to U.S. soldiers in Ecuador, as well as any involvement of his country in the Plan Colombia, which includes spraying of a U.S. herbicide to destroy coca plants along the Colombian border. In October he was replaced and appointed ambassador to Spain. It was rumoured that Pres. Alfredo Palacio was pressured to get rid of Parra by Washington.
Parra Pérez, Caracciolo (b. March 19, 1888, Mérida, Venezuela - d. Sept. 19, 1964, Paris, France), foreign minister of Venezuela (1941-45). He was also chargé d'affaires in Switzerland (1919-26) and minister to Italy (1927-36), the United Kingdom (1936-37), Switzerland (1937-41), and Spain (1939-41).
Parra Velasco, Antonio (b. Dec. 17, 1900, Guayaquil, Ecuador - d. Oct. 28, 1994, Guayaquil), foreign minister of Ecuador (1947-48). He was also ambassador to France (1945-47), Venezuela (1949-53, 1967-68), and the United Kingdom (1969-73).
Parreau, Eusèbe Irénée (b. Aug. 4, 1842, Saint-Dyé-sur-Loire, Loir-et-Cher, France - d. ...), resident-superior of Tonkin (1888-89).
Parrikar, Manohar (b. Dec. 13, 1955, Mapusa, Goa, Portuguese India [now in India]), chief minister of Goa (2000-05, 2012-14) and defense minister of India (2014- ).
Parris, Weston (b. 1927? - d. [found dead at sea in suspicious circumstances] June 5, 1992, Nevis), deputy governor-general for Nevis (1983-92).
Parry, Joseph (Walcott) (b. Cotton Ground, Nevis), premier of Nevis (2006-13).
Parsekar, Laxmikant (Yashwant) (b. July 4, 1956, Harmal, Goa, Portuguese India [now in India]), chief minister of Goa (2014- ).
Parsons, Sir Anthony (Derrick) (b. Sept. 9, 1922 - d. Aug. 12, 1996), British political agent in Bahrain (1965-69); knighted 1975. He was also British ambassador to Iran (1974-79).
Parsons, Sidney (b. April 11, 1893, Revelstoke, Devon, England - d. April 22, 1955), mayor of Edmonton (1950-51).
Partasova, Natalya (Yuryevna) (b. Dec. 4, 1957, Cheboksary, Chuvash A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Chuvashia (2001-04).
Parts, Juhan (b. Aug. 27, 1966, Tallinn, Estonian S.S.R.), prime minister of Estonia (2003-05). In 2007 he became minister of economic affairs and communications.
Pascal, Pierre (Hubert Auguste), acting governor of Dahomey (1899-1900) and governor of Mayotte (1900-02) and French Somaliland (1904-15).
Pascal-Trouillot, Ertha, née Pascal (b. Aug. 13, 1943, Pétionville, Haiti), provisional president of Haiti (1990-91).
Pasic, Hilmo (b. July 19, 1934, Visoko, Yugoslavia [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina] - d. March 24, 2004, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), justice minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1996-97).
Pasloski, Darrell (Thomas) (b. 1960?), premier of Yukon (2011- ).
Paspalj, Mile (b. March 18, 1953, Glina, Croatia), acting president of Krajina (1992).
Pasqua, Charles (Vincent) (b. April 18, 1927, Grasse, Alpes-Maritimes, France), French politician. In 1943 he joined the Resistance, and in 1947 he became a member of Gen. Charles de Gaulle's Rally of the French People. He created the Service d'Action Civique (SAC) in 1958 to protect Gaullist personalities from attacks by French-Algerian extremists. SAC leaders were later proved to have been involved in a series of gory murders in 1973; by that time he had long left their leadership, but these associations came often to haunt him. He was not offered a ministerial portfolio by presidents Georges Pompidou and Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. In 1976 he was Jacques Chirac's main ally in setting up the neo-Gaullist party Rally for the Republic. A brilliant campaigner and strategist, he helped Chirac win the post of mayor of Paris in 1977, then in 1981 managed Chirac's bid for the presidency, masterminding a series of attacks to challenge Giscard. Chirac came third, while Giscard lost to Socialist François Mitterrand. With Giscard out of the way, Chirac was established as the natural leader of the right wing, and he duly appointed Pasqua as interior minister (1986-88). When Mitterrand was reelected in 1988, Pasqua forged a good relationship with Édouard Balladur. In 1993 Pasqua convinced Chirac to refuse another "cohabitation" prime ministership, suggesting Balladur in his place. Under Balladur, he became interior minister again (1993-95) and was a key factor in the government. In the 1995 presidential election, he backed Balladur over Chirac, a decision that cost him significant political clout and a spot in the government when Chirac triumphed. In 1999 he created his own party, Rally for France. In 2001 he came under investigation in a scandal involving illegal arms sales to Angola in the 1990s; in 2009 he was sentenced to a year in prison but in 2011 an appeals court overturned his conviction.
Pasquier, Pierre (Marie Antoine) (b. Feb. 6, 1877, Marseille, France - d. 1934), resident-superior of Annam (1920-27) and governor-general of French Indochina (1928-34).
Passarinho, Jarbas Gonçalves (b. Jan. 11, 1920, Xapuri, Acre, Brazil), governor of Pará (1964-66) and president of the Senate (1981-83) and justice minister (1990-92) of Brazil.
Passot, Pierre (b. Nov. 29, 1806, Cluny, Saône-et-Loire, France - d. 1854), commandant of Nossi-Bé (1842) and commandant-superior of Mayotte (1843-44, 1846-49).
Passy, Solomon (Isaac), or Solomon (Isak) Pasi (b. Dec. 22, 1956, Plovdiv, Bulgaria), foreign minister of Bulgaria (2001-05).
Pastika, I Made Mangku (b. June 22, 1951, Sanggalangit, Bali, Indonesia), governor of Bali (2008- ).
Pastor (Origone), Carlos Washington (b. July 4, 1924, San Luis, Argentina - d. Jan. 9, 2012), foreign minister of Argentina (1978-81); son of Reynaldo Pastor; brother-in-law of Jorge Rafael Videla.
