Scajola, Claudio (b. Jan. 15, 1948, Imperia, Italy), interior minister of Italy (2001-02). He was also minister of implementation of government program (2003-05), productive activities (2005-06), and economic development (2008-10).
Scalfaro, Oscar Luigi (b. Sept. 9, 1918, Novara, Italy - d. Jan. 29, 2012, Rome, Italy), president of Italy (1992-99). He was interior minister in 1983-87 and president of the Chamber of Deputies in 1992.
Scarce, Kevin (John) (b. May 4, 1952, Adelaide, South Australia), governor of South Australia (2007-14).
Scargill, Arthur (b. Jan. 11, 1938, Worsbrough Dale, Yorkshire, England), British labour leader. He became a miner at the age of 15 in 1953. He was recruited by the Communist Party's youth movement but at the end of the 1950s left and joined the Labour Party. He had been active in local unofficial disputes in the Yorkshire coalfield in 1969-70 and experimented with the flying pickets that were shortly to become famous. When the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) called an official strike in 1972, he pressed for his tactics to be employed nationally against ports, power stations, and depots. NUM headquarters in London asked him to lead a picket of 200 miners against the Saltley Coke Depot in Birmingham. By the fifth day Scargill had mustered a force of 10,000. The police withdrew, and he proclaimed "the greatest victory of the working class in my lifetime." That year he worked his last shift at the colliery, and in 1973 he became the youngest person ever to be president of the Yorkshire miners. His organizational skills and presentational flair made him an effective champion. "We want jam today and jam tomorrow" was a typical Scargillism, indicating his attitude that nothing was too good for the miner. His reputation ensured his succession to the national presidency of the NUM when Joe Gormley stepped down in 1982. He moved the NUM headquarters from London to Sheffield and, impatient with the Trades Union Congress, withdrew from its General Council. In 1984 he succeeded in launching a national work stoppage, although it was not observed in the Nottinghamshire coalfield and in some other localities. But this time the forces of the state were better prepared, and after a year the miners gave up. In 1996 he left the Labour Party and formed the Socialist Labour Party.
Scavenius, Erik (Julius Christian) (b. June 13, 1877, Klintholm, Denmark - d. Nov. 29, 1962, Copenhagen, Denmark), foreign minister (1909-10, 1913-20, 1940-45) and prime minister (1942-45) of Denmark; cousin of Harald Scavenius. He was also minister to Austria-Hungary and Italy (1912-13) and Sweden (1924-32).
Scavenius, Harald (Roger) (b. May 27, 1873, Gjorslev, Denmark - d. April 22, 1939, The Hague, Netherlands), foreign minister of Denmark (1920-22). He was also minister to Russia (1912-18), Italy (1923-28), and the Netherlands and Switzerland (1928-39).
Scavenius, Otto Christian (Jacob Jørgen Brønnum) (b. Dec. 10, 1875, Basnæs, Denmark - d. Sept. 10, 1945, Copenhagen, Denmark), foreign minister of Denmark (1920). He was also minister to Russia (1909-12) and Sweden (1912-19).
Sceberras Trigona (dei Baroni di Castel Cicciano), Alex(ander), Baron di Montagna di Marzo (b. March 3, 1950, Sliema, Malta), foreign minister of Malta (1981-87).
Scelba, Mario (b. Sept. 5, 1901, Caltagirone, Sicily, Italy - d. Oct. 29, 1991, Rome, Italy), prime minister of Italy (1954-55). He became secretary and assistant to the Rev. Luigi Sturzo, founder of the Italian Popular Party. The party was outlawed while the Fascists were in power, and Scelba worked underground, helping to found the newspaper of what became the Christian Democratic Party. After the war he was elected to the Constituent Assembly (1946) and was also minister of posts and telecommunications (1945-47) before becoming interior minister (1947-53, 1954-55). In the latter post he was known for his firm opposition to Communism. Faced with threats to the public order from extremists of both the left and the right, he reorganized the police, adding manpower and equipment. The force's greatest test came in 1950 during a nationwide general strike when he authorized a strong suppression of demonstrations. In the ensuing street clashes, hundreds were wounded and thousands arrested. In 1952 he drafted a law defining and banning Fascism, known as the Scelba Law. As prime minister he maintained a centre-right coalition. He aided in the resolution of outstanding wartime issues and, in what he regarded as his finest hour, negotiations with Yugoslavia led to the return of Trieste to Italian control. He served again (1960-62) as interior minister, but his opposition to the inclusion of Socialists in coalitions led to his exclusion from succeeding governments. Scelba was elected to the Chamber of Deputies (1963) and then the Senate (1968), where he served until his retirement from active politics in 1983. In 1966 he was leader of the Christian Democrats, and from 1969 to 1971 he was president of the European Parliament.
Scepanovic, Milorad (b. 1956, Kolasin, Montenegro), Montenegrin diplomat. He has been non-resident ambassador to Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia (2007-10) and South Africa (2016- ) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2010-15).
Schacht Aristeguieta, Efraín (b. Aug. 12, 1921, Caracas, Venezuela - d. Feb. 6, 2007), foreign minister of Venezuela (1974-75).
Schaefer, William D(onald) (b. Nov. 2, 1921, Baltimore, Md. - d. April 18, 2011, Catonsville, Md.), mayor of Baltimore (1971-87) and governor of Maryland (1987-95).
Schafer, Edward T(homas) (b. Aug. 8, 1946, Bismarck, N.D.), governor of North Dakota (1992-2000). A Republican, he ran for Congress in 1990 and won 35% against Byron Dorgan; he was not the favourite in 1992 when popular governor George Sinner retired and Democrats had a primary fight between Attorney General Nick Spaeth and state Senate leader Bill Heigaard. Heigaard, pro-choice, won the party convention; Spaeth, anti-abortion and for state investment in economic development, won the June primary 65%-35%. Economic development was a major issue. Spaeth favoured the state government's "Growing North Dakota" plan, which he accused Schafer of taking advantage of its loans and tax breaks for his own business. Schafer favoured more local and private sector involvement. Schafer won by a solid 58%-41%, carrying all the major towns and all but seven counties, winning over 60% with voters under 60, while Spaeth got 55% from those 60 and over. After two years in office, Schafer pursued policies of lowering taxes and "rightsizing" government. He claimed credit for the 15,000 new jobs created in North Dakota and for the fact that census estimates showed it gained population for the first year in more than a decade. Republicans gained smartly in 1994 state elections, winning control of the state senate. Schafer was popular, and he was reelected in 1996 with 66% of the vote, beating Democratic state representative Lee Kaldor. In 2008-09 he was U.S. agriculture secretary.
Schaffner, Hans (b. Dec. 16, 1908, Interlaken, Bern, Switzerland - d. Nov. 26, 2004), economy minister (1961-69) and president (1966) of Switzerland.
Schaik, Robert Jan van (b. May 4, 1927, Ede, Gelderland, Netherlands), Dutch diplomat. He was ambassador to Kenya and Uganda (1978-80) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1989-92).
Schaller, Gérald (b. July 9, 1954), president of the government of Jura (1998, 2003).
Schanzer, Carlo (b. Dec. 18, 1865, Vienna, Austria - d. Oct. 23, 1953, Rome, Italy), treasury minister (1919-20, 1920), finance minister (1920), and foreign minister (1922) of Italy. He was also minister of posts and telegraphs (1906-09).
Schaper, Herman(us Albertus) (b. March 24, 1949, The Hague, Netherlands), Dutch diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2009-13).
Schärf, Adolf (b. April 20, 1890, Mikulov, Austria [now in Czech Republic] - d. Feb. 28, 1965, Vienna, Austria), president of Austria (1957-65).
Scharping, Rudolf (Albert) (b. Dec. 2, 1947, Niederelbert, Germany), German politician. He became chairman of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) in 1993. As its chancellor candidate in the 1994 general election, he was defeated by Helmut Kohl. Handed the consolation job of SPD parliamentary leader, he made the most of the Bundestag lower house of parliament as a platform for often scathing attacks on Kohl's failure to fight unemployment. Scharping looked to be out of front-line politics in 1995 when the party replaced him as chairman, carrying the can for a further slide in party fortunes after his lacklustre campaign. But, in a remarkable turnaround, the 1998 SPD chancellor candidate Gerhard Schröder - a prime mover behind Scharping's sacking - tapped the former leader as his campaign spokesman on foreign or security affairs. After Schröder's victory, Scharping became defense minister. In the summer of 2001 he came under fire for magazine photos that showed him and his girlfriend splashing in a pool on the Spanish resort island of Mallorca just as German troops prepared to head to Macedonia. Then came revelations he used an air force plane to return overnight to Mallorca at taxpayers' expense between two official engagements. The scandal was forgotten after the September 11 attacks in the United States. In 2002, the opposition tried to unseat Scharping over allegations he broke budget laws concerning the purchase of A400M Airbus military transports. Schröder finally fired him in July 2002 following reports he took $72,000 in royalties from a public relations adviser. In 2005 he became president of the Federation of German Cyclists.
Schäuble, Wolfgang (b. Sept. 18, 1942, Freiburg, Germany), German politician. He joined the Christian Democratic Union in 1965 and was first elected to the Bundestag in 1972. From 1984 to 1989 he was minister for special tasks, and from 1989 to 1991 interior minister. He was dubbed "the architect of German unity" for negotiating the treaty with East Germany which led to unification in 1990. It was at the hour of his greatest political triumph that Schäuble was shot in the back by a deranged man at a 1990 election campaign meeting. Paralyzed from the waist down, he was confined to a wheelchair. He staged a remarkable political comeback, attending a cabinet meeting less than two months after the shooting. Schäuble survived as an influential figure by never openly challenging Chancellor Helmut Kohl. Kohl surprised even Schäuble, his parliamentary chief, by naming him in 1997 as his chosen successor. Schäuble's political style was fundamentally different from Kohl's, but both men shared the same basic political convictions. When Kohl, after losing the 1998 election, resigned as chairman of the Christian Democratic Union, Schäuble succeeded him. But in the course of a party finance scandal, which he pledged to clear up, he was caught in a web of contradictions that ruined his credibility, and he resigned in 2000. In 2005-09 he was again interior minister, and in 2009 he became finance minister.
Schausberger, Franz (b. Feb. 5, 1950, Steyr, Oberösterreich, Austria), premier of Salzburg (1996-2004).
Scheel, Walter (b. July 8, 1919, Höhscheid [now part of Solingen], Germany - d. Aug. 24, 2016, Bad Krozingen, near Freiburg, Germany), president of West Germany (1974-79). In 1953, he entered the Bundestag (lower house of parliament) as a member of the Free Democratic Party. He became his party's chairman in 1968, and the next year he helped to form a coalition between the Free Democrats and the Social Democratic Party. This fusion resulted in a majority of votes for the coalition's leader, Willy Brandt, under whose chancellorship Scheel served as foreign minister and vice-chancellor. When Brandt resigned in 1974 Scheel was briefly acting chancellor. Later that year he became president.
Scheffer, Jaap de Hoop, byname of Jakob Gijsbert de Hoop Scheffer (b. April 3, 1948, Amsterdam, Netherlands), foreign minister of the Netherlands (2002-03) and secretary-general of NATO (2004-09).
Scheidemann, Philipp (Heinrich) (b. July 26, 1865, Kassel, Hesse-Kassel [Germany] - d. Nov. 29, 1939, Copenhagen, Denmark), prime minister of Germany (1919). Involved in Social Democratic politics from his youth, he became a member of the Reichstag in 1903 and joined the majority of his party in supporting Germany's participation in World War I. Toward the war's end, he advocated a "peace without annexations or indemnities." In October 1918 he was appointed minister without portfolio in the last imperial cabinet. The Social Democrats planned to support a constitutional monarchy in Germany, but on the abdication of Emperor Wilhelm II, and in the face of leftist uprisings, Scheidemann, without party or government authorization, proclaimed the republic from the balcony of the Reichstag on Nov. 9, 1918. From November 1918 to February 1919 he served on the six-member Council of People's Commissioners. He then became the first prime minister of the Weimar Republic, but in June 1919 he resigned rather than give his assent to the Versailles Treaty. He sat in the Reichstag again from 1920, maintaining an outspoken opposition to all government attempts at accommodation with reactionary forces. He was also mayor of Kassel in 1920-25. In 1922 he escaped unhurt an attempt to assassinate him. At the beginning of the National Socialist period (1933) he emigrated from Germany, moving to Czechoslovakia, Switzerland, France, the U.S., and finally to Denmark.
Scheltema, Hugo (b. June 11, 1918, Haarlem, Netherlands - d. Sept. 1, 1996), Dutch diplomat. He was ambassador to Iraq (1966-68), Indonesia (1968-73), and Belgium (1976-77) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1978-83).
Schenker, Friedrich (b. Feb. 10, 1811 - d. 1873), Landammann of Solothurn (1868).
Scherrer(-Baumann), Alice, née Baumann (b. Jan. 12, 1947), Landammann of Appenzell-Ausserrhoden (2003-06).
Schetyna, Grzegorz (Juliusz) (b. Feb. 18, 1963, Opole, Poland), deputy prime minister and interior minister (2007-09), marshal of the Sejm (2010-11), acting president (2010), and foreign minister (2014-15) of Poland.
Schiaretti (Álamo), Juan (b. June 19, 1949, Talleres barrio, Córdoba, Argentina), federal interventor in Santiago del Estero (1993-95) and governor of Córdoba (2007-11, 2015- ).
Schiavoni (Perié), Humberto (Luis Arturo) (b. 1958, Posadas, Misiones, Argentina), cabinet chief of Argentina (2001).
Schick Gutiérrez, René (b. Nov. 23, 1909, León, Nicaragua - d. Aug. 3, 1966, Managua, Nicaragua), foreign minister (1961-62) and president (1963-66) of Nicaragua. He was also ambassador to Venezuela (1952-55) and minister of education (1957-61).
Schild, Jörg (b. March 31, 1946), president of the government of Basel-Stadt (1995-97, 2004-05).
Schilthuis, Tineke, byname of Albertine Petronella Schilthuis (b. June 29, 1921, The Hague, Netherlands - d. Nov. 26, 2013, Zeist, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Drenthe (1974-82). She was the first female head of a provincial administration in the Netherlands.
