Read, James M(organ) (b. 1908, Camden, N.J. - d. Feb. 11, 1985, New York City), acting UN high commissioner for refugees (1956). He was deputy high commissioner from 1951 to 1960.
Reagan, Ronald (Wilson) (b. Feb. 6, 1911, Tampico, Ill. - d. June 5, 2004, Bel Air, Los Angeles, Calif.), president of the United States (1981-89). In 1937 he began a long career as a motion-picture actor; in 1947-52 and 1959-60, he served as president of the Screen Actors Guild, cooperating with efforts to combat alleged communist influences in the motion-picture industry. In 1950 he began to support Republican politicians, and in 1962 he officially changed his party affiliation from Democrat to Republican. He was elected governor of California in 1966 and reelected in 1970. He made a halfhearted bid for the Republican presidential nomination in 1968 and seriously, but unsuccessfully, attempted to take the nomination away from Pres. Gerald Ford in 1976. In 1980 he won the nomination and in the ensuing campaign combined a conservative platform with an optimistic and genial celebration of traditional American values. He achieved a landslide victory, receiving 51% of the popular vote to 41% for Pres. Jimmy Carter and carrying 44 of the 50 states, overwhelming Carter 489 to 49 in electoral votes. At the age of 69, Reagan was the oldest man to become U.S. president. Adopting supply-side economic policies, he greatly increased military expenditures and sharply reduced nondefense spending while simultaneously lowering taxes; the national debt almost tripled during his presidency. He launched the largest peacetime military buildup in American history and in 1983 proposed the construction of a U.S. strategic defense system under a controversial program known as the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). In foreign affairs he took a strongly anticommunist stance, famously denouncing the Soviet Union as the "evil empire." He ran for reelection in 1984 against the liberal Democrat Walter Mondale and won 59% of the popular vote and 525 of 538 votes in the electoral college.
Réallon, Léon (Maurice Valentin) (b. Nov. 24, 1882, Paris, France - d. May 10, 1960, Antananarivo, Madagascar), acting governor-general of Madagascar (1939).
Rebelo de Sousa, Baltasar (Leite) (b. April 16, 1921, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Dec. 1, 2002, Lisbon), high commissioner of Mozambique (1968-70). He was also Portuguese minister of corporations, health, and social welfare (1970-73) and overseas (1973-74).
Rechteren tot Appeltern, Jacob Hendrik graaf van (b. Nov. 27, 1787, Appeltern, Gelderland, Netherlands - d. July 9, 1845, Spoolde, Overijssel, Netherlands), governor of Overijssel (1831-40).
Reddy, B. Satyanarayan (b. Aug. 21, 1927, Annaram, Mahbubnagar district, Hyderabad [now in Telangana], India - d. Oct. 6, 2012, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh [now in Telangana], India), governor of Uttar Pradesh (1990-93), Bihar (1991), Orissa (1993-95), and West Bengal (1993).
Reddy, K(onda) Madhava (b. Oct. 21, 1923, Shahrajpet village, Nalgonda district, Hyderabad [now in Telangana], India - d. Sept. 25, 1997), governor of Maharashtra (1985).
Reddy, K(olli) V(enkata) Raghunatha (b. Sept. 4, 1924, Virur, Nellore district [now in Andhra Pradesh], India - d. March 4, 2002, New Delhi, India), governor of Tripura (1990-93), Manipur (1993), West Bengal (1993-98), and Sikkim (1995-96).
Reddy, Kasu Brahmananda (b. July 28, 1909, Chirumamella village, Guntur district [now in Andhra Pradesh], India - d. May 20, 1994), chief minister of Andhra Pradesh (1964-71), home affairs minister of India (1974-77), and governor of Maharashtra (1988-89). He was also minister of communications (1974) and agriculture and irrigation (1977).
Reddy, (Nallari) Kiran Kumar (b. Sept. 13, 1960, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh [now in Telangana], India), chief minister of Andhra Pradesh (2010-14).
Reddy, N(edurumalli) Janardhana (b. Feb. 20, 1935, Vakadu village, Nellore district [now in Andhra Pradesh], India - d. May 9, 2014, Hyderabad, India), chief minister of Andhra Pradesh (1990-92).
Reddy, N(eelam) Sanjiva (b. May 19, 1913, Anantapur district, Madras province [now in Andhra Pradesh state], India - d. May 31, 1996, Bangalore, Karnataka, India), president of India (1977-82). He was in the forefront of India's struggle against British rule and spent most of the period 1940-45 in prison. He became chief minister of the southern state of Andhra Pradesh (1956-60, 1962-64), a member of the union cabinet as minister for steel and mines (1964-66) and transport, civil aviation, shipping, and tourism (1966-67), and speaker of the Lok Sabha, the lower house of parliament (1967-69, 1977). He was first nominated for the presidency in 1969 by the Congress Party, but, in a divisive move, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi supported Varahagiri Venkata Giri, who won. Reddy opposed Gandhi's emergency rule in 1975 and later joined the Janata Party, which nominated him for president in 1977, his candidature being endorsed by the Congress and other opposition parties. He retired from politics in 1983.
Reddy, S. Obul (b. April 9, 1916), governor of Andhra Pradesh (1975-76).
Reddy, Y(aduguri) S(andinti) Rajasekhara (b. July 8, 1949, Pulivendula, Cuddapah district, Madras province [now in Andhra Pradesh state], India - d. [helicopter crash] Sept. 2, 2009, Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh), chief minister of Andhra Pradesh (2004-09).
Redford, Alison (Merrilla) (b. March 7, 1965, Kitimat, B.C.), premier of Alberta (2011-14).
Reding von Biberegg, (Joseph Fridolin Vinzenz) Aloys (b. March 6, 1765, Schwyz, Switzerland - d. Feb. 5, 1818, Schwyz), Swiss politician. After some years in the armies of Spain in the early 1790s, he joined the struggle of the Swiss against the invading French. On May 2-3, 1798, he led a stubborn defense at Schindellegi and Rothenthurm but was ultimately forced to capitulate. In the new French satellite state - the unitary Helvetic Republic - he sided with the partisans of the old federalism and steadily opposed French influence. Although a reluctant participant in politics, he was elected Landammann (chief executive) of the republic after the coup in October 1801. He pressed for federalist constitutional revision, but met the resistance of the controlling Napoleonic veto. Another coup on April 17, 1802, brought the unitarians back to power. After the departure of French troops in July, an insurrection broke out, and he became head of a rival government (August-September). Returning French troops ended the so-called Stecklikrieg and he was imprisoned. But the episode led to Napoléon's "mediation" and the restoration of cantonal sovereignty (1803). In the new Swiss Confederation, Reding generally confined himself to the cantonal politics of Schwyz (Landammann 1803-05, 1809-11).
Rees, Nathan (b. Feb. 12, 1968, Sydney, N.S.W.), premier of New South Wales (2008-09). He became involved in Labor politics as secretary of the Municipal and Shire Employees Union, then worked as an advisor to several Labor ministers in New South Wales. In March 2007 he was elected to the N.S.W. Legislative Assembly as member for Toongabbie in western Sydney. He was minister for water utilities (2007-08), minister for emergency services (2007-08), and minister for water (2008). In September 2008 Premier Morris Iemma attempted to reshuffle his cabinet, but resigned following resistance from his own party. Rees was then elected Labor leader and became premier after less than two years in parliament. However, in December 2009 he was himself dumped by the Labor caucus in a 43-25 vote.
Reeves, Sir Paul (Alfred) (b. Dec. 6, 1932, Wellington, N.Z. - d. Aug. 14, 2011, Auckland, N.Z.), governor-general of New Zealand (1985-90). He derived his Maori blood from his maternal grandmother. As vicar (1964-66) of St. Paul, Okato, on the Taranaki coast from which this grandmother came, he became aware of this part of his heritage and of Maori grievances. He started to identify with Maoris and their causes and went on to develop some notoriety as a commentator on social issues. He had been ordained as a deacon in the Anglican Church in 1958, followed by ordinations to the priesthood in 1960 and as bishop of Waiapu in 1971. In 1979 he became bishop of Auckland and in 1980 he was elected by the General Synod of the church as primate and archbishop of New Zealand. In 1985, Sir Paul (he was knighted in the queen's birthday honours) became the first clergyman and the first New Zealander of Maori descent to be appointed governor-general.
Reffi, Adriano (b. 1937?), captain-regent of San Marino (1978-79, 1983).
Reffi, Pietro (b. April 24, 1927, Santa Mustiola, San Marino - d. June 25, 2013, Borgo Maggiore, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (1958-59, 1965-66).
Refunjol, Fredis (José) (b. Dec. 19, 1950, Aruba), governor of Aruba (2004- ).
Regalado (Romero), Tomás (Herculano de Jesús) (b. Nov. 7, 1861, Santa Ana, El Salvador - d. [killed in war] July 11, 1906, El Entrecijo pass, El Salvador-Guatemala border), president of El Salvador (1898-1903).
Regalado, Tomas (Pedro) (b. May 24, 1947, Havana, Cuba), mayor of Miami (2009- ).
Regan, Donald (Thomas) (b. Dec. 21, 1918, Cambridge, Mass. - d. June 10, 2003, Williamsburg, Va.), U.S. politician. He served during World War II in the Pacific and rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel. In 1946 he retired from the military and became a stockbroker, becoming president of Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner, & Beane in 1968 and serving as chairman of the board and chief executive officer from 1971 to 1980. In 1973 he assumed the same titles at Merrill Lynch and Co., Inc., a holding company formed as a result of his diversification program. He became secretary of the treasury in the cabinet of Pres. Ronald Reagan in 1981. In February 1985, he succeeded James Baker as chief of staff to President Reagan, with Baker succeeding him as treasury secretary. Regan quickly assumed control of the staff in the White House. Baker, more of a political strategist than an administrator, had cooperated closely with Michael Deaver, the deputy chief of staff, and Edwin Meese, counselor to the president. The departure from the White House of Meese (who became attorney general) and of Deaver (who returned to the private sector) left Regan alone at the staff's apex. In April the president instructed department heads and other ranking officials to meet as the Economic Policy Council, with Baker as chairman, when formulating economic policy and as the Domestic Policy Council, with Meese as chairman, when formulating noneconomic domestic policy. As the official liaison between the president and the two councils, Regan was in a position to influence the final form of all domestic policies. In May, he also assumed full control over the president's schedule. In 1987, after the Iran-contra affair, Regan was dismissed by the president and replaced by Howard Baker.
Regan, Gerald A(ugustine) (b. Feb. 13, 1928, Windsor, N.S.), premier of Nova Scotia (1970-78) and Canadian minister of labour (1980-81), amateur sport (1980-82), international trade (1983-84), and energy, mines, and resources (1984).
Regmi, Dilli Raman (b. Dec. 19, 1913, Kilagal Tole, Kathmandu, Nepal - d. Aug. 30, 2001, Kathmandu), foreign minister of Nepal (1953-55).
Regmi, Khil Raj (b. May 31, 1949, Pokharathok, Palpa district, Nepal), prime minister of Nepal (2013-14). He was chief justice in 2011-14.
Regnaud de Saint-Jean d'Angély, Michel Louis Étienne (b. Nov. 9, 1760, Saint-Fargeau, Bourgogne [now in Yonne département], France - d. March 18, 1819, Paris), French civil commissioner of Malta (1798-99).
Rêgo, Pedro da Costa (b. March 12, 1889, Pilar, Alagoas, Brazil - d. July 6, 1954, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Alagoas (1924-28).
Rehman, Khalilur (b. May 5, 1934, Surezai village, near Peshawar, North-West Frontier Province [now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa], India [now in Pakistan]), governor of North-West Frontier Province (2005-06).
Rehmatullah, Habib Ibrahim, Rehmatullah also spelled Rahimtoola (b. 1912 - d. Jan. 2, 1991, Karachi, Pakistan), governor of Sindh (1953-54) and Punjab (1954).
