Roa García, Raúl (b. April 18, 1907, Havana, Cuba - d. July 6, 1982, Havana), Cuban government official. He entered the political arena when he was elected a member of the students directorate in 1930; he was jailed in 1931 for antigovernment activities and in 1933 joined the revolt (led by Fulgencio Batista) that overthrew the government of Gerardo Machado. After participating in a failed general strike against the Batista government, Roa fled to the U.S. and organized a Cuban revolutionary association. From 1948 to 1952 Roa served as director of culture for the Cuban government. With the return to power of Batista in 1952, Roa went into exile. After the 1959 revolution Fidel Castro named Roa foreign minister, a post he held until 1976. In this position he promoted a Cuban-Soviet alliance and, despite his contempt for U.S. policy, played a major role in negotiating two important agreements between Cuba and the U.S. The first accord in 1965 sanctioned the airlifting of Cuban emigrants to the U.S. In 1973 the countries signed an antihijacking agreement that permitted both countries to prosecute air and sea pirates where they landed for theft, illegal entry, or other crimes. Roa served as vice-president of the National Assembly and member of the Council of State until 1981.
Robaina González, Roberto (b. March 18, 1956, Pinar del Río, Cuba), foreign minister of Cuba (1993-99). A one-time leader of the Union of Young Communists, he went on to be a member of the Communist Party's Politburo and was considered at one stage to be a possible successor to Fidel Castro. But Castro, in a move that surprised many international observers, dismissed Robaina as foreign minister in 1999 after he had served six years in the post. The government said at the time only that there was a need for "deeper, more rigorous, more systematic and demanding work in this area." Robaina then disappeared from public view and authorities never gave further details on why he had fallen from grace, until in 2002 he was expelled from the Communist Party for being "disloyal to the revolution." It was explained that while he was foreign minister, he had unauthorized contacts with foreign officials and businessmen, and made unauthorized statements abroad. He was also criticized for making statements at home and abroad implying he might be in line for Cuba's presidency one day.
Robarts, John Parmenter (b. Jan. 11, 1917, Banff, Alberta - d. Oct. 18, 1982, Toronto, Ontario), Canadian politician. He was elected leader of the Ontario Conservative Party in 1961 and served as the formidable premier of Ontario from 1961 to 1971. During his administration, Robarts used his common sense to preserve calm and balance. He was particularly dedicated in his approach to English-French relations and in helping to unite French Canada. Robarts became a legendary figure in Canada after serving as the levelheaded co-chairman of the 1977 Task Force on Canadian Unity. Deeply disturbed over the physical disabilities he suffered as a result of a stroke in 1981, Robarts took his life.
Robati, Sir Pupuke (b. April 9, 1925, Rakahanga island, Cook Islands - d. April 26, 2009, Auckland, New Zealand), Cook Islands politician. He was first elected to the Legislative Assembly in 1965. He was a cabinet minister, deputy prime minister, and (1987-89) prime minister. He was knighted in 2001. In 2002-04 he was speaker of parliament.
Robb, Charles S(pittal), byname Chuck Robb (b. June 26, 1939, Phoenix, Ariz.), governor of Virginia (1982-86); son-in-law of Lyndon B. Johnson.
Robelo Callejas, Luis Alfonso (b. Oct. 11, 1939, León, Nicaragua), member of the Government Junta of National Reconstruction of Nicaragua (1979-80).
Roberdeau, Henri Charles (Victor Amédée) (b. March 31, 1849, Lambézellec [now part of Brest], France - d. Jan. 24, 1916, Nantes, France), interim governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1888, 1889-91) and governor of Réunion (1895), French Guiana (1898), and Ivory Coast (1898-1902).
Robert, Georges (Achille Marie Joseph) (b. Jan. 31, 1875, Courseulles, Calvados, France - d. March 2, 1965, Paris), high commissioner of the Antilles (1939-43).
Robert, Lorin S. (b. May 7, 1956, Truk [now Chuuk], Micronesia [now in Federated States of Micronesia]), foreign secretary of the Federated States of Micronesia (2007- ). He became deputy secretary in 2001.
Roberto, (Álvaro) Holden (b. Jan. 12, 1923, São Salvador [now Mbanza Kongo], Angola - d. Aug. 2, 2007, Luanda, Angola), Angolan rebel leader; brother-in-law of Mobutu Sese Seko. He founded the National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA) in 1962.
Roberts, Barbara (K.), née Hughey (b. Dec. 21, 1936, Corvallis, Ore.), governor of Oregon (1991-95).
Roberts, Colin (b. July 31, 1959), commissioner of the British Indian Ocean Territory (2008-12) and governor of the Falkland Islands (2014- ). He was also British ambassador to Lithuania (2004-08).
Roberts, Edward (Moxon) (b. Sept. 1, 1940, St. John's, Newfoundland), lieutenant governor of Newfoundland and Labrador (2002-08).
Roberts, Joseph Jenkins (b. March 15, 1809, Norfolk, Va. - d. Feb. 24, 1876, Monrovia, Liberia), vice governor (1839-41), governor (1841-48), and president (1848-56, 1872-76) of Liberia.
Robertson, Paul (Douglas) (b. July 7, 1946, St. Andrew, Jamaica), foreign minister of Jamaica (1993-95, 2000-01). He was also minister of information (1989-93), public service (1991-93), commerce (1995-98), industry and investment (1995-2000), and development (2002-06).
Robertson of Port Ellen, George (Islay Macneill) Robertson, Baron (b. April 12, 1946, Port Ellen, Islay island, Hebrides, Scotland), secretary-general of NATO (1999-2003). He was elected chairman of the Scottish Labour Party aged 29, and a year later won the parliamentary seat of Hamilton in a by-election. He was elected Britain's parliamentarian of the year in 1993 for his role in forcing the then conservative government into holding a national referendum over the Maastricht Treaty, the blueprint for Europe's single currency project. Ironically the man later to head Britain's armed forces pioneered the campaign to ban high-calibre pistols in Britain after a teacher and 16 children were massacred in the Scottish town of Dunblane in March 1996. He became defense secretary when Prime Minister Tony Blair's Labour Party swept to power in 1997. In 1999 Robertson became a familiar face during NATO's bombing campaign of Yugoslavia and emerged as leading contender for the post of NATO secretary-general. On Aug. 24, 1999, he received a life peerage; earlier in the month he was appointed to the NATO post, which he took up in October. During his watch, the alliance invoked its mutual defense clause for the first time since it was founded in 1949, when the allies immediately agreed that the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks in the United States were an attack on them all and offered the U.S. military help. Although the United States did not immediately call on alliance assistance with the war against al-Qaida and the Taliban, NATO eventually did send forces to Afghanistan in August 2003. The 5,700-strong peacekeeping operation was NATO's first deployment outside Europe. Earlier in 2003 there was a crisis of alliance unity over the U.S.-led war in Iraq, which was opposed by France, Germany, and Belgium.
Robespierre, Maximilien (Marie Isidore de)1 (b. May 6, 1758, Arras, France - d. July 28, 1794, Paris, France), French politician. As a lawyer representing poor people, he already protested against royal absolutism and arbitrary justice. When the summoning of the Estates-General (which had not been called since 1614) was announced in 1788, he issued an appeal entitled "To the people of Artois on the necessity of reforming the Estates of Artois." In March 1789 the citizens of Arras chose him as one of their representatives, and the Third Estate (the commons) of Artois elected him as the fifth of eight deputies from the province. He played a conspicuous role in the National Assembly that quickly replaced the Estates General, but he was kept out of the committees and from the presidency of the National Assembly (being elected as secretary only once, in June 1790). His passionate fight for liberty won him many enemies. After the National Assembly disbanded in 1791, he became the acknowledged leader of the Jacobin Club. On Sept. 5, 1792, the people of Paris elected him to head the delegation to the National Convention. He served twice as its president (August-September 1793, June 1794). At Louis XVI's trial, which began in December 1792, he spoke 11 times and successfully demanded the king's execution. On July 27, 1793, he became a member of the Committee of Public Safety, where his power and prestige grew. The committee inaugurated the Reign of Terror, by which both the extreme left, under Jacques Hébert, and the moderates, led by Georges Danton and Camille Desmoulins, were in turn arrested and guillotined (March-April 1794). When he seemed to threaten further purges in a speech, the Convention on July 27, 1794, ordered his arrest and he was summarily tried and guillotined.
1 While his baptismal names appear to be only Maximilien Marie Isidore, some sources have Maximilien François Marie Isidore Joseph, which may be erroneous.
Robichaud, Hédard Joseph (b. Nov. 12, 1911, Shippagan, N.B. - d. Aug. 16, 1999), lieutenant governor of New Brunswick (1971-81). He was the first Acadian in the post.
Robichaud, Louis J(oseph) (b. Oct. 21, 1925, Saint-Antoine, N.B. - d. Jan. 6, 2005, near Saint-Antoine), premier of New Brunswick (1960-70). At the age of 27, he was elected to the Legislative Assembly and he became leader of the Liberal Party in October 1958. He became New Brunswick's first Acadian premier since Peter John Veniot in the 1920s, and the first to win an election. At a time when rural municipal and county governments in the Acadian north provided substandard services in everything from education to health care, teetering on the edge of bankruptcy, he created the controversial Equal Opportunity Program, changing the entire tax and social structures of the province, bringing responsibility for education, hospital services, welfare, and justice under the wing of the provincial government, ensuring that all New Brunswickers had equal access to these services. Known as "Little Louis" to many New Brunswickers because of his short stature, he is perhaps best known for introducing the province's Official Languages Act, which made New Brunswick Canada's only officially bilingual province. After a decade in power, his government was defeated in the 1970 election by the Conservatives led by Richard B. Hatfield. Robichaud resigned his seat shortly after. He was a member of the Senate from 1973 to 2000.
Robin, Denis (b. Dec. 15, 1962, Romans, Drôme, France), prefect of Mayotte (2008-09). He has also been prefect of Pas-de-Calais département (2012- ).
Robin, (Eugène Jean Louis) René, resident-superior of Tonkin (1925-30) and governor-general of French Indochina (1934-36).
Robinson, A(rthur) N(apoleon) R(aymond) (b. Dec. 16, 1926, Calder Hall, Tobago, Trinidad and Tobago - d. April 9, 2014, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago), president of Trinidad and Tobago (1997-2003). He was finance minister in 1962-67, foreign minister in 1967-70, chairman of the Tobago House of Assembly in 1980-86, and prime minister in 1986-91, and survived a coup attempt on July 27, 1990, when a group of armed black Muslims stormed the parliament building, holding him and several government ministers hostage for six days. He was shot and wounded during the insurrection, in which 24 people were killed, including a member of the military police.
Robinson, Mary (Terese Winifred), née Bourke, Irish Máire (Treasa Úna) Mhic Róibín, née de Búrca (b. May 21, 1944, Ballina, County Mayo, Ireland), president of Ireland (1990-97). She represented Trinity in the Senate in 1969-89. Her spirited opposition to the Anglo-Irish accord of 1985 caused her to quit the Labour Party in protest. She was also a member of the International Commission of Jurists (1987-90). It was not without difficulty that the Labour Party enticed her to run for president against the seemingly unbeatable Brian Lenihan in 1990. Once decided, however, she put her usual zeal into the endeavour and stumped around the country for an unprecedented six months. She pledged to encourage the liberalization of Ireland's laws, targeting especially the illegality of divorce, contraceptives, abortion, and homosexuality. While she wooed her conservative country to a new agenda, she maintained her image as a mother and wife with traditional family values. Still, she seemed destined to lose to the enormously popular Lenihan, with bookkeepers' odds running against her at 1,000-1, until he was enveloped in a scandal in the final weeks of the campaign. Even a barrage of negative advertising could not shake Robinson's firm support, particularly from conservative, rural women. When the ballots were cast on November 7, no candidate won a clear majority, but when the second choices on ballots for marginal candidates were tallied, Robinson finished ahead of Lenihan, 52.8 to 47%. Her presidency ended the 45-year control of the office by the Fianna Fáil party. In office she did much to communicate a modern image of Ireland. Shortly before her term expired, she stepped down to become United Nations high commissioner for human rights (1997-2002).
Robinson, Peter (David) (b. Dec. 29, 1948, Belfast, Northern Ireland), first minister of Northern Ireland (2008- ).
Robinson, Sir William Cleaver Francis (b. Jan. 14, 1834, Rosmead, County Meath, Ireland - d. May 2, 1897, London, England), administrator of Montserrat (1862-66), governor of the Falkland Islands (1866-70), lieutenant governor of Prince Edward Island (1870-74), and governor of the Leeward Islands (1874-75), Western Australia (1875-77, 1880-83, 1890-95), the Straits Settlements (1877-78), and South Australia (1883-89); knighted 1877; brother of Hercules Robinson, Baron Rosmead.
Robledo, Ángel Federico (b. July 18, 1917, Bustinza, Santa Fe province, Argentina - d. Nov. 14, 2004, Caballito barrio, Buenos Aires, Argentina), defense minister (1973-74), foreign minister (1975), and interior minister (1975-76) of Argentina.
Robles Méndez, Marco Aurelio (b. Nov. 8, 1905, Aguadulce, Panama - d. April 14, 1990, Miami, Fla.), president of Panama (1964-68); cousin of Roberto F. Chiari.
Roblin, Dufferin, byname Duff Roblin (b. June 17, 1917, Winnipeg, Manitoba - d. May 30, 2010, Winnipeg), Canadian politician; grandson of Sir Rodmond Palen Roblin. In 1939 he enlisted as a private soldier in the Canadian army and rose to the rank of wing commander in the Royal Canadian Air Force. He landed in France with the Allied forces in 1944 and served throughout the European campaign. He was elected to the Manitoba legislature on Nov. 10, 1949, for the constituency of Winnipeg South and was reelected on June 8, 1953. He was named leader of the Progressive Conservative Party in Manitoba on June 18, 1954, and became leader of the official opposition in the legislature. At the general election on June 16, 1958, his party gained the largest number of seats in the legislature and Roblin was called upon to become premier and form a government. He won three more elections (1959, 1962, 1966) before resigning as premier in 1967 and from the legislature in 1968 to contest the federal constituency of Winnipeg South Centre. On March 23, 1978, he was appointed to the Senate; he was leader of the government in the Senate in 1984-86.
Roblin, Sir Rodmond Palen (b. Feb. 15, 1853, Sophiasburgh township, Prince Edward county, Canada West [now Ontario] - d. Feb. 16, 1937, Hot Springs, Ark.), premier of Manitoba (1900-15); knighted 1912.
Roçadas, José Augusto Alves (b. April 6, 1865, Vila Real, Portugal - d. June 28, 1926), governor of Macau (1908-09) and governor-general of Angola (1909-10).
Rocard, Michel (Louis Léon) (b. Aug. 23, 1930, Courbevoie, near Paris, France), prime minister of France (1988-91). In 1949 he joined the National Federation of Socialist Students in the SFIO (the French branch of the Workers' International). He became an inspector of finances in 1958 and subsequently rose to high posts in the government accounting service. In 1958 he broke away from the SFIO to found the left-wing Autonomous Socialist Party (PSA), which in 1960 merged with smaller splinter groups to form the Unified Socialist Party (PSU), of which he later served as national secretary (1967-73). He ran unsuccessfully for the French presidency in 1969, receiving less than 3.7% of the vote. He served in the National Assembly in 1969-73 and 1978-81. In 1974 he and most of his party's membership joined the larger Socialist Party (PS, successor of the SFIO), which was led by François Mitterrand. He served on the party's executive committee from 1975. He failed to oust Mitterrand as PS leader at a chaotic party congress in 1979 and became, in effect, opposition leader within the PS. He abandoned his own bid for the presidency in 1981 to support Mitterrand's successful campaign and then served as minister of planning and regional development (1981-83) and minister of agriculture (1983-85). In an early bid for the presidency in 1988, he promised to "govern differently," but when Mitterrand announced he would run for reelection, Rocard again gave up his own campaign. After Mitterrand was reelected, Rocard was named prime minister, heading a minority government. Mitterrand replaced him in 1991 with Edith Cresson. He briefly led the Socialist Party after its 1993 general election rout but was ousted a year later. He became a member of the French Senate and of the European Parliament.
Rocca Serra, Camille de (b. May 21, 1954, Porto-Vecchio, Corse [now in Corse-du-Sud], France), president of the Corsican Assembly (2004-10); son of Jean-Paul de Rocca Serra.
C. de Rocca Serra
J.-P. de Rocca Serra
Rocca Serra, Jean-Paul de (b. Oct. 11, 1911, Bonifacio, Corse [now in Corse-du-Sud], France - d. April 6, 1998), president of the Corsican Assembly (1984-98).