Schily, Otto (Georg) (b. July 20, 1932, Bochum, Germany), German politician. He was best known in Germany for defending Red Army Faction guerrillas as a lawyer in the 1970s and spent many years defending himself against accusations that he sympathized with the guerrillas he defended and that he actively supported them. He joined the Greens as soon as they were formed in 1980. As a high-profile member of the party's pragmatic wing, he fought a series of bitter battles with hardline leftists and ecologists. He switched to the Social Democratic Party (SPD) in 1989, serving first as a backbencher. He became a deputy leader of the party's parliamentary group in 1994, with responsibility for coordinating interior and legal policy. In 1997 Schily negotiated a compromise deal between the Social Democrats and conservatives in parliament which gave police more powers to wiretap suspected criminals. He was interior minister in the SPD-Green government of 1998-2005.
Schimmelpenninck, Francis David graaf (b. April 20, 1854, Amsterdam, Netherlands - d. Jan. 3, 1924, Baarn, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Utrecht (1905-14). He was also mayor of Amersfoort (1891-99).
Schimmelpenninck, Gerrit graaf (b. Feb. 25, 1794, Amsterdam, Netherlands - d. Oct. 4, 1863, Arnhem, Netherlands), foreign and finance minister of the Netherlands (1848). He was also secretary of state (1835-36) and minister to Russia (1837-40) and the United Kingdom (1846-48, 1848-51).
Schimmelpenninck, Rutger Jan, heer van Nyenhuis, Peckedam en Gellicum (b. 1761 - d. 1825), president of the National Assembly of the Batavian Republic (1796, 1797) and pensionary of the council of the Batavian Commonwealth (1805-06).
Schimmelpenninck van der Oye (van de Poll en Nijenbeek), Alex(ander) baron (b. Sept. 30, 1839, Voorst, Gelderland, Netherlands - d. June 19, 1918, The Hague, Netherlands), king's/queen's commissioner of Utrecht (1888-1905); son of Willem Anne baron Schimmelpenninck van der Oye.
Schimmelpenninck van der Oye (van Hoevelaken), Jan Elias Nicolaas (b. Aug. 12, 1836, Brummen, Gelderland, Netherlands - d. April 11, 1914, The Hague, Netherlands), chairman of the First Chamber of the Netherlands (1902-14).
Schimmelpenninck van der Oye (van de Poll), Willem Anne baron (b. Jan. 6, 1800, Doesburg, Netherlands - d. Dec. 12, 1872, Voorst, Gelderland, Netherlands), interior minister (1841-46) and acting foreign minister (1843) of the Netherlands and governor (1847-50) and king's commissioner (1850-53) of Gelderland. He was also chairman of the Second Chamber (1858).
Schimpf, Charles Pierre (b. Feb. 13, 1813, Saint-Omer, Pas-de-Calais, France - d. Dec. 31, 1886, The Hague, Netherlands), governor-general of Dutch Guiana (1855-59).
Schiotz, Fredrik A(xel) (b. June 15, 1901, Chicago, Ill. - d. Feb. 25, 1989, Bloomington, Minn.), president of the American Lutheran Church (1960-70) and of the Lutheran World Federation (1963-70).
Schipanski, Dagmar (Elisabeth), née Eichhorn (b. Sept. 3, 1943, Sättelstädt, near Eisenach, Germany), German politician. The little known eastern German physics professor was plucked from the ranks of obscurity by the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) in January 1999 to run (unsuccessfully) against the popular Johannes Rau for president of Germany. Schipanski, who was not even a member of the CDU, ran for an office that had only been occupied by men. If elected, she would also have been the first head of state from the formerly communist eastern Germany. Later in 1999 she became science minister in Thüringen (until 2004). In 2000 she joined the CDU.
Schirach, Baldur (Benedikt) von (b. May 9, 1907, Berlin, Germany - d. Aug. 8, 1974, Kröv, West Germany), German politician. He said Henry Ford's book The International Jew converted him to anti-Semitism when he was 17 years old. He then joined the Nazi Party (1925) and became a part of Adolf Hitler's inner circle. He was elected to the Reichstag in 1932. In June 1933 he was appointed a Reichsleiter (the highest party rank after the Führer) and was made national youth leader (Reichsjugendführer), directing all Nazi youth organizations, including the Hitler Youth (Hitlerjugend). His enthusiasm was extremely infectious, and to countless German children and adolescents he became the embodiment of their ideals. In October 1939 it was announced that he, the pattern of German manhood, had been rejected for army service by a medical board. In January 1940, conscious possibly of loss of prestige, he was said to have enlisted as a volunteer. In August, however, he was relieved of his position as leader of the Hitler Youth and appointed Gauleiter (party district leader) and Reichsstatthalter (governor) of Vienna, where he helped organize the deportation of Jews to extermination camps in the east. Arrested by the Allies in 1945, he was indicted (August 29) by the International Military Tribunal to stand trial as one of the major Nazi war criminals. During the trials, he professed a change of heart and launched into a tirade against Hitler. He admitted (May 23, 1946) that Hitler had given him the Vienna post for the express purpose of driving the Jews and Czechoslovaks out of the city. He was found guilty of crimes against humanity and was sentenced (Oct. 1, 1946) to 20 years' imprisonment. He served the full sentence, being released from Spandau fortress in 1966.
Schläppy, Rémy (b. Feb. 20, 1917 - d. July 9, 2003, Crostand village, Neuchâtel, Switzerland), president of the Council of State of Neuchâtel (1969-70, 1975-76, 1979-80).
Schlaug, (Axel) Birger (b. Jan. 29, 1949, Stockholm, Sweden), Swedish politician. He was co-speaker of the Green Party in 1986-88 and 1992-2000 and a member of parliament in 1988-89 and again in 1994-2001.
Schlebusch, Alwyn (Louis) (b. Sept. 16, 1917, Lady Grey, South Africa - d. Jan. 7, 2008, Pretoria, South Africa), South African politician. He served as mayor of Henneman, Orange Free State, in the 1940s, and as MP for Kroonstad from 1962 to 1980. In 1972, he was appointed to head the notorious Schlebusch Commission of Inquiry, which resulted in legislation that allowed the authorities to declare civil society organizations "affected." This meant they could not receive foreign funding, and allowed the state to seize money they already had. Among the organizations declared affected as a direct result of Schlebusch's recommendations were the National Union of South African Students and the Christian Institute, while the commission also attacked the South African Institute of Race Relations. He became speaker of the National Assembly (1974-76) and minister of public works (1976-78), immigration (1976-79), interior (1978-80), and justice (1979-80). In 1980, he recommended abandoning the Westminster system and converting the Senate into a president's council, made up of nominated whites, Coloureds, and Indians, as a think tank for ideas on a new constitutional dispensation. The council, established under his leadership, was a first step towards the tricameral parliamentary system - a doomed attempt to co-opt Coloureds and Indians into the system while excluding blacks. Along with the leadership of the council, Schlebusch was made vice state president (1981-84). He was the only person ever to hold the title, which was scrapped when P.W. Botha became the country's first executive, rather than ceremonial, state president. Subsequently he also held the position under Botha of minister in the office of the president (1986-88).
Schleicher, Kurt (Ferdinand Friedrich Hermann) von (b. April 7, 1882, Brandenburg, Germany - d. June 30, 1934, Neubabelsberg [now part of Potsdam], Germany), chancellor of Germany (1932-33). Entering the army in 1900, he joined the general staff in 1913. Wilhelm Groener, appointed quartermaster general in 1918, made Schleicher his personal assistant in the political division of general headquarters. In 1919 he was employed in a similar capacity in the newly created Reichswehr, and during the emergency of 1923-24 was aide-de-camp to Gen. Hans von Seeckt, chief of the army command. By 1929, as major general, he was in charge of a newly created office in the Reichswehr ministry. For the next three years, Schleicher - with Defense Minister Groener, Chancellor Heinrich Brüning, and Pres. Paul von Hindenburg - was one of the determining forces in the Weimar Republic. He came into sharp conflict with Brüning and Hindenburg; his intrigues contributed to Brüning's downfall and the appointment (June 1932) of Franz von Papen as chancellor. Schleicher became defense minister and, when Papen was forced to resign (Dec. 1, 1932), chancellor as well. He opposed the rising power of the Nazis and sought to save Germany by identifying the president with the Reichswehr and by making the Reichswehr the source of political power. He offered to participate in a government with Hitler as chancellor on condition that he, Schleicher, should remain in charge of the Reichswehr. Hitler refused and thereafter regarded Schleicher as his chief enemy. In January 1933 Hindenburg dismissed Schleicher and made Hitler chancellor. A year and a half later, Schleicher was murdered in his house by Hitler's SS (Schutzstaffel), during the "night of the long knives," in which many of Hitler's opponents were eliminated.
Schlesinger, James R(odney) (b. Feb. 15, 1929, New York City - d. March 27, 2014, Baltimore, Md.), U.S. CIA director (1973), defense secretary (1973-75), and energy secretary (1977-79). He was also chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (1971-73).
Schlettwein, Calle, byname of Carl Hermann Gustav Schlettwein (b. June 13, 1954, Otjiwarongo, Otjozondjupa region, South West Africa [now Namibia]), finance minister of Namibia (2015- ). He was also minister of trade and industry (2012-15).
Schley, Julian L(arcombe) (b. Feb. 23, 1880, Savannah, Ga. - d. March 29, 1965, Washington, D.C.), governor of the Panama Canal Zone (1932-36). He was commissioned a second lieutenant in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1903 and promoted through the ranks to lieutenant colonel on Oct. 17, 1926. He was assistant to the engineer commissioner of D.C. in 1912-13; commander of the 307th Engineers Regiment and later Corps of Engineer, 5th Corps, World War I, in 1917-18; and Panama Canal maintenance engineer in 1928-32. Under his tenure as Canal Zone governor, construction of Madden Dam was begun and finished, creating the additional canal water supply that would provide for future traffic expansion. He had anticipated a need for building up and maintaining a high quality work force, and to this end he brought more trained men into the canal's working organization and instituted a training program to prepare young men in the skills and crafts to serve as potential future workers. Like Gov. Jay J. Morrow, Schley faced a bitter task of reorganization. In the face of worldwide depression and consequent decreased tolls from shipping, a reduction in force became necessary. He accomplished the task by judiciously paring here and trimming there, yet at the same time never impairing nor handicapping the efficient canal organization. During his tenure as governor, the Thatcher Highway and Ferry were opened on Sept. 1, 1932; the Canal Zone College was opened on Sept. 25, 1933; Cristobal High School was completed in 1933; plans were approved for a new townsite at Gatun; Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt visited on July 11, 1934, and Oct. 16, 1935; a Goethals 3-cent stamp was placed on sale on Aug. 15, 1934; and the apprentice-learner program began in 1935. He retired on Sept. 30, 1941.
Schlumpf, Leon (b. Feb. 3, 1925, Felsberg, Graubünden, Switzerland - d. July 7, 2012, Chur, Graubünden), president of the Small Council (1969) and president of the government (1974) of Graubünden and president of Switzerland (1984).
Schlüter, Poul (Holmskov) (b. April 3, 1929, Tønder, Sønderjylland, Denmark), prime minister of Denmark (1982-93). His interest in politics developed early, and at the age of 16 he chaired the Sønderjylland Conservative Youth organization. In 1952-55 he was national chairman of the organization. He was active in the World Association of Youth and in that connection visited more than 30 countries. He was elected to parliament in September 1964, became Conservative Party spokesman in 1971, chaired the party parliamentary group in 1974, and in 1980 became party chairman. He took over as prime minister in 1982 after Anker Jørgensen and his minority Social Democratic government resigned without forcing an election. Schlüter, who for several months had been advocating a broad national coalition as signs of an approaching economic catastrophe became ever more apparent, formed his government with the participation of the Liberal Democrats (Venstre), the Centre Democrats, and the Christian People's Party. He inherited formidable problems, including soaring balance of payments and budgetary deficits and growing unemployment. Although his appointment was greeted by left-wing demonstrations outside Christiansborg Castle (the parliament building) and skepticism on the part of the trade unions, Schlüter enjoyed generally good opinion poll ratings. A scandal involving the illegal actions of the Ministry of Justice in preventing the immigration of Tamil refugees from Sri Lanka brought to an end the 10-year rule of Schlüter's centre-right minority government.
Schmaltz, Julien (Désiré), governor of Senegal (1816-17, 1819-20).
Schmedeman, Albert G(eorge) (b. Nov. 25, 1864, Madison, Wis. - d. Nov. 26, 1946, Madison), governor of Wisconsin (1933-35). He was also U.S. minister to Norway (1913-21).
Schmelzer, (Wilhelmus Klaas) Norbert (b. March 22, 1921, Rotterdam, Netherlands - d. Nov. 14, 2008), foreign minister of the Netherlands (1971-73).
Schmettow, Rudolf Graf von (b. Jan. 8, 1891 - d. 19...), commander of the German-occupied Channel Islands (1940-41, 1943-45).
Schmid, Carlo, original name Karl Johann Martin Heinrich Schmid (b. Dec. 3, 1896, Perpignan, France - d. Dec. 11, 1979, Bonn, West Germany), West German politician. The son of a German father and a French mother, he renounced French nationality at the outset of World War I and enlisted in the German Army. During World War II he was a legal adviser to the German command in occupied France. In 1947 he became a member of the executive committee of the Social Democratic Party. He played a significant role in formulating the "basic law" (constitution) of West Germany and was (1949-66 and 1969-72) vice-president of the Bundestag (parliament). He was influential in bringing about the post-World War II reconciliation between West Germany and France, cemented by Gen. Charles de Gaulle and Chancellor Konrad Adenauer in 1963. From 1963 to 1966 Schmid was president of the assembly of the Western European Union. He retired in 1972.
Schmid, Peter (b. 1941), president of the Council of State of Bern (1983-84, 1990-91); brother of Samuel Schmid.
Schmid(-Scheibler), Peter (Scheibler is wife's name) (b. April 24, 1951, Basel, Switzerland), president of the government of Basel-Land (1992-93, 1997-98, 2001-02).
Schmid, Samuel (b. Jan. 8, 1947, Attiswil, Bern, Switzerland), defense minister (2001-08), vice president (2004), and president (2005) of Switzerland.