Rehn, (Märta) Elisabeth, née Carlberg (b. April 6, 1935, Helsinki, Finland), Finnish politician. A member of the Swedish People's Party, she was member of parliament (1979-95), defense minister (1990-95), and minister of equality (1992-95). In 1995-96 she was member of the European Parliament and in 1995-99 UN human rights representative in Bosnia. She was a presidential candidate in 2000.
Reich, Robert (Bernard) (b. June 24, 1946, Scranton, Pa.), U.S. politician. He became assistant to the U.S. solicitor general in 1974 and was the director of policy planning at the Federal Trade Commission from 1976 to 1981. His abiding interest has been institutional economics: how people organize themselves for work. He expounded his views on a national industrial policy in a book entitled Minding America's Business (1982), written with Ira C. Magaziner. "America has a choice," he wrote in his controversial book The Next American Frontier (1983). "It can adapt itself to the new economic realities by altering its organizations, or it can fail to adapt and thereby continue its present decline." He argued that the U.S. was not turning away quickly enough from the high-volume, standardized production that had characterized its economy in recent times but that was now moving increasingly to the third world. A leading proponent of a federal industrial policy, he advocated a strong government role in advancing such changes, urging a coherent policy to replace the current hodgepodge of price supports, subsidized loans, and tax expenditures that affect the economy. He was particularly critical of what he called "paper entrepreneurialism," management techniques of mergers, acquisitions, and tax avoidance that create short-term profits by rearranging industrial assets but rarely create real productive activity. He was secretary of labour under Pres. Bill Clinton in 1993-97; subsequently he wrote Locked in the Cabinet (1997) describing his futile battle to bring the growing economic and educational inequality present in today's America to the forefront of political discussion.
Reichmuth(-Annen), Xaver (b. April 28, 1931, Schwyz, Switzerland - d. Feb. 26, 2013, Schwyz), Landammann of Schwyz (1974-76).
Reichstadt, Napoléon François Charles Joseph Bonaparte, Herzog von (duke of), principe (prince) di Parma, Piacenza, e Guastalla, also called King of Rome, or Napoléon II, byname l'Aiglon (French: "the Eaglet") (b. March 20, 1811, Paris, France - d. July 22, 1832, Schönbrunn, Austria), emperor of France (1815). The only son of Emperor Napoléon I and Empress Marie-Louise, he was at birth styled King of Rome, partly because the elected heirs of the Holy Roman emperors had been styled kings of the Romans. Three years later, when his father's empire collapsed, his mother took him from threatened Paris to Blois (April 1, 1814). His father's offer to abdicate in his favour was superseded by abdication in the name of both father and son, and Marie-Louise rejected the proposal of his uncles Jérôme and Joseph Bonaparte that he should be taken south of the Loire as the figurehead for further resistance, and instead took him to the court of her father, the Austrian emperor Franz I. In 1815, however, Napoléon I, after his brief return to power, abdicated in favour of his son, who thus became de jure emperor (as Napoléon II) for two weeks until the Allies entered Paris again, although plans for bringing him back to Paris during this time came to nothing and he remained in Austria. By the Treaty of Paris (1817) he was excluded from succession to his mother's Italian dominions, receiving instead the Austrian title of Duke of Reichstadt (1818). He later dreamed of some new sovereignty, especially in 1830, when Charles X of France was overthrown, but Austrian statesman Metternich's hint that he might be made king of Italy was uttered only to deter the France of Louis-Philippe from Italian enterprises. At the time he was already ill with tuberculosis and was unable to take advantage of events.
Reid, Sir George (Houstoun) (b. Feb. 25, 1845, Johnstone, Renfrew, Scotland - d. Sept. 12, 1918, London, England), prime minister of Australia (1904-05). Reid, whose family had emigrated to Australia in 1852, entered the New South Wales civil service in 1864. In 1878 he was appointed secretary to the attorney-general, and in 1880 he entered parliament as member for East Sydney. As minister of public instruction in 1883-84, he established the first government high schools and technical schools in the state. In 1891 he succeeded Sir Henry Parkes as leader of the Free Trade Party, and in 1894 he took office as premier on what was at that time an extremely democratic platform. Remaining in office until 1899, he directed an economic recovery program, introduced a tax to break up land monopolies, and removed the civil service from political control. After hesitating on the question of Australian federation, unwilling to sacrifice all other issues to it, he finally saw that it could not be neglected, and hastened to put the movement on the most democratic basis possible. When the commonwealth was established in 1901, he headed a strong, mainly free trade, opposition in the first federal parliament. In the second parliament, where three parties of nearly equal strength made themselves felt, he first combined with Labour (April 1904) to defeat the Liberal ministry of Alfred Deakin, and then joined with Deakin (August) to defeat Labour and to attain the coveted position of prime minister. In June 1905, the alliance suddenly broke up. He then led the opposition in parliament until his retirement from Australian politics in 1908. He was knighted in 1909 and served as Australia's first high commissioner in London (1910-16) and as a member of the British House of Commons for Hanover Square (1916-18).
Reid, Marion (Loretta), née Doyle (b. Jan. 2, 1929, North Rustico, P.E.I.), lieutenant governor of Prince Edward Island (1990-95).
Reid, Ptolemy (Alexander) (b. May 8, 1918, Dartmouth village, Essequibo Coast, British Guiana [now Guyana] - d. Sept. 2, 2003, Atlantic Gardens, near Georgetown, Guyana), prime minister of Guyana (1980-84). He joined the People's National Congress party in 1960, became deputy prime minister in 1964, and later was home affairs minister, finance minister, and minister of agriculture.
Reid, Stanley (Everton) (b. 1968?), deputy governor (2006- ) and acting governor (2009, 2013) of Anguilla.
Reid, Sir William (b. April 25, 1791, Kinglassie village, Fifeshire, Scotland - d. Oct. 31, 1858, London, England), governor of Bermuda (1839-46), Barbados (1846-48), and Malta (1851-58); knighted 1851.
Reid Cabral, Donald (Joseph) (b. June 9, 1923, Santiago de los Caballeros, Dominican Republic - d. July 22, 2006, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic), chairman of the Triumvirate (1963-65) and foreign minister (1963-64, 1964-65, 1986-88) of the Dominican Republic.
Reig-Ribó, Julià (b. Dec. 5, 1911, Sant Julià de Lòria, Andorra - d. January 1996), first syndic of Andorra (1961-66, 1972-78).
Reina (Idiáquez), Carlos Roberto (b. March 13, 1926, Comayagüela, Honduras - d. Aug. 19, 2003, Tegucigalpa, Honduras), president of Honduras (1994-98). As a Liberal Party activist while still a teenager, he was imprisoned for six months in 1944 for protesting against dictator Tiburcio Carías. He also was imprisoned briefly by military governments in 1963 and 1968. He published the Liberal Party newspaper El Pueblo in the 1960s, was ambassador to France (1960-63), and was first elected to Congress in 1965. In 1979-85 he was a judge of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. He was elected president in November 1993 with promises to crack down on corruption and reduce the role of the military. He made gradual progress on both fronts during his four years in office, eliminating mandatory military service and helping ease Honduras away from decades of military meddling in politics. However, corruption, crime, and poverty remained grave problems (a few months into his mandate, he laid bare his frustration and admitted "how difficult it is to govern in such a poor country"). He survived a 1996 bombing that blew a hole in his house, though the bomber escaped. After his presidential term, he was president of the Central American Parliament (1998-99). He shot himself to end his suffering from cancer.
Reina (Idiáquez), Jorge Arturo (b. March 21, 1935, Tegucigalpa, Honduras), interior minister of Honduras (2006-07); brother of Carlos Roberto Reina. He was permanent representative to the United Nations in 2008-09.
Reina Barrios, José María (b. Dec. 24, 1854, San Marcos, Guatemala - d. [assassinated] Feb. 8, 1898, Guatemala City, Guatemala), president of Guatemala (1892-98); nephew of Justo Rufino Barrios.
Reinalda, Marius Antoon (b. June 28, 1888, Haarlem, Netherlands - d. July 4, 1965, The Hague, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Utrecht (1947-54).
Reinfeldt, (John) Fredrik (b. Aug. 4, 1965, Stockholm, Sweden), prime minister of Sweden (2006-14).
Reinhard, Hans von (b. Feb. 20, 1755, Zürich, Switzerland - d. Dec. 23, 1835, Zürich), Swiss statesman. He held the offices of Stadtschreiber of Zürich (1787-95), Landvogt of the county of Baden (1795-98), member (1798-99) and then president (1800-01) of the new municipal government of Zürich under the Helvetic Republic, and Regierungsstatthalter of the canton of Zürich (1801-02). In November 1802 he was delegated by Zürich to the Consulta in Paris, called by Napoléon Bonaparte to discuss the problem of Swiss federal reorganization. Subsequently he signed the Act of Mediation (Feb. 19, 1803), which marked a return to a confederate model of government after the unitary experiment of the Helvetic Republic. Between 1803 and 1831 he was one of two mayors of Zürich (acting in alternating years) and concurrently served on the cantonal council. He was six times chief executive of Switzerland (as Landammann, during the period of French domination, in 1807 and 1813 and as president of the Diet in 1814, 1816, 1822, and 1828). In late 1813, when the fall of Napoléon was impending, he convoked a national Diet at Zürich which provided the groundwork for the future independent confederation. From September 1814 to March 1815 he headed the Swiss delegation to the Congress of Vienna, at which he championed the cause of a fully independent Switzerland.
Relander, Lauri Kristian, original name Lars Kristian Relander (b. May 31, 1883, Kurkijoki, Finland - d. Feb. 9, 1942, Helsinki, Finland), president of Finland (1925-31).
Reis, Antônio Carlos Konder (b. Dec. 16, 1924, Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil), governor of Santa Catarina (1975-79, 1994-95).
Reis, Henoch da Silva (b. Feb. 9, 1907, Manacapuru, Amazonas, Brazil - d. Sept. 28, 1998), governor of Amazonas (1975-79).
Reisch, Georg (b. May 23, 1930, Vienna, Austria), secretary-general of the European Free Trade Association (1988-94).
Reisdorff, Ivan (b. 1913 - d. 1981, Brussels, Belgium), Belgian resident of Urundi (1959-61).
Reksodiharjo, Sarimin (b. July 17, 1905), governor of Sumatera Utara (1950-51).
Rell, M. Jodi, original name Mary Carolyn Reavis (b. June 16, 1946, Norfolk, Va.), governor of Connecticut (2004-11).
Remeliik, Haruo I(gnacio) (b. June 1, 1933, Peleliu island, Palau - d. [assassinated] June 30, 1985, Koror, Palau), president of Palau (1981-85).
Remengesau, Thomas (Ongelibel) (b. 1929, Ngaraard, Palau), vice president (1985-88) and president (1985 [acting], 1988) of Palau.
Remengesau, Tommy, byname of Thomas Esang Remengesau (b. Feb. 28, 1956, Koror, Palau), vice president (1993-2000) and president (2001-09, 2013- ) of Palau; son of Thomas Remengesau.
Remes Lenicov, Jorge (Luis) (b. Sept. 23, 1948, La Plata, Argentina), economy minister of Argentina (2002).
Remkes, Johan(nes Wijnandus) (b. June 15, 1951, Oostenbroek, Groningen, Netherlands), interior minister of the Netherlands (2002-07) and queen's/king's commissioner of Noord-Holland (2010- ).
Remorino, Jerónimo (b. Nov. 15, 1902, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Nov. 20, 1968, Buenos Aires), foreign minister of Argentina (1951-55). He was also ambassador to the United States (1948-51).
Rémy, Marie Emmanuel Adolphe Roger (b. Oct. 10, 1897 - d. Sept. 22, 1992), acting administrator-superior of the Comoros (1948-50).
Renard, (Georges) Édouard (Alexandre) (b. Aug. 3, 1883, Oran, Algeria - d. [plane crash] March 15, 1935, near Bolobo, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)]), governor-general of French Equatorial Africa (1934-35).
Renaud, Edgar (Louis) (b. June 22, 1887, Neuchâtel, Switzerland - d. July 12, 1953, Neuchâtel), president of the Council of State of Neuchâtel (1922-23, 1926-27, 1931-32, 1936-37, 1941-42).