Rocci, Stefano Giovanni (Guido Maria) (b. Sept. 12, 1770, Turin, Kingdom of Sardinia [now in Italy] - d. 18...), member of the Provisional Government (1798-99) and of the Commission of Government (1800) of the Piedmontese Republic.
Rocen, Milan (b. Nov. 23, 1950, Rasova, Zabljak, Montenegro), foreign minister of Montenegro (2006-12).
Rocha, Acrísio Moreira da (b. Sept. 25, 1907, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil - d. Feb. 21, 2004), governor of Ceará (1946). He was also mayor of Fortaleza (1948-51, 1955-59).
Rocha, José Moreira da (b. March 24, 1871, Sobral, Ceará, Brazil - d. Aug. 22, 1934, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Ceará (1924-28).
Rochambeau, Donatien Marie Joseph de Vimeur, vicomte (from 1807, comte) de (b. April 7, 1755, Paris - d. [following injuries during the Battle of Nations] Oct. 20, 1813, Leipzig, Germany), governor-general of Saint-Domingue (1792-93, 1802-03) and governor of Martinique (1793-94).
Rochat, Charles-Louis (b. Nov. 20, 1946), president of the Council of State of Vaud (2002, 2007).
Rochet, Waldeck (Émile) (b. April 5, 1905, Sainte-Croix, Saône-et-Loire, France - d. Feb. 15, 1983, Nanterre, France), secretary-general of the French Communist Party (1964-72). He joined the Communist Party at the age of 19 and trained in Moscow before becoming a prominent member of the Lyon branch. In 1936, after the French Communist Party affiliated with Léon Blum's leftist Popular Front coalition government, Rochet became a deputy in the National Assembly. During World War II he was imprisoned in North Africa until the Allied landings. From 1945 to 1958 he served the party as deputy for Saône-et-Loire, later rose to third secretary, and in 1961 was named deputy to Secretary-General Maurice Thorez, whom he succeeded three years later. A loyal party member, Rochet took a cautious view of destalinization yet played an important role in developing the policy of a "French road" to power by collaboration with other leftist parties. The Federation of the Democratic and Socialist Left succeeded in keeping Charles de Gaulle from an absolute majority in the first round of the 1965 presidential election. In 1968 the federation disbanded, and in the following year illness forced Rochet to hand over effective power to Georges Marchais, who formally replaced him three years later.
Rockefeller, Nelson A(ldrich) (b. July 8, 1908, Bar Harbor, Maine - d. Jan. 26, 1979, New York City), U.S. politician. In 1940 he became coordinator of inter-American affairs at the State Department. Though he was a Republican in a Democratic administration, he rose to the position of assistant secretary of state for the American republics in 1944. He left the government in 1945 but returned as head of the International Development Advisory Board in 1950; he was appointed by President-elect Dwight D. Eisenhower two years later as chairman of a presidential advisory committee on government organization. In 1953-55 he served as undersecretary of the newly created Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. With the intention of seeking an elective rather than appointive office, he again retired from the federal government in 1956. In 1958 he challenged incumbent Averell Harriman for governor of New York and, in an otherwise Democratic year, won the contest by more than 500,000 votes. An undeclared candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in 1960, he withdrew when it became clear that Richard M. Nixon would be the nominee. Reelected governor in 1962, 1966, and 1970, he inaugurated a dramatic growth in state services. With Nixon out of the contest in 1964, "Rocky" was again a favourite for the presidential nomination. As the leader of the party's liberal-moderate wing, he was opposed by conservative Barry Goldwater, who won by a slim margin. Entering the presidential race again in 1968, he again was defeated for the nomination - for the second time by Nixon. He retired as governor in 1973, but on Aug. 20, 1974, Pres. Gerald R. Ford nominated him for the post of U.S. vice president. On December 19 he was sworn in, serving until the Ford administration ended in January 1977.
Rockman, Irvin (Peter) (b. April 6, 1938 - d. Aug. 30, 2010), lord mayor of Melbourne (1977-79).
Roco, Raul (Sagarbarria) (b. Oct. 26, 1941, Naga City, Camarines Sur province, Philippines - d. Aug. 5, 2005, Quezon City, Philippines), Philippine presidential candidate (1998, 2004).
Rodas (Melgar), (Roger) Haroldo (b. May 29, 1946, Guatemala City, Guatemala), foreign minister of Guatemala (2008-12).
Rodas Baca, Patricia Isabel (b. June 22, 1962, Comayagüela, Honduras), foreign minister of Honduras (2009).
Rodgers, (T.H.) Jimmie, director-general of the Pacific Community (2006-14).
Rodier, François Pierre (b. April 11, 1854, Toulouse, France - d. 19...), resident-superior of Tonkin (1893-95), acting governor-general of French Indochina (1894-95), governor of French India (1898-1902), lieutenant governor of Cochinchina (1902-06), and governor of French Guiana (1907-09) and Réunion (1910-12).
Rodionov, Aleksey (Alekseyevich) (b. March 27, 1922, Pesochnoye, Nizhny Novgorod guberniya [now oblast], Russian S.F.S.R. - d. May 18, 2013), foreign minister of the Russian S.F.S.R. (1968-71). He was Soviet ambassador to Burma (1966-68), Pakistan (1971-74), Turkey (1974-83), and Canada (1983-90).
Rodionov, Mikhail (Ivanovich) (b. Nov. 7 [Oct. 25, O.S.], 1907, Ratunino, Nizhny Novgorod guberniya [now oblast], Russia - d. [executed] Oct. 1, 1950, Leningrad, Russian S.F.S.R. [now Saint Petersburg, Russia]), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Russian S.F.S.R. (1946-49).
Rodrigues(-Birkett), Carolyn (Allison) (b. Sept. 16, 1973, Moruca, Guyana), foreign minister of Guyana (2008- ). In 2001-08 she was minister of Amerindian affairs.
Rodrigues, José Manuel Bettencourt (Conceição) (b. June 5, 1918, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal - d. April 28, 2011, Lisbon, Portugal), governor of Portuguese Guinea (1973-74). He was also army minister of Portugal (1968-70).
Rodrigues, Manuel Maria Sarmento (b. June 15, 1899, Freixo de Espada à Cinta, northeastern Portugal - d. Aug. 1, 1979, Lisbon, Portugal), governor of Portuguese Guinea (1945-49) and governor-general of Mozambique (1961-64). He was also Portuguese minister of colonies (1950-55).
Rodrigues, Rodrigo José (b. 1879 - d. 1963), interior minister of Portugal (1913-14) and governor of Macau (1923-24).
Rodrigues, S(unith) F(rancis) (b. Sept. 19, 1933, Bombay [now Mumbai], India), governor of Punjab (India) (2004-10).
Rodrigues Alves, Francisco de Paula (b. July 7, 1848, Guaratinguetá, near São Paulo, Brazil - d. Jan. 16, 1919, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Brazil (1902-06). First elected to public office as a provincial deputy in 1872, he was president (governor) of São Paulo province during the monarchy in 1887-88 and later of São Paulo state in 1900-02 and 1912-16. He was also finance minister of Brazil in 1891-92. His term as president of Brazil was marked by vast improvements in reconstruction and sanitary matters, and it was largely during his term that yellow fever was stamped out. Rio de Janeiro was transformed into one of the most beautiful cities, and all the chief ports in the country were extended and improved. Through his foreign minister, José Maria da Silva Paranhos, border disputes were settled peacefully with Bolivia, Uruguay, and British and Dutch Guiana. After his retirement from the presidency he was sent on various missions by the Brazilian government. On March 3, 1918, as the only candidate, he was again elected president, the first man chosen for the post for a second term. But he was not able to assume office on November 15, the date set for his inauguration, because of illness, and he had not yet taken the oath of office when he died.
Rodrigues de Arias, Luís Galvez (b. Feb. 20, 1859, Cádiz, Spain - d. 1946, Cádiz), president of the Provisional Government of Acre (1899-1900, 1900).
Rodríguez, Abelardo L(uján) (b. May 12, 1889, San José de Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico - d. Feb. 13, 1967, La Jolla neighbourhood, San Diego, Calif.), president of Mexico (1932-34). He was also governor of Baja California Norte (1923-30) and Sonora (1943-48) and minister of industry, commerce, and labour (1932) and war and marine (1932).
Rodríguez (Pedotti), Andrés (b. June 19, 1923, Borja, Paraguay - d. April 21, 1997, New York City), president of Paraguay (1989-93). He started his career in the army in February 1942, when he joined the country's military college as a cadet. He graduated four years later as a cavalry junior officer. At the time that Gen. Alfredo Stroessner seized power in 1954, Rodríguez was a captain. His rise in the army began in August 1961, when Stroessner promoted him to colonel and put him in command of the 1st Cavalry Division, on the outskirts of the capital, Asunción; it was the biggest and best equipped of all the army divisions. In May 1967 he became brigadier general and in May 1970 general. On Feb. 3, 1989, Rodríguez, who had become commander of the 1st Army Corps in 1982, staged a bloody coup, bringing to an end the nearly 35-year-old Stroessner dictatorship. Busy polishing up his image and patching up relations with the church, which was a firm critic of his predecessor, Rodríguez undoubtedly had a negotiating ability that military men did not usually possess. He succeeded in gaining the maximum breadth of political support for the coup and in defusing the country's explosive problem of landless peasants. On May 1, 1989, he was democratically elected president. In 1992 his opponents forced a constitutional amendment forbidding him or any blood relative from standing for president in the future. In exchange, he was to become a lifetime senator, giving him immunity from prosecution on charges of drug trafficking swirling around him since the 1970s. In 1993 he kept his promise to give up power and turn the presidency over to the civilian winner of a new election (Juan Carlos Wasmosy), then retired from the army and became senator for life.
Rodríguez (San Juan), Antonio (b. April 12, 1957, Zulia state, Venezuela), governor of Vargas (2000-08).
Rodríguez (Veltzé), (Enrique) Eduardo (b. March 2, 1956, Cochabamba, Bolivia), president of Bolivia (2005-06). He was previously president of the Supreme Court (2004-05). In 2013 he was named ambassador to the Netherlands.
Rodríguez, Enrique (O.), labour minister of Argentina (1992-93).
Rodríguez (Poveda), Francisco (Antonio) (b. Nov. 24, 1938, Herrera province, Panama), provisional president of Panama (1989).
Rodríguez (Díaz), (Julián) Isaías (b. Dec. 16, 1942, Valle de la Pascua, Guárico, Venezuela), executive vice-president of Venezuela (2000).
Rodríguez, Jorge (Alberto) (b. April 6, 1944, Aguas Blancas [now Coronel Hilario Lagos], La Pampa province, Argentina), education minister (1992-96) and cabinet chief (1996-99) of Argentina.
J. (A.) Rodríguez
Rodríguez (Gómez), Jorge (b. Nov. 9, 1965, Barquisimeto, Lara, Venezuela), executive vice-president of Venezuela (2007-08). In 2008 he became mayor of Libertador (the federal district).
Rodríguez (Herrera), Roque J(acinto) (b. 1898 - d. 1981), member of the Military Government Council of Honduras (1956-57).
Rodríguez Araque, Alí (b. Sept. 9, 1937, Ejido, Venezuela), secretary-general of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (2001-02), foreign minister (2004-06) and finance minister (2008-10) of Venezuela, and secretary-general of the Union of South American Nations (2012- ). In 2006-08 he was ambassador to Cuba.
Rodríguez Bautista, (José) Nicolás, byname Gabino (b. Jan. 25, 1950, San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander department, Colombia), Colombian rebel. He was second-in-command of the National Liberation Army (ELN) and took over the leadership after the death of Manuel Pérez Martínez in 1998.
Rodríguez Cuadros, (José) Manuel (b. March 17, 1949, Cusco, Peru), foreign minister of Peru (2003-05). He was also ambassador to Bolivia (2010).
Rodríguez Echeverría, Miguel Ángel (b. Jan. 9, 1940, San José, Costa Rica), president of Costa Rica (1998-2002). He first entered politics in the late 1960s as an economic adviser to Pres. Jose Joaquín Trejos. He became a wealthy businessman. He was elected to Congress in 1990 and became the legislature's president that year. He resigned from parliament in 1994 to devote time to his first presidential race, which he lost to José María Figueres by only 20,000 votes. For the 1998 election, he began early and spent millions of dollars to build a powerful organization that stretched even to the most remote villages. He came under a cloud of suspicion for allegedly improper business practices and for his links to a shady Mexican political "godfather," Carlos Hank González. Rodríguez denied any wrongdoing. He narrowly won against José Miguel Corrales. Rodríguez's victory was mainly due to voters' frustration with rising prices and dropping incomes under Figueres, and many hoped his business savvy and economic training would help them make ends meet. In 2004 he became secretary-general of the Organization of American States but resigned within a month, amid allegations of corruption back in Costa Rica. A former member of his cabinet reportedly accused him of accepting 60% of a $2.4 million "prize" from Alcatel, a French firm that won a $149 million cellular phone contract with the Costa Rican government in 2001. He was arrested on his return to Costa Rica on October 15. He was released from house arrest on Oct. 14, 2005. On April 27, 2011, he was sentenced to five years in prison after being convicted in the bribery case.
Rodríguez Giavarini, Adalberto (b. 1944, San Martín, Buenos Aires province, Argentina), foreign minister of Argentina (1999-2001).
Rodríguez Lara, Guillermo (Antonio) (b. Nov. 4, 1923, Pujilí, Cotopaxi province, Ecuador), president of Ecuador (1972-76).
Rodríguez Moroy, Luis Javier (b. 1944, Logroño, Spain), president of the Council of Government of La Rioja (1982-83).
Rodríguez Parrilla, Bruno (b. January 1958, Mexico), foreign minister of Cuba (2009- ). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1995-2003).
Rodríguez Porth, José Antonio (b. 1914? - d. [assassinated] June 9, 1989, San Salvador, El Salvador), member of the Civic-Military Directory (1961) and foreign minister (1978-79) of El Salvador.
Rodríguez Rodríguez, Román (b. March 1, 1956, San Nicolás de Tolentino, Gran Canaria, Spain), president of the government of Canarias (1999-2003).
Rodríguez Saá (Páez Montero), Adolfo (b. July 25, 1947, San Luis, Argentina), governor of San Luis (1983-2001) and interim president of Argentina (2001-02).
Rodríguez Saá (Páez Montero), Alberto (José) (b. Aug. 21, 1949, San Luis, Argentina), governor of San Luis (2003-11); brother of Adolfo Rodríguez Saá. He was a presidential candidate in 2007 and 2011.
Rodríguez-Vigil Rubio, Juan Luis (b. March 15, 1945, Valdepeñas, Ciudad Real province, Castilla-La Mancha, Spain), president of the government of Asturias (1991-93).
Rodríguez Zapatero, José Luis (b. Aug. 4, 1960, Valladolid, Spain), prime minister of Spain (2004-11). His grandfather was executed by the forces of fascist leader Francisco Franco during the 1936-39 Civil War. Spain finally began to emerge from dictatorship after Franco's death in 1975 and Rodríguez became a leader of the Socialist Party (PSOE) in the northern city of León three years later at the age of 18. At 26, he was the youngest-ever member of Spain's parliament where he came under the spell of the charismatic prime minister Felipe González. He remained one of González's staunchest supporters, despite a string of corruption scandals that tainted his last years in power. In July 2000 he was elected secretary general of PSOE. 415 of nearly 1,000 votes were enough to narrowly beat nearest rival José Bono, the powerful president of Castilla-La Mancha region. As the youngest of four candidates in the ballot, he found it easy to paint himself as the champion of change. He faced one of the hardest jobs in European politics, to overcome the deep rifts within the once mighty party which had suffered a crippling general election defeat in March. He was liked by the media for smilingly answering reporters' questions and his trademark was his call for "calm change." As head of the party's "New Way" group - which proposed internal reforms to win back the trust of voters - he associated himself with British prime minister Tony Blair whose "New" Labour Party triumphed in 1997 after a long spell in the political wilderness. He also praised the 35-hour week introduced by French Socialist prime minister Lionel Jospin. He won a surprise victory in the 2004 elections (days after a deadly terrorist attack in Madrid) and quickly fulfilled a campaign pledge to withdraw Spanish troops from Iraq. After being reelected in 2008, in 2011 he announced not to seek another term and, in the face of the European debt crisis, called early elections which his party lost heavily.
Roedern, Siegfried (Friedrich Wilhelm Erdmann) Graf von (b. July 27, 1870, Marburg, Hessen-Nassau province, Prussia [now in Hessen, Germany] - d. April 13, 1954, Bern, Switzerland), secretary of state of Alsace-Lorraine (1914-16) and finance minister of Germany (1916-18).
Roel García, Santiago (b. 1919, Monterrey, Mexico - d. Dec. 17, 2001, Monterrey), foreign minister of Mexico (1976-79).