Schmid-Sutter, Carlo (Sutter is wife's name) (b. March 11, 1950, Heiden, Appenzell-Ausserrhoden, Switzerland), Regierender Landammann of Appenzell-Innerrhoden (1984-86, 1988-90, 1992-94, 1996-98, 2000-02, 2004-06, 2008-10, 2012-13).
Schmidhalter, Paul (b. Jan. 12, 1931, Brig, Valais, Switzerland - d. Aug. 23, 2005), president of the National Council of Switzerland (1992-93).
Schmidt, Guido (b. Jan. 15, 1901, Bludenz, Austria - d. Dec. 5, 1957, Vienna, Austria), foreign minister of Austria (1936-38).
Schmidt, Helmut (Heinrich Waldemar) (b. Dec. 23, 1918, Hamburg, Germany - d. Nov. 10, 2015, Hamburg), chancellor of West Germany (1974-82). After World War II he joined the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and served in the economics and transport sector of the Hamburg municipal government (1949-53). Elected to the Bundestag in 1953, he gave up his seat in 1961 and returned to Hamburg as senator (minister) for internal affairs, where he distinguished himself by his handling of a flood disaster in 1962. In 1965 he was reelected to the Bundestag, and he was the SPD's parliamentary leader in 1967-69. He became a vice-chairman of the SPD in 1968 and served as minister of defense (1969-72) and finance (1972-74) in the government of Chancellor Willy Brandt. He was elected to the chancellorship in 1974, following the resignation of Brandt, who, however, remained party chairman. Schmidt acquired the reputation of an effective crisis manager, won the esteem of many West Germans, and became one of the most respected and influential of Western Europe's leaders. In foreign affairs he sought reconciliation with the Soviet-bloc countries of Eastern Europe (and cultivated closer ties with East Germany) while at the same time maintaining West Germany's partnership with the United States. The governing coalition of the SPD and the liberal Free Democratic Party was reelected in 1976 and 1980. During the worldwide recession of the early 1980s, his refusal to cut social-welfare programs prompted the Free Democrats to defect from the coalition, and he lost the chancellorship through a vote of no confidence in the Bundestag on Oct. 1, 1982. He continued to serve as a member of the Bundestag until his retirement from politics in 1987. He remained influential as co-publisher of the weekly Die Zeit.
Schmidt, Robert (b. April 10, 1908), resident of Urundi (1944-53).
Schmidt auf Altenstadt, Johann George Otto Stuart von (b. 1806, Sint-Oedenrode, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands - d. 1857, The Hague, Netherlands), governor-general of Dutch Guiana (1852-55).
Schmitt, Pál (b. May 13, 1942, Budapest, Hungary), president of Hungary (2010-12). He won Olympic gold medals as a fencer in 1968 and 1972 and served as ambassador to Spain (1993-97) and Switzerland (1999-2002) and as president of the National Assembly (2010). He resigned as president in 2012 after losing his doctoral title in sports because he plagiarized his thesis.
Schmögnerová, Brigita (b. Nov. 17, 1947, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia]), finance minister of Slovakia (1998-2002). She was a leading figure in the reformed communist Party of the Democratic Left and was widely respected in Slovakia for her role as deputy premier with responsibility for the economy in the Jozef Moravcik government in 1994. As finance minister, she was known for tough policies aimed at securing the country's entry into the European Union by 2004. She became a symbol for economic measures that stabilized the economy and the financial sector, but also brought increased prices and rising unemployment. Her party asked her to resign in 2002, hoping that this would boost its sagging popularity.
Schmoke, Kurt L(idell) (b. Dec. 1, 1949, Baltimore, Md.), mayor of Baltimore (1987-99). In 1977, he joined Pres. Jimmy Carter's White House domestic policy staff. A year later, he returned to Baltimore as an assistant United States attorney. Four years later, he was elected state's attorney, the city's chief prosecuting officer. On Nov. 3, 1987, he became the first black to be elected mayor of Baltimore. He beat interim mayor Clarence Burns, an older and highly popular candidate (also black) who had the backing of the city's former mayor, William D. Schaefer, and a circle of powerful friends. Schmoke won the race by appealing to young and liberal voters - and by addressing the many problems that were still facing Baltimore despite the city's well-publicized cosmetic improvements. Schmoke's agenda was not nearly as flamboyant as that of Schaefer, but it was certainly more pragmatic.
Schneerson, Menachem Mendel (b. April 14, 1902, Nikolayev, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. June 12, 1994, New York City), Orthodox Jewish leader. The undisputed leader for 44 years of the New York-based Lubavitch Chassidic movement, he built a religious empire from the remnants of an insular Russian group that almost came to an end with the Holocaust, turning it into one of the most influential forces in world Jewry, with a following of some 200,000 believers worldwide. His "mitzvah tanks" - converted campers that served as recruiting stations - roamed New York City; toll-free telephone numbers, satellite television hookups, and faxes of Talmudic disquisitions were made available; and full-page newspaper advertisements were published. For decades, supplicants lined up by the thousands outside his residence on Sunday mornings; to each visitor Schneerson, a mesmeric figure with piercing blue eyes and a full white beard, offered a word of blessing and a crisp new dollar bill. The Sorbonne-educated scholar, who emigrated from France to the United States in 1941, became the seventh Lubavitcher grand rabbi in 1950 following the death of his father-in-law. Though he did not venture beyond Crown Heights, Brooklyn, the site of the Lubavitch World Headquarters, in 37 years, he had a strong influence on Israeli politics, both in the Knesset (parliament) and among the electorate. He was criticized by both Reform and Conservative Jewish leaders for allowing a cult of personality to grow around him, although he denied any such intent. Many of his followers even revered him as the potential Messiah, and his death caused great consternation; a persistent group still awaited his resurrection years later. He was childless and left no successor.
Schneider, Barbara (b. Sept. 5, 1953), president of the government of Basel-Stadt (2001-02, 2006-07).
Schneider, Fritz (b. May 19, 1930 - d. Dec. 3, 2003, Solothurn, Switzerland), Landammann of Solothurn (1985, 1990, 1993).
Schneider, Roy L(ester) (b. May 13, 1939, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands), governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands (1995-99).
Schneider-Ammann, Johann (Niklaus) (b. Feb. 18, 1952, Sumiswald, Bern, Switzerland), economy minister (2010- ) and president (2016) of Switzerland.
Schneider-Kenel, Elsbeth, née Kenel (b. March 31, 1946, Zug, Switzerland), president of the government of Basel-Land (1998-99, 2002-03, 2005-06).
Schnyder, Felix (b. March 5, 1910, Burgdorf, Bern, Switzerland - d. Nov. 8, 1992, Zürich, Switzerland), United Nations high commissioner for refugees (1961-65). He was also Swiss minister to Israel (1957-58), permanent observer to the United Nations (1958-61), and ambassador to the United States (1966-75).
Schnyder, Wilhelm (b. Oct. 18, 1943), president of the Council of State of Valais (1997-98, 2001-02).
Schober, Johann (b. Nov. 14, 1874, Perg, Austria - d. Aug. 19, 1932, Baden, near Vienna, Austria), chancellor of Austria (1921-22, 1922, 1929-30). Entering the imperial Austrian police service as a young man, he became president of police in 1918, some months before the fall of the Habsburg monarchy at the end of World War I. On the proclamation of the Austrian republic in November, he placed his force at the disposal of the new government, and did much to ensure a peaceful change of regime. At the same time he secured the safety of the ex-imperial family, whose departure from Vienna he supervised. His administrative ability and, above all, his honesty gained him the confidence of moderate public opinion in Austria and especially of the inter-Allied missions and advisers. Thus he was selected to form a coalition government (June 1921) supported by the Social Christians and Pan-Germans; he also took the post of foreign minister. He sought to establish friendly relations with the successor states of the late empire when he signed the Treaty of Lány with Czechoslovakia on Dec. 16, 1921. But the Pan-Germans resented any treaty with Czechoslovakia as putting difficulties in the way of ultimate union with Germany; they withdrew from the government and in May 1922 Schober resigned, returning to the post of president of police. In July 1927 he was responsible for the bloody suppression of a labour protest in Vienna, in which nearly 100 people were killed. He served as chancellor and foreign minister again from September 1929 to September 1930 and as vice-chancellor and foreign minister from December 1930 to January 1932. In March 1931 he concluded an agreement with Germany which would have led to an Austro-German customs union but which under French and Czechoslovak pressure had to be abandoned.
Schofield, Vaughn (Solomon) (b. 1943), lieutenant governor of Saskatchewan (2012- ).
Scholes, Gordon (Glen Denton) (b. June 7, 1931, Melbourne, Vic.), defence minister of Australia (1983-84). He was also minister for territories (1984-87).
Schollaert, Frans (Victor Marie Ghislain) (b. Aug. 19, 1851, Wilsele, Belgium - d. June 29, 1917, Sainte-Adresse, near Le Havre, France), cabinet chief and interior minister of Belgium (1908-11). He was chairman of the Chamber of Representatives in 1901-08 and 1912-17.
Scholten, Pieter (b. 16... - d. July 30, 1723), provisional commander of Bonaire (1719-23).
Scholten, Willem (b. June 1, 1927, Deventer, Netherlands - d. Jan. 1, 2005, Leidschendam, Netherlands), defense minister of the Netherlands (1978-80).
Schönborn, Franz Georg Graf von, until 1701 Franz Georg Reichsfreiherr von Schönborn (b. June 15, 1682, Mainz [now in Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany] - d. Jan. 18, 1756, Ehrenbreitstein, near Koblenz [now in Rheinland-Pfalz]), archbishop of Treves (1729-56).
Schönenberger, Peter (b. 1940), Landammann (1995-96) and president of the government (2002-03) of Sankt Gallen.
Schönerer, Georg (Heinrich) Ritter von (b. July 17, 1842, Vienna, Austria - d. Aug. 14, 1921, Rosenau castle, near Zwettl, Austria), Austrian politician. First elected to the Reichsrat (parliament) as a liberal in 1873, he gradually developed a Prussophile, anti-Semitic position and in 1879 became leader of the Pan-German movement, acquiring a strong personal following, especially among the Viennese lower middle class and the nationalist fraternities (Burschenschaften). In 1885 a Pan-German parliamentary party was formed, which languished after his 1888 imprisonment for an assault on a newspaper office (he also lost his parliamentary seat and his knightly title) but quickly revived following his reelection to parliament in 1897. In the latter year he led the attacks upon pro-Czech language ordinances and was popularly credited with having driven Prime Minister Kasimir Graf von Badeni from office. After 1898 he became closely associated with the anti-Catholic "Los von Rom" movement. He reached the peak of his parliamentary power in 1901, when 21 Pan-Germans were elected to the Reichsrat; his violent temperament, however, caused splits in the party and by 1907 it had all but disappeared from Austrian parliamentary politics. His ideological influence remained, and had a notable effect on the young Adolf Hitler.
Schorer, Jacob Hendrik (b. July 5, 1760, Middelburg, Netherlands - d. Jan. 19, 1822, Middelburg), governor of Zeeland (1814-17). He was also mayor of Middelburg (1808-10).
Schorer, Johan Willem Meinard (b. March 8, 1834, Middelburg, Netherlands - d. Oct. 1, 1903, The Hague, Netherlands), king's commissioner of Noord-Holland (1879-97). He was also mayor of Middelburg (1871-79).
Schori, (Jean-)Pierre (Olov) (b. Oct. 14, 1938, Norrköping, Sweden), Swedish politician. He was minister of international development cooperation (1994-99) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2000-04).
Schotborgh, Claas (b. March 13, 1775, Curaçao - d. March 21, 1840), commander of Bonaire (1827-40).
Schotborgh, Herman Bernard Cornelis (b. Jan. 7, 1898, Curaçao - d. 19...), administrator of Bonaire (1928-34) and governor of Curaçao (1929-30).
Schotborgh Claaszoon, Jan (b. 1800? - d. Dec. 10, 1876, Curaçao), commander (1840-48) and administrator (1848-54) of Bonaire.
Schott, Basil M(yron) (b. July 21, 1939, Freeland, Pa. - d. June 10, 2010, Pittsburgh, Pa.), metropolitan archbishop of the Byzantine Catholic Church in America (2002-10).
Schotte, Gerrit (Fransisco) (b. Sept. 9, 1974, Curaçao), prime minister of Curaçao (2010-12).
Schrameck, Abraham (b. Nov. 26, 1867, Saint-Étienne, Loire, France - d. Oct. 19, 1948, Marseille, Bouches-du-Rhône, France), governor-general of Madagascar (1918-19) and interior minister of France (1925). He was also prefect of the départements of Tarn-et-Garonne (1900-06), Aisne (1906-07), and Bouches-du-Rhône (1911-18).
Schreiber, (Karl Rudolf) Walther (b. June 10, 1884, Pustleben, Germany - d. June 30, 1958, Berlin, Germany), governing mayor of West Berlin (1953-55).
Schreiber Waddington, Germán (b. 1862, Huaraz, Peru - d. 1930, Lima, Peru), prime minister of Peru (1910, 1914-15). He was also minister of finance and commerce (1907-08, 1910, 1914-15).
Schreyer, Edward R(ichard) (b. Dec. 21, 1935, on a farm near Beauséjour, Manitoba), governor-general of Canada (1979-84). At the age of four he was already making speeches from the stairs of his home. In 1956 he became campaign manager for Jake Schulz, federal member of Parliament for Springfield (Manitoba) and a moving force in the Manitoba Farmers' Union. As a candidate of the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (which later became the New Democratic Party), Schreyer himself was elected to the Manitoba legislature in 1958 and represented the riding of Brokenhead until 1965. From 1965 to 1969 he was a federal member of Parliament from Manitoba. He was not happy living in Ottawa, however, and did not hesitate to return to Manitoba in June 1969, when he was chosen leader of the New Democratic Party in the province. Resigning his federal seat, he was immediately plunged into a provincial election campaign. Both he and his party were victorious, Schreyer winning the riding of Rossmere and becoming premier of Manitoba. When his party lost in the 1977 Manitoba election, he had to step down as premier. After a period of leader of the opposition in the Manitoba legislature he accepted Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau's offer to move to Rideau Hall, Ottawa, as Canada's 22nd governor-general, taking office on Jan. 22, 1979. Of German extraction, he was not only the youngest but also the first person of neither English nor French descent to hold the office.