Renaud, Georges (Jean Louis), resident of Wallis and Futuna (1931-33).
Rendell, Ed(ward Gene) (b. Jan. 5, 1944, New York City), governor of Pennsylvania (2003-11). He got a job in Philadelphia District Attorney Arlen Specter's office prosecuting homicides, and in 1977, at 33, he was elected district attorney himself, being reelected in 1981. The district attorney is a prominent figure not just in Philadelphia but also in the entire Philadelphia media market, where some 40% of Pennsylvania voters live. He became a popular public figure in Philadelphia. In 1985 he did not run for reelection but entered the 1986 gubernatorial race. In the Democratic primary he faced former auditor general Bob Casey, who had lost in primaries in 1966, 1970, and 1978. This time Casey won, 51%-40%, although Rendell carried the Philadelphia market. In 1987 Rendell ran unsuccessfully in the Democratic primary against Philadelphia mayor Wilson Goode. In 1991 he ran for mayor again. With Goode ineligible to run again and the city's finances in dreadful shape, Rendell, campaigning with his usual energy and ebullience, won the Democratic primary 49%-27%. In the general election he faced former mayor Frank Rizzo, but Rizzo died in July and Rendell won easily in November, 64%-30%, and proved to be a successful mayor (serving 1992-2000). In 1999-2001 he was general chairman of the Democratic National Committee. He then set out to run for governor in 2002. In the Democratic primary, he faced Auditor General Bob Casey, Jr., whose father had defeated him 16 years earlier. Rendell won 57%-43%; he won 79% of the vote in Philadelphia. After the primary he vastly outraised Republican Mike Fisher, with $42 million for the entire campaign. He won 53%-44% (84% in Philadelphia), becoming the first Philadelphian elected to the gubernatorial position since 1914. He was reelected in 2006, defeating Republican Lynn Swann, a former professional football player, 60%-40%.
René, France-Albert (b. Nov. 16, 1935, Farquhar island, Seychelles), president (1977-2004) and foreign minister (1984-89, 1997) of Seychelles.
Rengers, Willem Frederik Lodewijk baron (b. Nov. 28, 1789, The Hague, Netherlands - d. Jan. 15, 1859, Zeist, Utrecht, Netherlands), governor of Groningen (1830-50).
Rengguer (de la Lime), Joseph-Antoine, Rengguer also spelled Rengger (b. 1734 - d. 1818), president of the provisional administration of the République Rauracienne (1792-93).
Renkin, Jules (Laurent Jean Louis) (b. Dec. 3, 1862, Ixelles, Belgium - d. July 15, 1934, Brussels, Belgium), justice minister (1907-08), interior minister (1919-20, 1931-32), prime minister (1931-32), and finance minister (1932) of Belgium.
Renner, Karl (b. Dec. 14, 1870, Unter-Tannowitz, Austria-Hungary [now Dolní Dunajovice, Czech Republic] - d. Dec. 31, 1950, Döbling, Vienna, Austria), chancellor (1918-20, 1945) and president (1945-50) of Austria. He early attached himself to the Social Democratic Party and became a member of its moderate wing. A deputy to the Reichsrat (lower house of parliament) from 1907, he advocated the transformation of the Habsburg empire into a federal democratic commonwealth. After the collapse of the monarchy at the end of World War I, he became the first chancellor of the new Austrian republic. In two successive coalition ministries (November 1918-July 1920), he proved unable to prevent sizable territorial losses to Italy, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia. On May 12, 1919, he went to Paris as head of the Austrian delegation and, after the resignation of Foreign Minister Otto Bauer, signed on September 10 the Treaty of Saint-Germain, which prohibited Austria's union with Germany, a project he had initially supported. He advocated strict neutrality in foreign affairs. After the coalition was dissolved he remained foreign minister until October 1920. The leader of the Social Democratic Party's right wing during the 1920s, he served as president of the Nationalrat (lower house of parliament) in 1931-33. He remained unmolested after the Nazi German annexation of Austria in 1938. After the occupation of Vienna by Soviet troops in 1945, he obtained approval for the formation of an Austrian democratic government and on April 29 became the first chancellor of the reborn Austria. On December 20, the Federal Assembly unanimously elected him president of the republic; he died in office five years later.
Reno, Janet (b. July 21, 1938, Miami, Fla.), U.S. attorney general (1993-2001). In 1978 she was appointed, and later reelected several times, state's attorney for Dade county, which encompassed the Miami metropolitan area. She dealt with bloody riots in the Liberty City section of Miami in 1980 and with the greatly increased crime spurred by a booming drug trade. By reforming the juvenile justice system and aggressively prosecuting child-abuse cases, she gained recognition as a strong advocate for children's rights. Some criticized her for her tendency to plea-bargain cases. Her vast experience as a prosecutor put her on Bill Clinton's shortlist for attorney general, but her nomination came only after the first two choices, Zoe Baird and Kimba M. Wood, both withdrew from consideration amid controversy about their employment of illegal immigrants as domestics. Reno became the first woman to serve as the top U.S. law-enforcement official. She faced considerable challenges, not the least of which was reconciling her own views on the root causes of crime and social disorder with popular demands for tougher laws and harsher punishments. In April 1993 she ordered agents of the FBI to conduct the ill-fated final raid on the Branch Davidian cult compound near Waco, Texas, where weapons were reportedly being stockpiled; it ended a 51-day standoff and left some 80 people dead. She also drafted new legislation to broaden the federal scope of child pornography laws. In 1997 she was criticized by Republicans for refusing to call for an independent counsel to investigate alleged Clinton campaign finance abuses. She was the longest-serving attorney general in U.S. history. In 2002 she sought the Democratic nomination for governor of Florida, but narrowly lost the primary to Bill McBride.
Renovica, Milanko (b. Oct. 18, 1928, Sokolac, Yugoslavia [now in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina] - d. Nov. 2, 2013, Prague, Czech Republic), chairman of the Executive Council (1974-82) and president of the Presidency (1984-85) of Bosnia and Herzegovina and president of the Presidium of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (1986-87).
Renzi, Matteo (b. Jan. 11, 1975, Florence, Italy), prime minister of Italy (2014- ). He was mayor of Florence in 2009-14.
Reol Tejada, Juan Manuel (b. Aug. 26, 1933, Burgos, Spain - d. Sept. 9, 2008, Madrid, Spain), president of the General Council of Castilla-León (1978-80).
Repetto, Andrea (b. 1867, Italy - d. 1911), chief islander of Tristan da Cunha (1902-11).
Repetto, William Peter, byname Willie Repetto (b. Feb. 12, 1902, Tristan da Cunha - d. Dec. 15, 1976), chief islander of Tristan da Cunha (1932-70); son of Andrea Repetto.
Repiquet, Jules (Vincent) (b. Feb. 17, 1874, Rodez, Aveyron, France - d. July 2, 1960, Pamiers, Ariège, France), French resident commissioner of the New Hebrides (1911-13), governor of New Caledonia (1914-23) and Réunion (1925-32), and commissioner of French Cameroons (1934-36).
Repse, Einars (b. Dec. 9, 1961, Jelgava, Latvian S.S.R.), prime minister (2002-04), defense minister (2004-05), and finance minister (2009-10) of Latvia. He resigned as defense minister after an anti-corruption committee launched a probe into his business deals.
Resampa, André (b. 1934, Menabe, Toliara region, Madagascar - d. 1993), interior minister (1960-70), member of the presidential triumvirate acting for Philibert Tsiranana (1970), first vice president (1970-71), and second vice president (1971) of Madagascar.
Resende, Eurico Vieira (b. Aug. 22, 1918, Ubá, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. April 14, 1997), governor of Espírito Santo (1979-83).
Resin, Vladimir (Iosifovich) (b. Feb. 21, 1936, Minsk, Belorussian S.S.R.), acting mayor of Moscow (2010).
Restad, Gudmund (b. Dec. 19, 1937, Skaun, Norway), finance minister of Norway (1997-2000).
Reste (de Roca), (Dieudonné) François Joseph (Marie) (b. May 2, 1879, Pia village, Pyrénées-Orientales, France - d. March 15, 1976, Paris), lieutenant governor of Chad (1923-26), governor of Dahomey (1929-31) and Ivory Coast (1931-35), and governor-general of French Equatorial Africa (1936-39).
Restrepo (y Puerta), José Miguel de (b. Oct. 8, 1755, Copacabana, Antioquia department, New Granada [now in Colombia] - d. Oct. 1, 1829, Suesca, Cundinamarca department, Colombia), president of Antioquia (1812-13).
Reuter, Ernst (Rudolf Johannes) (b. July 29, 1889, Apenrade, Schleswig-Holstein, Prussia, Germany [now Åbenrå, Denmark] - d. Sept. 29, 1953, West Berlin), German politician. He joined the German Social Democratic Party in 1912 and in 1914, after World War I had begun, became secretary of the pacifist association Bund Neues Vaterland. He was drafted and in 1916 became a Russian prisoner of war. Becoming a Communist, he served as commissar of the Volga German autonomous workers' commune in 1918. Back in Germany after the war, he was appointed Communist Party secretary for Berlin, and was general secretary of the party for three months in 1921, but in 1922 rejoined the Social Democrats. In 1926 he was elected to the Berlin city assembly. He became lord mayor of Magdeburg (1931-33) and was elected to the Reichstag (1932). Following Adolf Hitler's advent to power in 1933, he suffered two periods of imprisonment in a concentration camp, then went to England in 1935 before living in Turkey in 1939-45. He returned to Berlin in 1946 and reorganized the Social Democratic Party. On June 24, 1947, he was elected lord mayor but was not approved because of Soviet opposition. After the division of the city into a western and eastern part, the Social Democrats won a decisive victory in West Berlin on Dec. 5, 1948, and he was elected lord mayor; he was reelected (as governing mayor) in January 1951. From 1951 he also presided over the Deutscher Städtetag (German Council of Cities). His moral authority extending far beyond the city, he led West Berlin through the Soviet blockade of 1948-49. In picturing Berlin as an "island of democracy in a red sea" he dramatized the situation in the United States and encouraged support for an airlift that cost the U.S. several hundred million dollars. He died in office.
Reutlinger, Rudolf (b. 1921 - d. Jan. 18, 2004, Herisau, Appenzell-Ausserrhoden, Switzerland), Landammann of Appenzell-Ausserrhoden (1981-84).
Reviglio, Víctor (Félix) (b. April 4, 1938, San Francisco, Córdoba, Argentina), governor of Santa Fe (1987-91).
Revilla Roiz, Miguel Ángel (b. Jan. 23, 1943, Polaciones, Cantabria, Spain), president of the Council of Government of Cantabria (2003-11).
Révoil, (Amédée Marie Joseph) Paul (b. May 23, 1856, Nîmes, Gard, France - d. April 23, 1914, Mouriès, Bouches-du-Rhône, France), governor-general of Algeria (1901-03). He was also French minister to Morocco (1900-01) and ambassador to Switzerland (1905-06) and Spain (1907-09).
Revoredo Iglesias, Armando (b. June 17, 1897, Contumazá province, Cajamarca department, Peru - d. June 25, 1978), foreign minister (1948) and prime minister (1948) of Peru. He was also minister of aviation (1947-48).
Rex, Sir Robert (Richmond) (b. Jan. 25, 1909, Hamula, Alofi, Niue - d. Dec. 12, 1992, Niue), premier of Niue (1974-92); knighted 1984.
Rexhepi, Bajram (b. June 3, 1954, Suhodol village, near Kosovska Mitrovica, Kosovo, Serbia), prime minister (2002-04) and interior minister (2010- ) of Kosovo.
Rexhepi, Fatmir (b. July 6, 1956, Podgradje village, near Gnjilane, Kosovo, Serbia), interior minister of Kosovo (2006-07).