Pastor, Istvan, Hungarian István Pásztor (b. Aug. 20, 1956, Novi Knezevac, Vojvodina, Serbia), president of the Assembly of Vojvodina (2012- ).
Pastor (Atencio), Reynaldo (Alberto) (b. Oct. 28, 1898, Mercedes, San Luis, Argentina - d. May 12, 1987), governor of San Luis (1942-43).
Pastora Gómez, Edén (Atanacio) (b. Jan. 22, 1937, Darío, northern Nicaragua), Nicaraguan guerrilla leader. He was seven when his father was murdered by a Somoza guardsman in a dispute over land. Pastora did not forget. He became an anti-Somoza revolutionary. His position remained unchallenged as mastermind and leader of the takeover of the National Palace on Aug. 22, 1978, an event Pastora - as Comandante Cero - was not expected to survive. Instead, the daring triumph galvanized Nicaragua and prepared the nation for the possibility that dictator Anastasio Somoza Debayle could be overthrown, as he was July 19, 1979; the raid had made Pastora a folk hero. But on April 5, 1981, saying he was disenchanted with their increasing reliance on the Soviet Union and Cuba, Pastora left the Sandinistas and retreated into Costa Rica. Official government newspapers called him a "traitor." He began to amass troops into an army he named the Sandino Revolutionary Front, "the true Sandinistas," and led them into Nicaragua on sporadic raids. The Front was dissolved the next year to form the Democratic Revolutionary Alliance (ARDE). In April 1984 he and his troops captured the Atlantic coast town of San Juan del Norte; six days later government forces regained control, and Pastora and his men melted back into the jungle. In June he was among rebel leaders tried in absentia. By October he had been ejected as co-leader of ARDE, banned from his Costa Rican political base, and cut off from the U.S. aid sent to ARDE. His problems stemmed from his refusal to ally with the larger, better outfitted rebel force along the Honduran border, the Nicaraguan Democratic Front (FDN). Pastora vowed not to consider such an alliance until the FDN purged itself of leaders who had been officers in Somoza's National Guard. He was a presidential candidate in 2006 but won less than 1% of the vote.
Pastore, John O(rlando) (b. March 17, 1907, Providence, R.I. - d. July 15, 2000, North Kingstown, R.I.), U.S. politician. He was elected to the Rhode Island General Assembly in 1934, was reelected two years later, and served as the state's assistant attorney general in 1937-38 and 1940-44. In 1944, he was elected lieutenant governor, and the following year, at age 36, he became governor when J. Howard McGrath resigned. Pastore was reelected governor twice before winning a Senate seat in 1950; he was the first Italian-American to serve in either role. While in the Senate, Pastore, a Democrat, worked hard for passage of the first nuclear test-ban treaty, and he became a power on atomic energy and TV regulation, heading committees dealing with both. He became one of the most respected senators ever produced by Rhode Island. A little man with a booming voice, Pastore's speaking skills got national attention when he delivered the keynote address at the 1964 Democratic National Convention. Pastore launched a scathing attack on Lyndon Johnson's Republican rival, Sen. Barry Goldwater, and his fire and eloquence earned him a standing ovation. At the time, the Associated Press wrote of Pastore's speech: "The little Rhode Islander, who stands no taller than a two-pound keg of mail-it-home salt water taffy, was in the grand tradition of convention orators." Despite his oratory gifts, Pastore rarely made speeches in the Senate. He once said: "The taxpayers don't pay me to make political speeches on Senate time." Pastore retired in 1976. He also frequently encouraged those aspiring to elected office to "go out and get it" and to remember the people they hoped to serve.
Pastorelli, Jean (b. June 20, 1942), finance minister (1988-95) and foreign minister (2007-08) of Monaco. He was ambassador to Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg (2003-07) and France (2008-11).
Pastrana Arango, Andrés (b. Aug. 17, 1954, Bogotá, Colombia), president of Colombia (1998-2002); son of Misael Pastrana Borrero. A Bogotá city councilman during the 1980s, he was Bogotá's first popularly elected mayor in 1988-90, and in 1991 he won a seat in the Senate. He first ran for president in 1994 but lost to Ernesto Samper Pizano, whom he accused shortly afterwards of accepting campaign contributions from drug cartels. Samper was finally absolved, but the allegation tarnished his administration and also produced a backlash against Pastrana for having brought the charge to light. He largely disappeared from public life, spending much time abroad as a consultant to the UN, until launching his 1998 campaign. His success in that race was thought to be a personal vindication as well as a sign of the public's growing intolerance with the scandal-plagued Liberal Party. Pastrana, backed by the Conservative Party, defeated Liberal candidate Horacio Serpa Uribe. His election inspired hopes for a peaceful resolution to more than three decades of leftist insurgency. Acting immediately on his campaign promise to initiate peace talks, the president-elect held an unprecedented secret meeting with Manuel Marulanda, the leader of the country's largest guerrilla group. But the peace talks collapsed, and as his term neared its end, he offered $2 million to anyone who would help capture Marulanda. The failure of the talks was widely blamed on the rebels, and Pastrana insisted his government had laid the groundwork for future negotiations by shoring up the military and showing that the guerrillas would have to be forced to negotiate in good faith. But the ongoing conflict, combined with a poor economic record, gave Pastrana an approval rate below 15% at the end of his term. In 2005-06 he was ambassador to the U.S.