Röell, Antonie (from March 18, 1937:) baron (b. Aug. 21, 1864, The Hague, Netherlands - d. Nov. 29, 1940, Haarlem, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Noord-Holland (1915-40).
Röell, Herman Hendrik (from May 12, 1874:) baron (b. Dec. 10, 1806, The Hague, Netherlands - d. Sept. 9, 1883, Amsterdam, Netherlands), king's commissioner of Utrecht (1858-60) and Noord-Holland (1860-79).
Roem, Mohammad (b. May 16, 1908, Parakan, Java, Netherlands East Indies [now in Indonesia] - d. Sept. 24, 1983, Jakarta, Indonesia), interior minister (1946-47, 1947-48, 1952-53) and foreign minister (1950-51) of Indonesia.
Roger, Jacques François, baron (b. Jan. 26, 1787, Longjumeau, Essonne, France - d. 18...), governor of Senegal (1821-27).
Roger, Michel (b. March 9, 1949, Poitiers, France), minister of state of Monaco (2010- ).
Rogers, Richard R(eid) (b. Dec. 4, 1868, Bourbon county, Ky. - d. Nov. 10, 1949, New York City), governor of the Panama Canal Zone (1906-07).
Rogers, William (Pierce) (b. June 23, 1913, Norfolk, N.Y. - d. Jan. 2, 2001, Bethesda, Md.), U.S. attorney general (1957-61) and secretary of state (1969-73). He was assistant district attorney of New York county (1938-42, 1946-47) after service in the navy. He was chief counsel for the Senate war investigating committee in 1947-48, and from 1948 to 1950 chief counsel of the Senate's subcommittee on executive expenditure. He was named deputy attorney general under Herbert Brownell, Jr., in the original Dwight D. Eisenhower cabinet of 1953. When Brownell resigned Oct. 23, 1957, Rogers was designated his successor. He took office on November 8 and was confirmed by the Senate Jan. 27, 1958. In March 1958 he helped prepare the Nixon-Eisenhower personal agreement under which Vice-Pres. Richard M. Nixon would become acting president temporarily in the event of President Eisenhower's inability to act. On September 2 he recommended that the jurisdictional scope of the International Court of Justice be widened. The court itself, he said, rather than individual nations, should have the power to decide whether or not it had jurisdiction in a dispute. He served as secretary of state under President Nixon but was often overshadowed by Nixon and his national security advisor, Henry Kissinger. In December 1969 he made public a peace plan, soon known as the Rogers Plan, which envisaged Israeli withdrawal from the West Bank to its 1967 borders, with minor modifications for mutual security. Israel and Egypt rejected the plan. In August 1970 he brought about a truce in the war of attrition between Egypt and Israel.
Rogers-Wright, Cyril B(unting Oluworke) (b. June 13, 1910 - d. Jan. 1, 1971, Dublin, Ireland), foreign minister of Sierra Leone (1964-65).
Rogge, Jacques, (from Oct. 21, 2003:) graaf (b. May 2, 1942, Ghent, Belgium), president of the International Olympic Committee (2001-13).
Rogier, Charles (Latour) (b. Aug. 17, 1800, Saint-Quentin, France - d. May 27, 1885, Saint-Josse-ten-Noode, Brussels, Belgium), cabinet chief of Belgium (1847-52, 1857-68). In 1824 he was one of the founders of the journal Mathieu Laensbergh (later Le Politique), which became known for its Belgian patriotism and its criticisms of the Dutch administration, Belgium being at that time part of the unitary Kingdom of The Netherlands. When insurrection broke out in Brussels in August 1830, he mustered 150 Liègeois and marched with them to support it. He became a principal member of the provisional government formed in September; representing this, he went in October to Antwerp and arranged an armistice with the Dutch. Deputy for Liège in the new National Congress, he insisted on the proclamation of Belgian independence and on the establishment of a hereditary monarchy. He became governor of Antwerp in 1831 and minister of the interior in 1832. He carried the law for the construction of railways, the first in Europe, but disagreement within the cabinet led to his resignation in 1834, when he resumed the governorship of Antwerp. In 1840-41 he was minister of public works, education, and fine arts. Roman Catholic opposition kept him out of office from 1841 until 1847, when he formed a Liberal government. His electoral reform law (1848) did much to save Belgium from the revolutionary convulsions which shook other European nations that year. His education bill of 1850 created an alternative to the existing Roman Catholic school system. In his second ministry (1857-68), his envoy Auguste Lambermont negotiated the agreement with the Netherlands freeing Antwerp's maritime commerce from liability to tolls on the Scheldt River. Rogier retired in favour of Walthère Frère-Orban in 1868 but remained active in public affairs throughout the 1870s.
Rognon, Charles Amédée (b. Oct. 1, 1861, Paris, France - d. Dec. 25, 1911), governor of New Caledonia (1905) and French India (1907-08), acting lieutenant governor of Gabon (1909), and acting governor-general of French Congo (1909-10).
Rogombé, Rose Francine, née Etomba (b. Sept. 20, 1942, Lambaréné, Gabon), interim president of Gabon (2009). She has been president of the Senate from February 2009.
Rogozhkin, Nikolay (Yevgenyevich) (b. June 21, 1952, Michurinsk, Tambov oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), plenipotentiary of the president in Sibirsky federal district (2014- ).
Rogué, Jacques (Camille Marie) (b. March 31, 1898, Paris - d. July 4, 1980, Le Mans, Sarthe, France), governor of Chad (1943-49) and Mauritania (1950-52).
Roh Moo Hyun, Revised Romanization No Mu-hyeon (b. Aug. 6, 1946, Kimhae, South Kyongsang province, Korea [now in South Korea] - d. May 23, 2009, Pusan, South Korea), president of South Korea (2003-08). He built a reputation as a human rights lawyer and was once arrested and had his lawyer's license suspended for supporting an outlawed labour protest. He entered the National Assembly in 1988 as an opposition member elected in Pusan, the nation's second-largest city. After splitting with Kim Young Sam's party in 1990, he failed in three elections for a parliamentary seat (1992, 2000) and mayor's job (1995) in Pusan running on the ticket of Kim Dae Jung's party, which was unpopular in the city and surrounding provinces. His futile attempts earned him the moniker "Roh the idiot," but also brought him respect for challenging regional favouritism, the bane of South Korean politics. Roh, popular with young voters, was the underdog in the 2002 presidential race against main opposition Grand National Party candidate Lee Hoi Chang. Roh promised to improve relations with communist North Korea and push for a more equal relationship with the nation's closest ally, the United States. Anti-U.S. sentiment rose sharply in South Korea ahead of the election, fueled by the acquittals of two U.S. soldiers whose armoured vehicle had killed two teenage girls. Roh, who once demanded an end to the U.S. presence, now said he supported it, but he still wanted to revise the legal code governing the 37,000 American soldiers in South Korea to give the host country more jurisdiction. He defeated Lee 49%-47%. In September 2003, he left the Millennium Democratic Party as his supporters broke away to form the Uri party after infighting. In March 2004, in the country's first presidential impeachment, the opposition-controlled parliament voted to strip him of executive powers on charges of illegal electioneering and incompetence, but the Constitutional Court reinstated him in May. He committed suicide by jumping into a ravine on a mountainside near his home.
Roh Moo Hyun
Roh Tae Woo, Revised Romanization No Tae-u (b. Dec. 4, 1932, Dalsung, near Taegu, Korea [now in South Korea]), president of South Korea (1988-93). Following the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, he joined the South Korean army and with his friend Chun Doo Hwan attended the Korean Military Academy, where they both graduated in 1955. Roh served in Vietnam in the 1960s and by 1979 he was a general in command of the 1st Division. In December 1979, Chun and some fellow officers launched a coup against the civilian government, with Roh giving them crucial support. Chun became president in 1980, and in 1981 Roh resigned from the military and joined Chun's government, serving as minister of political affairs (1981-82), sports (1982), and home affairs (1982-83). As head of the Seoul Olympic Organizing Committee in 1983-86, he oversaw South Korea's preparations for the 1988 Summer Olympic Games at Seoul. Chun chose Roh in 1985 to become the new chairman of the ruling Democratic Justice Party (DJP), and in June 1987 to be the DJP candidate in the upcoming presidential elections. Roh won the December 16 election because the opposition was split between Kim Young Sam and Kim Dae Jung. The moderate and conciliatory Roh orchestrated the retirement from politics of his unpopular predecessor Chun. He instituted democratic reforms, which contributed to the DJP failing to gain a majority of seats in 1988 parliamentary elections, but in 1990 he merged the DJP with two opposition parties to form a new majority party called the Democratic Liberal Party. In 1991 he signed an agreement with North Korea calling for nonaggression between the two Koreas, both of which were admitted to the United Nations the same year. After leaving office he was tried on charges of mutiny and sedition for his involvement in the 1979 coup and on corruption charges. Sentenced to 17 years in prison in August 1996, he was pardoned in December 1997.
Roh Tae Woo
Rohee, Clement (James) (b. March 16, 1950), foreign minister (1992-2001) and home affairs minister (2006- ) of Guyana. He was also minister of foreign trade and international cooperation (2001-06).
Rohlícek, Rudolf (b. July 14, 1929 - d. [suicide] June 2009, Modra, Slovakia), finance minister (1969-73) and deputy prime minister (1976-88) of Czechoslovakia.
Röhm, Ernst (Julius) (b. Nov. 28, 1887, Munich, Germany - d. July 1, 1934, Munich), German army officer. He joined the army in 1906. During World War I he was wounded three times and rose to the rank of major. After the war he remained on the staff of the army district command in Munich. In 1919 he joined the precursor of the National Socialist German Workers' Party. He helped Adolf Hitler to win the support of the army in Bavaria and provided him with the services of his own strong-arm squads, which, in October 1921, became the SA (the Brownshirts). He took part in the Munich (Beer Hall) Putsch of Nov. 8-9, 1923, was arrested, and in April 1924 sentenced to a short term of imprisonment. Hitler wanted the SA to remain subordinate to the party, while Röhm wanted it to be on equal terms with the party, and eventually to absorb or replace the regular army. In 1925 Röhm resigned the leadership of the SA and went to Bolivia, but returned late in 1930 at Hitler's request to reorganize the SA. When Hitler became chancellor in 1933, he temporized by including Röhm in his cabinet as minister without portfolio but then definitely subordinated the SA to the party and the army. Persuaded by Hermann Göring and Heinrich Himmler, the Führer finally decided to purge the SA chief. On June 30, 1934, Röhm was taken by Hitler personally from a hotel at Bad Wiessee, near Munich, on the pretext that he and the SA were preparing a putsch. He was shot without trial the next day.
Roig, Miguel (Ángel) (b. 1921 - d. 1989), economy minister of Argentina (1989).
Roijen, Jan Herman van (b. April 10, 1905, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. March 16, 1991, Wassenaar, Netherlands), foreign minister of the Netherlands (1946). He was also ambassador to Canada (1947-50), the United States (1950-64), and the United Kingdom and Iceland (1964-70).
Roindefo (Zafitsimivalo), Monja (b. Dec. 30, 1965, Toliara, Madagascar), prime minister of Madagascar (2009). He is the leader since 1994 of the Monima party, formerly led by his father, Monja Jaona (1910-1994).
Rõivas, Taavi (b. Sept. 26, 1979, Tallinn, Estonian S.S.R.), prime minister of Estonia (2014- ).
Rojas (y Ramos), Benigno Filomeno de (b. Feb. 13, 1811, Santiago, Dominican Republic - d. Oct. 30, 1865, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic), head of state of the Dominican Republic (1865).
Rojas Galdames, René (b. Jan. 22, 1919 - d. 1988), foreign minister of Chile (1980-81, 1982-83). He was also ambassador to the Holy See (1970-73), Argentina (1973-78), and Spain (1978-80).
Rojas López, Roberto (b. Oct. 22, 1942, San José, Costa Rica), foreign minister of Costa Rica (1998-2002).
Rojas Pinilla, Gustavo (b. March 12, 1900, Tunja, Colombia - d. Jan. 17, 1975, Bogotá, Colombia), president of Colombia (1953-57).
Rojo Gómez, Javier (b. June 28, 1896, Bondojito, Hidalgo, Mexico - d. Dec. 31, 1970, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Hidalgo (1937-40), chief of government of the Distrito Federal (1940-46), and governor of Quintana Roo (1967-70).
Rojo Lugo, Jorge (b. June 19, 1933, Huichapan, Hidalgo, Mexico - d. July 14, 2010, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Hidalgo (1975-76, 1978-81); son of Javier Rojo Gómez. He was also Mexican minister of agrarian reform (1976-78).
Roketsky, Leonid (Yulianovich) (b. March 15, 1942), head of the administration of Tyumen oblast (1993-2001).
Rokossovsky, Konstantin (Konstantinovich), Polish Konstanty Rokossowski (b. Dec. 21 [Dec. 9, Old Style], 1896, Velikiye Luki, Russia - d. Aug. 3, 1968, Moscow), Soviet military commander. He served in the Russian imperial army as a noncommissioned officer in World War I and then on the side of the Bolsheviks in the Civil War. He joined the Communist Party in 1917. Imprisoned during the Stalinist purges of 1937, he was released upon the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 because his military talents were needed. He was promoted from colonel to major general because of his stubborn defense of Smolensk during the summer of 1941. Subsequently he directed the fight that pushed the Germans from the Moscow area in December 1941 and won his greatest renown at Stalingrad (1942-43) when he directed six Soviet armies of the Don front that surrounded and then annihilated the 22 divisions of the German 6th Army. He had major roles in the battle of Kursk (1943) and in the Soviet drives into Belorussia (1944), East Prussia, and Pomerania (1945). In 1949 he was named defense minister and deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers of Poland and was accorded the title marshal of Poland; many regarded him as Moscow's viceroy. He held these positions until 1956, when Wladyslaw Gomulka, who had been ousted in 1948, returned to power as leader of the Polish United Workers' Party. Rokossovsky's failure to be elected to the new Warsaw Politburo was widely taken to indicate a victory for Poland's Communist leaders in their struggle for greater independence from the Soviet Union. After a commission of inquiry charged him with having prepared a coup against Gomulka, Rokossovsky returned to the U.S.S.R., where he became deputy defense minister (1956-62) and held other military posts.
Roland, Floyd (Kenny) (b. Nov. 23, 1961), premier of the Northwest Territories (2007-11).
Rolandis, Nikos (Andrea) (b. Dec. 10, 1934, Limassol, Cyprus), foreign minister of Cyprus (1978-83). He later served as minister of commerce, industry, and tourism (1998-2003).
Roldós Aguilera, Jaime (b. Nov. 5, 1940, Guayaquil, Ecuador - d. May 24, 1981, near Guachanama, Ecuador), president of Ecuador (1979-81). In 1962 he married Marta Bucaram, niece of Asaad Bucaram, the populist leader of the Concentration of Popular Forces (CFP), a left-of-centre party. In 1968 Roldós, endorsed by the CFP, was elected to parliament, but it was suspended by Pres. José María Velasco Ibarra in 1970. In 1976, while Ecuador was ruled by a military junta, he was appointed to a constitutional reform commission, helping to draft a new constitution which was adopted in 1978. Because the junta inserted in it a clause disqualifying Bucaram from the presidency, Roldós became the candidate of the CFP, using the campaign slogan, "Roldós in the presidency, Bucaram in power." No candidate won the required majority on July 16, 1978, but Roldós took a commanding lead with 31% of the votes. He had campaigned against the military regime, blaming it for mismanaging both the country's newly found oil resources and Ecuador's overall economy. The military leadership kept postponing the runoff, but after the U.S. warned that relations between the two nations would suffer if elections were not held, the date was set for April 29, 1979. In the interval Roldós left the shadow of Bucaram and developed an entirely independent base of popularity. He defeated Sixto Durán Ballén 68%-32%. In office, he adopted a more centrist position than expected, retreating from many of his campaign promises, and received little cooperation from the new legislature led by Bucaram. In 1980 he formed his own political party called People, Change, and Democracy. He was killed, along with his wife, Defense Minister Marco Aurelio Subía Martínez, and six other people, in an airplane crash near the southern border with Peru.
Rolin-Jaequemyns, Edouard (Gustave) (b. Jan. 23, 1863, Ghent, Belgium - d. July 11, 1936, Brussels, Belgium), interior minister of Belgium (1925-26).
Roll von Emmenholz, (Franz Peter) Ludwig (Leo) Freiherr von (b. 1771 - d. 1839), president of the Small Council of Solothurn (1831-32).
Rolland, Pierre (Charles) (b. Jan. 15, 1918, La Tour du Pin, Isère, France - d. Nov. 21, 1988, Courcouronnes, Essonne, France), administrator-superior of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands (1959-72).