Schröder, Gerhard (b. Sept. 11, 1910, Saarbrücken, Germany - d. Dec. 31, 1989, Kampen, Sylt island, West Germany), West German politician. He was a co-founder of the centre-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU). In 1949 he was elected to the first Bundestag, representing the Protestant branch of the CDU. Schröder served three chancellors as minister of the interior (1953-61), foreign affairs (1961-66), and defense (1966-69). He ran for chancellor against Kurt Georg Kiesinger in 1966, and in 1969 he lost a bid for the presidency by only six votes. In 1980 he retired from the Bundestag, where he had been chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee since 1969.
Schröder, Gerhard (Fritz Kurt) (b. April 7, 1944, Mossenberg, Lippe [now part of Blomberg, Nordrhein-Westfalen], Germany), chancellor of Germany (1998-2005). In 1963 he joined the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and was active in the Young Socialists, the SPD's youth organization. He led the Young Socialists in 1978-80 and entered parliament in 1980. He was defeated in the 1986 election for premier of Niedersachsen, but after four years leading the state opposition, he was elected premier in 1990 and was reelected in 1994 and 1998. With the latter election he clinched his nomination as the SPD's chancellor candidate for that year's general elections. He managed to unite the party behind him and put together a remarkably blemish-free campaign with a single goal: Helmut Kohl must go. His opponents struggled to get to grips with him, accusing him of being all style and little substance. Schröder tried to preserve his image as a pro-business moderate in the mould of U.S. Pres. Bill Clinton or Britain's Tony Blair. The dashing, telegenic Schröder defeated Kohl, who had led Germany for 16 years, by an unexpectedly wide margin. He thus became only the second candidate (after Willy Brandt in 1972) to lead the SPD to become the biggest party. Schröder formed a coalition with the Greens. His government deployed German troops in Kosovo (1999) and Afghanistan (2001) but opposed the 2003 Iraq War, leading to strained relations with the U.S. After his reelection in 2002, he embarked on a program of cutting unemployment benefits which proved unpopular, not least in his own party, and he resigned the post of party chairman (which he had assumed in 1999) in 2004. After setbacks in state elections in 2005, he engineered an early federal election, in which his government was defeated.
Schroeder, Frederick A. (b. March 1833, Trier, Prussia [now in Germany] - d. Dec. 1, 1899, Brooklyn, New York City), mayor of Brooklyn (1876-77).
Schroeder, Louise (Dorothea Sophie) (b. April 2, 1887, Altona [now part of Hamburg], Germany - d. June 4, 1957, Berlin, Germany), acting lord mayor of Berlin (1947-48).
Schroeder, Seaton (b. Aug. 17, 1849, Washington, D.C. - d. Oct. 19, 1922, Washington, D.C.), governor of Guam (1900-01, 1901-03). He was also commander-in-chief of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet (1909-11).
Schryver, August (Edmond) de (b. May 16, 1898, Ghent, Belgium - d. March 5, 1991, Ghent), interior minister of Belgium (1936-37, 1943-44). He was also minister of agriculture (1935-36, 1944), justice (1939), economic affairs (1940), Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi (1959-60), and African affairs (1960) and minister without portfolio (1944-45).
Schueren, Johannes Baptista Gerardus Maria ridder de van der (b. Jan. 1, 1899, Waalwijk, Netherlands - d. Aug. 5, 1990, Nijmegen, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Overijssel (1946-64).
Schulz, Arnaldo (b. April 6, 1910 - d. 1993), interior minister of Portugal (1958-61) and governor of Portuguese Guinea (1964-68).
Schumacher, Hanns Heinrich (b. Nov. 10, 1948, Duisburg, Germany), German diplomat. He was ambassador to Namibia (1993-97), Finland (2003-07), Iraq (2007-08), and Thailand (2008-11) and chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (2001-02).
Schuman, (Jean Baptiste Nicolas) Robert (b. June 29, 1886, Luxembourg, Luxembourg - d. Sept. 4, 1963, Scy-Chazelles, Moselle, France), French statesman. Elected to the French National Assembly for the recovered département of Moselle in 1919, he was a member of the Parti Démocratique Populaire (PDP) and was appointed undersecretary of state in Paul Reynaud's cabinet on March 21, 1940. He was arrested by the Gestapo in September 1940 after the German occupation of France. Sent to Germany, he escaped in August 1942 and went into hiding in France, working in the Résistance until France was liberated (1944). A founder of the Mouvement Républicain Populaire (MRP), which superseded the PDP as the principal organ of Christian democracy, he served as finance minister (1946, 1947), premier (1947-48, 1948), foreign minister (1948-53), and justice minister (1955-56). While foreign minister he promoted European economic and military unity and, with it, Franco-German reconciliation to prevent another war between the two nations. The economic aspect of the Schuman Plan, put forward by him in May 1950, became a reality in June 1952 with the formation of the European Coal and Steel Community, a six-nation Western European economic union and one of the forerunners of what ultimately became the European Union. However, the idea of an integrated European army, launched by Schuman and Prime Minister René Pleven in November 1950, met with strong opposition (it was finally rejected by the Chamber of Deputies in 1954). He served as the first president of the Parliamentary Assembly of the European Economic Community in 1958-60 and was a member until February 1963. Within the MRP, Schuman was from 1958 the chief opponent of the right-wing extremism of Georges Bidault.
Schumann, Maurice (b. April 10, 1911, Paris, France - d. Feb. 10, 1998, Paris), French politician. Long before playing a leading role in French politics, he entered history books as the "Voice of France" in exile and Gen. Charles de Gaulle's spokesman during World War II. During the 1940-44 years when France was under Nazi German occupation, he was the main speaker of a programme called "Les Français parlent aux Français" (The French speak to the French) beamed from London to keep up spirits in occupied France. His passionate denunciations of collaborators more than once led to their killings by Resistance fighters who received esoteric coded orders such as "The carrots are cooked" or "Franklin is arriving" over the same programme. His high profile wartime role ensured him easy access to post-war national politics. He helped found the Popular Republican Movement, France's main christian-democratic party, and was elected to the National Assembly. He was deputy foreign minister in 1951-54 and headed parliament's foreign affairs committee for most of the period 1957-68. He gained full ministerial rank after de Gaulle returned to power in 1958, holding such posts as minister for scientific research and later for social affairs. He was appointed foreign minister in 1969 under Pres. Georges Pompidou, devoting much of his time to European affairs and playing a leading role in the nascent Common Market. He resigned in 1973 after losing his seat in a general election but was elected to the Senate the following year, standing for the Gaullist RPR party in the Lille area of northern France. He was Senate vice-president from 1977 to 1983. He became a member of the Académie française in 1974.
Schumpeter, Joseph (Alois) (b. Feb. 8, 1883, Triesch, Moravia, Austria-Hungary [now Trest, Czech Republic] - d. Jan. 8, 1950, Taconic, Conn.), finance minister of Austria (1919). He is chiefly known as an economist. A few well-received books led to the appointment as finance minister. It was a period of hyperinflation, and Schumpeter lasted only seven months in the job. He was professor of economics at the University of Bonn (1925-32), then joined the faculty of Harvard University (1932-50). His writings include Theorie der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung (1912; The Theory of Economic Development); Business Cycles: A Theoretical, Historical, and Statistical Analysis of the Capitalist Process, 2 vol. (1939; rev. ed. 1964); the widely read Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy (1942), in which he argued that capitalism would eventually perish of its own success, giving way to some form of public control or socialism; and History of Economic Analysis (1954; reprinted 1966), an exhaustive study of the development of analytic methods in economics. He took part in the founding of the Econometric Society in 1930 and was its president in 1939-41. He was also president of the American Economic Association in 1948.
Schürmann, Carl Willem Alwin (b. Jan. 6, 1903, Rotterdam, Netherlands - d. Jan. 21, 1994, Geneva, Switzerland), Dutch diplomat. He was ambassador to Thailand (1948-50) and the United States (1964-69) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1955-64).
Schurz, Carl (Christian) (b. March 2, 1829, Liblar, near Cologne, Prussia [now in Germany] - d. May 14, 1906, New York City), U.S. secretary of the interior (1877-81). As a student at the University of Bonn he became involved in the German revolutionary movement of 1848. Forced to flee from Germany, he eventually came to the United States (1852). He became active in the anti-slavery movement, and, as a delegate to the Republican National Convention of 1860, worked for the nomination of Abraham Lincoln for president. Lincoln appointed him minister to Spain in March 1861, but in December he resigned to join the Union army, receiving a commission as brigadier general of volunteers in 1862. He commanded troops at the Second Battle of Bull Run (August 1862) and at Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and Chattanooga (all 1863). After the war he toured the South for Pres. Andrew Johnson. His report strongly advocated rights for blacks, but Johnson resisted these views and shelved the report. As U.S. senator from Missouri in 1869-75 - his only elective office - he broke with Pres. Ulysses S. Grant on reconstruction policy and other issues, leading him in 1872 to help organize the Liberal Republican Party, opposing Grant's renomination. He rejoined the Republicans in 1876, supporting Rutherford B. Hayes on the issues of hard money and good government. Serving as President Hayes's secretary of the interior, he promoted civil service reform and an improved Indian policy. Continuing his interest in honest government, he headed the National Civil Service Reform League in 1892-1901. He broke with the Republicans twice more, leading an independent Republican ("Mugwump") bolt from James G. Blaine in 1884 to back Democrat Grover Cleveland, and abandoning William McKinley in 1900 on the issue of overseas expansion.
Schuschnigg, Kurt (Alois Josef Johann von) (b. Dec. 14, 1897, Riva del Garda, Trento, Austria-Hungary [now in Italy] - d. Nov. 18, 1977, Mutters, near Innsbruck, Austria), chancellor of Austria (1934-38). He was elected to the Nationalrat (lower house of parliament) for the Christian Social Party in 1927 and showed monarchist and strongly anti-Socialist proclivities. In 1930 he founded the Ostmärkische Sturmscharen, a paramilitary organization in opposition to the Heimwehr. In the government of Engelbert Dollfuss he was minister of justice (1932-34) and education (1933-34); after the assassination of Dollfuss by Nazi extremists, he was named federal chancellor and also took charge of the defense ministry. He eliminated the threat of the Heimwehr, forcing its leader, Ernst Rüdiger Starhemberg, out of office as vice chancellor in May 1936 and disbanding the Heimwehr in October. He tried to maintain Austrian independence while making concessions to Adolf Hitler; in 1936 he freed Nazi prisoners and said he would conduct Austrian foreign policy in line with German interests. At a February 1938 meeting with Hitler at Berchtesgaden he gave in to insistent demands that he place Nazis in his government, but on his return he made his most defiant gesture, scheduling a plebiscite on independence for March 13. Before it could be held, he was forced to resign (March 11) and Germany invaded and annexed Austria. He was held in solitary confinement and later sent to concentration camps, being liberated by American forces in May 1945. The second Austrian republic was strongly influenced by the Socialists and had no place for a man who had condoned their suppression in 1934, so he lived in Italy and then (1948-67) in the United States before returning to Austria.
Schüssel, Wolfgang (b. June 7, 1945, Vienna, Austria), foreign minister (1995-2000) and chancellor (2000-07) of Austria.
Schuster, Rudolf (b. Jan. 4, 1934, Medzev village, eastern Slovakia), president of Slovakia (1999-2004). He was mayor (1983-86) of Slovakia's second city, Kosice, a member of the Slovak Communist Party Central Committee from 1986 until the 1989 revolution, and head of the last communist parliament in Slovakia (1989-90). After 1989 his past did little to slow his career progress. He became Czechoslovak ambassador in Canada (1990-92) and later head of the Party of Civic Understanding (SOP) and again mayor of Kosice (1994-98). When Michal Kovác's presidential term ended in 1998, Parliament was far too divided to agree on a successor. A referendum to circumvent the problem with a direct ballot of the people was scuppered by Prime Minister Vladimír Meciar's interior minister, Gustáv Krajci, in violation of the constitution. The government of Prime Minister Mikulás Dzurinda changed the rules to allow for a popular ballot and in 1999 Schuster was elected in a second round run-off vote with Meciar, taking 57.2% to his opponent's 42.8%. While short on the personal charisma and oratorical talent of Meciar, he was, in the words of Dzurinda, the only candidate "acceptable to the outside world." Dzurinda, whose fragile five-party coalition government backed Schuster, hoped in particular that he could "lead the country towards Euro-Atlantic integration," specifically membership in the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Schuster himself said his chief aim was to "ensure the confidence of foreigners, to bring in more credit and satisfy the expectations of foreign investors." Above all he was seen as the man who could help Bratislava move towards the West. He had supported Dzurinda's decision to allow NATO warplanes bombing Yugoslavia to use Slovakia's airspace.
Schuurmans, Constant (b. Dec. 8, 1914, Achel, Limburg, Belgium - d. March 26, 2003), Belgian diplomat. He was ambassador to Greece (1962-65) and West Germany (1970-76) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1965-69).
Schwalb López Aldana, Fernando (b. Aug. 26, 1916, Lima, Peru - d. July 22, 2002), prime minister and foreign minister of Peru (1963-65, 1983-84). He was ambassador to the United States in 1980-82.
Schwan, Gesine (Marianne), née Schneider (b. May 22, 1943, Berlin, Germany), German presidential candidate (2004, 2009).
Schwarz, Henning (Michael) (b. Oct. 5, 1928, Gut Frauenholz, near Bad Oldesloe, Germany - d. April 13, 1993, Lübeck, Germany), acting minister-president of Schleswig-Holstein (1987-88); son of Werner Schwarz.
Schwarz, Werner (b. Jan. 21, 1900, Hamburg, Germany - d. Sept. 2, 1982, Gut Frauenholz, near Bad Oldesloe, West Germany), West German politician. He was minister of food, agriculture, and forestry (1959-65).
Schwarzenberg, Karel (Jan Nepomucký Josef Norbert Bedrich Antonín Vratislav Menas), as head of the traditional Austrian princely House of Schwarzenberg: Karl Johann Nepomuk Josef Norbert Friedrich Antonius Wratislaw Mena (12.) Fürst zu Schwarzenberg, Graf zu Sulz, gefürsteter Landgraf im Kleggau, Herzog zu Krumau (b. Dec. 10, 1937, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), foreign minister of the Czech Republic (2007-09, 2010-13). He was a presidential candidate in 2013.