Pastrana Borrero, Misael (Eduardo) (b. Nov. 14, 1923, Neiva, Colombia - d. Aug. 21, 1997, Bogotá, Colombia), president of Colombia (1970-74). He took up diplomatic posts in Italy and at the United Nations in New York and the Organization of American States in Washington. A Conservative Party member, he won the April 19, 1970, elections by only 63,000 votes. His opponent, former dictator Gen. Gustavo Rojas Pinilla, accused the government of fraud. After several tense months, the electoral council declared Pastrana the winner. A group of indignant Pinilla supporters formed a leftist rebel group, named it M-19 (April 19 Movement) to commemorate the election date, and waged war on the government until 1989. Pastrana was the last president of the so-called National Front, a power-sharing deal struck by Conservatives and Liberals in 1958 to restore peace and stability after a 10-year civil war in which some 280,000 people died. During his four-year term, he expanded government ownership of the oil industry and carried out counterinsurgency operations against rebels but failed in his attempt to bring an end to the violence and turmoil that was engulfing the country. He remained a leading figure of the Conservative Party after he left office. He was highly critical of Pres. Ernesto Samper, who took office in 1994 on a wave of allegations that he funded his campaign with multimillion-dollar donations from the notorious Cali drug mob. Pastrana was part of a dynasty of Conservative politicians and the father of Andrés Pastrana, the presidential candidate for the Conservative-backed New Democratic Force who narrowly lost to Samper in the 1994 presidential elections and then won in 1998.
Pastukhov, Boris (Nikolayevich) (b. Oct. 10, 1933, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), Russian minister of Commonwealth of Independent States affairs (1998-99). He was also Soviet/Russian ambassador to Denmark (1986-89) and Afghanistan (1989-92).
Pataki, George E(lmer) (b. June 24, 1945, Peekskill, N.Y.), governor of New York (1995-2007). A Republican, he was elected mayor of Peekskill in 1982. In 1984 he was elected to the New York state assembly, defeating an incumbent Democrat. In 1992, after eight years as a member of a powerless minority, he challenged an incumbent Republican state senator and beat her by 558 votes. In 1993, the almost unknown Pataki began running for governor, taking on one of America's best-known politicians, Mario Cuomo. By early 1994, despite all his strengths, Cuomo was in trouble, vulnerable because he opposed capital punishment and had not cut taxes as much as voters wanted. Pataki provided a clear contrast on both issues and also showed political skill. He easily won the May 1994 convention and prevented a primary challenge and a Conservative Party candidacy from 1990 Conservative nominee Herb London, who was nominated instead for comptroller. He chose as his running mate Elizabeth McCaughey, whose devastating critique of the Clinton healthcare plan helped do it in. In the November election, he defeated Cuomo 49%-45%. He lost New York City 70%-28% but carried the suburbs 54%-43% and upstate 59%-32%. As governor, he signed the death penalty into law in March 1995 and transferred to Oklahoma an inmate scheduled to be executed there - two steps that Cuomo had stubbornly resisted. He was reelected by large margins in 1998 (defeating Democrat Peter Vallone 54%-33%) and 2002 (defeating Democrat Carl McCall 49%-34%). Over many years as governor, he tacked this way and that, emphasizing new issues and taking different stands that put him at different places on the political spectrum. He said: "I believe in limited government, low taxes, a tough approach to crime. But I also believe in activist government. I'm not one of those laissez faire types."
Patassé, Ange-Félix (b. Jan. 25, 1937, Paoua, Ouham-Pendé, Oubangui-Chari, French Equatorial Africa [now in Central African Republic] - d. April 5, 2011, Douala, Cameroon), prime minister (1976-78) and president (1993-2003) of the Central African Republic. He worked for the department of agriculture from 1959 to 1965 and first entered government as rural development minister in 1966. He was appointed prime minister by Pres. Jean-Bédel Bokassa in September 1976, and joined Bokassa in converting to Islam in October, taking the name Mustapha Patassé, which he soon dropped again. He remained prime minister when Bokassa declared himself emperor in December 1976. Bokassa was overthrown by David Dacko in 1979. After Dacko was deposed in 1981, Patassé was accused of leading an unsuccessful coup and fled to Togo. He returned to the Central African Republic for elections held in 1992. The elections were ruled invalid by the Supreme Court and rescheduled for 1993. Patassé won the election, which was certified by a delegation of international observers. He was reelected in 1999. He survived a series of mutinies in the 1990s (put down with French help) and said he believed he was picked by God to lead the poor, landlocked state. Despite the republic's diamond mines he never found enough money even to pay his officials. In March 2003 he was overthrown and soon after fled the country. An international arrest warrant was issued in August 2003 for embezzlement of public funds of an amount of 70 billion CFA francs and other charges. Patassé, in exile in Togo, was chosen in November 2004 as the presidential candidate of his party for the 2005 elections, but he was disqualified. In August 2006 he was sentenced in absentia to 20 years' imprisonment with hard labour. In October 2009 he finally returned to Bangui from Togo. In January 2011 he was again a presidential candidate and came second despite his frail health making him unable to campaign.
Patel, Anandiben (Mafatbhai) (b. Nov. 21, 1941, Kharod village, Bombay province [now in Gujarat state], India), chief minister of Gujarat (2014- ).
Patel, Babubhai Jashbhai (b. Feb. 9, 1911, Nadiad [now in Gujarat], India - d. Dec. 20, 2002, Gandhinagar, Gujarat), chief minister of Gujarat (1975-76, 1977-80).
Patel, Jayadevappa Halappa (b. Oct. 11, 1930, Kariganur [now in Karnataka], India - d. Dec. 12, 2000, Bangalore, Karnataka), chief minister of Karnataka (1996-99).
Patel, Keshubhai (b. 1929), chief minister of Gujarat (1995, 1998-2001).
Patel, Lilian (b. Feb. 21, 1951), foreign minister of Malawi (2000-04). She was also minister of women's and children's affairs, community development, and social welfare (1996-97), women, youth, and community services (1997-99), health and population (1999-2000), and labour and vocational training (2004-05).