Rollandin, Augusto (Arduino Claudio) (b. June 13, 1949, Brusso, Valle d'Aosta, Italy), president of Valle d'Aosta (1984-90, 2008- ).
Rollet, Louis Félix (b. Sept. 28, 1915 - d. May 14, 2001), acting lieutenant governor of Niger (1958).
Rolón (Villasanti), Raimundo (b. March 15, 1903, Paraguarí, Paraguay - d. Sept. 17, 1981, Asunción, Paraguay), provisional president of Paraguay (1949).
Rolón Anaya, Mario (b. Jan. 12, 1927, Cochabamba, Bolivia - d. Jan. 11, 2013, Cochabamba), foreign minister of Bolivia (1981). He was also minister of labour and social security (1967-68, 1969-70), ambassador to Venezuela (1977-78), and permanent representative to the UN (1978-80) and OAS (1990-93).
Rolvaag, Karl (Fritjof) (b. July 18, 1913, Northfield, Minn. - d. Dec. 20, 1990, Northfield), governor of Minnesota (1963-67). He was also U.S. ambassador to Iceland (1967-69).
Rolz Bennett, José (b. Aug. 9, 1918, Quetzaltenango, Guatemala - d. Dec. 18, 1972, Guatemala City, Guatemala), acting administrator of West New Guinea (1962).
Roman, Petre (Augustin) (b. July 22, 1946, Bucharest, Romania), prime minister (1989-91) and foreign minister (1999-2000) of Romania. He was president of the Senate in 1996-2000.
Román y Reyes, Víctor Manuel (b. Oct. 13, 1873, Jinotepe, Carazo, Nicaragua - d. May 6, 1950, Philadelphia, Pa.), president of Nicaragua (1947-50).
Romanones, Álvaro de Figueroa y Torres (Sotomayor) Mendieta (y Romo), conde de (count of) (b. Aug. 9, 1863, Madrid, Spain - d. Sept. 11, 1950, Madrid), prime minister of Spain (1912-13, 1915-17, 1918-19). Created conde de Romanones in 1893, he was president of the Chamber of Deputies (1911) before becoming prime minister in 1912, after the assassination of José Canalejas y Méndez. Later, as leader of the opposition, he approved the government policy of neutrality in World War I and pursued this policy in his second term as prime minister; in 1917, however, he fell from power as a result of a German-inspired press campaign, also resigning his leadership of the Liberals. Romanones was minister of justice in Antonio Maura y Montaner's government in 1918, becoming foreign minister under the marqués de Alhucemas in November and prime minister in December of the same year. In April 1919 he was again deposed - by military junta - returning to office in 1922-23 as minister of justice, again under Alhucemas. After the dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera, 1923-30, during which he remained loyal, notably as speaker of the Senate, to the throne and constitutional principles, he became foreign minister for a short time. To the end, although he often criticized the king, he pleaded for the preservation of the monarchy. Arrested by the republicans during the Civil War, he was later released and given safe conduct to France, thenceforward devoting himself to literary activity.
Romanow, Roy (John) (b. Aug. 12, 1939, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan), premier of Saskatchewan (1991-2000). He was first elected to the Saskatchewan legislature for Saskatoon-Riversdale in 1967 and was reelected in 1971, 1975, 1978, 1986, 1991, 1995, and 1999. Between 1971 and 1982, he served as the deputy premier of Saskatchewan in the New Democratic Party (NDP) government of Allan Blakeney. Throughout those 11 years, he also served as the province's attorney general and was responsible for the introduction of many justice system reforms. In 1979, he was appointed Saskatchewan's first minister of intergovernmental affairs. As Premier Blakeney's lead minister in this important field, Romanow was one of the key players in the federal-provincial negotiations which resulted in the Constitutional Accord of November 1981. In the Conservative landslide of 1982, he lost his seat to a 23-year-old gas station attendant. Upon his reelection in October 1986, he served as opposition house leader for the NDP caucus. He also served as caucus spokesperson on federal-provincial affairs and economic development and trade issues. On Nov. 7, 1987, he was acclaimed leader of the Saskatchewan NDP to succeed Blakeney. He led the party to a 55-seat majority government on Oct. 21, 1991, and became premier. During its first term, his government introduced numerous fiscal, economic, and social reforms and delivered Saskatchewan's first balanced budget in over 12 years. His NDP government was reelected with a 42-seat majority on June 21, 1995. After the 1999 election, he led a minority government with the support of the Liberal Party. In September 2000 he announced his resignation. He was the longest-serving MLA in the legislature and the longest-serving Canadian premier in office at the time.
Römer, René A(ntonio) (b. July 2, 1929, Curaçao - d. Feb. 25, 2003, Curaçao), governor of the Netherlands Antilles (1983-90).
Romer, Roy (R.) (b. Oct. 31, 1928, Garden City, Kan.), governor of Colorado (1987-99). A Democrat, he was elected to the Colorado House of Representatives in 1958 and switched to the state Senate in 1962. As an opponent of the Vietnam war, he ran and lost for a U.S. Senate seat against Republican Gordon Allott in 1966. In 1975 he became chief of staff to Gov. Dick Lamm, who was younger and skeptical of growth. In 1976 he was elected state treasurer and in 1986 won his first term as governor. Unlike some Democrats, he did not see economic growth solely as a menace to the environment. He actually sought foreign investment and was a big booster of the troubled Denver International Airport and the Two Forks Dam, which was canceled by the Environmental Protection Agency. He played a national role on education as chairman until 1991 of the National Education Goals Panel, a bipartisan body set up between Pres. George Bush and the governors as a result of a 1989 education summit. As National Governors' Association chairman he pushed for Goals 2000 education reform and urged President-elect Bill Clinton to propose a national health insurance overhaul in his first 100 days. He took the response to that, as well as Colorado voters' decisions on two 1992 referenda - to reject his education tax and require a referendum on tax increases - as rebukes to his work. Prohibited from raising taxes, he squeezed down spending; he helped pass juvenile crime and "three strikes" laws; his fiscal policies were rated second best in the country by the Cato Institute. In 1994 he was reelected over Republican nominee Bruce Benson by 55-40% with exit polls showing the race close among men but Romer leading nearly 2-1 among women. In 1997-99 he was general chairman of the Democratic National Committee.
Romero (Mena), Carlos Humberto (b. Feb. 29, 1924, Chalatenango, El Salvador), president of El Salvador (1977-79).
Romero Arza, Carlos, defense minister of Paraguay (2003-04); son of Tomás Romero Pereira.
Romero Barceló, Carlos (Antonio) (b. Sept. 4, 1932, San Juan, Puerto Rico), governor of Puerto Rico (1977-85).
R. Romero Feris
Romero Feris, José Antonio (b. March 23, 1941), governor of Corrientes (1983-87).
Romero Feris, Raúl (Rolando), byname Tato, governor of Corrientes (1993-97); brother of José Antonio Romero Feris.
Romero Pereira, Tomás (b. Oct. 4, 1886, Encarnación, Paraguay - d. Aug. 12, 1982, Asunción, Paraguay), provisional president of Paraguay (1954).
Romero Salcedo, Eulogio (b. May 12, 1855, Lambayeque, Peru - d. June 7, 1931, Lima, Peru), interior minister (1904-06) and prime minister and finance minister (1908-09) of Peru.
Romney, Cyril (Brandtford) (b. March 1, 1931, Tortola, British Virgin Islands - d. July 19, 2007, Miami, Fla.), chief minister of the British Virgin Islands (1983-86). In 1969 he became the first islander to be appointed to the post of financial secretary. He was first elected to the Legislative Council in 1979. In the general elections of November 1983, he became the only successful independent candidate and formed a coalition with the United Party, becoming chief minister. During his three-year tenure, the British Virgin Islands began its offshore financial centre, which has provided the territory with one of the highest per capita gross domestic products in the world. He served as opposition leader in 1986-90. He lost his seat in 1995.
Romney, George W(ilcken) (b. July 8, 1907, Chihuahua, Mexico - d. July 26, 1995, Bloomfield Hills, Mich.), governor of Michigan (1963-69). A Mormon active in church affairs (he was born in a Mormon colony in Mexico where his parents and other Mormons had moved to avoid U.S. laws against polygamy), he became the first president of the church's Detroit stake in 1952, a post he held until 1963. As chairman of American Motors Corp. (1954-62), he railed against "gas-guzzling dinosaurs" and promoted compact cars. In 1962 the Republican defeated incumbent John Swainson to end a 14-year Democratic hold on the office of governor of Michigan. He introduced a variety of taxes that turned the state's chronic deficit into a surplus; he also worked effectively on behalf of civil rights. He derailed a bid for the 1968 presidential nomination by remarking in August 1967 that he had been "brainwashed" by the U.S. military and diplomatic corps in Vietnam. Despite the criticism he received for the comment, his campaign went on, but on Feb. 28, 1968, as Richard Nixon's popularity grew, Romney ended his quest for the presidency two weeks before the New Hampshire primary. He gave up the governor's office in 1969 to become secretary of housing and urban development in Nixon's cabinet but quit in 1972 to return to the private sector. His wife, Lenore Romney, née Lafount (b. Nov. 9, 1908, Logan, Utah - d. July 7, 1998, Bloomfield Hills, Mich.), ran for the GOP nomination for U.S. Senate in 1970. She won a tight contest against Robert Huber, a conservative state senator from Oakland county, but lost the general election to popular Democratic incumbent Phillip Hart, who won 67% of the vote.
Romney, (Willard) Mitt (b. March 12, 1947, Detroit, Mich.), governor of Massachusetts (2003-07); son of George W. Romney. For four years he was president of his stake in the Mormon church - the rough equivalent of bishop. In 1994, he was the Republican nominee against Sen. Edward Kennedy, and succeeded in giving him a good scare before losing 58%-41% - Kennedy's closest race since he was first elected in 1962. In February 1999, he was asked to head the Salt Lake City Winter Olympics Organizing Committee; he erased a $379 million deficit, rallied 23,000 volunteers, and ran an effective security operation at the February 2002 Winter Games. On March 19, 2002, Jane Swift abruptly left the race for governor of Massachusetts; three hours later, Romney announced his candidacy. He remained unopposed in his party. The Democrats, meanwhile, jousted in a primary fight. Treasurer Shannon O'Brien won the September 17 primary with 33% of the vote to 25% for former Clinton labor secretary Robert Reich, 24% for state Senate president Thomas Birmingham, and 18% for former state senator Warren Tolman. O'Brien had only six weeks to focus on her differences with Romney. She and other Democrats evidently decided to defeat him by proving he was out of place in Massachusetts. She said he was trying to "mask a very conservative set of belief systems." Democrats circulated a news story that Romney, at a church meeting, had called homosexuality "perverse"; he denied using the word but said he opposed all extramarital sex. Romney won 50%-45%. In December 2005 he declared his work as governor nearly done and announced he would not seek reelection in 2006. In February 2007 he officially entered the race for the 2008 Republican presidential nomination. He dropped out in February 2008, after Sen. John McCain came out ahead on "Super Tuesday." He ran again four years later, and became the presumptive nominee when his main opponent Rick Santorum withdrew in April 2012. In the November election, he lost to Democratic incumbent Barack Obama. Romney would have been the first Mormon president.
Romondt, John George Louis Illidge van (b. Feb. 16, 1833, Sint Maarten - d. March 10, 1896, Sint Maarten), administrator of Bonaire (1873-81).
Romondt, Vincent Rogers van (b. 18... - d. Aug. 15, 1899, Utrecht, Netherlands), administrator of Bonaire (1885-90).
Rompani, Santiago (I.) (b. June 3, 1910 - d. March 23, 1999, Montevideo, Uruguay), foreign minister of Uruguay (1955-56).
Romulo, Alberto (Gatmaitan) (b. Aug. 7, 1933, Camiling, Tarlac province, Philippines), finance secretary (2001) and foreign secretary (2004-11) of the Philippines; nephew of Carlos P. Romulo.
Romulo, Carlos P(eña) (b. Jan. 14, 1899, Camiling, near Manila, Philippines - d. Dec. 15, 1985, Manila), Philippine diplomat. He was a newspaper editor and publisher and won a Pulitzer Prize in 1942. After the Japanese attack on the Philippines in December 1941, he was commissioned a major in the U.S. Army and became a press aide to Gen. Douglas MacArthur on Corregidor Island, broadcasting the "Voice of Freedom." At the fall of Bataan in April 1942, he escaped to Australia. He joined the Philippine government-in-exile of Pres. Manuel Quezon in Washington, D.C., as secretary of information (1943-44) and became the last Philippine resident commissioner in the U.S. (1944-46). In October 1944, now a brigadier general, he returned to the Philippines with U.S. forces, and he took part in the recapture of Manila in early 1945. He headed the Philippine delegation to the United Nations drafting conference in San Francisco in 1945, was president of the UN General Assembly (1949-50), and served for three one-month terms as chairman of the UN Security Council. He became Philippine secretary of foreign affairs (1950-52) and ambassador to the U.S. (1952-53, 1955-62). In 1953 he was a candidate for UN secretary-general but was rejected by the Soviet Union. In the same year, dissatisfied with the ruling Liberal Party, he decided to run for the presidency of the Philippines on a third-party ticket, but then withdrew to become campaign manager for the ultimately successful Nacionalista Party candidate, Ramon Magsaysay. At the Bandung Conference of Afro-Asian countries (1955), he criticized the tyranny of both communist rule and Western colonialism. Serving under Pres. Ferdinand E. Marcos as secretary of education (1965-68) and as secretary (1968-78) and minister (1978-84) of foreign affairs, he became less democratic in his views and defended Marcos' imposition of martial law in 1972.
Romulo, Roberto (Rey), foreign secretary of the Philippines (1992-95); son of Carlos P. Romulo.
Roncagliolo (Orbegoso), (Fortunato) Rafael (b. 1944, Lima, Peru), foreign minister of Peru (2011-13).
Roncière (le Noury), Émile (François Guillaume Clément), comte de la (b. 1803 - d. Aug. 9, 1874, Paris), commandant of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1859-63) and of the French Settlements in Oceania (1864-69).
Rong Yiren (b. May 1, 1916, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China - d. Oct. 26, 2005, Beijing, China), vice president of China (1993-98). He was a wealthy textile magnate who stayed in China after the 1949 revolution and handed over his fortune to the Communists in 1956. Though not himself a Communist Party member, he was appointed deputy mayor of Shanghai (1957-59) and deputy minister of the textile industry (1959-66). He was persecuted during the Cultural Revolution, but returned to prominence with the launch of Deng Xiaoping's economic reforms. Deng called Rong his "Red Capitalist." He became vice chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (1978-83) and in 1979 created the China International Trust and Investment Corp. (CITIC), which became the main vehicle for the Communist leadership's capitalist-style investments. He remained chairman of CITIC until he became vice president in 1993. In 1999, the U.S. business magazine Forbes ranked Rong as China's richest businessman, with a fortune estimated at $1 billion in CITIC shares.
Ronis, Aivis (b. May 20, 1968, Kuldiga, Latvian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Latvia (2010). He was ambassador to the United States and Mexico in 2000-04.
Rood, Max (Gustaaf) (b. Aug. 21, 1927, Enschede, Netherlands - d. Dec. 2, 2001, Amsterdam, Netherlands), interior minister of the Netherlands (1982).
Roosevelt, (Anna) Eleanor (b. Oct. 11, 1884, New York City - d. Nov. 7, 1962, New York City), U.S. diplomat. She was the niece of Theodore Roosevelt and was married to her distant cousin Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1905. She joined the Women's Trade Union League and became active in the New York state Democratic Party, serving (1924-28) as financial chairman of the women's division. When her husband became president in 1933, she created a new role in the White House for the first lady. Her advocacy of liberal causes and her precedent-breaking activities made her nearly as controversial a figure as her husband. She instituted regular White House press conferences for women correspondents. In deference to the president's infirmity, she served as his "eyes and ears," embarking on extensive tours and reporting to him on public opinion. These excursions were the butt of some criticism, but many people responded warmly to her compassionate interest in their welfare. For many years, beginning in 1936, she wrote a daily syndicated newspaper column, "My Day." She was a widely sought-after speaker and showed particular interest in such humanitarian concerns of the New Deal as the National Youth Administration, child welfare, slum-clearance projects, and equal rights. During World War II she traveled in Great Britain and the South Pacific as well as to U.S. military bases to help raise morale. After President Roosevelt's death, Pres. Harry S. Truman (and later Pres. John F. Kennedy) appointed her a delegate to the United Nations (1945, 1949-52, 1961), where, as chairman of the UN Commission on Human Rights (1946-51), she played a major role in the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). She was a strong supporter of Adlai Stevenson in the 1952 and 1956 presidential campaigns.