Rey, Jean (b. July 15, 1902, Liége [now Liège], Belgium - d. May 19, 1983, Liège), Belgian politician. He first entered local, then national, politics. Commissioned in the army reserve during World War II, he spent five years as a prisoner of war. After his return, as a leading member of the Liberal Party he was minister for reconstruction and later minister for economic affairs before joining the European Commission in 1958. He attacked the French veto of British entry into the European Economic Community in 1963 but was recognized as a moderate by the French, who did not oppose his candidacy for president of the European Commission in 1967. After retiring from the Commission in 1970, he went into industry but continued his work for Europe as president of the International European Movement (1974-78) and a member of the European Parliament (1979-80).
Rey, Victor (François Ferdinand), acting governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1901) and governor of French Guiana (1905-06).
Rey-Bellet, Jean-Jacques (b. Sept. 27, 1950), president of the Council of State of Valais (1999-2000, 2003-04, 2007-08).
Rey de Castro y Romaña, Alberto (b. 1869, Arequipa, Peru - d. 1961), prime minister (1934) and acting foreign minister (1934) of Peru. He was also mayor of Arequipa (1915-16, 1934-39), minister to Ecuador (1916-19), and minister of justice, education, and worship (1934).
Reyes, Angelo (Tomas) (b. March 17, 1945, San Miguel, Manila, Philippines - d. [suicide] Feb. 8, 2011, Quezon City, Philippines), defense secretary (2001-03) and interior secretary (2004-06) of the Philippines.
Reyes, Narciso G. (b. Feb. 6, 1914, Manila, Philippines - d. May 7, 1996), secretary-general of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (1980-82). He was also Philippine ambassador to Burma (1958-62), Indonesia (1962-67), the United Kingdom (1967-70), and China (1977-80) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1970-77).
Reyes (Prieto), (José Gregorio Ambrosio) Rafael (b. Dec. 5, 1849, Santa Rosa de Viterbo, New Granada [now in Colombia] - d. Feb. 19, 1921, Bogotá, Colombia), president of Colombia (1904-09). In 1874 he and his brothers began an extraordinary adventure of exploration and occupation of the unknown area of the Amazon Basin in Colombia. One brother died of fever and another was eaten by cannibals; Reyes survived in the jungle for 10 years. Soon after his return, he aligned himself with the dominant Conservatives and helped suppress Liberal revolts in 1885 and 1895, being rewarded for his services to dictator Rafael Núñez with various political offices: secretary of the interior, ambassador to France, and delegate to the Pan-American Conference in Mexico (1901-02). He made an unsuccessful attempt to negotiate compensation from the United States after the U.S.-supported secession (1903) of Panama. After his return, he was elected president in 1904. He soon assumed dictatorial powers - dismissing the Congress, jailing some of its members, and appointing his own puppet assembly. In a generally efficient administration he restored the nation's international credit, increased coffee production, and encouraged the building of railroads and public facilities. He also separated church and state. But Colombians grew restive under his dictatorship, and opposition to his proposed treaty with the U.S., providing for payment of only $2,500,000 for the loss of Panama, forced him to resign in 1909, although his term would not have been up until 1914. He then travelled abroad for 10 years, returning to Colombia in 1919.
Reyes Heroles, Jesús (b. April 3, 1921, Tuxpan, Veracruz, Mexico - d. March 19, 1985, Denver, Colo.), interior minister of Mexico (1976-79). He was also education minister (1982-85).
Reymond, Jean (Émile André) (b. May 2, 1912, Saint-Bonnet-de-Valclérieux, Drôme, France - d. 1986), minister of state of Monaco (1963-66). He was also prefect of the French départements of Corrèze (1946-47), Marne (1950-51), Oise (1954-57), and Basses-Pyrénées (1957-60).
Reynaud de Villeverd, Jean-François, comte de (b. July 9, 1731, Grenoble, France - d. Nov. 22, 1812, Paris, France), governor-general of Saint-Domingue (1775, 1780-81).
Reynders, Didier (J.L.) (b. Aug. 6, 1958, Liège, Belgium), finance minister (2004-11) and foreign minister (2011- ) of Belgium.
Reynolds, Albert, Irish Ailbhe Mac Raghnaill (b. Nov. 3, 1932, Rooskey, County Roscommon, Ireland - d. Aug. 21, 2014, Dublin, Ireland), prime minister of Ireland (1992-94). A member of the Fianna Fáil party, he first entered the Dáil (parliament) in 1977 and became minister for posts and telegraphs (1979-81) and transport (1980-81) in Charles Haughey's cabinet. He was subsequently minister for industry and energy (1982), industry and commerce (1987-88), and finance (1988-91) in Haughey's later cabinets. He broke with Haughey in late 1991, and, when the latter was forced to resign his leadership posts in February 1992, Reynolds succeeded him as head of Fianna Fáil and as prime minister. He sacked many Fianna Fáil ministers, vowing to distance the party from accusations of corruption. The coalition that he inherited between Fianna Fáil and the Progressive Democrats broke up in late 1992, when Reynolds used the words "reckless, irresponsible, and dishonest" to describe testimony given by Progressive Democrat leader Desmond O'Malley to the Tribunal of Inquiry into the Beef Processing Industry. Fueled by anger over the suggestion that O'Malley had committed perjury, the Progressive Democrats joined other parties to defeat a motion of confidence in Reynolds on November 5 and forced new elections. There was speculation that Reynolds had provoked an electoral battle in a bid for majority rule for Fianna Fáil. However, as the election neared, he saw his approval ratings drop from 60 to 31%. His efforts were hurt by a stagnant economy and high unemployment. In the November 25 election, Fianna Fáil lost its majority, and the Labour Party doubled its representation. He was able to form a new coalition government with Labour. When this coalition split up in November 1994 he resigned. He retired from public life in 1998.
Reynolds, John W(hitcome) (b. April 4, 1921, Green Bay, Wis. - d. Jan. 6, 2002), governor of Wisconsin (1963-65).
Reynoso Femat, Luis Armando (b. Aug. 15, 1957, Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Mexico), governor of Aguascalientes (2004-10).
Reytern, Mikhail Khristoforovich, (from Feb. 1, 1890) Graf (b. Sept. 24 [Sept. 12, O.S.], 1820 - d. Aug. 23 [Aug. 11, O.S.], 1890), finance minister (1862-78) and chairman of the Committee of Ministers (1881-87) of Russia.
Reza Pahlavi, also spelled Riza Pahlevi, original name Reza Khan (b. March 16, 1878, Alasht, Mazanderan province, Iran - d. July 26, 1944, Johannesburg, South Africa), shah of Iran (1925-41). After centuries of misrule Iran in 1921 was on the verge of disintegration. Reza Khan decided on trying to put an end to the chaos by taking over power and forming a strong government, bolstered by an effective and disciplined military force. In conjunction with some young progressive elements, he carried out the coup on Feb. 21, 1921, occupying Tehran at the head of 1,200 men. He took command of all the military forces and a few weeks later was appointed minister of war. He was the real power behind several successive prime ministers until 1923, when he took the position himself. The shah, Soltan Ahmad Qajar, was ill and undergoing a lengthy cure in Europe. For a time there was a movement in favour of proclaiming a republic, but this idea met with much opposition. It was therefore decided to retain the monarchy but to depose the absentee monarch and to place Reza Khan on the throne, vesting sovereignty in the new Pahlavi dynasty (December 1925). After his coronation in April 1926, he continued to carry out many reforms on Western lines. His foreign policy, which had consisted essentially of playing the Soviet Union off against Britain, failed when those two powers joined in 1941 to fight the Germans. When they demanded permission to send military supplies across Iran, he refused; the two allies then jointly occupied the country (August 1941). In September Reza abdicated to allow his eldest son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, to adopt a policy appropriate to the new situation and preserve the dynasty. He wanted to go to Canada, but the British government sent him first to Mauritius and then to Johannesburg.
Rezek, José Francisco (b. Jan. 18, 1944, Cristina, Minas Gerais, Brazil), foreign minister of Brazil (1990-92).
Rhee, Syngman (Li Sung Man; Revised Romanization I Seung-man) (b. April 26, 1875, Hwanghae, Korea [now in North Korea] - d. July 19, 1965, Honolulu, Hawaii), president of South Korea (1948-60). In 1896 he and other Korean leaders formed the Independence Club to promote Korean nationalism. Reactionary elements destroyed the club in 1898 and he was imprisoned until 1904. On his release he went to the United States, where he made frequent but unsuccessful appeals to the government to save his country from Japan. He went home in 1910, the year in which Korea was fully annexed by Japan, but his hostility toward Japanese rule led to his return to the U.S. in 1912. For the next 30 years he acted as a spokesman for Korean independence but failed to win international support for his cause. He was elected president of a "provisional government of the Republic of Korea" proclaimed in 1919 but in 1925 was pushed out of the leadership by younger Korean nationalists centred in China. He spent the World War II years trying to secure Allied promises of Korean independence. As the only Korean leader well known to Americans, he was returned to Korea ahead of the other members of the "provisional government" in 1945. He soon built up a mass political organization, which won the 1948 elections in South Korea, and he became president of the new Republic of Korea, a post to which he was reelected in 1952, 1956, and 1960. He assumed dictatorial powers, tolerating little opposition. Government claims that he won more than 90% of the popular vote in the 1960 elections (compared to 55% in 1956) provoked student-led demonstrations resulting in heavy casualties and demands for his resignation, supported by the National Assembly. He accordingly resigned and went into exile in Hawaii.
Rheinart, (Pierre) Paul (b. Nov. 1, 1840, Charleville [now Charleville-Mézières], Ardennes, France - d. 1902, Paris), resident-general of Annam-Tonkin (1884, 1888-89).
Rhijn, Albertus Johannes Roux van (b. July 7, 1890, Vanrhynsdorp, Namaqualand, Cape Colony [now in Western Cape province, South Africa] - d. Dec. 30, 1971), administrator of South West Africa (1951-53). He was also South African minister of health (1953-54), mines (1953-58), and economic affairs (1954-58) and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1958-60).
Rhodes, James A(llen) (b. Sept. 13, 1909, Coalton, Ohio - d. March 4, 2001, Columbus, Ohio), governor of Ohio (1963-71, 1975-83). He became mayor of Columbus (1944-52), marking the beginning of a political career that spanned nearly 50 years. During his tenure as Ohio's only four-term governor, the state built highways, expanded the university system, and put an airport in almost every county. He was credited with bringing many industries to Ohio and with making Ohio a leader in vocational education. But the Kent State shootings cast an indelible shadow on his career. On May 2, 1970, he decided to send the National Guard to Kent State, which, like campuses across the nation, was in turmoil over the U.S. invasion of Cambodia during the Vietnam War. Protesters had vandalized businesses in downtown Kent and the campus ROTC building was burned. On May 4, four students died and nine were wounded when troops opened fire. The reason behind the shootings was never fully learned. Lawsuits against Rhodes and other officials ended in January 1979, when the victims' families agreed to settlements totaling $675,000. Those close to him said he was saddened by the tragedy but blamed the turbulence of the war era and believed his action was necessary. Already that year there had been three riots on Ohio campuses. In 1999, he still believed the protesters were misguided: "It was people who thought something was wrong with America." When he ran in the GOP Senate primary on May 5, 1970 - the day after the Kent State shootings - he lost to Robert Taft, Jr., by 6,000 votes out of about 900,000 cast. He made a comeback in 1974, narrowly defeating Democratic Gov. John Gilligan. He served two more terms, then tried another comeback in 1986, but lost.
Ri Su Yong (b. June 15, 1940), foreign minister of North Korea (2014- ). He was also ambassador to Switzerland (1988-2010).