Patel, Sardar Vallabhbhai (Jhaverbhai) (b. Oct. 31, 1875, Nadiad, Bombay province [now in Gujarat state], India - d. Dec. 15, 1950, Bombay [now Mumbai], India), Indian statesman. He threw in his lot with Mohandas Gandhi in 1917 and joined the civil disobedience movement, although he adhered to the principle of nonviolence on practical rather than moral grounds. He was the first Indian municipal commissioner of Ahmadabad (1917-24) and was elected municipal president (1924-28). His efficient direction of a noncooperation campaign at Bardoli in 1928 earned him the title Sardar ("leader"). Imprisoned for three months in 1930 and again from January 1932 to July 1934, he was president of the Indian National Congress in 1931 and chairman of the parliamentary committee in 1935-42; when Congress governments were set up in seven (later eight) of the provinces it was he who controlled the ministries from behind the scenes, and his reputation as the "strong arm" of Indian politics grew. During World War II he was again imprisoned, from October 1940 to August 1941 and from August 1942 to June 1945. On his release he took a leading part in the negotiations with the British that led to the setting up of the Indian interim government in August 1946, in which he became member for home affairs, information, and broadcasting. Unlike Gandhi, he considered that the partition into Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan was inevitable and that it was in India's interests to part with Pakistan. When Indian independence was realized in 1947, Patel was made deputy prime minister and minister of home affairs, information, and states. He carried out the monumental task of integrating the more than 500 princely states into the union.
Paternò Castello (dei duchi di Càrcaci), Ernesto (Vittorio Maria Vincenzo Luigi) (b. Aug. 7, 1882, Catania, Sicily, Italy - d. April 9, 1971, Catania), acting grand master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (1955-62).
Paterson, David (Alexander) (b. May 20, 1954, Brooklyn, New York City), governor of New York (2008-11).
Patient, Serge (b. March 24, 1934, Cayenne, French Guiana), president of the Regional Council of Guyane (1974-80).
Patijn, Schelto (b. Aug. 13, 1936, The Hague, Netherlands - d. July 15, 2007, Amsterdam, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Zuid-Holland (1984-94); grandson of Schelto van Citters. He was mayor of Amsterdam in 1994-2001.
Patil, D(nyandeo) Y(ashwantrao) (b. Oct. 22, 1935, Kolhapur [now in Maharashtra], India), governor of Tripura (2009-13), Bihar (2013-14), and West Bengal (2014).
Patil, Pratibha (Devisingh1) (b. Dec. 19, 1934, Nadgaon village, Jalgaon district [now in Maharashtra], India), governor of Rajasthan (2004-07) and president of India (2007-12). She was deputy chairperson of the Rajya Sabha from November 1986 to November 1988.
1 Devisingh is the first part of the name of her husband, adopted as "middle name" according to custom.
Patil, Shivraj (Vishwanath) (b. Oct. 12, 1935, Chakur village [now in Latur district, Maharashtra], India), home affairs minister of India (2004-08) and governor of Punjab (2010-15) and Rajasthan (2010-12). He was speaker of the Lok Sabha in 1991-96.
Patil, Shriniwas Dadasaheb (b. April 11, 1941, Marul-Haveli, Satara district, Bombay province [now in Maharashtra state], India), governor of Sikkim (2013- ).
Patil, Vasantrao(dada), also called Vasantdada Patil (b. Nov. 13, 1917, Padmale village, Sangli state [now Sangli district, Maharashtra], India - d. March 1, 1989), chief minister of Maharashtra (1977-78, 1983-85) and governor of Rajasthan (1985-87).
Patiño (Aroca), Ricardo (Armando) (b. 1954, Guayaquil, Ecuador), economy and finance minister (2007) and foreign minister (2010- ) of Ecuador.
Patnaik, Bijayananda, byname Biju Patnaik (b. March 5, 1916, Tulsipur, Orissa, India - d. April 17, 1997, Delhi, India), Indian politician. He was jailed by the country's British rulers during India's fight for freedom which culminated in independence in August 1947. Months after independence, as a qualified pilot, Patnaik flew the first Indian aircraft into the disputed Kashmir region, where India was fighting the first of what would be three wars with neighbouring Pakistan. In 1973 Indonesia awarded Patnaik the "Bhumiputra" (Son of the Soil) award for his help in 1948 in rescuing two independence fighters from Dutch soldiers by landing his plane in the middle of a paddy field; in 1996, Indonesia awarded Patnaik its "Bintang Jasa Utama" award, the highest national honour. Patnaik began his political career as a member of the Congress party and senior aide of India's first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, and was chief minister of Orissa in 1961-63. But he fell out with Nehru's daughter, Indira Gandhi, and spent time in jail as a political prisoner under her two-year emergency rule from 1975. He was minister of steel and mines in the Morarji Desai cabinet (1977-79) and minister of steel, mines, and coal under Prime Minister Charan Singh (1979-80). From 1990 to 1995 he was again chief minister of Orissa. At the time of his death he was a senior leader of Janata Dal, the biggest single unit in the 15-party United Front coalition headed by Prime Minister H.D. Deve Gowda.
Patnaik, Janaki Ballabh (b. Jan. 3, 1927, Rameswar [now in Odisha], India), chief minister of Orissa (1980-89, 1995-99) and governor of Assam (2009-14). He was Indian minister of labour, tourism, and civil aviation in 1980.
Patnaik, Naveen (b. Oct. 16, 1946, Cuttack, Orissa, India), chief minister of Orissa/Odisha (2000- ); son of Bijayananda Patnaik. He was also Indian minister of steel and mines (1998-99) and mines and minerals (1999-2000).
Pato, Rimbink, foreign minister of Papua New Guinea (2012- ).
Patriota, Antônio (de Aguiar) (b. April 27, 1954, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), foreign minister of Brazil (2011-13). He was ambassador to the United States in 2007-09 and became permanent representative to the United Nations in 2013.
Patrón Laviada, Patricio (José) (b. Dec. 17, 1957, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico), governor of Yucatán (2001-07).