Roosevelt, Franklin D(elano) ("FDR") (b. Jan. 30, 1882, Hyde Park, N.Y. - d. April 12, 1945, Warm Springs, Ga.), president of the United States (1933-45); fifth cousin of Theodore Roosevelt. In 1910 the Democratic Party in Dutchess County, N.Y., needed a candidate for the state Senate. He campaigned strenuously and won in the usually Republican district. He was reelected in 1912 but in March 1913 accepted an offer to become assistant secretary of the navy. At the 1920 Democratic convention he was nominated for vice president with James M. Cox as presidential candidate but the ticket lost. He was elected governor of New York in 1928 and reelected in 1930. During his second term, as the Depression became more catastrophic in its effects, he began to mobilize the machinery of the state government to aid the economy. In 1932 he was nominated for president. In the campaign he outlined in general terms a program for recovery and reform that came to be known as the New Deal. He defeated incumbent Herbert Hoover by an electoral vote of 472-59. As president, he acted swiftly to obtain enactment of the most sweeping peacetime legislative program in U.S. history, establishing the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, the Works Progress Administration, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. He was overwhelmingly reelected in 1936 over Republican Alfred M. Landon, and in 1940 he won an unprecedented third term, defeating Wendell L. Willkie. When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941, the U.S. entered World War II. In 1944, Roosevelt won a fourth term against Thomas E. Dewey, but he died early in his fourth term, less than a month before the surrender of Germany.
Roosevelt, Theodore, byname Teddy Roosevelt (b. Oct. 27, 1858, New York City - d. Jan. 6, 1919, Oyster Bay, N.Y.), president of the United States (1901-09). A Republican, he successfully ran for the New York state assembly at age 23, but misfortune then struck in the form of three successive political defeats. He reentered public life and continued his reform activities as a member of the U.S. Civil Service Commission (1889-95) and as the president of the New York City Board of Police Commissioners (1895-97). As assistant secretary of the navy under Pres. William McKinley he vociferously advocated war with Spain. When war was declared in 1898, he abruptly resigned, organized the 1st Volunteer Cavalry, known as the Rough Riders, and took them to Cuba that year. His colourful exploits made him something of a national hero. He was elected governor of New York the same year, and in 1900 was nominated for vice president on the William McKinley ticket, which won the election. He became president when McKinley was assassinated in 1901. He expanded the powers of the federal government on the side of public interest in conflicts between big business and big labour (the "Square Deal"). He was overwhelmingly elected in 1904 as president in his own right. He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906 for mediating the end of the Russo-Japanese War, and he promoted the construction of the Panama Canal (1904-14). After leaving office, he became opposed to Pres. William Howard Taft over policy matters, prompting Roosevelt to contest Taft's 1912 renomination. He founded the Progressive Party and ran for president as an independent after losing the Republican nomination. The result was the victory of the Democratic candidate, Woodrow Wilson. He later returned to the Republicans.
Rooy, Charles van (b. Jan. 23, 1912, Rotterdam, Netherlands - d. Aug. 1, 1996, Hilversum, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Limburg (1964-78).
Rop, Anton, byname Tone Rop (b. Dec. 27, 1960, Ljubljana, Slovenia), finance minister (2000-02) and prime minister (2002-04) of Slovenia.
Roques, Adrien Anthony Maurice (b. Sept. 2, 1891 - d. June 3, 1977), acting resident-superior of Laos (1933-34, 1934).
Rosa, Henrique (Pereira) (b. Jan. 18, 1946, Bafatá, Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau] - d. May 15, 2013, Porto, Portugal), interim president of Guinea-Bissau (2003-05). He was a presidential candidate in 2009.
Rosa Bautista, Leónidas (b. 1947), foreign minister of Honduras (2003-05). In 2011 he became permanent representative to the OAS.
Rosaiah, Konijeti (b. July 4, 1933, Vemuru, Guntur district, Madras province [now in Andhra Pradesh state], India), chief minister of Andhra Pradesh (2009-10) and governor of Tamil Nadu (2011- ) and Karnataka (2014- ).
Rosales, Rubén Alonso (b. Jan. 12 or 21, 1925, Paraíso de Osorio, El Salvador), member of the Junta of Government of El Salvador (1960-61).
Rosario, Albert (Ferreros) del (b. 1939, Manila, Philippines), foreign secretary of the Philippines (2011- ). He was ambassador to the United States in 2001-06.
Rosário, (António) Gualberto do (b. Oct. 12, 1950, São Nicolau island, Cape Verde), prime minister of Cape Verde (2000-01).
Rosas1 (y López de Osornio), Juan Manuel (José Domingo Ortiz) de (b. March 30, 1793, Buenos Aires, Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata [now in Argentina] - d. March 14, 1877, Southampton, Hampshire, England), governor of Buenos Aires (1829-32, 1835-52) and supreme chief of Argentina (1851-52).
1 His baptismal record shows the name spelled Rozas, but he deliberately identified himself as Juan Manuel de Rosas, allegedly because of a quarrel with his parents; "Rozas" remains in other branches of the family.
Rosati, Dariusz (Kajetan) (b. Aug. 8, 1946, Radom, Poland), foreign minister of Poland (1995-97).
Rose, Sir David James Gardiner (b. April 10, 1923, British Guiana [now Guyana] - d. Nov. 10, 1969, London, England), administrator of Antigua (1964-66) and governor-general of Guyana (1966-69); knighted 1966. He was designated to become Guyana's first president in 1970, but was crushed to death when a nine-story scaffolding fell on his car in Whitehall Place, London, where he was to take leave of the queen.
Rose, Jack (b. Jan. 18, 1917, Blackheath, London, England - d. Oct. 10, 2009), administrator of the Cayman Islands (1960-63). In World War II, he flew Hurricane fighters during the brief but hectic days of the Battle of France and returned to be shot down during the Battle of Britain. He joined the Colonial Service in 1946 and served in Northern Rhodesia several times before arriving in the Cayman Islands in 1960, where he served during a period of immense change for the colony. He commissioned a draft company law, which was approved in London, passed in the islands' legislature, and became law in December 1961. It provided, among other things, for "exempt companies" and very soon led to the tax haven status of the islands and a huge growth in their economy. Following the historic 1962 election, which saw the new National Democratic Party under Ormond Panton win 7 seats and the first woman elected to the Legislative Assembly, Rose was criticized for appointing three members to the LA without consulting the NDP leadership and rejecting Panton, who had been the people's choice. This rejection was described by Roy Bodden in his book The Cayman Islands in transition as having a lasting detrimental impact on democracy in the country. Rose was interested in Cayman's tourism potential, but "Getting rid of mosquitoes was absolutely key to development." He recalled going to the airport when a plane was landing with tourists. It was just before sunset when mosquitoes were "swarming by the millions." People started coming down the gang plank, "bashing themselves about" and then rushing back into the aircraft. They refused to get out and insisted on flying back to Miami, he recalled. While mosquitoes were not conquered during his time, there were other significant occurrences, including construction of what became the governor's residence on Seven Mile Beach. Following his time in Cayman, Rose was appointed deputy governor of British Guiana, but his tour was cut short at the end of 1964 when his wife became ill. Until early 1979, when he finally retired, he immersed himself in voluntary work with the Citizen's Advice Bureau, as the honorary treasurer of the Red Cross in Oxfordshire, and from 1975 as secretary of the Salmon and Trout Association.
Rosebery, Archibald (Philip) Primrose, (5th) Earl of (b. May 7, 1847, London, England - d. May 21, 1929, The Durdans, Epsom, Surrey, England), British prime minister (1894-95).
Rosellini, Albert D(ean) (b. Jan. 21, 1910, Tacoma, Wash. - d. Oct. 10, 2011, Seattle, Wash.), governor of Washington (1957-65).
Rosenberg, Alfred (b. Jan. 12, 1893, Reval, Russia [now Tallinn, Estonia] - d. Oct. 16, 1946, Nürnberg, Germany), German Nazi ideologist. In 1919 he went to Munich, where he joined Adolf Hitler, Ernst Röhm, and Rudolf Hess in the nascent Nazi party. In 1923 he became editor of the party newspaper, Völkischer Beobachter. He drew on the ideas of the English racist Houston Stewart Chamberlain and on the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, a 19th-century fabrication claiming to expound a Jewish conspiracy for world domination. When Hitler was imprisoned and the party temporarily suppressed after the Munich Beer Hall Putsch (November 1923), he made Rosenberg leader of a replacement organization, knowing him to be weak and unlikely to establish a position of power. In Der Zukunftsweg einer deutschen Aussenpolitik (1927; "The Future Direction of a German Foreign Policy"), Rosenberg advocated a ruthless drive eastward. In Der Mythus des 20. Jahrhunderts (1930; "The Myth of the 20th Century") he laboriously claimed to expose German racial purity. According to Rosenberg, the Germans descended from a Nordic race that derived its character from the pure, cold, semi-Arctic continent, now disappeared, which was its homeland. As representatives of this race, the Germans were entitled to dominate Europe. Their enemies were shown as "Russian Tartars" and "Semites," the latter being a racial force far wider than modern Jewry, embracing the Latin peoples, and including in its scope Christianity, particularly the Catholic Church. His views gave a certain order and direction to Hitler's own prejudices. In 1941-45 he held the post of minister for the occupied eastern territories. Found guilty at the Nürnberg trials of war criminals, he was hanged.
Rosenqvist, Ernst (Edvard) (b. 1869 - d. 1932), governor of Mikkeli (1918-27).
Rosenthal (Koenigsberger), Gert (b. Sept. 11, 1935, Amsterdam, Netherlands), foreign minister of Guatemala (2006-08). He has also been Guatemala's permanent representative to the United Nations (1998-2004, 2008- ).
Rosenthal, Lodewijk Hendrik Nicolaas Bosch, ridder van (b. April 7, 1884, Dordrecht, Netherlands - d. Jan. 30, 1953, Zeist, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Utrecht (1934-41, 1945-46).
Rosenthal, Uri(ël) (b. July 19, 1945, Montreux, Switzerland), foreign minister of the Netherlands (2010-12).
Røsjorde, Hans J(ohan) (b. Nov. 11, 1941, Brunlanes, Vestfold, Norway), governor of Akershus (2001-11).
Rosmead, Hercules (George Robert) Robinson, (1st) Baron (b. Dec. 19, 1824, Rosmead, County Westmeath, Ireland - d. Oct. 28, 1897, London, England), administrator of Montserrat (1854-55), lieutenant governor of Saint Christopher (1855-59), and governor of Hong Kong (1859-65), Ceylon (1865-72), New South Wales (1872-79), Fiji (1874-75), New Zealand (1879-80), and Cape Colony (1881-89, 1895-97). He was knighted in 1859 and raised to the peerage in 1896.
Ross, John, Indian name Tsan-Usdi (Little John), later Cooweescoowee (b. Oct. 3, 1790, near Lookout Mountain, Southwest Territory [now Tenn.], U.S. - d. Aug. 1, 1866, Washington, D.C.), Cherokee chief. One-eighth Cherokee (born of a Scottish father and a part-Cherokee mother), the blue-eyed, fair-skinned Tsan-Usdi grew up as an Indian, although he was educated at Kingston Academy in Tennessee. During the War of 1812 he commanded a Cherokee regiment under Gen. Andrew Jackson and clashed with the Creeks (1813-14). In 1819-26 he served as president of the National Council of Cherokees, who by this time had become a settled people with well-stocked farms, schools, and representative government. In 1823 he exposed machinations of federal commissioners who attempted to bribe him into approving Cherokee land sales. Five years later he became principal chief of the Eastern Cherokees, headquartered at New Echota, Ga., under a constitution he had helped write. He resisted the white man's acquisition of valuable Cherokee land - some 111,000 sq km on which they had lived for centuries - using every means short of war. His petitions to President Jackson went unheeded, and in May 1830 the Indian Removal Act provided for the relocation of the tribes from their traditional lands to unknown western prairie. When threatened with military force, he had no choice but to lead his people to their new home west of the Mississippi River (in present Oklahoma) on the journey that became infamous as the "Trail of Tears" (1838-39); about one-fourth of the 17,000 migrants died en route. In the West he helped write a constitution (1839) for the united Cherokee Nation, of which he was chosen principal chief, an office he held for the remainder of his life.
Ross, Nellie (Davis) Tayloe, née Tayloe (b. Nov. 29, 1876, St. Joseph, Mo. - d. Dec. 20, 1977, Washington, D.C.), governor of Wyoming (1925-27) and director of the U.S. Mint (1933-53). She was elected governor in 1924, succeeding her husband, incumbent Democrat William Bradford Ross, who died a few weeks before the election. She thus became the first woman governor of a U.S. state, but only by a small margin - Miriam Ferguson was inaugurated governor of Texas just 15 days later. "As long as my husband lived," she would later say, "it never entered my head, or his, that I would find any vocation outside my home." She was, however, known as her husband's confidante and had accompanied him everywhere. After being narrowly defeated for reelection by the Republican candidate in 1926, she was appointed vice chairman of the Democratic National Committee in 1928 and supported that year's Democratic presidential candidate Alfred E. Smith, although she was a staunch Prohibitionist and he sought to repeal the Prohibition amendment. In 1933 Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt named her director of the U.S. Mint, making her one of the first women to hold a federal post at that level. During her 20-year term the mint introduced the Roosevelt dime and the Jefferson nickel; shortages during World War II brought coins made of substitute metals, including the steel penny.
Rossel, Eduard (Ergartovich) (b. Oct. 8, 1937), head of the administration (1991-93) and governor (1995-2009) of Sverdlovsk oblast.
Rosselló (González), Pedro (Juan) (b. April 5, 1944, San Juan, Puerto Rico), governor of Puerto Rico (1993-2001).
Rossi, Alessandro (b. Aug. 10, 1967), captain-regent of San Marino (2007).
Rossi, Enrico (b. Aug. 25, 1958, Bientina, Toscana, Italy), president of Toscana (2010- ).
Rostow, Walt W(hitman) (b. Oct. 7, 1916, New York City - d. Feb. 13, 2003, Austin, Texas), U.S. national security advisor (1966-69). During World War II he was a major in the Office of Strategic Services, the forerunner of the CIA, and after the war he joined the State Department as assistant chief of the German-Austrian Economic Division. Pres. John F. Kennedy appointed him in 1961 as deputy special assistant for national security. Later that year he was named counselor of the State Department and chairman of its Policy Planning Council. In 1966 Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson appointed him special assistant for national security affairs, in which post he remained until the end of the Johnson administration in early 1969. He consistently pushed for the escalation of the Vietnam War, even when most other government officials had become convinced that it was unwinnable. His brother Eugene V. Rostow (1913-2002) also served in the Johnson administration as undersecretary of state and defended the nation's role in Vietnam.
Rotfeld, Adam Daniel (b. March 4, 1938, Przemyslany, near Lwów, Poland [now Peremyshlyany, near Lviv, Ukraine]), foreign minister of Poland (2005).
Rötheli(-Allemann), Alfred (b. July 14, 1925 - d. May 13, 2005), Landammann of Solothurn (1976, 1980, 1984, 1988).
Rouffeyroux, (Antoine Marie Joseph) Léonce Lagarde, vicomte de (b. Oct. 10, 1860, Lempdes [now Lempdes-sur-Allagnon], Haute-Loire, France - d. February 1936, Paris), commissioner (1883-84), commandant (1884-87), and governor (1887-99) of Obock (from 1888, French Somaliland). He was also ambassador to Ethiopia in 1897-1907.
Rouhani, Fuad (b. Oct. 23, 1907, Tehran, Iran - d. Jan. 30, 2004, London, England), secretary-general of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (1961-64). He advised the Iranian government on its nationalization of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company in 1951, and later advised Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on oil matters. When OPEC, formed in 1959, set up its office in Geneva in 1961, Rouhani was elected its first secretary-general, an administrative post that also involved mediating between conflicting factions. Some government leaders of the oil-producing countries favoured taking an aggressive approach toward the multinational oil companies, to the point of including political and Islamic religious concerns in their agenda. Rouhani preferred a more moderate, non-ideological approach. His position helped Iran forestall radical Arab influence within OPEC. In 1965-68 he was secretary-general of the Regional Cooperation for Development organization, which worked to foster economic integration among Iran, Pakistan, and Turkey. After the Iranian revolution of 1979, when Rouhani's house and possessions were confiscated, he moved to Geneva, and later to London.
Rouhani, Hojatolislam Hassan, also spelled Rohani or Rowhani, original name Hassan Feridon (b. Nov. 13, 1948, Sorkheh, Semnan province, Iran), president of Iran (2013- ).
Roume, Ernest (Nestor) (b. July 12, 1858, Marseille, France - d. April 16, 1941), governor of Senegal (1902) and governor-general of French West Africa (1902-07) and French Indochina (1915-16).