Riad, Mahmoud, Arabic Mahmud Riyyad (b. Jan. 8, 1917, Qalyubiyah, Egypt - d. Jan. 25, 1992, Cairo, Egypt), secretary-general of the Arab League (1972-79). After fighting in the first Arab-Israeli war (1948-49), he was a member of the Egyptian delegation that signed the 1949 armistice with Israel. After the revolution of 1952, he joined the foreign ministry, serving as head of the Palestine desk (1952-53), director of Arab affairs (1953-55), ambassador to Syria (1955-58), special adviser to Pres. Gamal Abdel Nasser (1958-62), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1962-64). As foreign minister (1964-72) and deputy premier (1971-72), he urged a peaceful settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict, persuading many nations to join in an international boycott of Israel to force concessions. In 1972 he was named to succeed Abdel Khaliq Hassuna as secretary-general of the Arab League. Although he opposed Pres. Anwar as-Sadat's peace initiative with Israel, on the grounds that it was a unilateral move that caused a rift in the Arab world, Riad struggled to hold the league together in 1979. He resigned after the other Arab states voted to expel Egypt from the league and move its headquarters from Cairo to Tunis, Tunisia. He remained a respected government adviser.
Riart (Vera y Aragón), Luis Alberto (b. June 21, 1880, Esquina, Argentina - d. Oct. 1, 1953, Asunción, Paraguay), finance minister (1923-24, 1931), provisional president (1924), and foreign minister (1935-36) of Paraguay. He was also minister to Brazil (1937-39).
Ribamar Fiquene, José de (b. Dec. 27, 1930, Itapecuru-Mirim, Maranhão, Brazil - d. Jan. 2, 2011, São Luís, Maranhão), acting governor of Maranhão (1994-95). He was also mayor of Imperatriz (1983-88).
Ribas Reig, Òscar (b. Oct. 26, 1936), head of government of Andorra (1982-84, 1990-94).
Ribbentrop, (Ullrich Friedrich Willy) Joachim von (b. April 30, 1893, Wesel, Germany - d. Oct. 16, 1946, Nürnberg, Germany), foreign minister of Germany (1938-45). In World War I he served in a Hussar regiment on the eastern front and in 1915 was assigned to the German military mission in Turkey. In 1925 he persuaded a distant ennobled relative to adopt him so that he could affix "von" to his name. He met Adolf Hitler in August 1932 and joined the National Socialist Party the same year. After the Nazi accession of power (January 1933), he became the Führer's personal adviser on foreign affairs. He was appointed Reich commissioner for disarmament at Geneva in 1934 and, as ambassador-at-large, negotiated the Anglo-German naval agreement (June 1935), which authorized German naval rearmament, as well as the Anti-Comintern Pact with Japan (November 1936). In August 1936 he was appointed ambassador to Great Britain. He hoped to develop a close Anglo-German understanding but, failing in this, he left the post as a convinced Anglophobe in February 1938, when he was appointed foreign minister. He signed the "Pact of Steel" with Italy (May 22, 1939), linking Europe's two fascist dictatorships in an alliance in case of war, and, in his most significant act, concluded the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact of Aug. 23, 1939, which cleared the way for Hitler's attack on Poland on September 1, thus beginning World War II. During the war his importance declined. He signed the Tripartite Pact with Italy and Japan (Sept. 27, 1940), providing for mutual assistance against the United States, but thereafter diplomacy became a secondary concern. He disappeared from Berlin in April 1945, but was captured in Hamburg on June 14, indicted at the Nürnberg war crimes trial, found guilty on four major counts, and hanged.
Ribeiro, Eduardo Gonçalves (b. Sept. 18, 1862 - d. Oct. 14, 1900), president of Amazonas (1890-91, 1892-96).
Ribeiro, Manoel Gomes, barão de Traipu (b. June 29, 1841, Engenho de Santana, Japaratuba municipality, Sergipe, Brazil - d. July 27, 1920, Penedo, Alagoas, Brazil), acting president of Alagoas (1891-92, 1894-96).
Ribicic, Ciril (b. June 30, 1947, Ljubljana, Slovenia), secretary of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Slovenia (1989-90); son of Mitja Ribicic.
Ribicic, Mitja (b. May 19, 1919, Trieste, Italy - d. Nov. 28, 2013, Ljubljana, Slovenia), president of the Federal Executive Council (1969-71) and president of the Presidium of the League of Communists (1982-83) of Yugoslavia. Under investigation from 1994, he was charged with genocide in May 2005, accused of having ordered the summary execution of 234 supposed Nazi collaborators in 1945-46.
Ribicoff, Abraham A(lexander) (b. April 9, 1910, New Britain, Conn. - d. Feb. 22, 1998, Bronx, New York City), U.S. politician. A Democrat, his political career began in 1938, when he was elected to the Connecticut General Assembly as a representative from Hartford. He served two terms and in 1942 was appointed a municipal judge in Hartford. In 1948, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. He served two terms before running for the Senate in 1952. He lost that race by 29,000 votes to Prescott S. Bush, the father of George Bush. Ribicoff was elected governor of Connecticut in 1954. He was elected to a second term in 1958, but resigned in 1961 to become a member of John F. Kennedy's cabinet. Kennedy originally offered him the attorney general's job, but Ribicoff suggested Kennedy appoint his brother, Robert, to that post. Ribicoff instead became secretary of health, education and welfare. He resigned that post in 1962 to run for the Senate again. He won and was reelected in 1968 and 1974. In the Senate, he was known for his support for automobile safety standards, Medicare, education, and environmental regulations. He gained national prominence at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, when he made a blistering speech criticizing Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley for the "Gestapo tactics in the streets" used to control protesters. He retired from the Senate in 1981 but he didn't stay out of politics entirely and remained a popular adviser to presidents, governors, and congressional committees. He chaired a Reagan administration commission on military base closings and testified before a panel on political campaign reform. Ribicoff clearly enjoyed his status as an elder statesman.
Ribot, Alexandre (Félix Joseph) (b. Feb. 7, 1842, Saint-Omer, Pas-de-Calais, France - d. Jan. 13, 1923, Paris, France), foreign minister (1890-93, 1917) and prime minister (1892-93, 1895, 1914, 1917) of France. He was also minister of interior (1893), finance (1895, 1914-17), and justice (1914).
Ribourt, Amédée Louis (b. Oct. 8, 1821, Châteauroux, Indre, France - d. Feb. 22, 1893, Dijon, France), commandant of the Naval Division of the Western Coasts of Africa (1875-77).
Ricardo García, Joaquín (b. Jan. 18, 1952), foreign minister of the Dominican Republic (1988-91).
Ricaut (Carranza), Alfredo (b. March 21, 1887, Sierra Mojada, Coahuila, Mexico - d. Nov. 28, 1933, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico), governor of Nuevo León (1917) and Tamaulipas (1917-18).
Riccardi, Marino (b. 1958), captain-regent of San Marino (1991-92, 2004).
Rice, Condoleezza (b. Nov. 14, 1954, Birmingham, Ala.), U.S. national security advisor (2001-05) and secretary of state (2005-09). In 1986 she served as an assistant to the Joint Chiefs of Staff on nuclear strategy, and in 1989-91 she was director, and then senior director, for Soviet and Eastern European affairs in the National Security Council (NSC) and a special assistant to Pres. George Bush. For 10 years, she sat on the board of Chevron, which named an oil tanker after her. While visiting the former president in Texas in 1995 she met his son, George W. Bush. By the next time they met, at the Bush family compound in Maine in 1998, George W. was turning his aspirations toward the presidency and she began to school him in international affairs. In 1999 she became foreign policy adviser to his presidential campaign, and after his election in 2000 she was named head of the NSC, the first woman to hold the position. Though Rice seemed largely out of view following the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks in the U.S., by 2002 she was playing a prominent role in foreign policy and frequently traveling with the president. She became one of the most outspoken supporters of the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq. During Bush's second term she served as secretary of state (the first black woman appointed to the position), bringing to U.S. diplomacy two big assets: close ties with the president and an unflappable poise (having been called a "steel magnolia" and a "warrior princess"). She led the diplomatic effort to promote a U.S.-friendly peace in the Middle East; in the Lebanon war of 2006, she refused to call for an early ceasefire, only doing so when the war seemed unwinnable for Israel. She gave constant voice to themes of democracy, but would not deal with the Hamas government elected in the Palestinian areas.
Richa, José (b. Sept. 11, 1934, São Fidélis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Dec. 17, 2003, São Paulo, Brazil), governor of Paraná (1983-86). He was also mayor of Londrina (1973-77).
Richard, Christian Rémi (b. May 3, 1941), foreign minister of Madagascar (1977-83).
Richards, (Dorothy) Ann (Willis), née Willis (b. Sept. 1, 1933, Lakeview, Texas - d. Sept. 13, 2006, Austin, Texas), governor of Texas (1991-95). She volunteered in several gubernatorial campaigns, in 1958 for Henry Gonzalez and in 1952, 1954, and 1956 for Ralph Yarborough and then again for Yarborough's senatorial campaign in 1957. In 1976, she defeated a three-term incumbent to become a commissioner in Travis County, which includes Austin, and held that job for four years. She ran for state treasurer in 1982, received the most votes of any statewide candidate, became the first woman elected to statewide office in Texas in 50 years, and was reelected in 1986. In 1990, when the incumbent governor, William Clements, decided not to run for reelection, she defeated a former governor, Mark White, in the Democratic primary, then later fought a particularly brutal campaign against Republican candidate Clayton Williams, a wealthy rancher, and won. Among her achievements were institutional changes in the state penal system, invigorating the state's economy, and instituting the first Texas lottery, going so far as to buy the first lotto ticket herself on May 29, 1992. It was her acidic, plain-spoken keynote address to the Democratic convention in Atlanta in 1988, though, that made her a national figure. "Poor George, he can't help it," she said about George Bush. "He was born with a silver foot in his mouth." In 1992, she was chairwoman of the convention that first nominated Bill Clinton. Two years later, she underestimated her young Republican challenger, George W. Bush, going so far as to refer to him as "some jerk," a comment that drew considerable criticism. She was beaten, 53%-46%.
Richards, George Maxwell, byname Max Richards (b. Dec. 1, 1931, San Fernando, Trinidad), president of Trinidad and Tobago (2003-13).
Richards, Richard (b. May 14, 1932, Ogden, Utah - d. Jan. 30, 2015), chairman of the Republican National Committee (1981-83).
Richards-Dindial, Lizanne (Marie) (b. Sept. 19, 1957), administrator of Curaçao (2000-10).
Richardson, Alain (b. Aug. 31, 1963), president of the Territorial Council of Saint-Martin (2012-13).
Richardson, Bill, byname of William Blaine Richardson (b. Nov. 15, 1947, Pasadena, Calif.), governor of New Mexico (2003-11). After a job as a "sort of go-fer" at the State Department (1973-75) and a job on Sen. Hubert Humphrey's staff (1975-78), he moved to New Mexico to become executive director of the state Democratic Party (1978) but was fired after a month by Gov. Bruce King. He proceeded to run against 1st District congressman Manuel Lujan in 1980. This was a Republican year and Lujan had deep roots in Albuquerque and had been in office since 1968, but Richardson lost only narrowly. New Mexico got a third congressional district from the 1980 census, and the legislature drew a new, heavily Hispanic 3rd District in northern New Mexico. Richardson had already carried much of this territory in the 1980 race, and, running in 1982, he beat former lieutenant governor Roberto Mondragon 36%-31% in the primary and then won the general election with 64% of the vote. He rose in the Democratic House leadership to be a chief deputy whip. He had a somewhat moderate voting record and was not afraid to buck organized labour by lobbying hard for NAFTA in 1992 and 1993. He then spent much time on foreign affairs, traveling to Myanmar, Haiti, and North Korea in 1994. In 1997 he became ambassador to the United Nations. When Energy Secretary Federico Peña resigned in 1998, Pres. Bill Clinton was eager to have at least one Hispanic in an official cabinet position and shifted Richardson to the post. Leaving office with Clinton in 2001, he announced his candidacy for governor of New Mexico in January 2002. At the state Democratic convention in March, he won 1,288 of 1,705 votes. He broke a record by shaking 13,392 hands on September 16. In the November election he defeated Republican John Sanchez 55%-39%. He was a minor candidate for the 2008 Democratic presidential nomination. Barack Obama, winner of that nomination as well as the presidency, nominated him as commerce secretary, but he withdrew due to an ongoing corruption investigation.