Päts, Konstantin (b. Feb. 23 [Feb. 11, Old Style], 1874, Tahkuranna, Pärnu district, Estonia, Russian Empire - d. Jan. 18, 1956, Burashevo, Kalinin [now Tver] oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), president of Estonia (1938-40). In 1901 he founded Teataja ("The Announcer"), an Estonian-language daily newspaper. In 1904 he became a member of the Tallinn city council. He tried to restrain excesses during the 1905 Russian Revolution, but was sentenced to death and went into exile in Switzerland (1905-06) and Finland (1906-09). In 1909 he gave himself up to the Russian authorities and served a brief prison term. Deprived of political rights, he yet became active in the struggle for Estonia's autonomy. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, he became chairman of the executive committee of the Estonian National Council. On the declaration of independence on Feb. 24, 1918, he became head of the provisional government. The next day German troops entered Tallinn and he was arrested, but he resumed his post after the November 1918 armistice, serving until May 1919. Under the constitution of 1920, he served as riigivanem (head of state and government) in 1921-22, 1923-24, 1931-32, 1932-33, and from 1933. A referendum in October 1933 approved a new constitution sponsored by the fascist "Vaps" movement, providing for a stronger executive. In January 1934, when the constitution came into effect, he became prime minister acting as riigivanem. Presidential elections were fixed for April, but, having learned of a planned coup d'état by the Vaps, he arrested their leaders in March and assumed dictatorial powers, becoming riigihoidja (state protector) in 1937 and, under a third constitution, president in 1938. After the Soviet Union occupied Estonia in June 1940, he was formally deposed in July and deported to the U.S.S.R., where he died.
Patsatsia, Otar (Ambakovich), Georgian Otar (Ambakis dze) Patsatsia (b. May 15, 1929), prime minister of Georgia (1993-95).
Pattantyús-Ábrahám (de Danczka), Dezsö (b. July 10, 1875, Debrecen, Hungary - d. Aug. 25, 1977, Budapest, Hungary), prime minister of a counter-government of Hungary (1919).
Patten of Barnes, Chris(topher Francis) Patten, Baron (b. May 12, 1944, Lancashire, England), British politician. He joined the Conservative Party research department in 1966, becoming its director in 1974. He entered Parliament in 1979 as member for Bath, Somerset. His consensual economic views and liberal outlook on social issues contrasted with the right-wing values espoused by Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. In the end, however, Thatcher decided that he was less dangerous inside her government than outside. He became a junior minister for Northern Ireland in 1983. In 1985 he was appointed minister of state for education, and a year later he was made minister for overseas development. In 1989 he entered Thatcher's cabinet as environment secretary, with the thankless task of introducing the widely disliked poll tax for financing local government. Following John Major's election as prime minister in 1990, he was appointed chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and chairman of the Conservative Party - and given the responsibility of rescuing the party from the depths of unpopularity in time for a general election that was due to be held within 18 months. The Conservatives' victory in April 1992 owed much to Patten's skills - although in the process his necessarily robust campaign tactics lost him much of the cross-party admiration he had won in earlier years for his nonconfrontational, humane approach to politics. His change of style also lost him some support in his own constituency, which he lost to the Liberal Democrats; he was the only cabinet minister to lose his seat. On April 24, Major offered Patten the challenging consolation prize of the governorship of Hong Kong. He was the last British governor of Hong Kong, handing over the colony to China in 1997. In 1999-2004 he was European commissioner for external relations. In 2005 he was created a life peer.
Patterson, Anne W(oods), née Anne Brevard Woods (b. Oct. 4, 1949, Fort Smith, Ark.), acting U.S. ambassador to the United Nations (2005). She was ambassador to El Salvador (1997-2000), Colombia (2000-03), Pakistan (2007-10), and Egypt (2011-13).
Patterson, P(ercival Noel) J(ames) (b. April 10, 1935, St. Andrew, Jamaica), foreign minister (1977-80) and prime minister (1992-2006) of Jamaica.
Patton, Paul (Edward) (b. May 26, 1937, Fallsburg, Ky.), governor of Kentucky (1995-2003). He was lieutenant governor in 1991-95. He won the 1995 Democratic gubernatorial primary with 45%, just enough to avoid a runoff; Secretary of State Bob Babbage came in second with 24%, just ahead of state Senate president John "Eck" Rose's 21%. Republican Larry Forgy won his primary (May 1995) handily 82%-14% over former state Republican Party chairman Robert Gable. In the general, Patton defeated Forgy 51%-49%. During the campaign, Patton pledged to defend affirmative action and abortion rights. He was reelected in 1999.
Pauker, Ana, née Rabinsohn (b. Feb. 13, 1893, Codresti, Vaslui county, Romania - d. June 14, 1960, Romania), foreign minister of Romania (1947-52).
Paul, Evans, byname K-Plim (b. Nov. 25, 1955), prime minister of Haiti (2015- ). He was also mayor of Port-au-Prince (1990-95).
Paul, Jean (M.), duc de Morin (b. 1800, Léogane, Haiti - d. March 10, 1872, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), member of the Council of Secretaries of State of Haiti (1845). He was made duc de Morin by Emperor Faustin I on May 12, 1855.
Paul, Sir John Warburton (b. March 29, 1916, Weymouth, Dorset, England - d. March 31, 2004), governor (1962-65) and governor-general (1965-66) of The Gambia, governor of British Honduras (1966-72), governor (1972-73) and acting governor-general (1973) of The Bahamas, and lieutenant governor of the Isle of Man (1974-80). Serving as an officer in the 3rd Battalion, Royal Tank Regiment, in France in May 1940, he was awarded a Military Cross for carrying out dangerous patrols, under constant fire, during the defense of Calais. He was then captured by the Germans and spent most of the remaining years of the war trying to escape. After a spell on secondment, in 1945, as aide-de-camp and private secretary to the governor of Sierra Leone, Paul in 1947 joined the Colonial Administrative Service as a cadet in Sierra Leone. Five years later, he reached the rank of district commissioner. Remaining in Sierra Leone, he was subsequently promoted to permanent secretary (1956), provincial commissioner (1959), and finally secretary to the cabinet (1960). He became the last governor of the Gambia, Britain's last West African colony, and after independence remained another year as governor-general. In British Honduras, when concern that Britain was going to cave in to Guatemala's claims to the territory led to violent demonstrations in 1967, he declared a state of emergency; British soldiers patrolled the streets with fixed bayonets to enforce a curfew. Otherwise, he found that a governor "can have damned little to do. It's even worse when you're a governor-general of a small territory. There's even less to do." In the Bahamas, he also oversaw independence celebrations. At one of the ceremonies, an awning collapsed on the Prince of Wales and Paul and his wife, whose hat was momentarily displaced. He was knighted in 1962.