Schwarzenegger, Arnold (Alois) (b. July 30, 1947, Thal village, near Graz, Austria), governor of California (2003-11). A famous bodybuilder and Hollywood action hero known by film fans as "The Terminator" and "Conan the Barbarian," he emigrated to the U.S. in 1968 and became a U.S. citizen in 1983, while retaining Austrian citizenship. In the 1990s he became active in the Republican Party. As chairman of the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports (1990-93), he traveled to all 50 states to promote fitness programs. In 1991, he established the National Inner-City Games Foundation, an enrichment program for inner-city youths. In 2003 Schwarzenegger, who never held elected office before, swept California Gov. Gray Davis out of office in a historic recall election. He had announced his intention to run only two months before, on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno. As Californians felt ignored by their leaders in Sacramento and cut off from their government amid a worsening state economy, Schwarzenegger tapped a deep vein of voter anger by vowing to defeat politics as usual, although he was short on specifics. Even reports of sexual harassment could not thwart his campaign (he apologized for having "behaved badly" towards women, and pledged to champion their cause). A self-described fiscal conservative, he called himself "very liberal" on social issues, supporting abortion rights, adoption by gay parents, and "sensible gun controls." His support for the death penalty reduced his popularity in Austria, and after he refused to block the controversial execution of gang leader Stanley Williams in 2005 city councillors in Graz planned to vote on the removal of the governor's name from a soccer stadium in the city; forestalling this, Schwarzenegger himself requested the removal.
Schwarzkopf, H. Norman1 (b. Aug. 22, 1934, Trenton, N.J. - d. Dec. 27, 2012, Tampa, Fla.), U.S. Army officer. He attended the United States Military Academy at West Point, N.Y., receiving his lieutenant's commission in 1956. In 1964 he obtained a master's degree in guided-missile engineering from the University of Southern California, Los Angeles. He returned from two tours of duty in South Vietnam (1965-66, 1969-70) as a heavily decorated combat veteran, then held a series of two-year assignments, and in 1983, as major general, was deputy commander of the U.S. invasion of Grenada. He was a corps commander in 1986-87 and a deputy chief of staff at the Pentagon in 1987-88, then in 1988 he received his fourth star and was appointed commander in chief of the U.S. Central Command (responsible for any military operations in the Middle East), headquartered in Tampa, Fla. When Iraq invaded and occupied Kuwait in August 1990, Schwarzkopf directed Operation Desert Shield, the buildup of a force of over 500,000 U.S., European, and Arab troops in Saudi Arabia. Under his command, Operation Desert Storm began on Jan. 16, 1991. A six-week-long air bombardment was followed by a ground campaign on February 24 which lasted only 100 hours. The Iraqi army was driven from Kuwait with only minimal casualties to the allied force. Hailed as a national hero, "Stormin' Norman" returned to the U.S. in April and retired from the military in August.
1 His father, Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf, wanted to give him his name but disliking the name Herbert gave him only the letter H.
Schweiker, Mark S(tephen) (b. Jan. 31, 1953, Levittown, Pa.), governor of Pennsylvania (2001-03).
Schweiker, Richard S(chultz) (b. June 1, 1926, Norristown, Pa. - d. July 31, 2015, Atlantic City, N.J.), U.S. secretary of health and human services (1981-83).
Schweitzer Speisky, Daniel (b. 1896 - d. 1979), Chilean diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1959-63).
Schweitzer Speisky, Miguel (b. July 1908 - d. 1997), Chilean politician; brother of Daniel Schweitzer Speisky. He was minister of labour (1963-64) and justice (1975-77) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1965-71).
Schweitzer Walters, Miguel Alex (Dennis) (b. July 22, 1940, Santiago, Chile), foreign minister of Chile (1983); son of Miguel Schweitzer Speisky. He was also ambassador to the United Kingdom (1980-83).
Schwerin von Krosigk, Lutz Graf, byname of Johann Ludwig Graf Schwerin von Krosigk (b. Aug. 22, 1887, Rathmannsdorf, Germany - d. March 4, 1977, Essen, West Germany), finance minister (1932-45) and chairman of the interim government (1945) of Germany.
Schwierzina, Tino(-Antoni) (b. May 27, 1927, Królewska Huta [now Chorzów], Poland - d. Dec. 29, 2003, Berlin, Germany), lord mayor of East Berlin (1990-91).
Schwimmer, Walter (b. June 16, 1942, Vienna, Germany [now in Austria]), secretary-general of the Council of Europe (1999-2004).
Schyman, (Gerd) Gudrun (Maria) (b. June 9, 1948, Täby, outside Stockholm, Sweden), Swedish politician. She became interested in politics in 1977 when she joined the Left Party. She sat on the Simrishamn county council from 1980 to 1987. She entered parliament in 1988 and became party chairman in January 1993. In 1996 and 1997 she took two breaks from leader to seek treatment for an alcohol problem. She was forced to resign as leader in January 2003 following accusations of tax evasion.
Scialoja, Antonio (b. July 31, 1817, San Giovanni a Teduccio [now part of Naples], Two Sicilies [now in Italy] - d. Oct. 13, 1877, Procida island, Italy), finance minister of Italy (1865-67). He was also minister of education (1872-74).
Scindia (Bahadur), Sir George Jivaji Rao (b. June 26, 1916, Gwalior [now in Madhya Pradesh], India - d. July 16, 1961, Bombay [now Mumbai], India), maharaja of Gwalior (1925-47) and rajpramukh of Madhya Bharat (1948-56).
Scindia, Madhavrao (b. March 10, 1945, Bombay [now Mumbai], India - d. Sept. 30, 2001, Mainpuri, India), Indian politician. He became nominal maharaja of the former princely state of Gwalior in central India in 1961, but the traditional royalty was abolished in 1971. In the latter year he entered parliament for the Hindu nationalist Jan Sangh party, but in the mid-1970s he joined the Congress party. He served as a cabinet minister during Congress rule, holding the portfolios of railways (1984-89), civil aviation (1991-93), and human resources development (1995-96). He was killed in a plane crash.
Scioli, Daniel (Osvaldo) (b. Jan. 13, 1957, Villa Crespo barrio, Buenos Aires, Argentina), vice president of Argentina (2003-07) and governor of Buenos Aires (2007-15). He was a presidential candidate in 2015.
Sciurano (Castañeda), Adolfo Luis (b. 1931 - d. Feb. 3, 2007, Buenos Aires, Argentina), governor of Tierra del Fuego (1984-86).
Scognamiglio (Pasini), Carlo (Luigi) (b. Nov. 27, 1944, Varese, Lombardy, Italy), Italian politician. A former speaker of the upper house, the Senate, Scognamiglio defected from the conservative Freedom Alliance in 1998 to join the new centrist UDR party. He served as consultant to treasury and industry ministers, sat on several parliamentary committees, and was defense minister in 1998-99.
Scoon, Sir Paul (b. July 4, 1935, Gouyave, Grenada - d. Sept. 2, 2013, St. Paul's, Grenada), governor-general of Grenada (1978-92); knighted 1979.
Scopelliti, Giuseppe (b. Nov. 21, 1966, Reggio Calabria, Italy), president of Calabria (2010-14). In 2014 he was found guilty of abuse of office while serving as mayor of Reggio Calabria (2002-10), sentenced to 6 years in prison, and permanently banned from public office.
Scott, Alex, byname of William Alexander Scott (b. 1940), premier of Bermuda (2003-06). He was also minister of works and engineering (1998-2003).
Scott, Christina (Martha Elena) (b. Dec. 25, 1974), governor of Anguilla (2013- ).
Scott, Sir David Aubrey (b. Aug. 3, 1919 - d. Dec. 27, 2010), governor of Pitcairn Island (1973-75); knighted 1974. He was British high commissioner to New Zealand (1973-75) and ambassador to South Africa (1976-79).
Scott, Guy (Lindsay) (b. June 1, 1944, Livingstone, Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia]), vice president (2011-14) and acting president (2014-15) of Zambia. He was also minister of agriculture and fisheries (1991-93). Of British parentage, he became the first white leader of a black African nation since 1994 when he succeeded as acting president on the death of Pres. Michael Sata in 2014.
Scott, John (Vivian) (b. Nov. 19, 1920, England - d. May 12, 2014, Wellington, New Zealand), New Zealand diplomat. He was ambassador to Japan (1965-68) and France, Spain, Portugal, and the Vatican (1979-82) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1969-73).
Scott, W(illiam) Kerr (b. April 17, 1896, Haw River, N.C. - d. April 16, 1958, Burlington, N.C.), U.S. politician. He was a state commissioner of agriculture before his election as governor of North Carolina in 1948 for the term 1949-53. He was elected to the U.S. Senate as a Democrat in 1954. He was noted for his championship of black civil rights in his southern state and for his stated purpose "to see that the minority race has a fair opportunity and gets the training to fit into the state's growth."
Scott, Winfield (b. June 13, 1786, Petersburg, Va. - d. May 29, 1866, West Point, N.Y.), U.S. presidential candidate (1852). Commissioned a captain of artillery in 1808, he fought in the War of 1812, taking part in the battles of Chippewa (July 5, 1814) and Lundy's Lane (July 25). He declined an appointment as secretary of war but accepted a gold medal from Congress and the rank of brevet major general. He remained in military service, studied tactics in Europe, served in the Seminole and Creek Indian campaigns in Florida (1835-36), and supervised the removal of the Cherokee Indians from Georgia and other southern states to reservations west of the Mississippi River (1838). He was nicknamed "Old Fuss and Feathers" because of his emphasis on military proprieties, but he nevertheless possessed solid military talents. He served as commanding general of the U.S. Army for 20 years (1841-61). During the Mexican War (1846-48) he commanded a seaborne invasion of Mexico that captured Veracruz (March 1847) and, after additional victories, entered Mexico City (September 14), thus effectively ending the war. For this service he received another gold medal from Congress and was appointed to the brevet rank of lieutenant general. A prominent Whig, Scott had been mentioned as a presidential candidate as early as 1839. He won his party's nomination in 1852 but lost the election to Democrat Franklin Pierce, mainly because the Whigs were divided on the slavery question. Scott remained a popular old soldier and commanded the U.S. Army at the outbreak of the Civil War (April 1861) until age forced his retirement in October.
Scott, Sir (Arleigh) Winston (b. March 27, 1900 - d. Aug. 9, 1976), governor-general of Barbados (1967-76); knighted 1967.
Scott-Barrett, Sir David (William) (b. Dec. 16, 1922, Cologne, Germany - d. Jan. 1, 2004, Inverness, Scotland), British city commandant of Berlin (1973-75); knighted 1976.
Scotti, Vincenzo (b. Sept. 16, 1933, Naples, Italy), interior minister (1990-92) and foreign minister (1992) of Italy. He was also minister of labour and social security (1978-80, 1982-83), European affairs (1980-81), cultural assets and environment (1981-82), and civil defense (1983-84) and mayor of Naples (1984).
Scotty, Ludwig (Derangadage) (b. June 20, 1948, Anabar, Nauru), president of Nauru (2003, 2004-07). He first entered politics when he was elected as MP for Anabar on March 15, 1983. He was speaker of parliament (2000-02, 2004, 2010-13, 2013-16) and served as health and justice minister. A hallmark of his presidency was financial reforms brought in to try to reverse the economic decline of the tiny country. In 2007 he became the first president to complete a three-year term since 1995 and was reelected. But shortly afterward he lost the support of parliament amid claims he failed to act on allegations that his deputy David Adeang had engaged in corrupt activities. By 2013 he was the longest-serving member of parliament, but he failed reelection in 2016.
Scranton, William W(arren) (b. July 19, 1917, Madison, Conn. - d. July 28, 2013, Montecito, Calif.), governor of Pennsylvania (1963-67) and U.S. ambassador to the United Nations (1976-77).
Scullin, James Henry (b. Sept. 18, 1876, Trawalla, Victoria [Australia] - d. Jan. 28, 1953, Melbourne, Victoria), prime minister of Australia (1929-32). He joined the labour movement and founded the first branch of the Labor Party in Ballarat in 1903. In 1910 he was elected to the House of Representatives from Corangamite, Victoria. He lost his seat in 1913 and became editor of the Evening Echo, a Labor newspaper in Ballarat. Reelected to parliament from the Yarra division, Melbourne, in 1922, he became leader of the party on the retirement of Matthew Charlton in 1928 and led it to a sweeping victory in 1929. As prime minister, he was immediately confronted with the Great Depression. The finances of the country, which had been unsound for some time, began to rush toward bankruptcy at an accelerating speed. His first act was to seek to adjust the balance of trade by imposing a staggering tariff and by enacting a ruthless system of rationing and limitation of imports. But he was constrained by an opposition-controlled Senate, and the economy continued to deteriorate. In August 1930, he signed an agreement to enforce drastic governmental economies on the advice of Sir Otto Niemeyer, a financial expert lent by the Bank of England. He reduced official salaries relentlessly. From August 1930 to January 1931 he was in London to attend the Imperial Conference. On his return he found his authority as leader gone and the party torn between the paths of economic orthodoxy and the inflationist remedies sponsored by the New South Wales Labor leader, Jack Lang. In November 1931 his ministry was defeated in the House by the defection of the latter group, and the party was defeated in the December general election. He led the opposition until 1935 and retired from parliament in 1949.
Scully, Cornelius D(ecatur) (b. 1879? - d. Sept. 22, 1952, Winchester, Va.), mayor of Pittsburgh (1936-46).