Richardson, Dennis L. (b. 1946, Aruba), administrator of Sint Maarten (1994-2000).
Richardson, Elliot (Lee) (b. July 20, 1920, Boston, Mass. - d. Dec. 31, 1999, Boston), U.S. government official. A decorated veteran of World War II, he became lieutenant governor and then attorney general of Massachusetts, and undersecretary in the U.S. Department of State. Thereafter he served as U.S. secretary of health, education and welfare (1970-73), secretary of defense (1973), attorney general (1973), and secretary of commerce (1976-77), becoming the first person to hold four cabinet posts. On Oct. 20, 1973, he resigned from his post as attorney general during what became known as the "Saturday Night Massacre" rather than fire special Watergate prosecutor Archibald Cox, whom Pres. Richard Nixon wanted Richardson to dismiss. Richardson was loath to oust his own appointee, having selected Cox as an impartial independent investigator. (Cox was later fired by Robert Bork.) In 1975-76 he was ambassador to Britain. During the Jimmy Carter administration he served as chief U.S. delegate to the United Nations Law of the Sea conference. In 1989 UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali appointed him an observer to the Nicaraguan elections, and in 1990 Pres. George Bush relied on his expertise when he designated him as his special representative to the Philippines to help with multilateral assistance initiatives. Richardson's conduct as a public servant was recognized in 1998 when he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
Richardson, James (Armstrong) (b. March 28, 1922 - d. May 17, 2004, Winnipeg, Manitoba), Canadian politician. He was chairman and CEO of the family grain company, James Richardson and Sons, from 1966 to 1968. He resigned from the company to run for federal office in Winnipeg South, and immediately became a member of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau's cabinet (without portfolio 1968-69, transport 1969, supply and services 1969-72, national defence 1972-76). But the staunch westerner clashed with Trudeau and his plans to patriate the constitution. Richardson opposed official bilingualism, believing English should be the only official language in Canada outside of Quebec. He felt so strongly that he quit as defence minister in 1976 and sat as a backbencher. The following year, he founded Canadians for One Canada, a national organization to promote English as the only official language in Canada outside of Quebec. In 1978, his differences with Trudeau's plans prompted him to quit the Liberal Party and sit as an independent. He considered running for reelection a third time in 1979 as an independent but ultimately decided to leave politics. In the 1980 election, he endorsed Joe Clark's Progressive Conservative Party, describing it as the best party to hold Canada together.
Richardson, William A(dams) (b. Nov. 2, 1821, Tyngsboro, Mass. - d. Oct. 19, 1896, Washington, D.C.), U.S. treasury secretary (1873-74).
Richardson, William A(lexander) (b. Jan. 16, 1811, near Lexington, Ky. - d. Dec. 27, 1875, Quincy, Ill.), governor of Nebraska (1858).
Richaud, Étienne (Antoine Guillaume) (b. Jan. 10, 1841, Martigues, France - d. May 31, 1889, on board the Calédonien in the Bay of Bengal), governor of French India (1884-86) and Réunion (1886-87) and governor-general of French Indochina (1888-89).
Richepance, Antoine, also spelled Richepanse (b. March 25, 1770, Metz [now in Moselle département], France - d. Sept. 3, 1802, Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe), governor of Guadeloupe (1802).
Richert, Xavier (Charles) (b. 1913 - d. Jan. 7, 1992), administrator-superior of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands (1955-59).
Richomme, Henri Louis Marie (b. Dec. 20, 1880, Sion-les-Mines, Loire-Atlantique, France - d. Dec. 15, 1945, Sion-les-Mines), acting resident-superior of Cambodia (1935-36).
Richter Prada, Pedro (b. Jan. 4, 1921, Huamanga, Ayacucho department, Peru), interior minister (1971-75) and prime minister and war minister (1979-80) of Peru.
Rickenbach, Victor (Georg) (b. April 8, 1928, Laufenburg, Aargau, Switzerland - d. Dec. 28, 2007, Baden, Aargau), Landammann of Aargau (1989-90).
Ricketts, Pete, byname of John Peter Ricketts (b. Aug. 19, 1964, Nebraska City, Neb.), governor of Nebraska (2015- ).
Rideout, Thomas (Gerard) (b. June 25, 1948, Fleur de Lys, Newfoundland), premier of Newfoundland (1989). In 1975 he entered elective politics as a Liberal MHA (member of the House of Assembly) for Baie Verte-White Bay. He was reelected as a Liberal in 1979, but the next year crossed the floor to sit as a Progressive Conservative, stating that Liberal policy was not strong enough on the issue of provincial ownership of offshore resources. He was reelected in his district in 1982 and 1985. He served as parliamentary assistant to Premier A. Brian Peckford from 1982 to 1984. Regarded as a potential successor to Peckford, he was appointed Minister of Culture, Recreation and Youth in 1984, and served as Minister of Fisheries from 1985 to 1989. He entered the Conservative leadership race upon Peckford's resignation in January 1989, and was elected in a convention in St. John's. He replaced Peckford as premier on March 31. Rideout's term as premier was to last a mere 44 days. In an election, called for April 20, the Liberals, under their new leader Clyde K. Wells, won 31 of 52 seats. On May 5 Wells was sworn in as premier and Rideout became leader of the opposition. While some observers felt that Rideout had courted defeat by calling an election precipitously, others argued that after nearly 20 years of Conservative government voters were ripe for a change. As leader of the opposition Rideout led forces favouring approval of the Meech Lake constitutional accord in June 1990. On Jan. 17, 1991, he announced that he would resign as leader of the Conservative party, and in September officially resigned his positions as opposition leader, MHA for Baie Verte-White Bay, and as PC party leader. (He was succeeded by Len Simms, whom he had narrowly defeated for the leadership in 1989.)
Ridge, Tom, byname of Thomas Joseph Ridge (b. Aug. 26, 1945, Munhall, Pa.), governor of Pennsylvania (1995-2001). A Republican, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1982. There he made a mixed voting record by the lights of almost every rating group. In February 1993, he announced for governor. It turned out to be a crowded race. Ridge's best known opponent in the Republican primary was Attorney General Ernie Preate, a statewide winner in 1990 who was hurt when, a month before the primary, the Crime Commission said he had taken money from illegal video poker operators. Ridge, with backing from party leaders, won the May primary with 35% to 29% for Preate, 16% for Philadelphia businessman Sam Katz, and 14% for Pittsburgh legislator Mike Fisher. The Democrats had an even more crowded primary. The leader was Lieutenant Governor Mark Singel; he had switched stands on abortion in 1992 and lost the Senate primary 45%-32% to Lynn Yeakel. In 1994, Yeakel campaigned unimpressively and received only 14% to Singel's 31%. In between were black state representative Dwight Evans with 21% and state treasurer Catherine Baker Knoll with 20%. In the general, Ridge campaigned for tough crime measures, citizens rights' to statewide initiatives and referenda, less-strict environmental regulation, and a lower corporate tax. But the defining issue was probably crime. The result was a 45%-40% Ridge victory, and a continuation of Pennsylvania's 40-year practice of alternating the two parties in the governorship every eight years. Independent antiabortion candidate Peg Luksik won 13% of the vote; both Ridge and Singel were pro-choice. After the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attack on the U.S., Ridge was named director of the new Office of Homeland Security; when it became a cabinet department, he was its first secretary (2003-05).
Ridgway, Sir Andrew (Peter) (b. March 20, 1950), lieutenant governor of Jersey (2006-11); knighted 2011.
Ridgway, Mark (b. 1891 - d. Aug. 13, 1984), administrator of Nauru (1945-49).
Ridley, Clarence S(elf) (b. June 22, 1883, Corydon, Ind. - d. July 26, 1969, Carmel, Calif.), governor of the Panama Canal Zone (1936-40). Graduating from West Point with high honours and fourth in a class of 114, he was commissioned second lieutenant in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, June 13, 1905. He was promoted to first lieutenant on June 9, 1907. He served in Cuba, Hawaii, and the Philippines. In October 1912, he reached his captaincy. In 1916, he was assigned duty in the office of the Chief of Engineers, Washington, D.C., where he directed the development of the Engineer Officer Reserve Corps. He was promoted to major in 1917, and in August of the same year was appointed to the temporary rank of lieutenant colonel. In October 1917, he was appointed colonel and senior military aide to Pres. Woodrow Wilson, and supervised the care of public buildings and grounds in Washington, D.C. His duties included construction of the Arlington Memorial in Arlington Cemetery and the Lincoln Memorial in Potomac Park. Coming to the Isthmus in May 1921 to become assistant maintenance engineer, he had an opportunity to direct many of the departments of the canal at a time when the organization was entering a period of settled operation and maintenance. Under his tenure as governor of the Canal Zone, the U.S. rules of measurement of vessels as a factor in determining Panama Canal tolls were abolished on Aug. 24, 1937, and the Panama Canal rules were established as the sole means of measurement for determining the tonnage of vessels for canal tolls. The deepening of the Pacific entrance channel from Miraflores Locks to the sea buoys, including the Balboa inner harbour, was completed, excavating more than 11 million cubic yards. He retired on June 30, 1947.
Ridley, Matthew White Ridley, (1st) Viscount, (1st) Baron Wensleydale, (5th) Baronet (of Blagdon) (b. July 25, 1842, Carlton House Terrace, London - d. Nov. 28, 1904), British home secretary (1895-1900). He succeeded his father as baronet in 1877 and was created a viscount (and baron) in 1900.
Ridley of Liddesdale, Nicholas Ridley, Baron (b. Feb. 17, 1929, Newcastle upon Tyne, England - d. March 4, 1993, near Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, England), British politician; great-grandson of Matthew White Ridley, Viscount Ridley; great-grandson of Robert Bulwer-Lytton, Baron Lytton. After unsuccessfully contesting the safe Labour seat of Blyth in 1955, the Conservative won Cirencester and Tewkesbury in 1959 at the age of 30, becoming the 10th Ridley to serve in the House of Commons. He held minor posts in the ministries of technology and of trade and industry under Prime Minister Edward Heath, but refused an appointment as arts minister. In 1979 Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher named him minister of state to the foreign office. His outspokenness and caustic wit making him generally unsuited to foreign service, he became financial secretary to the treasury (1981-83) and secretary of state for transport (1983-86), the environment (1986-89), and trade and industry (1989-90). A loyal Thatcherite, he privatized industry and instituted the first poll tax. It was assumed he was speaking for Thatcher when, in a July 1990 interview with The Spectator, he said the European Community "is all a German racket designed to take over the whole of Europe. It has to be thwarted. This rushed takeover by the Germans on the worst possible basis, with the French behaving like poodles to the Germans, is absolutely intolerable." He added: "I'm not against giving up sovereignty in principle, but not to this lot. You might just as well give it to Adolf Hitler, frankly." The ensuing embarrassment forced him to resign and contributed to Thatcher's fall soon after. He remained a gadfly on the backbench, however, and campaigned against the Maastricht Treaty until his death. He was created a life peer in 1992.
Riekstins, Maris (b. April 8, 1963, Riga, Latvian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Latvia (2007-10). He was ambassador to the United States (2004-07) and Mexico (2006-07). In 2011 he became permanent representative to NATO.
Riera (Galtieri), Fernando (Pedro) (b. Feb. 6, 1915, Bella Vista, Tucumán, Argentina - d. Jan. 9, 1998, Tucumán), governor of Tucumán (1983-87).
Riess-Passer, Susanne, until Oct. 2, 1995, Susanne Riess (b. Jan. 3, 1961, Braunau am Inn, Austria), vice-chancellor of Austria (2000-02).
Rifai, Abdul Munim al-, Arabic `Abd al-Munim al-Rifa`i (b. 1917, Tyre, Lebanon - d. Oct. 17, 1985, Amman, Jordan), foreign minister (1968-69, 1969-70) and prime minister (1969, 1970) of Jordan; brother of Samir al-Rifai (1901-1965). He was also minister to Iran and Pakistan (1949-53), ambassador to the United States (1953-57), Lebanon (1957-58), the United Kingdom (1958-59), and Egypt (1962-66, 1973), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1953-57, 1959-62).