Rounds, Mike, byname of Marion Michael Rounds (b. Oct. 24, 1954, Huron, S.D.), governor of South Dakota (2003-11). A Republican, he was elected to the state Senate in 1990 and became Senate majority leader in 1996. He was prevented by term limits from running for reelection in 2000. In December 2001 he announced he was running for governor. In the Republican primary he faced two much more well-financed opponents, former lieutenant governor Steve Kirby and Attorney General Mark Barnett. Rounds ran on property tax relief and opposition to an income tax and abortion, but refused to pledge to oppose all tax increases. Kirby called for a multimillion-dollar economic development fund to create 50,000 jobs over four years; he pledged to oppose any tax increase. Barnett also pledged not to increase taxes, although one time he said he might support a gas tax increase. At candidate forums and then in their ads and direct mail, Kirby and Barnett bitterly attacked each other, on economic development and on other substantive and character issues. Meanwhile Rounds always seemed to be smiling. In the June 2002 primary he won 44% of the vote, to 30% for Barnett and 26% for Kirby. The Democratic nominee was Jim Abbott, who had lost races for lieutenant governor in 1994 and the House in 1996. This was a gentlemanly race between old friends. Rounds led in polls from the primary on and in November won 57%-42%. After the election Rounds went to work on the state budget problems. Though the legislature failed to pass his proposed tax on alcohol, it ended up passing 19 of the 22 bills requested by Rounds. He successfully cut the cost of prescription drugs for senior citizens and managed to increase state aid to school districts by $15.1 million. In 2006 he won reelection over Democrat Jack Billion, 62%-36%.
Roure, Jean-Claude (b. May 11, 1938, Algiers, Algeria), prefect of Martinique (1989-91). He was also prefect of the départements of Haute-Marne (1985-86) and Saône-et-Loire (1991-95).
Rousseau, (Paul) Armand (b. Aug. 24, 1835, Tréflez, Finistère, France - d. Dec. 10, 1896, Hanoi, Vietnam), governor-general of French Indochina (1895-96).
Rousseff, Dilma (Vana) (b. Dec. 14, 1947, Belo Horizonte, Brazil), president of Brazil (2011- ).
Roussel de Courcy, Philippe Marie Henri (b. May 30, 1827, Orléans, France - d. 1887), resident-general of Annam-Tonkin (1885-86).
Roussety, Johnson (b. Aug. 27, 1975), chief commissioner of Rodrigues (2006-11).
Roustan, Théodore (Justin Dominique) (b. Aug. 8, 1833, Nîmes, Gard, France - d. Aug. 8, 1906, Paris, France), French resident minister in Tunisia (1881-82). He was also minister to the United States (1882-91) and ambassador to Spain (1891-94).
Rouvier, (Pierre) Maurice (b. April 17, 1842, Aix-en-Provence, France - d. June 7, 1911, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France), French statesman. Having supported Léon Gambetta in his candidature at Marseille in 1869 and founded a republican journal, L'Égalité, in 1870, he was elected to the National Assembly as deputy for Marseille in July 1871. A financial expert, he repeatedly served on the budget commission, often as chairman, and was minister for commerce and the colonies (1881-82) under Gambetta and for commerce (1884-85) under Jules Ferry. He took office as premier and finance minister in May 1887, with the support of the Moderate Republican group, but without that of the Radicals. He withstood agitation from rightists to include Gen. Georges Boulanger in the cabinet. When Daniel Wilson, son-in-law of Pres. Jules Grévy, was exposed for trafficking in honours, Rouvier resigned (November 1887) to force the resignation of Grévy. Minister of finance again in four successive ministries (1889-92), he became implicated in the Panama Scandal, which forced his resignation, although he apparently did not profit personally. He was resident-general of Tunisia in 1892-94. Elected senator for Alpes-Maritimes in 1902, he served again as finance minister (1902-05) and prepared a project for introducing income tax. Becoming prime minister in January 1905, he in June also took over the foreign ministry after his personal approach to the Franco-German crisis over Morocco had provoked the resignation of Théophile Delcassé. Rouvier fell from power in March 1906 over questions arising from the government's decisive act of 1905 for the separation of church and state.
Rouville, Abraham Mathieu de (b. May 13, 1812 - d. ...), governor of Curaçao (1866-70).
Roux (Moses), Rómulo (Alberto) (b. Jan. 8, 1965), foreign minister of Panama (2012-13).
Roux, (Jean Baptiste) Sylvain (d. April 2, 1823), commandant of Sainte-Marie de Madagascar (1821-23).
Rouxel de Blanchelande, Philibert François (b. 1735, Dijon, France - d. [beheaded] April 11, 1793, Paris), governor of Tobago (1781-84) and governor-general of Saint-Domingue (1790-92).
Rovira, Carlos (Eduardo) (b. Feb. 18, 1956, Posadas, Misiones, Argentina), governor of Misiones (1999-2007).
Rowland, Sir Geoffrey (Robert) (b. Jan. 5, 1948, Guernsey), bailiff of Guernsey (2005-12); knighted 2009. Earlier he was solicitor general (1992-99), attorney general (1999-2002), and deputy bailiff (2002-05).
Rowland, John G(rosvenor) (b. May 24, 1957, Waterbury, Conn.), governor of Connecticut (1995-2004). A Republican, he was elected to the state house of representatives, from one of Connecticut's tiny districts, in 1980, at 23. He ran for the U.S. House in 1984, a good Republican year, and upset a Democratic incumbent in a seat where redistricting added high-income Republican towns far from Waterbury. He was the youngest member of the 99th Congress. In 1990, he got it into his head to run for governor. He had competition from Democratic Congressman Bruce Morrison and from Lowell Weicker, still smarting from his defeat in the 1988 Senate race; bursting with energy and indignation as always, Weicker formed a third party and won with 40% of the vote, to 37% for Rowland and 21% for Morrison. In October 1993 Weicker, who had earlier predicted he would be a one-term governor, withdrew from the 1994 race. It became a multicandidate contest. Rowland ran again, downplaying an income tax repeal. But when former legislator Tom Scott ran on his own Independence Party line as an anti-income tax crusader, Rowland recanted and committed to repealing the state income tax within five years. He easily beat primary opponent Secretary of State Pauline Kezer; Democrats had a tougher battle, with Bill Curry upsetting John Larson 55%-45%. Also running was Lieutenant Governor Eunice Groark, the candidate of Weicker's party. Rowland ran 1% behind his losing 1990 race, but in this four-way race 36% was enough to win. In office, he presented a budget that, for the first time in more than 3 decades, reduced spending from the previous year. In 1998 he was reelected with 63% over Barbara Kennelly and in 2002 with 56% over Curry. He resigned in 2004 amid a corruption investigation and a growing threat of impeachment.
Rowlands, June (b. May 14, 1924, Ville St. Laurent, Que.), mayor of Toronto (1991-94).
Rowling, Sir Wallace Edward, byname (before knighthood) Bill Rowling (b. Nov. 15, 1927, Motueka, New Zealand - d. Oct. 31, 1995, Nelson, New Zealand), prime minister of New Zealand (1974-75). Rowling, whose father was a founding member of the Labour Party, was serving as an education officer in the army when he entered politics, joining parliament in 1962. He was president of the Labour Party (1970-72) and held the post of minister of finance (1972-74). After the sudden death of Prime Minister Norman Kirk in 1974, Rowling became the youngest prime minister of the century. His detractors criticized his low-key style of management as irresolute and ineffective. Robert Muldoon, leader of the rival National Party, called Rowling "the mouse" and described him as "a shiver looking for a spine to run up." Rowling pursued a social reform agenda and also began to address grievances by indigenous Maoris over tribal land wrongly taken by British settlers in the previous century. But he was hamstrung by the world oil shocks of the mid-1970s, which pushed the inflation rate to 18%. Beset by economic problems, he lost reelection to an aggressively campaigning Muldoon in 1975, yet he maintained leadership of the opposition party, parrying challenges from deputy leader David Lange, until 1983. In two general elections (1978, 1981) Labour won more votes than National but failed to win a majority of seats. He helped draft policies which eventually led to the banning of all nuclear-powered or armed ships from New Zealand's ports. Knighted in 1983, he retired from parliament in 1984. He later served as ambassador to the United States (1985-88), president of the New Zealand Institute of International Affairs (1990-95), and chairman of the board of the Museum of New Zealand (1994-95).
Roxas (y Acuña), Manuel (b. Jan. 1, 1892, Capiz [now Roxas], Panay, Philippines - d. April 15, 1948, Clark Field, Pampanga, Philippines), president of the Philippines (1946-48). He entered politics in 1917 as a member of the municipal council of Capiz (renamed after him in 1949). He was governor of the province of Capiz (1919-21) and was then elected to the Philippine House of Representatives, serving as speaker (1922-33) and as a member of the Council of State. In 1923 he and Manuel Quezon, president of the Senate, resigned from the Council of State in protest against the U.S. governor-general's vetoing of bills passed by the Philippine legislature. In 1932 he and Sergio Osmeña, the Nacionalista Party leader, led a mission to Washington, D.C., where they influenced the passage of the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act, setting a date for independence. Quezon's opposition to the act led to its rejection by the Philippine legislature; the Nacionalista Party was split on this issue. However, Roxas supported the very similar Philippine Independence and Commonwealth Act (Tydings-McDuffie Act), sponsored by Quezon, and in 1934 was a member of the convention that drew up a constitution for the interim Philippine commonwealth. He served as secretary of finance in the commonwealth government in 1938-40. During the Japanese occupation in World War II he served in the pro-Japanese government of José Laurel, acquiring supplies of rice for the Japanese army. He was later defended by his friend Gen. Douglas MacArthur, according to whom Roxas collaborated with the Japanese to mask his resistance activities. He was elected president of the commonwealth in 1946 as the nominee of the liberal wing of the Nacionalista Party (which became the Liberal Party), and upon independence on July 4 he became the first president of the new republic. He died in office.
Roy, Donkupar (b. Nov. 10, 1954), chief minister of Meghalaya (2008-09).
Roy, Vesta (Maurine), née Coward (b. March 26, 1925, Detroit, Mich. - d. Feb. 9, 2002, Kenmore, N.Y.), acting governor of New Hampshire (1982-83).
Royal, (Marie) Ségolène (b. Sept. 22, 1953, Dakar, Senegal), French presidential candidate (2007). In 1988, she was assigned by Pres. François Mitterrand to run for the parliament seat of a rural district in western France. She ran a grassroots campaign, promising villagers English lessons to help boost exports of chabichou, the local goat cheese. She has held the seat since and was environment minister in 1992-93. However, she lost an election for a local council post in Deux-Sèvres in 1998 to a part-time politician. In 2004, she was elected president of the Regional Council of Poitou-Charentes. She won the post over the handpicked successor of Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin as the Socialists routed the governing party throughout the country. She had learned her lesson from 1998, holding around two public meetings a day combined with trips to local businesses. She then developed her political ideology of "participative democracy." In Poitou-Charentes, she let school board members vote on important budgetary decisions and introduced measures such as vouchers for school books or free driving licenses for young people seeking work. In 2000-02, she was vice-minister of family and childhood. In 2006 she won the Socialist primary for the 2007 presidential election with 60.6% of the vote, defeating Dominique Strauss-Kahn (20.8%) and Laurent Fabius (18.5%). She thus became the first female candidate of a major party in the history of French presidential elections. She was the longtime, but unmarried, partner of François Hollande, a prominent Socialist politician who also intended to run for the nomination; when her popularity shone much brighter than his, he was forced to let her take centre stage (they broke up soon after). In the presidential election she lost to Nicolas Sarkozy, who defeated her 53%-47% in the runoff. In the 2011 primaries, she only came fourth with 7% of the vote. In 2014 she became environment minister under President Hollande.
Roye, Edward James (b. Feb. 3, 1815, Newark, Ohio - d. [probably killed] Feb. 12?, 1872, Monrovia, Liberia), president of Liberia (1870-71).
Roynette, Jacques (b. May 19, 1936, Saint-Germain-sur-Morin, Seine-et-Marne, France), high commissioner of New Caledonia (1982-84). He was also prefect of the French départements of Côtes-du-Nord (1985-86), Vendée (1989-91), and Gard (1991-93).
Royo (Sánchez), Aristides (b. Aug. 14, 1940, La Chorrera, Panama), president of Panama (1978-82). He was also minister of education (1973-78), ambassador to Spain (1982-85, 1994-96) and France (1996-99), and permanent representative to the OAS (2004-09).
Rozendal, Sylvius Gerard Marie, byname Boy Rozendal (b. July 4, 1928, Curaçao - d. June 10, 2003), prime minister of the Netherlands Antilles (1977-79).
Rozic, Marjan (b. 1932, Ribicicev vlas, near Bohinjska Bistrica, Yugoslavia [now in Slovenia]), president of the Federal Assembly of Yugoslavia (1987-88).
Rozumovsky, (Graf) Kyrylo (Hryhorovych) (b. 1728 - d. 1803), hetman of Ukraine (1750-64).
Ruak, Taur Matan, byname of José Maria de Vasconcelos (b. Oct. 10, 1956, Osso Huna, Baguia, Baucau district, Portuguese Timor [now Timor-Leste]), president of Timor-Leste (2012- ).
Rubenis, Jurijs (also spelled Rubens), Russian Yury Yanovich Ruben (b. April 15, 1925 - d. March 14, 2004, Riga, Latvia), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Latvian S.S.R. (1970-88).
Rubenis, Vitalijs, Russian Vitaly Petrovich Ruben (b. Feb. 26, 1914 - d. Jan. 2, 1994), chairman of the Council of Ministers (1962-70) and of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1970-74) of the Latvian S.S.R.
Rubial Cavia, Ramon (b. Oct. 28, 1906, Erandio, Vizcaya, Spain - d. May 24, 1999, Bilbao, Spain), Spanish politician. He became active in Socialist politics at age 14 while employed as a metalworker in his native Basque country. After the civil war broke out in 1936, he joined the Republican side fighting Gen. Francisco Franco's Nationalists, and was captured in 1937, beginning the first of several stints in jail, totalling nearly 20 years. Released in 1957, he became the underground leader of the Socialist Party, which was banned under Franco. After a new generation of Socialists led by Felipe González took over in 1974, Rubial became the party's honorary president. He also served as a senator and as head of the Basque regional government (1978-79).
Rubin, Robert E(dward) (b. Aug. 29, 1938, New York City), U.S. treasury secretary (1995-99). In 1990, he became co-chairman of the New York investment house Goldman Sachs and Co. He was already a multimillionaire Wall Street wizard when he arrived in Washington in early 1993 as assistant to the president for economic policy. His 26 years at Goldman Sachs served him well when he became treasury secretary in early 1995, giving him a degree of respect on Wall Street that few cabinet members have ever enjoyed. During his four years at the helm of the Treasury, he helped guide the U.S. economy into its ninth year of unbroken expansion and steer world financial markets out of turmoil that Pres. Bill Clinton called the world's worst financial crisis in 50 years. Rubin's words, like those of his friend Alan Greenspan, chairman of the Federal Reserve, could prompt major moves in stock and bond prices and the U.S. dollar's exchange rate. As the brains behind several multibillion-dollar deals to rescue ailing emerging market economies under the auspices of the International Monetary Fund, he played a pivotal role in stabilizing financial markets shocked by the Asian crisis in 1997. Combined with his tireless campaign for a strong U.S. dollar, his attempts to douse the global financial firestorm were widely seen as having boosted the health of the U.S. economy. He never really felt at home in the muddy world of Washington politics. Talk of his imminent departure, fuelled by his coyness in discussing his plans, was a mainstay of the Washington rumour mill. He was a moderate Democrat with a fervent belief in free markets. He had strong ties to the business community, but was also a vocal advocate of the need to tackle America's social ills, especially those of its troubled inner cities.
Ruchonnet, (Antoine) Louis (John) (b. April 28, 1834 - d. Sept. 14, 1893), president of Switzerland (1883, 1890).
Ruckauf, Carlos (Federico) (b. July 10, 1944, Ramos Mejía, Buenos Aires province, Argentina), Argentine politician. He was labour minister (1975-76), ambassador to Italy (1989-91), interior minister (1993-95), vice president (1995-99), governor of Buenos Aires (1999-2002), and foreign minister (2002-03).
Ruckelshaus, William D(oyle) (b. July 24, 1932, Indianapolis, Ind.), administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1970-73, 1983-85).
Rücker, Joachim (b. May 30, 1951, Schwäbisch Hall, Württemberg-Baden, West Germany [now in Baden-Württemberg, Germany]), head of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (2006-08).
Rud, Gerasim Yakovlevich (b. Marth 4, 1907 - d. June 26, 1982), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Moldavian S.S.R. (1946-58).