Seabra, Veríssimo Correia (b. Feb. 16, 1947, Bissau, Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau] - d. Oct. 6, 2004, Bissau), interim president of Guinea-Bissau (2003). He joined the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) as a guerrilla fighting against Portuguese colonial rule in 1963 when he was just 16. After independence, he became embroiled in the strained internal politics of the PAIGC as it underwent a difficult transition from armed liberation movement to civilian-led political party. He played a key role in the 1980 coup which overthrew Pres. Luís Cabral. Promoted steadily through the ranks, he became deputy head of the Guinea-Bissau military contingent of the United Nations mission in war-torn Angola (1991-92). Two years later he was appointed head of operations in the military high command. In 1998, he joined a military uprising by Gen. Ansumane Mané against Pres. João Bernardo Vieira. He became Mané's number two commander in the brief but bloody civil war which followed. The rift in the military was papered over by a peace agreement in February 1999, but three months later Seabra played a leading role in a new coup which forced Vieira to quit. An interim civilian government was charged with organizing fresh elections. Seabra, now a four-star general, became chief of staff of the armed forces. He remained in this position after the elections in 2000 which brought to power Kumba Ialá. Mané lost his life in a failed attempt to overthrow Ialá in 2000, but this time Seabra remained loyal to the head of state and was kept on as chief of staff. However, as time went on and Ialá's government grew more erratic in its behaviour, Seabra's patience wore thin. In September 2003 he led a bloodless coup. Serving as interim president for two weeks only until swearing in Henrique Rosa to that post, Seabra continued to head a National Transition Council to supervise affairs until a parliament was elected. He was killed by mutinous soldiers demanding pay for peacekeeping duty abroad.
Seaga, Edward (Philip George) (b. May 28, 1930, Boston, Mass.), prime minister of Jamaica (1980-89). In 1959, he entered the Legislative Council (upper house) as its youngest member ever. In 1962 he was elected member of parliament and was appointed minister of development and welfare. In 1967 he became minister of finance and planning and developed a reputation as something of a financial wizard. When the People's National Party won the 1972 election, Hugh Shearer stepped down as leader of the Jamaica Labour Party (JLP). Seaga was appointed to succeed him and, despite criticism, remained party leader when the JLP suffered its second consecutive defeat in 1976. The JLP won a decisive election victory in 1980, and Seaga became prime minister. Both by personality and by politics he was almost the exact opposite of his predecessor, Michael Manley. While Manley had the charisma and oratorical skills that kept audiences spellbound, Seaga, though certainly capable of holding his own at public meetings, was much more of a private person. This had the effect on both Jamaicans and outsiders of making him appear calculating, uncompromising, and lacking in warmth. Seaga was pro-Western, pro-free enterprise, and generally to the right of centre in terms of Caribbean politics. His support of big business, Western models of development, and International Monetary Fund (IMF) assistance for Jamaica earned him the reputation of not being concerned about the poor. He also broke off relations with Cuba in 1981. Elections in 1983 were boycotted by the opposition, and the JLP won all the seats. The next election, in 1989, returned Manley to power. Seaga announced his resignation as JLP leader in June 2004.
Seaton, Fred(erick) A(ndrew) (b. Dec. 11, 1909, Washington, D.C. - d. Jan. 16, 1974, Minneapolis, Minn.), U.S. politician. His active interest in Republican politics dated from his college days, when he was chairman of the Riley County Young Republican Club in Kansas. In 1936 he was secretary to Alfred M. Landon during the latter's unsuccessful campaign for president. From 1945 to 1949 he served two terms in the Nebraska state legislature and in the latter year he was secretary to Harold E. Stassen. In 1951 he was appointed senator from Nebraska to fill the unexpired term of Sen. Kenneth S. Wherry. In 1952 he joined the presidential campaign staff of Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, having acquired the reputation of being one of the most effective speakers among the younger Republicans. Eisenhower appointed him assistant secretary of defense for legislative affairs in 1953, and two years later he joined the White House staff as an administrative assistant to the president. He was appointed secretary of the interior May 28, 1956, to succeed Douglas McKay. The Senate confirmed him June 6, and he was sworn into office June 8. In 1957 Seaton recommended that federal reclamation projects should be made as nearly self-supporting as possible. In 1958 he proposed federal subsidies for certain minerals, including lead, zinc, copper, and tungsten. Serving as interior secretary until 1961, he was candidate for governor of Nebraska in 1962.
Seaton, Sir Samuel Weymouth Tapley (b. July 28, 1950, St. Kitts), governor-general of St. Kitts and Nevis (2015- ); knighted 2015.
Seay, Thomas (b. Nov. 20, 1846, near Erie, Ala. - d. March 30, 1896, Greensboro, Ala.), governor of Alabama (1886-90). In 1863 he enlisted in the Confederate Army and served with his company around Mobile. He was captured at Spanish Fort and at Blakeley and was imprisoned on Ship Island. He began his political career in 1874 when he ran unsuccessfully for the state senate. He was successful in 1876 and remained in the senate for ten years, serving as president in 1884-86. He was elected governor in 1886 and reelected in 1888. This administration is noteworthy for Seay's success in reducing taxes while increasing social services and running state government in the black. An advocate for social welfare programs, he supported crucial legislation. During his administration women and children were limited to an eight-hour work day. Pensions were provided for disabled Confederate veterans and their widows. He was also supportive (in the context of late 19th-century standards) of measures to improve the rights and education of Alabama's black citizens. Several new schools were established during his term, among them the State Normal School for Colored Students in Montgomery (now Alabama State University). An especially exciting event to occur while Seay was in office was the 1887 visit of Pres. Grover Cleveland to Montgomery. Other events during his administration were not so joyful. The convict lease system began and businessmen soon realized the opportunity for exploitation of this workforce. The Hawes Riot took place in Birmingham; 13 people died. In 1890 he was defeated by James M. Pugh in his bid for a U.S. Senate seat. He did not run for office again although he helped Thomas G. Jones in his campaign for governor against Populist Reuben Kolb.
Sebastian, Sir Cuthbert (Montraville) (b. Oct. 22, 1921), governor-general of Saint Kitts and Nevis (1996-2013); knighted 1996.
Sebe, Lennox (Leslie Wongama) (b. June 26, 1926 - d. July 23, 1994, Keiskammahoek, Eastern Cape, South Africa), chief minister (1973-75, 1975-81) and president (1981-90) of Ciskei.
Sebelius, Kathleen, née Gilligan (b. May 15, 1948, Cincinnati, Ohio), governor of Kansas (2003-09); daughter of John J. Gilligan. In 1986 she was elected to the state House as a Democrat. She was elected state insurance commissioner in 1994 and became president of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners in 2001. Her moderate image and political savvy made her the obvious Democrat to run for governor in 2002, and she had no primary opposition. Republican incumbent Bill Graves was term-limited and there was a riproaring battle for the Republican nomination. Attorney General Carla Stovall, the choice of the moderate wing, announced in 2001 but left the race in April 2002, just two months before the filing deadline. That left moderates with no candidate against conservative state treasurer Tim Shallenburger. Quickly state Senate president Dave Kerr and Wichita mayor Bob Knight jumped in, but the one conservative beat the two moderates: Shallenburger won the August primary with 41% of the vote to 30% for Kerr and 26% for Knight. The general election provided a clear contrast on issues. Sebelius promised a top-to-bottom review of state government and refused to pledge she would veto any tax increase. She favoured abortion rights, opposed capital punishment, favoured banning concealed weapons except for retired law enforcement officers, and called for a $1,000 increase in per pupil spending and said she would institute character education in schools. She picked a Republican for her running mate. Polls showed her well ahead all along, and she won 53%-45%. She retained Graves's budget director and appointed a Republican as secretary of administration. She was reelected in 2006, defeating state senator Jim Barnett 58%-40%. In 2009-14 she was secretary of health and human services under Pres. Barack Obama. She resigned after the bumpy implementation of Obama's signature health law, the Affordable Care Act.
Secco Ellauri, Óscar (b. Aug. 6, 1904, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. Oct. 14, 1990), foreign minister of Uruguay (1957-59). He was also minister of education (1947-51).
Seck, Assane (b. Feb. 1, 1919, Inor, Casamance, Senegal - d. Nov. 27, 2012, Dakar, Senegal), foreign minister of Senegal (1973-78). He was also culture minister (1966-68, 1978-81) and education minister (1968-73).
Seck, Idrissa (b. Aug. 9, 1959, Thiès, Senegal), prime minister of Senegal (2002-04). He was also minister of trade, crafts, and industrialization (1996-98) and mayor of Thiès (2002-08, 2009-14), a city 70 km east of Dakar. He was released on Feb. 7, 2006, after spending seven months in prison. The High Court of Justice dismissed charges that he had embezzled public funds allocated to roadworks in Thiès. He was a presidential candidate in 2007.
Sedat Jobe, Momodou Lamin (b. July 24, 1944), foreign minister of The Gambia (1998-2001).
Sedivý, Jaroslav (b. Nov. 12, 1929, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), foreign minister of the Czech Republic (1997-98). He was also Czech (until 1992 Czechoslovak) ambassador to France (1990-94), Belgium and Luxembourg (1995-97), and Switzerland (1999-2002).
Sedivý, Jirí (b. Aug. 20, 1963), defense minister of the Czech Republic (2006-07); son of Jaroslav Sedivý. In 2007-10 he was NATO assistant secretary-general for defense policy and planning and in 2012 he became permanent representative to NATO. He is not to be confused with Gen. Jirí Sedivý (b. 1953), chief of staff of the Czech Armed Forces in 1998-2002.
Sedki, Atef, Arabic in full `Atif Muhammad Najib Sidqi (b. Aug. 29, 1930, Tanta, Nile delta, Egypt - d. Feb. 25, 2005, Cairo, Egypt), prime minister of Egypt (1986-96). As head of the Central Auditing Agency, a body supervising government and public sector spending, he was Egypt's fiscal watchdog for five years before he became prime minister. Heading three cabinets, he was one of the longest-serving prime ministers in modern Egypt. In that post, which in Egypt is greatly overshadowed by the powerful presidency, he supervised, and at times resisted, implementation of economic reforms approved by the International Monetary Fund and World Bank. His premiership coincided with the worst period of internal conflict between the security forces and the Gama'a al-Islamiya (Islamic Group), which tried to overthrow the government by guerrilla war. More than 1,000 people were killed. In 1993 militants of another Islamist group, the Vanguards of Conquest, detonated a car bomb as his motorcade drove through central Cairo. Sedki emerged unscathed but the explosion killed a schoolgirl and wounded 18 people.
Sedki Pasha, Ismail, Arabic Isma`il Sidqi Basha (b. 1875, Alexandria, Egypt - d. July 9, 1950, Paris, France), Egyptian politician. He joined the public prosecutor's office but in 1899 became administrative secretary of the Alexandria municipal commission. In 1914 he was appointed minister of agriculture and then of waqfs (religious institutions). In 1915, however, he joined the Wafd (nationalist) movement and was later deported with Saad Zaghlul Pasha and others to Malta. After World War I he deserted the Wafd, in 1921 and 1922 was minister of finance, and in 1922 and 1924-25 minister of the interior. He retired from politics for five years but returned eventually as premier and, from 1930 to 1933, ruled with an iron hand to curb the Wafd's influence. He joined an all-party delegation to negotiate the Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936, but in 1938 again retired from politics after a period of service as minister of finance. He returned to power in February 1946 as premier and advocated the revision of the 1936 treaty. In October he flew to London but failed in his efforts to "achieve unity between Egypt and the Sudan under the Egyptian crown." He resigned on Dec. 8, 1946.
Sedney, Jules (b. Sept. 28, 1922, Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana [now Suriname]), finance minister (1958-63) and prime minister (1969-73) of Suriname.
Sedoc, E(dwin) J(ohan), byname Eddy Sedoc (b. Nov. 17, 1938, Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana [now Suriname] - d. Aug. 6, 2011, Saramacca, Suriname), foreign minister of Suriname (1988-90). He was also minister of planning and development cooperation (1991-93), acting finance minister (1991-92), and ambassador to Venezuela (1994-99).
Seehofer, Horst (Lorenz) (b. July 4, 1949, Ingolstadt, Bayern, Germany), minister-president of Bayern and chairman of the Christian Social Union (2008- ) and acting president of Germany (2012). He was German minister of health (1992-98) and agriculture (2005-08).
Seetharamaiah, Kondapalli (b. 1914? - d. April 12, 2002), Indian revolutionary. He joined the Communist Party of India in the 1940s and fought against the feudal rule of the Muslim Nizam rulers. He joined a violent Maoist uprising, called the Naxalite movement, in 1968, before founding the People's War Group (PWG) in 1980. The Group, operating in at least 10 states, fought mainly for peasants rights, attacking rural landlords, security forces, and railway stations. His leadership of PWG came to an end when his deputy Ganapathy took over the rein in 1991. Seetharamaiah was arrested in 1993 and released in 1995.
Sefcovic, Maros (b. July 24, 1966, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia]), Slovak diplomat. He has been ambassador to Israel (1999-2002), permanent representative to the European Union (2004-09), and EU commissioner for education, training, culture, and youth (2009-10), inter-institutional relations and administration (2010-14), health and consumer policy (2012), and energy union (2014- ).
Seferis, Giorgos, pen name of Georgios (Stylianou) Seferiadis (b. March 13, 1900, Smyrna, Ottoman Empire [now Izmir, Turkey] - d. Sept. 20, 1971, Athens, Greece), Greek diplomat. Better known as the author who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1963, he was minister to Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Iraq (1953-56) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1957-62).
Segarra, Pedro E(rnesto) (b. April 28, 1959, Maricao, Puerto Rico), mayor of Hartford (2010- ).
Seger, Paul R(ené) (b. Dec. 26, 1958, Basel, Switzerland), Swiss diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2010-15) and ambassador to Myanmar (2015- ).
Segizbayev, Sultan (Segizbayevich) (b. 1899, Dzhagalbayly, Tashkent uyezd, Russia [now in Uzbekistan] - d. Feb. 25, 1939), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Uzbek S.S.R. (1937-38). He was also first secretary of the party committee of Severo-Kazakhstan oblast (1937).
Segni, Antonio (b. Feb. 2, 1891, Sassari, Sardinia, Italy - d. Dec. 1, 1972, Rome, Italy), prime minister (1955-57, 1959-60) and president (1962-64) of Italy. A militant Roman Catholic, he joined the Italian Popular Party in 1919, worked as an organizer in the provinces, and by 1923 sat on its national council. This stage in his political career was cut short when all political organizations were dissolved by Benito Mussolini in 1926. At the beginning of 1943 he was among the organizers of Christian Democracy, successor to the Popular Party, becoming its leading figure in Sardinia. In 1944 he became undersecretary for agriculture. As agriculture minister (1946-51) he initiated an extensive land reform and became known as a "white Communist" by right-wingers. After serving as education minister (1951-53, 1953-54), he was premier (1955-57) as head of a coalition government with Liberals and Social Democrats and later became deputy premier and defense minister (1958-59). When the Christian Democrats overthrew Premier Amintore Fanfani in 1959 because of his pro-Socialist leanings, the party's right wing picked Segni as premier again. He headed a precarious minority government (in which he also was interior minister) for 13 months, then resigned when the moderate Liberals withdrew their support, leaving him dependent on undesired neo-Fascist backing. He then served as foreign minister (1960-62) until a joint session of parliament elected him president after a five-day, nine-ballot battle against Giuseppe Saragat. After suffering a near-fatal stroke in August 1964 he resigned in December. As a former president he automatically became a senator for life, but his near-paralysis prevented him from making more than one or two brief appearances in the Senate.