Rifai, Samir al-, until 1952 Samir Pasha al-Rifai, Arabic Samir Basha al-Rifa`i (b. Jan. 30, 1901, northern Palestine - d. Oct. 12, 1965, Amman, Jordan), prime minister (1944-45, 1947, 1950-51, 1956, 1958-59, 1963) and foreign minister (1947, 1949-50, 1950-51, 1955-56, 1956, 1957-58) of Jordan.
Rifai, Samir (Zaid) al-, Arabic Samir (Zayid) al-Rifa`i (b. July 1, 1966), prime minister of Jordan (2009-11); son of Zaid al-Rifai.
S. (Z.) al-Rifai
Rifai, Zaid al-, Arabic Zayid ibn Samir al-Rifa`i (b. Nov. 27, 1936, Amman, Transjordan [now Jordan]), prime minister (1973-76, 1985-89) and foreign minister (1973-76) of Jordan; son of Samir al-Rifai (1901-1965). He also was ambassador to the U.K. (1970-71) and president of the Senate (1997-2009).
Rifkind, Sir Malcolm (Leslie) (b. June 21, 1946, Edinburgh, Scotland), British foreign secretary (1995-97). In February 1974 he entered the House of Commons as Conservative MP for Edinburgh Pentlands. In 1975 Margaret Thatcher, the newly elected leader of the Conservative Party, appointed him as a spokesman on Scottish affairs, but the following year he resigned in protest against Thatcher's hostility to a proposal on the creation of a Scottish assembly. When the Conservatives won power in 1979, he was steadily promoted up the ministerial ladder. As minister of state at the Foreign Office (1983-86), he helped persuade a reluctant Thatcher to accept plans to create a single market in Europe. He entered the cabinet as secretary of state for Scotland in 1986, by which time he had lost his earlier enthusiasm for Scottish devolution. In 1990 he was made transport secretary, and after the 1992 general election Prime Minister John Major appointed him defence secretary. In this post he won praise for his handling of two difficult tasks: the deployment of British troops in former Yugoslavia and a succession of reductions in the defense budget, slashing the size of the military by almost a third. On Douglas Hurd's retirement in 1995, Rifkind was the obvious successor at the Foreign Office. He made it clear that he would maintain Hurd's broadly pro-European policies, but to pacify Euroskeptics, he also promised "a stalwart defence of British interests." He lost his seat in the Labour landslide of 1997, was knighted the same year and became president of the Scottish Conservatives. Failing to win back his seat in 2001, he was elected in May 2005 for Kensington and Chelsea and was immediately named shadow work and pensions secretary. After making an abortive bid for the party leadership, he left the shadow cabinet in December.
Rigal, Joseph Édouard Georges (Marie) (b. April 30, 1908 - d. Aug. 17, 1980), acting high commissioner of French Togo (1957).
Rigaud, (Benoît Joseph) André (b. Jan. 17, 1761, Saint-Louis du Sud, Haiti - d. Jan. 11, 1811, Laborde, Haiti), general-in-chief (1810-11) and president of the Council (1811) of the Department of the South (Haiti).
Rigault de Genouilly, Charles (b. April 12, 1807, Rochefort, Charente-Inférieure [now Charente-Maritime], France - d. May 4, 1873, Paris), governor of Cochinchina (1858-59) and minister of marine and colonies (1867-70) and acting minister of war (1869) of France.
Righi, Italo (b. June 14, 1959, Sassofeltrio, Italy), captain-regent of San Marino (2012).
Rigotard, Jean (Maurice Marie) (b. Sept. 18, 1925, Paris), prefect of Mayotte (1978-80).
Rigotto, Germano Antônio (b. Sept. 24, 1949, Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), governor of Rio Grande do Sul (2003-07).
Riisnæs, Sverre (Parelius) (b. Nov. 6, 1897, Vik, Sogn, Norway - d. 1988), Norwegian politician. He was one of the acting councillors of state (from 1941, ministers) appointed in 1940 under the German occupation.
Rijckevorsel, Augustinus Bernardus Gijsbertus Maria van (b. Feb. 10, 1882, 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands - d. April 30, 1957, The Hague, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Noord-Brabant (1928-44).
Rijke, Wilhelmus de (b. Nov. 10, 1896, Tokyo, Japan - d. Sept. 16, 1971, Overveen, Noord-Holland, Netherlands), commissioner of Overijssel (1943-45).
Rijna, Edison (Enrique) (b. July 7, 1967, Bonaire), administrator of Bonaire (2014- ).
Rijpstra, Hedzer (b. May 11, 1919, Zelhem, Gelderland, Netherlands - d. April 7, 2011, Oegstgeest, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Friesland (1970-82).
Rikabi, Ali Rida Pasha al-, Arabic `Ali Rida Basha al-Rikabi (b. 1864 - d. 1943), head of government (1918) and prime minister (1920) of Syria and prime minister of Jordan (1922-23, 1924-26).
Riley, Bob, byname of Robert Renfro Riley (b. Oct. 3, 1944, Ashland, Ala.), governor of Alabama (2003-11). He served on the city council in Ashland in 1972-76. In 1996, when the 3rd District's Democratic congressman ran unsuccessfully for the Senate, Riley ran for the House. He started off little known outside Clay County, but he was a strong and energetic campaigner, a supporter of school prayer, term limits, tax cuts, and a balanced budget amendment and an opponent of abortion, gun control, and racial quotas. He won 50%-47% - a key victory in keeping the House Republican. In the House, he had a solidly conservative voting record; he said he came to Washington intending to be bipartisan, but his first three months made him "become the most partisan person on Capitol Hill." He had serious competition in 1998 from former Democratic state chairman Joe Turnham, but he won 58%-42%. He was unopposed in 2000 and, eager to return to Alabama, ran for governor in 2002. He was taking on not only Democratic incumbent Don Siegelman but also, in the Republican primary, Lt.Gov. Steve Windom. In the June primary, he won by the unexpected margin of 74%-18% over Windom. Riley charged that state government was "sinking into a quicksand of corruption and fraud." He opposed tax increases and called for limiting spending to the prior year's revenues. It turned out to be the closest gubernatorial race in the nation in 2002. Siegelman called for a statewide recount and indicated he would not relinquish the governor's office; only after two weeks, on November 18, did he concede. The final tally was 49%-49%, with Riley ahead by 3,120 votes. He was strongest in fast-growing suburban counties - he won Shelby County by more than 2-1. In 2006 he was reelected by a wider margin, defeating Lt.Gov. Lucy Baxley 58%-42%.
Riley, Bob (Cowley) (b. Sept. 18, 1924, Little Rock, Ark. - d. Feb. 16, 1994), governor of Arkansas (1975). A veteran of World War II, active in political, educational, and civic affairs, he entered politics as a Democrat and was elected to the state house of representatives from Pulaski County in 1946 and was reelected in 1948. A member of the city council of Arkadelphia (1960-66), he served as the city's mayor in 1966-67. Elected lieutenant governor in 1970 and reelected in 1972, he was defeated in his effort to win the Democratic gubernatorial nomination in 1974. As lieutenant governor, Riley served as acting governor in the interim (January 1975) between the resignation of Gov. Dale Bumpers who entered the U.S. Senate and the inauguration of the new governor, David Pryor.
Riley, Richard W(ilson) (b. Jan. 2, 1933, Greenville, S.C.), governor of South Carolina (1979-87) and U.S. secretary of education (1993-2001).
Riliwan Babatunde Osuolale Aremu Akiolu I (b. Oct. 29, 1943), Oba of Lagos (2003- ).
Rimi, (Mohammed) Abubakar (b. 1940, Rimi village [now in Kano state], Nigeria - d. April 4, 2010, Kano, Nigeria), governor of Kano (1979-83).
Rincón de Gautier, Felisa, née Felisa Rincón Marrero (b. Jan. 9, 1897, Ceiba, Puerto Rico - d. Sept. 16, 1994, San Juan, Puerto Rico), Puerto Rican politician. She worked to gain women in Puerto Rico the right to vote, a goal achieved in 1932. She entered politics that year and spent decades fighting for child care programs, legal aid for the poor, and senior citizens' centres. Her activism earned her support among San Juan's poor, who affectionately addressed her as Doña Fela and whom she organized within her Popular Democratic Party. A participant in Puerto Rico's first pro-independence congress in 1943, she later left the independence movement and worked for the U.S. commonwealth constitution enacted in 1952. Appointed mayor of San Juan in 1946, she held the post until 1969, being successively reelected thanks to her Wednesday open-house public forums at the city hall and her attention to housing, hospitals, schools, and sanitation. She had a highly personal style that included enchanting local children by flying in planeloads of snow for Christmas parties. She did not run for reelection in 1968 but maintained her interest in politics. At the age of 95, she was the oldest delegate to the 1992 Democratic national convention in New York City. She routinely urged islanders to get involved in U.S. presidential primaries.
Rinehart, Dana G(illman), byname Buck Rinehart (b. Feb. 24, 1946, Parkersburg, W.Va. - d. Feb. 18, 2015), mayor of Columbus (1984-92).
Ringadoo, Sir Veerasamy (b. Oct. 20, 1920, Port Louis, Mauritius - d. Sept. 9, 2000, Moka, Mauritius), finance minister (1968-82), governor-general (1986-92), and president (1992) of Mauritius; knighted 1975.
Ringholm, Bosse, byname of Bo Ingvar Karchimirer Ringholm (b. Aug. 18, 1942, Falköping, Västra Götaland county, western Sweden), finance minister (1999-2004), deputy prime minister (2004-06), and acting foreign minister (2006) of Sweden.
Ringstorff, Harald (b. Sept. 25, 1939, Wittenburg, Mecklenburg [now in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern], Germany), minister-president of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (1998-2008).
Rini, Snyder (b. July 17, 1949), finance minister (2000-01, 2002-03, 2007-10, 2014- ), deputy prime minister (2001-06), and prime minister (2006) of the Solomon Islands. He was also minister for national planning and development (2001-02) and education and human resources development (2003-06).
Rinkevics, Edgars (b. Sept. 21, 1973), foreign minister of Latvia (2011- ).
Rinser, Luise (b. April 30, 1911, Pitzling, Bavaria, Germany - d. March 17, 2002, Unterhaching, near Munich, Germany), West German presidential candidate (1984). She worked as a teacher until 1939, when her refusal to join the Nazi party or any other Nazi organization resulted in her exclusion from public employment. In 1941 she published her first book, Die gläsernen Ringe ("The Glass Rings"), but the publication of a second edition was blocked by Nazi authorities, who also prevented two further novels from appearing. In late 1944, she was arrested on charges of high treason and subverting Germany's military strength. She was jailed at a prison for women in Traunstein and related her experiences there in Gefängnistagebuch ("Prison Diary"), which appeared in 1946, the year after the war ended. Rinser worked as a literary critic after World War II before turning in earnest to writing novels and stories. She became increasingly involved in politics, working as a campaign assistant for the centre-left Social Democrats in the 1970s under Chancellor Willy Brandt. In 1984, she stood as a presidential candidate for the Greens party, four years after it was founded by anti-war and environmental activists. Rinser also expressed admiration for North Korean leader Kim Il Sung, traveling to the reclusive communist country three times between 1980 and 1982 and describing its version of socialism as "a model not just for the Third World" in an account of her experiences there, Nordkoreanisches Reisetagebuch ("Diary of a North Korean Journey").
Rio, Neiphiu (b. Nov. 11, 1950), chief minister of Nagaland (2003-08, 2008-14). He first joined politics in 1974. He unsuccessfully ran for the Nagaland assembly in 1987 but was elected in the 1989 elections on the Indian National Congress (I) ticket. He was made minister of various departments and held the home portfolio till he resigned from the S.C. Jamir ministry in 2002. He came out of the Jamir ministry protesting against the Bedrock of Naga Society allegedly authored by Jamir. He later joined the Nagaland People's Front (NPF) promising that he would give a change to Naga people and remove Jamir's 20-year Congress rule from Nagaland which, he accused, was the main stumbling block to Naga political settlement. He became chief minister as head of the combined non-Congress political parties - the Democratic Alliance of Nagaland (DAN). He survived a no-confidence vote moved by the opposition in December 2007 only due to a controversial decision by the assembly speaker to render invalid several votes cast against the government by disgruntled ruling party legislators. In January 2008, the union government dismissed Rio and imposed president's rule. He returned to office after elections in March, which the DAN again won.