Paul, Krishan Kant (b. Feb. 6, 1948), governor of Meghalaya (2013-15), Nagaland (2014), Manipur (2014- ), Mizoram (2014-15), and Uttarakhand (2015- ).
Paula, Alejandro Felippe, byname Jandi Paula (b. May 2, 1937, Curaçao), prime minister of the Netherlands Antilles (1993-94).
Paulauskas, Arturas (b. Aug. 23, 1953, Vilnius, Lithuanian S.S.R.), speaker of the Seimas (2000-04, 2004-06) and acting president (2004) of Lithuania. He was a presidential candidate in 1997 and 2002.
Pauling, Tom, byname of Thomas Ian Pauling (b. Dec. 13, 1946, Sydney, N.S.W.), administrator of the Northern Territory (2007-11).
Paulino, Antônio Roberto de Sousa (b. July 20, 1951, Guarabira, Paraíba, Brazil), governor of Paraíba (2002-03). He was also mayor of Guarabira (1977-82, 1989-93).
Paulisbo, Patrick (b. 1939? - d. April 17, 2004, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea), premier of Milne Bay (1978-81).
Paulson, Henry M(erritt), Jr., byname Hank Paulson (b. March 28, 1946, Palm Beach, Fla.), U.S. treasury secretary (2006-09).
Pauluks, Janis (b. 1865 - d. June 21, 1937), prime minister of Latvia (1923). He was also minister of transport (1921-25).
Paulus VI (English Paul VI), original name Giovanni Battista (Enrico Antonio Maria) Montini (b. Sept. 26, 1897, Concesio, Italy - d. Aug. 6, 1978, Castel Gandolfo, Italy), pope of the Roman Catholic Church (1963-78). Ordained priest in 1920, he was eventually recruited for the Vatican diplomatic service. His first assignment (May 1923) was to the staff of the apostolic nunciature (papal ambassador's post) in Warsaw, but ill health brought him back to Rome before the end of the year, and he then resumed work at the Vatican Secretariat of State, where he held posts of increasing importance for more than 30 years. In 1939 he was appointed papal undersecretary of state and in 1944 acting secretary for ordinary (or nondiplomatic) affairs. He declined an invitation to be elevated to the Sacred College of Cardinals in 1953. In November 1954, Pope Pius XII appointed him archbishop of Milan, and Pope Ioannes XXIII named him cardinal in 1958. He was elected pope on June 21, 1963, choosing to be known as Paulus VI. His pontificate began in the period following the difficult first session of the Second Vatican Council, in which he had played an important, though not spectacular, part. After seeing the council to a successful conclusion (Dec. 8, 1965), he began the formidable task of implementing its decisions, which affected practically every facet of church life. His encyclical Populorum Progressio (March 26, 1967) was such a pointed plea for social justice that in some conservative circles he was accused of Marxism. On the other hand, in Humanae Vitae (July 25, 1968), he reaffirmed the established position of the church against artificial means of birth control. He journeyed to many countries, becoming the first pope to leave Italy in well over a century. He was beatified in 2014.
Pauncefort, Bernard (Edward) (b. April 8, 1926, London, England - d. July 14, 2010, Somerset, England), administrator of Ascension (1980-82) and Tristan da Cunha (1989-92).
Paunovski, Ljuben (b. Oct. 19, 1958, Prilep, Macedonia), defense minister of Macedonia (2000-01).
Pavelic, Ante (b. July 14, 1889, Bradina, Bosnia and Herzegovina - d. Dec. 28, 1959, Madrid, Spain), Croatian leader. He joined the nationalist Croatian Party of Rights and became its secretary. In 1920 he was elected city and county alderman at Zagreb. A deputy to the Yugoslav Skupstina (parliament) from 1927 to 1929, he vigorously opposed the centralization policy of the government. In January 1929, when King Aleksander assumed dictatorial power, Pavelic fled to Italy where he organized a revolutionary Croatian nationalist group known as the Ustase ("insurgents"). It organized the assassination of King Aleksander in Marseille on Oct. 9, 1934. Aiming to destroy Yugoslavia and to establish an independent Croatian state, he collaborated with, and became an instrument of, the Axis powers Germany and Italy. After their conquest of Yugoslavia in April 1941, he was installed as leader (poglavnik) of the Independent State of Croatia, which also included Bosnia and Herzegovina. Aligning with the Axis, his government declared war on the Allies and sent troops to the Russian front. His dictatorial regime, whose slogan was "Za dom Spremni" ("Ready for the Fatherland") and which was strongly Roman Catholic in orientation, brutally oppressed the Orthodox Serbs, Muslims, and Jews, and a strong resistance emerged. With the defeat of Germany in May 1945, the Croatian state ceased to exist and he went into hiding under false names in Austria and Italy, then escaped to Argentina in 1948. His extradition as a war criminal was demanded by Yugoslavia but refused by Argentina. After being wounded in an assassination attempt (April 10, 1957), he fled to Paraguay and later secretly settled in Spain.
Pavicevic, Miso (b. April 21, 1915, Pljevlja, Montenegro - d. 1995, Belgrade, Serbia), acting foreign minister of Yugoslavia (1968-69). He was also minister to Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay (1951-53), ambassador to Turkey (1953-55), Greece (1955-58), and Italy (1970s) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1960-63).
Pavie, Auguste (Jean Marie) (b. May 31, 1847, Dinan, Côtes-du-Nord [now Côtes-d'Armor], France - d. May 7, 1925, Thourie, Ille-et-Vilaine, France), commissioner-general of Laos (1894-95).
Pavletic, Vlatko (b. Dec. 2, 1930, Zagreb, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia] - d. Sept. 19, 2007, Zagreb), president of the Sabor (1995-2000) and acting president (1999-2000) of Croatia. He was also minister of education and culture (1990-92).