Segrt, Vlado (b. Dec. 18, 1907, Arandjelovo village, near Trebinje, Bosnia and Herzegovina - d. 1991, Arandjelovo), president of the Presidium of the People's Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1948-53).
Séguin, Philippe (Daniel Alain) (b. April 21, 1943, Tunis, Tunisia - d. Jan. 7, 2010, Paris, France), French politician. An adviser to Pres. Georges Pompidou in 1973, he joined the cabinet of centrist Prime Minister Raymond Barre in 1977. He was deputy National Assembly speaker after the 1981 Socialist election victory and was an active and innovative speaker in 1993-97. He led the "no" campaign in a 1992 referendum on the Maastricht treaty on European union, but later said he generally favoured the shift to the euro single currency and greater European integration. He was elected as leader of the Gaullist party Rally for the Republic (RPR) in 1997, succeeding former prime minister Alain Juppé. The left-leaning populist Séguin won 79% of the ballots at a special party congress, easily defeating five rival candidates, after Juppé, a longtime Séguin rival who had led the rightist government's disastrous election campaign that swept it from power, accepted responsibility for the defeat. Juppé had stepped down as prime minister days before the June 1 runoff in the two-round election but had initially hesitated to give up the party leadership post; he later agreed to step down voluntarily. Séguin irked fellow-Gaullist Pres. Jacques Chirac by cutting a deal with ex-prime minister Édouard Balladur's faction, and his associates made clear they saw him as a potential candidate to succeed Chirac when the president's term expires in 2002. He began talking and acting as if Chirac were already politically dead. But Chirac's standing rose and Séguin's figure virtually vanished from television screens. In April 1999 he quit as RPR leader, following his failure to overtake Chirac as leader of the right wing and unite conservatives for the June 1999 European Parliament poll. In 2001 he ran unsuccessfully for mayor of Paris. He resigned from politics in 2002 and was appointed president of the Court of Accounts in 2004, a post he held until his death.
Sehested, Hannibal (b. Nov. 16, 1842, Broholm, Denmark - d. Sept. 19, 1924, Broholm), prime minister and foreign minister of Denmark (1900-01).
Seibt, Kurt (b. Feb. 13, 1908, Berlin, Germany - d. June 21, 2002, Zeuthen, near Berlin), first secretary of the Socialist Unity Party of Potsdam (1952-55, 1957-64). He was also East German minister of direction and control of district and county councils (1964-65).
Seidov, Gasan Neimat ogly (b. 1932 - d. Dec. 8, 2004), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Azerbaijan S.S.R. (1981-89).
Seignac-Lesseps, Alphonse (b. c. 1829 - d. ...), commandant of Nossi-Bé (1878-83) and governor of Senegal (1884-86).
Seignious, George M(arion), II (b. June 21, 1921, Orangeburg, S.C. - d. July 3, 2005), U.S. city commandant of Berlin (1970-71). He was president of The Citadel military college in 1974-79.
Seignoret, Sir Clarence (Henry) Augustus (b. Feb. 25, 1919, Roseau, Dominica - d. May 5, 2002), president of Dominica (1983-93); knighted 1985.
Sein Lwin (b. 1924, Mattama village, Burma [now Myanmar] - d. April 9, 2004, Yangon, Myanmar), president of Burma (1988). He made a name for himself in 1950 when he commanded the unit that tracked down and shot dead the leader of a rebellion against the central government by the country's ethnic Karen minority. After army commander Ne Win staged a coup against a civilian government in 1962 and established a single party regime, Sein Lwin quickly became one of the country's most influential and feared figures. He headed the army unit that shot dead Rangoon University students protesting Ne Win's rule on July 7, 1962, just four months after the coup. Other violent operations for which he was responsible included the deadly suppression of workers' protests in 1972 and demonstrations by students and Buddhist monks in 1974 in connection with the funeral of former UN Secretary General Thant. Sein Lwin also became a top leader in Ne Win's Burma Socialist Program Party (BSPP), and served in various cabinet positions under Ne Win, including transport minister, home minister, and religious affairs minister. Long-simmering discontent over Ne Win's mismanagement of the economy erupted into massive street demonstrations in 1988, forcing the dictator to step down from his public posts in an effort to stem the political turmoil. Sein Lwin then became chairman of the BSPP and president on July 27, but the pro-democracy protests grew. Not long after becoming president he was branded the "Butcher of Rangoon" for giving the order on August 10 to fire on demonstrators near Rangoon General Hospital. He had to resign the presidency on August 12, after only 17 days in power, when the situation in the country further worsened. Unconfirmed estimates said that hundreds of protesters were killed during his short time in office.
Sein Win (b. 1919, Tavoy, Burma [now Myanmar] - d. June 29, 1993), prime minister of Burma (1974-77). He was also minister of public works and housing (1964-72) and construction (1972-74).
Sein Win (b. Dec. 16, 1944, Taungdwin Gyi, Burma [now Myanmar]), prime minister of the "National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma" in exile (1990-2012); nephew of Aung San.
Seipel, Ignaz (b. July 19, 1876, Vienna, Austria - d. Aug. 2, 1932, Pernitz, Austria), chancellor of Austria (1922-24, 1926-29). Mgr. Seipel (who had entered the Roman Catholic priesthood in 1899) became minister of social welfare in the last Austrian cabinet under the Habsburg empire. After the collapse, he became a leader of the Christian Social Party and prevented it from splitting into monarchist and republican elements. In 1922 he formed a coalition government with the Pan-German Party. After appeals to the League of Nations for financial support were rejected, he made a series of visits to Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Italy, sounding their governments on the idea of Austria entering a customs union with one or the other of these countries. This demonstrated to France, Czechoslovakia, and Italy the necessity of preserving Austria as she was - and he obtained an international loan of $100,000,000 in return for financial and administrative reforms to be carried out under Allied supervision. Though the finances were rescued, the retrenchments in all areas made him the centre of bitter attacks, and he was stoned in the streets of Vienna in May 1923. Shot and seriously wounded by an unemployed worker on June 1, 1924, he resigned in November. After recovering, he resumed the chancellorship in 1926, also becoming foreign minister. His use of the fascist paramilitary Heimwehr against the Socialists in 1927 foreshadowed the establishment of a dictatorship by his disciple Engelbert Dollfuss in 1934. Becoming increasingly authoritarian, Seipel endeavoured to inspire a corporate state with strong presidential powers. Citing his poor health, he resigned as chancellor in 1929 and as party leader in April 1930, but served again as foreign minister in September-December 1930.
Seismit-Doda, Federico (b. Oct. 1, 1825, Ragusa, Austria [now Dubrovnik, Croatia] - d. May 8, 1893, Rome, Italy), finance minister (1878, 1889-90) and treasury minister (1878) of Italy.
Seite, Berndt (b. April 22, 1940, Hahnswalde, Germany [now Kokotów, Poland]), minister-president of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (1992-98).
Seitz, Karl (Joseph) (b. Sept. 4, 1869, Vienna, Austria - d. Feb. 3, 1950, Vienna), Austrian politician. He joined the Social Democratic Workers' Party in 1888. Because of his views, he was dismissed from the city service, but the publicity that attended this helped him to be elected in his 30th year as the first Socialist member of the Lower Austrian provincial parliament. Two years later, in 1901, he was elected to the Austrian Reichsrat (national assembly), where he was his party's spokesman on foreign affairs and economics during World War I. When, in 1917, the fight for general suffrage ended in victory, he became one of the leaders of the Reichsrat's 84 Socialist members. After the Habsburg monarchy collapsed in 1918, he was elected president of the provisional national assembly of republican Austria. He then served as president of the constituent assembly (and as such head of state) in 1919-20 and as acting president of the republic in 1920. Elected mayor of Vienna in 1923, he began, together with Hugo Breitner, Prof. Julius Tandler, and Robert Danneberg, the erection of workers' apartment houses and introduced those social-welfare services and school reforms that made Vienna the show window of socialism in the 1930s. After the Socialist rebellion of February 1934 he was deposed and imprisoned by the Engelbert Dollfuss government, but was released in December. In July 1944 he was arrested by the Nazis and sent to the concentration camps of Ravensbrück and Plauen. After the liberation (March 1945), he was named honorary president of the Austrian Socialist Party and served as a member of parliament until his death.
Seja, Ludvigs (b. June 2, 1885, Dzukste parish, Russia [now in Latvia] - d. Feb. 15, 1962, Riga, Latvian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Latvia (1924). He was also ambassador to Lithuania (1923, 1934-40) and the United States (1925-27).
Sejdiu, Fatmir (b. Oct. 23, 1951, Podujevo, Kosovo, Serbia), president of Kosovo (2006-10).
Sekeramayi, Sydney (Tigere) (b. March 30, 1944, Chiota, Southern Rhodesia [now Zimbabwe]), defense minister of Zimbabwe (2001-09, 2013- ). He was also minister of lands, resettlement, and rural development (1980-82), minister of state for national security (1982-84, 1988-2000, 2009-13), and minister of health (1984-88) and mines and energy (2000-01).
Sekerinska, Radmila (b. June 10, 1972, Skopje, Macedonia), acting prime minister of Macedonia (2004, 2004). She was deputy prime minister for European integration (2002-04) and minister without portfolio (2004-06).
Sekgoma I a Kgari, byname Mnaphiri (b. c. 1815 - d. 1883), chief of baNgwato (1835-57, 1859-66, 1873-75).
Sekgoma II a Kgama, byname Leraraetsa (b. 1869 - d. Nov. 17, 1925), chief of baNgwato (1923-25); son of Kgama III Boikanyo a Sekgoma.
Sekhamane, Tlohang (b. May 30, 1955, Mokhotlong, Basutoland [now Lesotho]), foreign minister of Lesotho (2015- ).
Sekhonyana, Evaristus (Rets'elisitsoe) (b. March 22, 1937, Mount Moorosi, Quthing district, Basutoland [now Lesotho] - d. Nov. 18, 1998, Bloemfontein, South Africa), foreign minister (1983-84, 1994) and finance minister (1986-91) of Lesotho. He was leader of the Basotho National Party from 1991 until his death.
Selebi, Jackie, byname of Jacob Sello Selebi (b. March 7, 1950, Johannesburg, South Africa - d. Jan. 23, 2015, Pretoria, South Africa), president of the International Criminal Police Organization (2004-08). He was South Africa's police chief in 2000-09. In 2010 he was sentenced to 15 years in jail for corruption; he was paroled in 2012.
Selich Chop, Andrés (b. 1927? - d. [killed by police] May 14, 1973, La Paz, Bolivia), Bolivian junta co-chairman (1971). He was also interior minister (1971) and ambassador to Paraguay (1972).
Selinger, Greg(ory Frances) (b. Feb. 16, 1951, Regina, Sask.), premier of Manitoba (2009-16).
Selis, Gian Mario (b. Dec. 17, 1944, Sorso, Sardegna, Italy), president of Sardegna (1999).
Seljamaa, Julius Friedrich (b. March 27, 1883, Sindi, Russia [now in Estonia] - d. June 17, 1936, Tallinn, Estonia), foreign minister of Estonia (1933-36). He was also minister to Latvia (1922-28), Lithuania (1925-26), and the Soviet Union (1928-33).
Sellal, Abdelmalek, Arabic `Abd al-Malik Sallal (b. Aug. 1, 1948, Constantine, Algeria), interior minister (1998-99) and prime minister (2012-14, 2014- ) of Algeria. He was also wali of Boumerdès (1984), Adrar (1984-87), Sidi Bel Abbès (1987-88), Oran (1988-90), and Laghouat (1990), ambassador to Hungary (1996-97; also accredited to Slovenia and Croatia), and minister of youth and sports (1999-2001), public works (2001-02), transport (2002-04, 2012), and water resources (2004-10, 2010-12).
Sellering, Erwin (b. Oct. 18, 1949, Sprockhövel, Nordrhein-Westfalen, West Germany), minister-president of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (2008- ).
Selman, Salko (b. Oct. 18, 1954, Travnik [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), premier of Central Bosnia (2003-11).
Selter, Karl (b. June 24, 1898, Kapu municipality, Russia [now Koeru municipality, Estonia] - d. Jan. 31, 1958, Geneva, Switzerland), foreign minister of Estonia (1938-39). He was also minister of economic affairs (1933-38) and minister to the Vatican (1939-40) and Switzerland (1940).
Selva, Alberto (b. Sept. 21, 1964, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2007-08).
Selves, Justin (Germain Casimir) de (b. July 19, 1848, Toulouse, France - d. Jan. 13, 1934, Paris, France), prefect of Seine département (1896-1911) and foreign minister (1911-12) and interior minister (1924) of France. He was also prefect of Tarn-et-Garonne (1880-82), Oise (1882-85), Meurthe-et-Moselle (1885), and Gironde (1885-90) and president of the Senate (1924-27).