Rion, Anita (b. Feb. 25, 1957), president of the government of Jura (1997, 2002).
Ríos ([1986-2010:] de Longhi), (María) Fabiana (b. March 31, 1964, Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina), governor of Tierra del Fuego (2007- ).
Ríos (Ríos), Juan José (b. Dec. 27, 1882, San Juan del Mezquital [or Fresnillo], Zacatecas, Mexico - d. April 18, 1954, Culiacán, Sinaloa, Mexico), governor of Colima (1914-17) and Mexican minister of war and marine (1918-20) and interior (1932).
Ríos Montt, (José) Efraín (b. June 16, 1926, Huehuetenango, Guatemala), president of Guatemala (1982-83). He was the Christian Democrat candidate in the 1974 elections. Had the election votes been counted and adhered to, he might have secured the presidency. Instead, he was ousted from the country and given the post of military attaché in Spain. In 1978 he found himself attracted by the evangelical teachings of the California-based Church of the Christian Word, renounced his Catholic faith, and under Fernando Romeo Lucas García's regime was allowed to return home as a lay preacher. General Ríos Montt was busy conducting a Bible class when, in a bloodless coup on March 23, 1982, a group of junior army officers asked him to become president. Any hopes for an improvement in the human rights situation were soon shattered; a state of siege limited the activities of political parties and labour unions, and the campaign known as frijoles y fusiles ("beans and guns"), an attempt to win over the Indian population to the rule of the army, resulted in a nightmare of chaos and violence. Soon he claimed that the war against the leftist guerrillas had been won and that the government's program could now become one of techo, trabajo y tortillas ("roofs, work, and tortillas"). Thousands of peasants died in massacres in the scorched-earth anti-guerrilla war. He became notorious for ignoring a papal plea for clemency and ordering the firing-squad execution of nine common criminals on the eve of the pope's 1983 visit. He was overthrown later that year. Covered by a 1986 amnesty, he ran his El Verbo ("The Word") evangelical church and became secretary general of the Guatemalan Republican Front, which won the 1999 elections. In 1995 and 2000-04 he was president of the National Congress. He ran for president in 2003, coming third with 19% of the vote. In 2013 he was convicted of genocide and sentenced to 80 years in prison but shortly afterwards the Constitutional Court overturned the ruling.
Ríos Morales, Juan Antonio (b. Nov. 10, 1888, Cañete, Chile - d. June 27, 1946, Santiago, Chile), president of Chile (1942-46). He was also chargé d'affaires in Panama (1922-23), interior minister (1932), and justice minister (1932).
Ripley, S(idney) Dillon (b. Sept. 20, 1913, New York City - d. March 12, 2001, Washington, D.C.), secretary of the Smithsonian Institution (1964-84). During World War II he joined the Office of Strategic Services, the predecessor of the Central Intelligence Agency. He coordinated British and American intelligence services for the Southeast Asia Command. While Ripley was secretary, the Smithsonian founded eight new museums and seven new research facilities. Among them was the Air and Space Museum, the capital's most popular with more than 9 million visitors a year. Under his leadership, the number of visits to Smithsonian museums increased from 10.8 million annually to more than 30 million. When he retired in 1984, Ripley returned to one of the Smithsonian's key establishments, the Museum of Natural History, for full-time service in ornithology. He specialized on the birds of India, an interest that began on a visit there with his parents when he was 13.
Ripper, Eric (Stephen) (b. Sept. 13, 1951, Subiaco, Western Australia), acting premier of Western Australia (2006).
Ripperdá, Juan Guillermo Ripperdá, duque de, original Dutch name Johan Willem Ripperda (b. March 7, 1682, Oldehove, Groningen [now in the Netherlands] - d. Nov. 5, 1737, Tétouan, Morocco), Dutch political adventurer. By his own assertions, his family was of Spanish origin and he was born a Roman Catholic. If so, he conformed to Dutch Calvinism in order to obtain his election as delegate to the States General from Groningen. Sent as Dutch ambassador to Madrid in 1715, he soon went over to the Spanish side and professed himself a Roman Catholic. He first attached himself to Giulio Alberoni, and after the fall of that minister he became the agent of Isabella Farnese, King Felipe V's intriguing wife, whose influence over her husband was boundless. He rose by undertaking to aid her in her schemes to secure the succession to Parma, Piacenza, and Tuscany for her sons. In 1725 he was created a duke and sent as special envoy to Vienna. The result of 10 months of very strange diplomacy was a treaty by which the Holy Roman emperor Karl VI promised very little, but Spain was bound to pay heavy subsidies, which its exhausted treasury was quite unable to afford. When Ripperdá returned to Madrid at the close of 1725, he asserted that the emperor expected him to be made prime minister, and the credulous Spanish sovereigns allowed him to grasp the most important posts under the crown. After it was discovered in 1726 that he not only had made promises he was not authorized to make but had misappropriated large sums of money, he was dismissed. He sought refuge in the English embassy and betrayed the secrets of his government, but the English envoy could not protect him, and he was imprisoned in the castle of Segovia. In 1728 he escaped, probably with the connivance of the government, and made his way to Holland. His last years are obscure, though it is known that he went to Morocco.
Ristic, Jovan (b. Jan. 4, 1831, Kragujevac, Serbia - d. Aug. 23, 1899, Belgrade, Serbia), prime minister (1867, 1873, 1878-80, 1887), foreign minister (1867, 1872-73, 1875, 1876-80, 1887), and member of the Regency (1868-72, 1889-93) of Serbia. He was also minister to the Ottoman Empire (1861-67).
Ritschard, Rolf (b. Feb. 13, 1944, Luterbach, Solothurn, Switzerland - d. Jan. 9, 2007, Feldbrunnen-Sankt Niklaus, Solothurn), Landammann of Solothurn (1992, 1997, 2002); son of Willi Ritschard.
Ritschard, Willi (b. Sept. 28, 1918 - d. Oct. 16, 1983), Landammann of Solothurn (1967, 1971) and transport minister (1974-79), president (1978), and finance minister (1980-83) of Switzerland.
Ritter (Domingo), Jorge Eduardo (b. 1950), interior and justice minister (1981-82) and foreign minister (1988-89, 1998-99) of Panama. He was also ambassador to Colombia (1982-86), permanent representative to the United Nations (1987-88), and canal affairs minister (1997-98).
Riva Palacio, Carlos (b. Oct. 4, 1892, Toluca, México state, Mexico - d. May 26, 1936, San José, Costa Rica), governor of México (1925-29). He was also Mexican interior minister (1929-30, 1930-31).
Rivalland, Sir Michel (Jean Joseph Laval) (b. March 23, 1910 - d. Jan. 29, 1970), acting governor-general of Mauritius (1968); knighted 1968.
Rivarola (Acosta), Cirilo Antonio (b. 1836, Barrero Grande [now Eusebio Ayala], Paraguay - d. Dec. 31, 1879,
Asunción, Paraguay), president of Paraguay (1869-70, 1870-71).
Rivas (Franchini), Eda (Adriana) (b. March 24, 1952, Lima, Peru), foreign minister of Peru (2013-14). In 2012-13 she was justice minister.
Rivas Guillén, Genovevo (b. 1886, Rayón, San Luis Potosí, Mexico - d. [falling down a precipice with his tractor] March 20, 1947, Ciudad Valles, San Luis Potosí), governor of San Luis Potosí (1938-39).
Rivera Schreiber, Ricardo (b. Nov. 11, 1892, Lima, Peru - d. July 25, 1969, Boston, Mass.), foreign minister of Peru (1952-54). He was also minister to Ecuador (1929-31) and Japan (1936-41) and ambassador to Spain (1943-45), Italy (1946-48), and the United Kingdom (1949-52, 1954-62).
Rivero Agüero, Andrés (José) (b. Feb. 4, 1905, Burene barrio, San Luis municipality, Oriente province [now in Santiago de Cuba province], Cuba - d. Nov. 11, 1997, Miami, Fla.), Cuban politician. Already active in politics when he completed his education, he ran for municipal councilman in Santiago de Cuba and was elected. During Fulgencio Batista's 1940-44 presidency, he was minister of agriculture (1941-43) and ambassador to Peru (1943-44). Later he was minister of education (1952-54), senator from Pinar del Río province, and prime minister (1957-58). He resigned the premiership early in 1958 to campaign for the presidency. His younger brother Nicolás, his campaign manager in the city of Santiago de Cuba, was killed by unidentified gunmen on July 1, 1958. Rivero won the Nov. 3, 1958, election in the midst of a full-blown insurrectionary movement led by Fidel Castro. Rivero, long an intimate friend and political associate of Batista, was the candidate of a four-party government coalition; the Castro rebels, however, boycotted the election. Rivero received considerably more than twice the total number of votes cast for his opponents in the election. But Castro's revolution was victorious on Jan. 1, 1959, and he and Batista fled the country.
Rivero Baute, Paulino (b. Feb. 11, 1952, El Sauzal, Tenerife, Spain), president of the government of Canarias (2007- ).
Rivet, Louis (Félix Marie Édouard) (b. April 29, 1869, Fort-de-France, Martinique - d. 19...), governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1922-27) and administrator of Kwangchowan (1927-29).
Riviere, (Francis) Osborne (b. 1932?), foreign minister (2001-05) and acting prime minister (2004) of Dominica.
Rivlin, Reuven (b. Sept. 9, 1939, Jerusalem, Palestine), president of Israel (2014- ). He was minister of communications (2001-03) and speaker of the Knesset (2003-06, 2009-13).
Rivoal, Henri Georges (b. July 15, 1886 - d. March 18, 1963), governor of Cochinchina (1940-42).
Riyad Pasha, (Mustafa), Arabic (Mustafa) Riyad Basha (b. 1836 - d. 1911), prime minister of Egypt (1879-81, 1888-91, 1893-94).
Rizzo, Frank (Lazarro) (b. Oct. 23, 1920, Philadelphia, Pa. - d. July 16, 1991, Philadelphia), mayor of Philadelphia (1972-80). He joined the Philadelphia police in 1943. As he rose through the ranks, he became known as the "Cisco Kid," a tribute to his fearlessness and taste for action. He was named deputy police commissioner of Philadelphia in 1963 and rose to commissioner in 1967. He showed his mettle when, with a nightstick protruding from his cummerbund, he left a 1969 black-tie affair in order to lead "my men, my army" to break up a riot. In 1972 his hard-nosed tactics were applied to the militant Black Panthers; during a police raid on their headquarters, members were herded into the street and ordered to strip naked. Known as a "cop's cop," he expanded the police force, won the enthusiastic loyalty of his men, and kept the crime rate in Philadelphia below that of any other major U.S. city. He campaigned as a law-and-order Democrat to be elected mayor in November 1971. On Aug. 3, 1979, the U.S. Department of Justice filed suit in the U.S. District Court, charging that Rizzo and 18 high-ranking city and police officials either committed or condoned "widespread and severe" acts of police brutality. The suit alleged that Rizzo's crime-fighting techniques involved encouragement of tolerance of brutal practices such as beatings and shootings of suspects. The charges were dismissed. Rizzo attempted to change the city charter so he could serve a third successive term in office but was unsuccessful. In 1983 he lost the Democratic primary to W. Wilson Goode and, though he returned as a Republican in 1987, Rizzo lost again to Goode in the general election. Rizzo was in the process of staging another bid for the office of mayor when he died.
Rizzo García, Sócrates (Cuauhtémoc) (b. Sept. 14, 1945, Linares, Nuevo León, Mexico), governor of Nuevo León (1991-96). He was also mayor of Monterrey (1989-91).