Pavlos, English Paul (b. Dec. 14, 1901, Athens, Greece - d. March 6, 1964, Athens), king of Greece (1947-64). The third son of future king Konstantinos I and his wife, Sophia of Prussia, he was forced into exile with his father following Konstantinos' deposition in 1917. After the death of his brother, King Alexandros, in October 1920, he was offered the crown but declined. He returned to Greece in December when Konstantinos was restored to the throne. When Konstantinos abdicated in December 1922, Pavlos became diadoch (crown prince), his brother Georgios being king. But as republican feeling grew, he again left Greece in December 1923, living chiefly in Britain and also in the United States. When the monarchy was restored in 1935, and Georgios was recalled as king, Pavlos returned with him. In 1938 he married his young cousin, the princess Frederika of Brunswick (b. April 18, 1917 - d. Feb. 6, 1981); they had a son, Konstantinos (b. 1940), and two daughters, Sophia (b. 1938) and Irene (b. 1942). Holding officer's rank in the Greek navy, army, and air force, he was a member of the army general staff in 1940 when war broke out with Italy. As Greece was occupied, he escaped into yet another exile in 1941, living in Cairo and South Africa. Returning home after the war, he ascended the throne on the death of Georgios (April 1947). He supported close ties with the United States, which provided economic assistance and help in putting down the Communist insurrection that lasted until 1949. His popularity served to stem anti-monarchist sentiment.
Pavlov, Aleksandr (Sergeyevich) (b. Jan. 1, 1953, Pavlodar, Kazakh S.S.R.), finance minister (1994-98, 2002), deputy prime minister (1996-99, 2002), and first deputy prime minister (1999-2000, 2002-04) of Kazakhstan.
Pavlov, Valentin (Sergeyevich) (b. Sept. 26, 1937, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. March 30, 2003, Moscow), prime minister of the Soviet Union (1991). He began his career as a city financial inspector and rose slowly through the Soviet economic bureaucracy, becoming finance minister in 1989 and prime minister in January 1991. In August 1991, he and other Soviet hardliners calling themselves the State Emergency Committee announced Mikhail Gorbachev was ill and isolated the reformist Soviet leader at a Black Sea resort. Looking glum and nervous, eight of them sat together at a news conference to tell the nation their committee was in charge. They moved armoured columns into Moscow but stopped short of using them on thousands of protesters, who rallied behind Boris Yeltsin, then president of the Russian republic. After just three days, the coup collapsed, Gorbachev was freed, and the plotters were arrested. Although the hardliners said they were trying to prevent the U.S.S.R. from disintegrating into chaos, the coup attempt precipitated its demise. Four months later, Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus announced the Soviet Union defunct, forcing Gorbachev to resign on December 25. One coup plotter committed suicide. Pavlov and the others were sentenced to prison but were released in 1993 and amnestied by parliament in 1994. Pavlov went on to head a commercial bank and later turned to economic research, taking leadership posts at several academies and institutes. He remained unrepentant about his role in the coup. In 2001, he and several other surviving coup plotters, in an eerie reprise of their last joint appearance together, defended their actions and praised Russian president Vladimir Putin as trying to achieve the same goals that they had.
Pavlovic, Djordje M. (b. 1838, Smederevo, Serbia - d. Oct. 28, 1921, Belgrade, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia]), foreign minister of Serbia (1875-76). He was also finance minister (1884) and justice minister (1885-86).
Pavlovic, Melentije (b. 1776, Vrbava, central Serbia - d. June 8, 1833, Belgrade, Serbia), metropolitan of Belgrade (1832-33).
Pawlak, Waldemar (b. Sept. 5, 1959, Model village, Poland), prime minister of Poland (1992, 1993-95). He was a presidential candidate in 2010, winning 1.8% of the vote. In 2007-12 he was deputy prime minister; he resigned when he lost the leadership of the Polish Peasant Party to Janusz Piechocinski in November 2012.
Pawlenty, Tim(othy James) (b. Nov. 27, 1960, St. Paul, Minn.), governor of Minnesota (2003-11). A Republican, he first got involved in politics when interning for Sen. David Durenberger. In 1992 he was elected to the state House from Eagan in suburban Dakota County. Soon he became recognized as one of his party's leaders. He started running for governor in 1998, but was persuaded to step aside for Norm Coleman, the mayor of St. Paul, who had switched parties and become a Republican. In 1999 Pawlenty was elected majority leader in the state House. With Speaker Steve Sviggum, he helped pass large tax cuts and was a major player, with Sviggum, state Senate president Roger Moe (Democratic-Farmer-Labor), and Gov. Jesse Ventura (Independent), in Minnesota's tripartisan government. In 2001 he set out to run against Sen. Paul Wellstone, but White House political strategist Karl Rove thought Coleman would be a stronger candidate. Vice Pres. Dick Cheney then called Pawlenty and said that it would be better if he got out of the Senate race and ran for governor. For the second time, Pawlenty deferred to Coleman. He promised never to raise taxes and took conservative stands on abortion and other cultural issues. His organizational work helped him defeat Brian Sullivan at the Republican convention 58%-42%. The DFL nomination went to Moe. In June Ventura announced he wasn't running; into that void stepped Tim Penny, a former Democratic congressman, who switched to the Independence Party and was supported by Ventura. Pawlenty won with 44% of the vote to 36% for Moe and 16% for Penny. Very many of the voters who had elected Ventura in 1998 elected Pawlenty in 2002. As governor, he eliminated a giant budget deficit. In 2006, in an election season unfavourable to Republicans, he was narrowly reelected, defeating Attorney General Mike Hatch (DFL) 47%-46%. He was a candidate for the 2012 Republican presidential nomination, but abandoned his bid already in August 2011.