Rudd, Kevin (Michael) (b. Sept. 21, 1957, Nambour, Queensland), prime minister of Australia (2007-10, 2013). He joined the Labor Party in 1972. In 1981-88 he was a diplomat serving at the Australian embassies in Stockholm and Beijing. In 1988 he became chief of staff for Wayne Goss, the Labor opposition leader in Queensland, who became premier in 1989. Entering federal politics, he unsuccessfully contested the Brisbane seat of Griffith in 1996 but won it in 1998. In 2001 he became opposition spokesman on foreign affairs. Rudd, who considered running in two previous leadership ballots but withdrew due to lack of support, was elected party leader in December 2006, defeating Kim Beazley by 49 votes to 39, resulting in an instant surge in poll support for Labor. He led Labor to its first federal electoral victory in 11 years, ousting the government of John Howard in November 2007. He promised to ratify the Kyoto Protocol which the Howard government had refused to sign; withdraw Australian combat troops from Iraq, but otherwise maintain a close alliance with the U.S.; and continue economic conservatism, but abolish controversial labour contracts that loosened union influence and changed some employment conditions. He enjoyed extraordinary public favour for more than two years, but in 2010, after having shelved a flagship carbon trading scheme and a free home insulation scheme and unveiled a 40% tax on the mining industry, which was heavily invested in by shareholders and pension funds, he slumped in the polls. As elections loomed, he was abandoned by most of the factional powerbrokers in his party; facing defeat in a leadership challenge by Julia Gillard, he stood aside in her favour. Soon after, he became foreign minister in her cabinet. In February 2012 he resigned, saying he lost Gillard's support, amid speculation that he was seeking to topple her and regain the leadership. The challenge took place, and Gillard defeated Rudd 71-31. In a repeat in June 2013, however, Rudd defeated Gillard 57-45 and regained the prime ministership. It was of no avail though, as Labor went down to defeat in the September elections; he then laid down the party leadership.
Rudin, Anne (Noto) (b. Jan. 27, 1924, Passaic, N.J.), mayor of Sacramento (1983-92).
Rudinì, Antonio Starabba, marchese di (marquess of) (b. April 16, 1839, Palermo, Sicily, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies [now in Italy] - d. Aug. 7, 1908, Rome, Italy), prime minister of Italy (1891-92, 1896-98). A member of an aristocratic Sicilian family that had long resented being ruled by the Neapolitan Bourbons, he was involved in the revolution which broke out against Naples in April 1860, but fled the country before Giuseppe Garibaldi arrived with his "Thousand" to support this revolt. After the Piedmontese annexation of Sicily he was for a time an attaché with the Italian Foreign Office at Turin. Then in 1864, he was appointed mayor of Palermo. He successfully resisted a rebellion in September 1866; considerable feeling had grown up in Sicily against the new government of Italy, and he was besieged for a week in the town hall. He was then promoted to prefect, with the task of putting down brigandage in the west of Sicily. In 1869, though not yet a deputy, he was for a month minister of the interior. On the death of Marco Minghetti in 1886 he became leader of the parliamentary right wing, and in 1891 he became premier, choosing to form a coalition with Giovanni Nicotera of the left. The crisis consequent upon the defeat of an Italian army at Adowa in Ethiopia (March 1896) brought him back to power, as premier and minister of the interior. He concluded peace with Ethiopia, but his cession of Kassala to Great Britain, to satisfy the anti-colonial party, provoked much indignation in Italy. In his domestic policy he was not sufficiently elastic to avoid the outbreak of serious rioting in 1898, nor sufficiently forceful to suppress an incipient Socialist revolution; so his government fell in June.
Rudolf, Davorin (b. Feb. 13, 1934, Omis, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia]), foreign minister of Croatia (1991).
Ruecho, Robert A. (b. Jan. 1, 1946), governor of Yap (2003-07).
Rueff, Jacques Léon (b. Aug. 23, 1896, Paris - d. April 23, 1978, Paris), French economist. He served from 1930 to 1936 at the French embassy in London. After World War II he served as minister of state of Monaco (1949-50), then was a judge (1952-62) at the Court of Justice of the European Communities and later vice-president of government committees on economic reform and expansion. He was the architect of France's 1958 monetary reform program that called for a drastic reduction in borrowing, the removal of nearly all quota restrictions on international trade, and the creation of a new franc valued at 100 old francs. As financial counselor to Charles de Gaulle, Rueff was given the formidable task of finding a cure for chronic inflation and the decline in value of the franc. His system prepared the road for stability during the 1960s after 50 years of financial difficulties. In 1964 he was elected to the Académie française; he was the first economist ever to hold this distinction.
Rufai, Mallam Nasir el- (b. Feb. 16, 1960), Nigerian minister of the Federal Capital Territory (2003-07).
Ruffini, Attilio (b. Dec. 31, 1925 [according to other sources, Dec. 31, 1924], Mantua, Italy - d. June 23, 2011, Rome, Italy), defense minister (1977-80) and foreign minister (1980) of Italy. He was also minister of transport (1976-77).
Ruggiero, Renato (b. April 9, 1930, Naples, Italy - d. Aug. 4, 2013), director-general of the World Trade Organization (1995-99) and foreign minister of Italy (2001-02). He was also minister of foreign trade (1987-91).
Rugova, Ibrahim (b. Dec. 2, 1944, Crnce, near Istok, Kosovo - d. Jan. 21, 2006, Pristina, Kosovo), Kosovo Albanian leader. He became drawn into politics in 1988 when he was elected head of the Kosovo writers' union, which became a breeding ground for opposition to the Serbian authorities. This hardened after Belgrade stripped Kosovo of its autonomy in 1990, and led to the establishment of Rugova's party, the Democratic League of Kosovo. A parallel ethnic Albanian administration of schools, hospitals, and taxation was established, and Rugova was twice elected president of this shadow government in 1992 and 1998. Rugova's authority was shaken when some Kosovars lost patience with his principle of nonviolence and established the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), dedicated to expelling the Serbian government by force. Serbia retaliated, which led NATO in 1999 to intervene and force Serbia to withdraw. In 2000 Rugova and KLA leader Hashim Thaçi agreed to recognize a UN administration for Kosovo. Under UN auspices elections were held in November 2001, in which Rugova's party came out well ahead of Thaçi's, but without an absolute majority. It was not before March 2002 that Rugova was elected as president after the party leaders reached a power-sharing deal. He was reelected in 2004 and died in office.
Rugunda, Ruhakana (b. Nov. 7, 1947, Kabale district, Uganda), foreign minister (1994-96) and interior minister (2003-09) of Uganda. He has also been minister of health (1986-88, 2013- ), works, transport, and communications (1988-94), information (1996-98), the presidency (1998-2001), water and environment (2001-03), and communications and information (2011-13) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2009-11).
Rühe, Volker (b. Sept. 25, 1942, Hamburg, Germany), German politician. He learned to be diplomatic in the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), watching a long line of would-be successors to Helmut Kohl chopped down by the chancellor. But Rühe, who became general secretary of the party in 1989, was third in the pecking order behind Kohl and CDU parliamentary leader Wolfgang Schäuble. Rühe was knocked down in 1992 by Kohl for failing to keep his chancellery ambitions sheathed, even though Kohl once complimented him on having "the stuff it takes" to be chancellor. Rühe then kept out of domestic political issues and concentrated on the defense ministry which he held from 1992 to 1998. He played an instrumental role in the eastern expansion of NATO and won praise for forging a cross-party consensus that allowed the German army to drop its self-imposed postwar ban on sending soldiers to UN-backed peacekeeping missions abroad.
Ruijs de Beerenbrouck, Charles (Joseph Marie) (b. Dec. 1, 1873, Roermond, Netherlands - d. April 17, 1936, Utrecht, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Limburg (1918) and prime minister of the Netherlands (1918-25, 1929-33); son of Gustave Ruijs de Beerenbrouck.
Ruijs de Beerenbrouck, Gustave (Louis Marie Hubert) (family name until March 21, 1895, Ruijs van Beerenbroek) (b. Sept. 26, 1842, Roermond, Netherlands - d. Feb. 6, 1926, Born, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Limburg (1893-1918).
Ruillier, Jacques Eugène Barnabé (b. Feb. 24, 1819, Anse-Bertrand, Guadeloupe - d. ...), governor of New Caledonia (1870).
Ruiz Cerutti, Susana (Myrta) (b. Nov. 18, 1940), foreign minister of Argentina (1989). She was also ambassador to Switzerland (1991-98) and Canada (1998-99).
Ruiz Cortines, Adolfo (Tomás) (b. Dec. 30, 1890, Veracruz, Mexico - d. Dec. 3, 1973, Veracruz), governor of Veracruz (1944-48) and interior minister (1948-51) and president (1952-58) of Mexico.
Ruiz de Apodaca (y Eliza López de Letona y Lasquetty, conde del Venadito), Juan (b. Feb. 3, 1754, Cádiz, Spain - d. Jan. 11, 1835, Madrid, Spain), governor of Cuba (1812-16) and viceroy of New Spain (1816-21).
Ruiz Ortiz, Ulises (b. April 9, 1958, Chalcatongo de Hidalgo, Tlaxiaco district, Oaxaca, Mexico), governor of Oaxaca (2004-10).
Ruiz Palacios, José David (Alberto) (b. 1924 - d. 2001), governor of Chaco (1981-83).
Rukingama, Luc (b. 1952, Kiremba, Burundi), foreign minister of Burundi (1996-98).
Rumbold, Sir (Carlo) Arthur (Henry), (5th) Baronet (b. 1820 - d. June 12, 1869, St. Thomas, Danish [now U.S.] Virgin Islands), president of Nevis (1857-60) and the British Virgin Islands (1865-69).
Rumor, Mariano (b. June 16, 1915, Vicenza, Italy - d. Jan. 22, 1990, Vicenza), Italian politician. During World War II, he served in the Italian army (1940-43) before joining the underground resistance movement to fight the German occupiers. After the war he joined the ranks of the Christian Democrats and in 1946 was elected by the district of Verona to the assembly charged with forming the new republican constitution. First elected to parliament in 1948, he served as undersecretary for agriculture in the governments of Alcide De Gasperi and Giuseppe Pella. In 1954 he became deputy secretary of his party. As minister for agriculture (1959-63), his name was linked with the so-called "green plan" to develop agriculture. He then was minister for home affairs (1963) during the difficult times of the Alto Adige terrorism and the Vaiont Dam disaster, in which more than 1,500 persons died. Made political secretary of the party in 1964, he became premier for the first time when Prime Minister Aldo Moro's coalition fell apart in 1968. He was supported initially by the Christian Democrats alone, then by a centre-left coalition. Schisms within the Socialist Party, a troubled economy, widespread student unrest, and a series of paralyzing general strikes drove him in and out of office, and he was premier in five different governments in 1968-70 and 1973-74; in 1972-73 he was minister of home affairs. Although he successfully negotiated a crucial West German loan in August 1974, continuing economic problems, party rivalries, and outbreaks of terrorism forced him to resign for the last time two months later. He was succeeded by Moro, whom he served as foreign minister (1974-76). In 1976 he was implicated in the infamous Lockheed bribery scandal. He was exonerated in 1978, and the next year he was elected to the Senate.
Rumsfeld, Donald (Henry) (b. July 9, 1932, Chicago, Ill.), U.S. secretary of defense (1975-77, 2001-06). Elected to the House of Representatives from Illinois in 1962, he was reelected for three more terms but resigned in 1969 to join the Richard Nixon administration as head of the Office of Economic Opportunity. In 1973, he became U.S. ambassador to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, returning to Washington in August 1974 to head Gerald Ford's transition team. He served as White House chief of staff for President Ford before becoming the youngest secretary of defense in history. When he was again appointed to that post by George W. Bush after an interval of 24 years, he was the oldest defense secretary. In the wake of the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks, he presided over the brief existence of the Pentagon's Office of Strategic Influence, which he declared closed already in February 2002, when it was reported to be planning disinformation campaigns. Rumsfeld planned the invasions of Afghanistan (2001) and Iraq (2003) and became a particularly controversial figure in connection with the latter conflict by his brusque attitude and attempts to downplay the problems of that war. For example, while being questioned by troops about the lack of armoured vehicles, he replied that "you go to war with the army you have, not the army you might want." He memorably described France and Germany as "old Europe" when they opposed the war. He resigned one day after the 2006 midterm elections in which the ongoing war (which Rumsfeld originally had predicted would not last longer than five months) had become one of the key issues. He had become a prominent target for Democrats, a growing number of Republicans, and some former generals.
Runcie, Robert (Alexander Kennedy) Runcie, Baron (b. Oct. 2, 1921, Crosby, near Liverpool, England - d. July 11, 2000, St. Albans, England), archbishop of Canterbury (1980-91). He was created a life peer in 1991.
Runde, Ortwin (b. Feb. 12, 1944, Elbing, East Prussia, Prussia, Germany [now Elblag, Poland]), first mayor of Hamburg (1997-2001).
Rundle, Tony, byname of Anthony Maxwell Rundle (b. March 5, 1939, Scottsdale, Tasmania), premier of Tasmania (1996-98). A Liberal, he was first elected to the Tasmanian parliament in 1986 (electorate of Braddon), and he was reelected in 1989, 1992, 1996, and 1998. He held the positions of government whip (1986) and speaker of the House of Assembly (1988). From 1989 to 1992 he held the shadow portfolios of tourism and transport. In addition to his premiership, he held the ministerial portfolios of minister for forests (1992-93), minister for mines (1992-93), minister assisting the premier on economic development (1992-93), minister for public sector management (1993-94), treasurer (1993-98), minister for finance (1993-96), minister for employment (1993-95), minister for racing and gaming (1993-95), minister assisting the premier on state development and resources (1993-96), minister for energy (1995-96), and minister for state development (1996-98). He was opposition leader in 1998-99.
Runyon, Marvin T(ravis) (b. Sept. 16, 1924, Fort Worth, Texas - d. May 3, 2004, Nashville, Tenn.), chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority (1988-92) and U.S. postmaster general (1992-98). At the TVA, he earned the nickname "Carvin Marvin" for slashing the payroll by one-third. As postmaster general, he eliminated hundreds of management jobs, reorganized the massive operation, and built a business that made more than $1 billion in profits by the time he left. There was only one rate rise for regular mail during his tenure, from 29 to 32 cents.
Rupel, Dimitrij (b. April 7, 1946, Ljubljana, Slovenia), foreign minister of Slovenia (1990-93, 2000, 2000-04, 2004-08). He was also mayor of Ljubljana (1995-97) and ambassador to the United States (1997-2000).
Ruprecht, Hans Peter (b. 1943), president of the government of Thurgau (1999-2000, 2002-03, 2007-08).
Rusca, Giovanni Battista (d. September 1838), member of the Council of State of Ticino (1836-38).
Rushailo, Vladimir (Borisovich) (b. July 28, 1953, Tambov, Russian S.F.S.R.), interior minister of Russia (1999-2001). He first joined the police force in 1972. He rose through the ranks (becoming a general) to take charge of the Moscow city police's organized crime unit in 1993, when the Russian capital was becoming one of the toughest cities in the world. He bloodied his nose fighting both Russia's gangland criminal underworld and its stultifying bureaucracy. "In police circles and the criminal world he is known as a professional of the highest order," the newspaper Vek wrote in 1998. He was sacked suddenly and without explanation in 1996, but then Interior Minister Sergey Stepashin brought him back two years later, making him a deputy minister and putting him in charge of the anti-organized crime unit for all Russia. The unit had been dealt some of Russia's most important cases, such as the kidnappings of top officials in breakaway Chechnya and the 1998 murder of liberal parliamentarian Galina Starovoitova. By all accounts Rushailo remained a trusted lieutenant of Stepashin and enjoyed a formidable reputation among police officers. When Stepashin became prime minister in 1999, Rushailo succeeded him as interior minister. Later he was secretary of the Security Council (2001-04) and executive secretary of the Commonwealth of Independent States (2004-07).
Rushdi Pasha, Hussein, Arabic Husayn Rushdi Basha (b. 1863 - d. March 14, 1928), prime minister of Egypt (1914-19). He was also justice minister (1908-10, 1912-14).
Rusk, (David) Dean (b. Feb. 9, 1909, Cherokee county, Ga. - d. Dec. 20, 1994, Athens, Ga.), U.S. secretary of state (1961-69). In 1940 he was called to active duty in the U.S. Army. As a colonel during World War II, he served Gen. Joseph W. Stilwell as deputy chief of staff for the China-Burma-India theatre. Leaving the military in 1946, he served in the State and War departments and in March 1950 became assistant secretary of state for Far Eastern affairs, in which position he was involved in the decision to intervene in Korea (1950) and in the negotiation of the Japanese peace treaty (1951). When the Soviets made the tactical mistake of marching out of the United Nations Security Council rather than debating the Korean issue, Rusk seized on that fact: with the Soviets not at their place, they had no veto, so Rusk urged that the U.S. put through a resolution calling for a UN show of force; thus it was under the UN flag that U.S.-led troops fought the Communists in Korea. However, he disagreed with Gen. Douglas MacArthur's advocacy of expanding the fighting into China. He was president of the Rockefeller Foundation from 1952 until his appointment in 1960 by President-elect John F. Kennedy as secretary of state. He soon faced crises in Cuba, Laos, and Berlin. His unostentatious character contributed to the State Department's reduced role in national policy making. He was retained as secretary of state by Lyndon B. Johnson following Kennedy's assassination. From 1964 he consistently defended U.S. military involvement in Vietnam, in the face of growing anti-war sentiment in the country. In a 1974 interview, he conceded that he "underestimated the tenacity of the North Vietnamese [and] overestimated the patience of the American people."
Rusk, Jeremiah M(cLain) (b. June 17, 1830, Malta, Ohio - d. Nov. 21, 1893, Viroqua, Wis.), governor of Wisconsin (1882-89) and U.S. secretary of agriculture (1889-93).
Rusnok, Jirí (b. Oct. 16, 1960, Ostrava, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), prime minister of the Czech Republic (2013-14).
Russell, Alfred Francis (b. Aug. 25, 1817, Kentucky, U.S. - d. April 4, 1884), president of Liberia (1883-84).
Russell, Donald S(tuart) (b. Feb. 22, 1906, Lafayette Springs, Miss. - d. Feb. 22, 1998, Spartanburg, S.C.), U.S. politician. He served as assistant secretary of state for administration under Pres. Harry S. Truman in 1945. Although unsuccessful in his first attempt in 1958, he was elected South Carolina's governor in 1962. He opened his 1963 inaugural reception and barbecue to all South Carolinians and personally greeted many black and white well-wishers who attended the event; it was the first integrated state function since Reconstruction. In 1965, he resigned and was appointed as a Democrat to the U.S. Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Olin D. Johnston; in 1966 he was an unsuccessful candidate for the nomination to complete his term, losing the seat to Ernest "Fritz" Hollings. Russell was then appointed to a federal district court judgeship (1966-71) and later to the 4th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals (1971-98).
Russell, Frederick William (b. Sept. 10, 1923, St. John's, Newfoundland - d. June 20, 2001, St. John's), lieutenant governor of Newfoundland (1991-97).
Rustam, Supardjo (b. Aug. 12, 1926, Sokaraja, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Tengah, Indonesia]), governor of Jawa Tengah (1974-82).
Rustomji, Nari Kaikhosru (b. May 16, 1919, Lahore, India [now in Pakistan]), dewan of Sikkim (1954-59).
Rutgers, Bram, byname of Abraham Arnold Lodewijk Rutgers (b. July 24, 1884, Amsterdam, Netherlands - d. Sept. 26, 1966, Wassenaar, Netherlands), governor of Dutch Guiana (1928-33) and queen's commissioner of Zuid-Holland (1945).
Ruth, Earl B(aker) (b. Feb. 7, 1916, Spencer, N.C. - d. Aug. 15, 1989, Salisbury, N.C.), governor of American Samoa (1975-76).
Rutledge, Edward (b. Nov. 23, 1749, Charles Town [now Charleston], South Carolina [now in U.S.] - d. Jan. 23, 1800, Charleston), U.S. politician; brother of John Rutledge. He served in the Continental Congress (1774-77) and was a signer of the Declaration of Independence (1776). He was sent with John Adams and Benjamin Franklin to confer on terms of peace with Lord Howe on Staten Island in September 1776. As captain of artillery and as lieutenant colonel he served against the British in South Carolina. He was a member of the South Carolina legislature (1782-98) and in 1791 drafted the act that abolished primogeniture in the state. From 1798 until his death he was governor of South Carolina.
Rutledge, John (b. September 1739, Charles Town [now Charleston], South Carolina [now in U.S.] - d. July 18, 1800, Charleston), U.S. politician. He was a delegate to the Stamp Act Congress (1765) and to the Continental Congress (1774-77, 1782-83). He served as chairman of the committee that framed the South Carolina constitution of 1776 and the General Assembly elected him president of the state, but in 1778 he resigned in protest against changes in the constitution he considered too democratic. He returned, however, as governor in 1779-82. When the state was invaded by the British in 1779, he managed for a time to keep Charleston out of British hands, although the city eventually fell. He was a delegate to the Congress of the Confederation (1782-83) and judge of the court of chancery of South Carolina (1784-91). Sent to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787 as one of South Carolina's representatives, he spoke for Southern planter interests by supporting slavery. He urged the assumption of state debts by the national government and argued in favour of dividing society into classes as a basis for representation and requiring high property qualifications for holding office. Having secured safeguards for slavery in the constitution, he took a strong nationalistic position, recommending as chairman of the Committee of Detail the granting of indefinite powers of legislation to the national government for the purpose of promoting the general welfare. He was an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court in 1789-91 and chief justice of the Supreme Court of South Carolina in 1791-95. In 1795 he was appointed chief justice of the United States, but was not confirmed by the Senate due to his outspoken opposition to the Jay Treaty (concerning relations with Britain).
Rutschke, Herbert (b. 1905 - d. May 14, 1978), chairman of the District Council of Potsdam (1957-60).
Rutskoy, Aleksandr (Vladimirovich) (b. Sept. 16, 1947, Kursk, Russian S.F.S.R.), vice president of Russia (1991-93). As a fighter pilot in Afghanistan, his jet was shot down in 1987 near the eastern border. He crashed in Pakistan and wandered for five days in the wilderness trying to make his way back to Afghanistan, but he was caught and held for some time before being swapped for a Pakistani captive said to be a spy. He was honoured as a Hero of the Soviet Union. In 1990 Colonel Rutskoy was elected a member of the Supreme Council of the Russian S.F.S.R., where he formed a parliamentary group called Communists for Democracy. When orthodox Communists called a special parliament session with the aim of dumping Boris Yeltsin as chairman in March 1991, Rutskoy rallied about 100 of his reform-minded Communist colleagues to Yeltsin's side. He was Yeltsin's running mate in the June 1991 Russian presidential election. He played a leading role in the opposition to the abortive hardline coup in August 1991 and was raised to the rank of major general. Thereafter, however, splits began to appear in the government, and Rutskoy turned into Yeltsin's most outspoken critic. In March 1993 he opposed Yeltsin's attempt to introduce direct presidential rule and as a result the president curtailed his responsibilities. In September parliament impeached Yeltsin for violating the constitution and then voted to install Rutskoy as acting president. Yeltsin did not yield and sent tanks to bomb the parliament building. In October the deputies surrendered and Rutskoy was arrested. He was released in 1994 and was elected governor of Kursk oblast in 1996. He was kept off the ballot for reelection in 2000 on a technicality, and his bid to run for a seat in the national parliament was likewise denied.
Rutte, Mark (b. Feb. 14, 1967, The Hague, Netherlands), prime minister of the Netherlands (2010- ).
Rutten, Martin (Joseph Marie René) (b. 1876 - d. 1944), governor of Katanga (1921-23) and governor-general of Belgian Congo (1923-27).
Rüttimann, (Georg) Vinzenz (Jost Ludwig) (b. May 1, 1769 - d. 1844), Swiss politician. He was president of the Provisional Executive Council (January 1801, August 1801) and acting Landammann (1802) of the Helvetic Republic. He was Regierungsstatthalter (1798-1800) and 14 times Schultheiss (1804, 1806, 1808, 1810, 1812, 1814, 1816, 1818, 1820, 1822, 1824, 1826, 1828, 1830) of Luzern and was Landammann (1808) and president of the Diet (1820, 1826) of Switzerland.
Rüütel, Arnold, Russian Arnold (Fyodorovich) Ryuytel (b. May 10, 1928, Saaremaa, Estonia), chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian S.S.R. (1983-90) and chairman of the Supreme Council (1990-92) and president (2001-06) of Estonia.
Ruzette, Albéric (Emmanuel Henri Marie Ghislain), baron (b. July 22, 1866, Saint-Josse-ten-Noode, Belgium - d. May 25, 1929, Brugge, Belgium), acting foreign minister of Belgium (1925).
Rva-sgreng sPrul-sku Thub-bstan-'jam-dpal-ye-shes-rgyal-mtshan, also spelled Thubten Jampal Yeshe Gyaltsen (b. 1911 - d. May 1947), regent of Tibet (1934-41). As the 5th Reting Rinpoche he was a senior lama and was elected by divine lottery as regent in January 1934 after the death of the 13th Dalai Lama. He played a key role in the search for the 14th Dalai Lama. As regent he also formally held the role of senior tutor to the young Dalai Lama. He resigned in 1941 and was later accused of collusion with the Chinese against the Tibetan government and was arrested in April 1947. He died in prison one month later in unexplained circumstances.
Rwagasore, (Ganwa [Prince]) Louis (b. Jan. 10, 1932, Gitega, Burundi - d. [assassinated] Oct. 13, 1961, Bujumbura, Burundi), prime minister of Burundi (1961); son of Mwambutsa IV.
Rwegasira, Joseph (Clemence), foreign minister of Tanzania (1993-95).
Ryabov, Aleksandr (Ivanovich) (b. Oct. 15, 1936), head of the administration of Tambov oblast (1995-99).
Ryan, Claude (b. Jan. 26, 1925, Montreal, Que. - d. Feb. 9, 2004, Montreal), Canadian politician. From 1945 to 1962, he served as the general secretary of L'Action Catholique Canadien in Montreal. This organization is a Roman Catholic movement of lay people who encourage spirituality among the laity. He was director of the influential Montreal daily newspaper Le Devoir from 1963 to 1978. He received the Human Relations Award of the Canadian Council of Christians and Jews in 1966 and was elected to the Canadian News Hall of Fame in 1968. A newcomer to the political arena, he was elected as leader of the Quebec Liberal Party in April 1978, and he spent the next year rebuilding the party. He was first elected to political office on April 30, 1979, when he won a seat representing Argenteuil in the Quebec National Assembly. Under his direction, the party won 11 consecutive by-elections between 1978 and 1981. In the May 20, 1980, referendum, where voters were asked to choose whether they wished their province to remain part of the Canadian confederation or to separate but retain an economic union with Canada, Ryan led the forces favouring retention of the confederation. The fact that the federalist view won the referendum was in great measure due to the efforts of Ryan, who oversaw every detail of the campaign. The Quebec Liberal Party lost the next election, however, and in 1982 Ryan resigned as leader but remained member of the National Assembly until 1994, when he left political life. He held important portfolios as a minister under the Liberal governments of Robert Bourassa and Daniel Johnson between 1985 and 1994.
Ryan, George (Homer) (b. Feb. 24, 1934, Maquoketa, Iowa), governor of Illinois (1999-2003). The Republican built a reputation as a political and governmental pragmatist who was popular even among Democrats. He spent eight years in the wings as lieutenant governor under Gov. James R. Thompson (1983-91). But in 1990 he lost to Secretary of State Jim Edgar in an intraparty battle for governor. Ryan settled for running for secretary of state - an office he held for nearly eight years. Then in 1998 he made it to the governor's mansion by fending off a last-minute scandal and nurturing a grandfatherly image of a man who wants to get things done. He held off Democratic Rep. Glenn Poshard, winning 51% of the vote to the congressman's 47%. Poshard was hampered by a self-imposed limit on campaign contributions against one of the state's best-known and best-financed politicians. Ryan talked tough on gun control, pledged opposition to general tax increases, and called for spending 51 cents of every new revenue dollar on education and workforce training. His campaign was shaken when the FBI charged employees at one of Ryan's offices with taking bribes in return for commercial driver's licenses. Prosecutors said Ryan was not a target of the investigation, but some of the $150,000 in bribe money was used for political contributions. The scandal was a factor in his 2001 decision not to seek a second term. Indicted in December 2003, he was convicted on April 17, 2006, on 18 counts of racketeering and fraud by a federal jury sitting in Chicago.
Ryan, James (Montgomery) (b. Oct. 9, 1944), chief secretary of the Cayman Islands (1994-2004). He served as acting governor on several occasions, including in May 2002.
Ryan, Richie, Irish Risteárd Ó Riain (b. 1929, Dublin, Ireland), finance and public service minister of Ireland (1973-77).
Rybak, R(aymond) T(homas) (b. Nov. 12, 1955, Minneapolis, Minn.), mayor of Minneapolis (2002-14).
Ryckmans, Pierre (Marie Joseph), (posthumously:) comte (b. Nov. 26, 1891, Antwerp, Belgium - d. Feb. 18, 1959, Uccle [now in Brussels-Capital region], Belgium), resident of Urundi (1919-28) and governor-general of Belgian Congo (1934-46).
Ryhtä, Niilo (Mikael) (b. Sept. 26, 1906, Tammela, Finland - d. Aug. 10, 1995), interior minister of Finland (1963, 1964-66) and governor of Oulu (1967-73).
Rykov, Aleksey (Ivanovich) (b. Feb. 25 [Feb. 13, Old Style], 1881, Saratov, Russia - d. March 14, 1938, Moscow), Soviet politician. At 18 he joined the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party. In 1902 he visited Lenin in Geneva and returned to Russia to work as a revolutionary. A member of the Bolshevik wing, he took part in the 1905 revolution and spent much of the years 1913-17 in banishment in Siberia. In 1917 he advocated the formation of a coalition government of all socialist parties, but Lenin was determined that the Bolsheviks seize and hold power alone. He took an active part in the November revolution and became people's commissar of the interior in the first Bolshevik government. Later he was chairman of the Supreme Council of National Economy (1918-21) and then deputy chairman and, after Lenin's death in 1924, chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (i.e., premier). He also became a member of the party's Politburo in 1922. Iosif Stalin joined Rykov in advocating an economic policy of gradual industrialization. Rykov consequently helped Stalin defeat Lev Trotsky, Grigory Zinovyev, and Lev Kamenev in 1926-28. But once Stalin had defeated these left-wing rivals, he adopted their policy of rapid industrialization and launched an attack on Rykov and his right-wing associates, Nikolay Bukharin and Mikhail Tomsky (the "Right Opposition"). Rykov was obliged to recant his views publicly (1929) and was ousted as premier and Politburo member (1930). He became people's commissar for communications in 1931 but was dismissed in 1936 and expelled from the party in 1937, having been implicated in fabricated treasonous conspiracies by the defendants of the first two show trials of the Great Purge. In 1938 he was tried, with Bukharin, in the third show trial, convicted of treason, and executed.
Rymbai, J(ing) Dringwell (b. Oct. 26, 1934), chief minister of Meghalaya (2006-07).
Ryti, Risto Heikki, original name Risto Henrik Ryti (b. Feb. 3, 1889, Huittinen, Finland - d. Oct. 25, 1956, Helsinki, Finland), prime minister (1939-40) and president (1940-44) of Finland.
Ryzhkov, Nikolay (Ivanovich) (b. Sept. 28, 1929, Dyleyevka, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now in Donetsk oblast, Ukraine]), premier of the Soviet Union (1985-91). In 1956 he joined the Communist Party. He became active in politics with his appointment to the Supreme Soviet Commission on Planning and Budget in 1974. In 1975 he became first deputy minister of heavy and transport engineering, and in 1979 first deputy chairman of the State Planning Committee (GOSPLAN). In 1981 he became a full member of the Communist Party's Central Committee and, in 1982, head of its economic department. In April 1985, soon after the election of Mikhail Gorbachev as general secretary, he was elected a full member of the Politburo. In September he became chairman of the Council of Ministers (premier) of the Soviet Union. He was closely identified with Gorbachev's policies of trying to reinvigorate the Soviet economy through advanced technology and a measure of decentralized planning. During his tenure, he eliminated 25 ministries and dozens of other central offices. In an interview, he described efforts to pare down the entrenched bureaucracy as "a battle royal." He was largely regarded as a faceless technocrat until he took control of a high-profile Politburo commission overseeing relief efforts for victims of the December 1988 earthquake in Armenia. But his popularity proved short-lived. In 1990, with the economy still plagued by shortages of consumer goods, he came under intense criticism from advocates of more radical reforms, but he resisted the adoption of a market-based system. In December 1990, one day after parliament voted to eliminate the Council of Ministers, leaving his job in doubt, he suffered a heart attack. He lost his post in January 1991 when Valentin Pavlov was elected prime minister. In June 1991 he ran for the Russian presidency, coming second with 17.9% of the vote. In 2014 he was one of 21 officials put under sanctions by the European Union for their role in the Russian takeover of Crimea.