Pawley, Howard (Russell) (b. Nov. 21, 1934, Brampton, Ontario), premier of Manitoba (1981-88). When he first ran for provincial office in 1958, he was defeated. Two attempts to gain political office in federal elections also ended in failure. However, in 1969 the people of the provincial riding of Selkirk elected him to serve as their representative in the Manitoba legislature. He became the most junior minister in the cabinet of Premier Edward Schreyer. As minister of municipal affairs (1969-76) he was so popular that the municipal secretaries in Manitoba complained when in 1973 Schreyer decided to move him to another cabinet post. As a result, Pawley retained the municipal affairs portfolio when he became Manitoba's attorney general and keeper of the great seal in 1973. Known as a civil libertarian, he had a hand in several pioneering pieces of legislation. Among them were an automobile insurance bill, a bill outlawing wiretapping, and a bill opening credit files to customers. The Schreyer government was defeated in the provincial election of 1977, but Pawley retained his seat in the legislature. In 1979 he succeeded Schreyer as leader of the Manitoba New Democratic Party (NDP). In the provincial election of Nov. 17, 1981, the NDP won a majority in the legislature, and Pawley became premier. Emphasizing economic renewal, he believed that the provincial government should spend money in order to bring Manitoba out of its economic recession. Once in office, he moved to do just that. A mortgage interest rate relief plan was implemented, as was an income stabilization plan for beef producers; rent increases for tenants were limited to 9% on all older buildings. His government was only narrowly reelected in 1986 and fell in a no-confidence vote in 1988; he then resigned as party leader. He was unsuccessful as a candidate in the 1988 federal election.
Payne, James Spriggs (b. Dec. 19, 1819, Richmond, Va. - d. Jan. 31, 1882), president of Liberia (1868-70, 1876-78).
Payton, Carolyn R(obertson) (b. May 13, 1925, Norfolk, Va. - d. April 11, 2001, Washington, D.C.), director of the Peace Corps (1977-78).
Payton, David (Bruce) (b. 1952?), administrator of Tokelau (2006-09). He was also New Zealand's ambassador to Saudi Arabia (1997-2000) and the Netherlands (2002-06).
Paz Barnica, Edgardo (b. 1934, San Pedro Sula, Honduras - d. Sept. 26, 2003, Tegucigalpa, Honduras), foreign minister of Honduras (1982-86). He was also ambassador to Argentina (1990-93), Spain (1994-96), Venezuela (1996-99), and Peru (1999-2003).
Paz Estenssoro, (Ángel) Víctor (b. Oct. 2, 1907, Tarija, southwestern Bolivia - d. June 7, 2001, Tarija), president of Bolivia (1952-56, 1960-64, 1985-89). As a noncommissioned officer he took part in the Chaco War of 1932-35 between Bolivia and Paraguay. He was economic adviser to Pres. Germán Busch (1937-39). On June 7, 1941, he and others established the National Revolutionary Movement (MNR). In 1943-44 he was finance minister. He was elected president in 1951 but was prevented from taking office by the military until the MNR led a popular revolution in 1952. During his first presidency the right to vote was extended to Indians and the big tin-mining companies were nationalized. In 1956-60 he served as ambassador to the United Kingdom. He again became the MNR's presidential candidate in 1960 and won a decisive victory. His second administration saw a move toward the political right. In the election of May 1964, he was returned unopposed, as the opposition boycotted the poll. He was overthrown by a military coup d'état in November and went into exile in Peru. He returned to Bolivia in August 1971 to become an adviser to the government of right-wing president Hugo Banzer Suárez. Paz ran unsuccessfully for the presidency in 1978, 1979, and 1980. Running again in 1985, he won 26% in the popular vote, finishing second to Banzer (29%); Congress then elected Paz president (with 94 votes compared to 51 for Banzer). He gained his victory with the backing of the leftist elements in Congress, but after taking office he broke with the left and formed a pact with Banzer. He privatized the tin mines and instituted a program of economic austerity that reduced the hyperinflation that had reached 22,000%. Many Bolivians felt that he had broken completely with the ethos of the 1952 revolution. He retired from politics in 1989.
Paz García, Policarpo (Juan) (b. Dec. 7, 1932, La Arada village, Goascorán municipality, Valle department, Honduras - d. April 16, 2000, Tegucigalpa, Honduras), president of Honduras (1978-82).
Paz Zamora, Jaime (b. April 15, 1939, Cochabamba, Bolivia), president of Bolivia (1989-93). He founded the Movimiento de la Izquierda Revolucionaria (MIR; Revolutionary Leftist Movement) in 1971, some three weeks after Hugo Banzer Suárez seized control of Bolivia. As leader of the MIR, he figured prominently in the movement as a proponent of "people's war" and anti-imperialism. In 1974 he was briefly jailed by the Banzer government for revolutionary activities, and he spent much of the rest of the decade in exile. On his return to Bolivia, he ran unsuccessfully for vice president in 1979 and then successfully the following year with Hernán Siles Zuazo of the left-leaning Unión Democrática y Popular as president; a military coup nullified the results. It was at this time that he was the sole survivor of a plane crash in an apparent assassination attempt by members of the military. A split in the coalition took place after October 1982 elections that returned Siles and Paz Zamora to power; the MIR left the cabinet, leaving Paz stranded in the vice presidency (until 1985). The former military dictator Banzer, of the right-wing Acción Democrática Nacionalista, and Paz Zamora, a self-proclaimed social democrat, joined forces to govern in 1989. He now discarded all pretense of radicalism, dismissing it as "sterile," and promptly signed an agreement with the International Monetary Fund. On his 101st day in office as president, he imposed a three-month state of siege in response to a widening teachers' strike. He was at his most visible, however, in resisting the proposal to use U.S. ground troops against drug dealers and appeared to have lost conditional U.S. aid to Bolivia as a consequence.
Pazhwak, Abdul Rahman (b. March 7, 1919, Ghazni, Afghanistan [according to other sources, 1917, Nangarhar province, Afghanistan] - d. June 8, 1995, Hayatabad, Peshawar, Pakistan), president of the UN General Assembly (1966-67). He was also Afghan permanent representative to the UN (1958-72) and ambassador to West Germany (1972-73), India (1973-76), and the United Kingdom (1976-78). He received political asylum in the U.S. in 1982; in 1991 he moved to Pakistan.