Selwyn-Lloyd of Wirral, John Selwyn Brooke Selwyn-Lloyd, Baron, original name (John) Selwyn (Brooke) Lloyd (b. July 28, 1904, Liverpool, England - d. May 17, 1978, Preston Crowmarsh, Oxfordshire, England), British politician. He made his first unsuccessful attempt to enter Parliament as a Liberal, at Macclesfield in 1929. Two years later he became a Conservative, and in 1945 he was elected to the House of Commons for his home constituency of Wirral, in Cheshire. When the Conservatives returned to power in 1951, he became minister of state at the Foreign Office. He was made minister of supply in 1954, entered the cabinet as minister of defence in April 1955, and eight months later was moved again to become foreign secretary. He had serious misgivings about the invasion of Egypt undertaken by Prime Minister Anthony Eden in alliance with France and Israel in October 1956, following Egypt's seizure of the Suez Canal, but he stood loyally behind Eden and in December the two were alone in the cabinet in opposing unconditional British withdrawal. After Eden resigned, Lloyd was retained in his post by Harold Macmillan, who succeeded as prime minister in January 1957. Appointed chancellor of the exchequer in 1960, he introduced austerity measures such as the "pay pause" and created a National Economic Development Council. In 1962 he was suddenly dismissed from the government along with other senior cabinet members in a "night of the long knives." He rejected an offer of a peerage and rejoined the cabinet, as lord privy seal, in 1963 when Sir Alec Douglas-Home became prime minister. After his party's defeat in 1964, he was a member of the shadow cabinet until 1966. After the Conservative victory of 1970, he was elected speaker of the House of Commons in 1971, serving until 1976 when he accepted a life peerage.
Sema, Hokishe (b. March 6, 1921, Sutemi village, Assam [now in Mokokchung district, Nagaland], India - d. Jan. 31, 2007, Kohima, Nagaland), chief minister of Nagaland (1969-74, 1986-88) and governor of Himachal Pradesh (1983-86) and Punjab (1985).
Semedo, Júlio (b. April 12, 1942, Mansoa, Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau] - d. Sept. 12, 2002, Lisbon, Portugal), foreign minister of Guinea-Bissau (1984-92). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1974-75) and ambassador to Portugal (1975-78).
Semerdzhiev, Atanas (Georgiev) (b. May 21, 1924, Velingrad, Bulgaria - d. May 8, 2015), interior minister (1989-90) and vice president (1990-92) of Bulgaria. He was chief of general staff of the army in 1962-89. In 2002, he was sentenced to 4½ years in prison on charges of ordering the destruction of files compiled by the Communist-era state security service. His prison sentence was rescinded in 2003 and the criminal charges were dropped three years later.
Semernev, Aleksandr (Mikhailovich) (b. Nov. 7, 1958), head of the administration of Bryansk oblast (1996).
Semeta, Algirdas (Gediminas) (b. April 23, 1962, Vilnius, Lithuanian S.S.R.), finance minister of Lithuania (1997-99, 2008-09). In 2009-14 he was Lithuania's EU commissioner; in 2014 he became business ombudsman in Ukraine.
Semichastny, Vladimir (Yefimovich) (b. Jan. 15, 1924, Grigorevka village, Ukrainian S.S.R. - d. Jan. 12, 2001, Moscow, Russia), Soviet secret police chief. He moved into the upper echelons of the Soviet hierarchy by taking on the job of first secretary of the Komsomol, the Communist youth movement, in 1958. He became head of the secret police (KGB) under Nikita Khrushchev in 1961 and served for six years during the Cuban missile crisis and construction of the Berlin wall. He welcomed British spy George Blake after his 1966 escape from jail in his homeland. He is believed to have been active in orchestrating the 1964 ouster of Khrushchev and his replacement by Leonid Brezhnev. But he persuaded Brezhnev against killing him, advocating instead "more democratic" means of ousting him through the Communist Party apparatus. Brezhnev soon promoted many top KGB officials - a fact that some researchers cite as confirmation of Semichastny's prominent role in Brezhnev's coming to power. Semichastny was named colonel-general and made a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party. But Semichastny described Brezhnev as "not a particularly brave man" - keen on securing power but having others sort out the problems. Brezhnev dismissed Semichastny as KGB chief in 1967, appointing him deputy premier of the Ukrainian S.S.R. Semichastny told reporters he was removed after a failed attempt to smuggle Iosif Stalin's daughter, Svetlana Alliluyeva, out of the United States. He made plain his distaste with the politics and morals of post-Soviet society. He denounced the 1991 toppling of the monument to Feliks Dzerzhinsky, driving force behind the KGB's forerunner, the Cheka, as a bid to discredit the secret services and said the security forces had been incompetent against Chechen rebels.
Semyonov, Vladimir (Magomedovich) (b. June 8, 1940), head of the republic (1999-2000) and president (2000-03) of Karachayevo-Cherkessia.
Sen, Binay Ranjan (b. Jan. 1, 1898, Dibrugarh, India - d. June 12, 1993, Calcutta, India), director-general of the Food and Agriculture Organization (1956-67). He was also Indian ambassador to Italy and Yugoslavia (1950-51, 1952-55), the United States and Mexico (1951-52), and Japan (1955-56).
Sen, Nirupam (b. 1947), Indian diplomat. He was ambassador to Bulgaria and Macedonia (1990s) and to Norway and Iceland (1999-2002), high commissioner to Sri Lanka (2002-04), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2004-09).
Sen, Samar(endranath) (b. Aug. 10, 1914, Dacca, India [now Dhaka, Bangladesh] - d. Feb. 16, 2003, London, England), Indian diplomat. He was high commissioner to Australia and New Zealand (1959-62), Cyprus (1964-66), Pakistan (1966-69), and Bangladesh (1974-76), ambassador to Algeria (1962-64), Lebanon, Jordan, and Kuwait (1964-66), and Sweden (1976-77), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1969-74).
Sen, Shyamal Kumar (b. Nov. 25, 1940), governor of West Bengal (1999). He was acting chief justice of Calcutta High Court (1999-2000) and chief justice of Allahabad High Court (2000-02).
Senanayake, Don Stephen (b. Oct. 20, 1884, Botale, Negombo district, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. [riding accident] March 22, 1952, Colombo, Ceylon), prime minister of Ceylon (1947-52). He was also minister of agriculture and lands (1931-47).
Senanayake, Dudley Shelton (b. June 19, 1911 - d. April 13, 1973), prime minister of Ceylon (1952-53, 1960, 1965-70); son of Don Stephen Senanayake. He was also minister of agriculture and lands (1947-52).
Senanayake, E(dward) L(ionel) (b. Aug. 8, 1921 - d. Jan. 29, 2000, Kandy, Sri Lanka), governor of North Central (1989-94) and Central (1994-98) provinces. He was Sri Lankan minister of agriculture and lands (1977-78), agricultural development and research (1978-82), and health (1982) and speaker of parliament (1983-88).
Senanayake, Maithripala (b. July 17, 1916, Kiulekada, Kunchuttu Korale, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. July 12, 1998, Colombo, Sri Lanka), governor of North Central province (1994-98). He was also Ceylonese minister of transport and works (1956-59), industry, home affairs, and cultural affairs (1960-63), commerce and industries (1963-64), rural and industrial development (1964-65), and irrigation, power, and highways (1970-77).
Senchuk, Stepan (Romanovych) (b. March 23, 1955, Prokopyevsk, Kemerovo oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Nov. 29, 2005, Lviv oblast, Ukraine), Ukrainian politician. He was governor of Lviv oblast from Jan. 15, 1999, to March 19, 2001, and financed Viktor Yushchenko's 2004 presidential campaign in the region. He was killed when two men in a car opened fire on his car. His body was found at a fuelling station not far from a highway in Bryukhovychi village.
Sendic (Antonaccio), Raúl (b. March 16, 1925, Chamangá, Uruguay - d. April 27, 1989, Paris, France), Uruguayan rebel leader. In the late 1950s he joined the Socialist Party. After the party was defeated in two elections, he resigned to organize sugarcane workers' strikes and other rebellious activities in 1960-61, but he soon turned to more violent methods. In 1962 he founded the leftist Tupamaro National Liberation Front, a guerrilla movement that waged a relentless battle (1967-72) against the police and the army with a string of kidnappings, robberies, bombings, and killings. The Tupamaros gained notoriety with such exploits as Robin Hood-style distribution of stolen food to the poor and the bombing of an exclusive dance hall. In 1970 they kidnapped and killed Dan A. Mitrione, U.S. adviser to the Uruguayan police force; the events were the basis of the Costa-Gavras film State of Siege (1972). In 1970 he was captured, but in September 1971 he was one of 105 Tupamaro guerrillas who escaped from Punta Carretas Prison through a tunnel dug from the prison to a nearby house. The police and army security forces were then reorganized to form a combined antiguerrilla unit. In 1972 more than 2,000 Tupamaros were arrested; Sendic was captured during a gunfight in September. The military regime which ruled from 1973 to 1985 reportedly dealt out harsh treatment to Tupamaro prisoners. After spending some 13 years in prison Sendic was released under a general amnesty in 1985. He then reorganized the Tupamaros as a legal political party.
Sendic (Rodríguez), Raúl (Fernando) (b. Aug. 29, 1962, Paysandú, Uruguay), vice president (and president of the Senate) of Uruguay (2015- ); son of Raúl Sendic (1925-1989).
Sendwe, Jason, original name Jason Ilunga (b. 1917, Kabongo, Katanga province, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. [assassinated] June 18, 1964, Albertville, Nord-Katanga, Congo [Léopoldville] [now Kalemie, Katanga, Congo (Kinshasa)]), deputy prime minister of Congo (Léopoldville) (1961-62) and president of Nord-Katanga (1963-64, 1964).
Seneviratne, Athauda (b. Dec. 19, 1931), chief minister of Sabaragamuwa (1999-2000).
Seneviratne, (Ganegoda Don Granville) Nalin (b. Aug. 25, 1931, Colombo, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. Aug. 12, 2009), governor of North Eastern province, Sri Lanka (1988-93). He was commander of the army in 1985-88.
Senghor, Léopold Sédar (b. Oct. 9, 1906, Joal, Senegal, French West Africa - d. Dec. 20, 2001, Verson, France), president of Senegal (1960-80). A French citizen since 1932, he was drafted at the beginning of World War II (1939), was captured by German forces in 1940, and spent two years in Nazi prison camps. On his release, he joined the Resistance, and after the war he became a member of the French Constituent Assembly. In 1946 he was sent as one of Senegal's two deputies to the National Assembly. Elected on the Socialist ticket, he founded the Senegalese Democratic Bloc in 1948 and as that party's candidate was reelected by a wide margin in the 1951 elections. He was secretary of state to the presidency in Edgar Faure's cabinet (1955-56), then became mayor of Thiès, Senegal's railroad centre. He helped to found and supported a series of parties that were dedicated to establishing African unity. On the home front he helped found the Senegalese Progressive Union (called after 1976 the Socialist Party). When Senegal joined with the Sudanese Republic to form the Mali Federation in 1960, he became president of the federal assembly; but Senegal soon left the federation, and he was unanimously elected president of independent Senegal. In 1962 he survived a coup attempt by Prime Minister Mamadou Dia. He worked to modernize his country, fight corruption, and enhance international cooperation and was a vigorous spokesman for the Third World. He advocated an undogmatic, humanistic socialism based on African realities. He voluntarily left office midway through his fifth term and retired to France. He was also a distinguished poet and an originator and important spokesman of the African cultural movement called Négritude. On March 29, 1984, he was inducted into the French Academy, the first black member in its history.
Senghore, Aboubacar (Abdullah) (b. 1968, Fass Njaga Choi, The Gambia), foreign minister of The Gambia (2013-14). He has also been minister of higher education, research, science, and technology (2014- ).
Sengi, Jonathan (b. Nov. 23, 1943 - d. early June 2003), premier of East Sepik (1983-87).
Sengleyev, Vladimir (Borisovich) (b. March 31, 1967, Chilgir, Kalmyk A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Kalmykia (2007-10).
Senilagakali, Jona (Baravilala) (b. Nov. 8, 1929, Waciwaci, Lakeba island, Fiji - d. Oct. 26, 2011), interim prime minister of Fiji (2006-07). He was also roving ambassador to the South Pacific Forum countries (1986) and minister of health (2007-08).
Seniloli, Ratu Jope (Naucabalavu) (b. June 14, 1939 - d. June 27, 2015, Suva, Fiji), vice president of Fiji (2000-04). He was jailed on Aug. 5, 2004, after a court convicted him of taking unlawful oaths during the 2000 coup. He was sentenced to four years in prison the next day. He was released on November 26 after serving 3½ months of his sentence. Thereafter he resigned amid demands from the military that he had to go because his release was a threat to national security.
Seniloli, Manasa (b. April 12, 1941, Drasa, Lautoka, Fiji), Fijian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1991-95).
Sensenbrenner, James, in full Frank James Sensenbrenner, Jr. (b. June 14, 1943, Chicago, Ill.), U.S. politician. Known for his sometimes biting conservative rhetoric, the Republican began his first congressional term (representing a Wisconsin district that includes suburban Milwaukee) in January 1979 after serving 10 years in the Wisconsin legislature. He is a space enthusiast and a regular winner of the National Taxpayers Union Taxpayers' Friend Award. The American Civil Liberties Union, on the other hand, gave Sensenbrenner a zero rating for voting against its stands on legislation dealing with juvenile justice, abortion, flag burning, and whether to support an Alabama judge who posted the Ten Commandments on his courtroom wall despite a higher court's ruling that it was unconstitutional. He is also known as the millionaire congressman who won a $250,000 jackpot from the District of Columbia lottery in December 1997. He said he carried the winning ticket around in his billfold for two weeks before remembering to have it checked. As chairman of the House Science Committee, he called on the Bill Clinton administration and NASA in 1998 to more swiftly repair problems with the ever more costly international space station before support for it erodes in Congress. Given the task of summing up the House's case against President Clinton in the 1999 impeachment trial, he spent hours digesting the mountains of documents produced by Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr and had a commanding grasp of the material. In 2001-07 he was chairman of the House Judiciary Committee.
Seoane Corrales, Edgardo (b. May 15, 1903, Chorrillos, Peru - d. May 25, 1978, Lima, Peru), first vice president (1963-68) and prime minister and foreign minister (1967) of Peru. He was also ambassador to Mexico (1965-67).
Separovic, Zvonimir (Paul) (b. Sept. 14, 1928, Blato, Korcula island, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia]), foreign minister of Croatia (1991-92). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1992) and justice minister (1999-2000). He was an independent candidate in the 2000 presidential elections, winning 0.3% of the vote.
Sepetiba, Aureliano de Souza e Oliveira Coutinho, visconde de (b. July 21, 1800, Niterói, Brazil - d. Sept. 25, 1855, Niterói), principal minister (1833) and foreign minister (1834-35, 1840-43) of Brazil. He was also president of São Paulo (1831) and Rio de Janeiro (1844-48) and justice minister (1833-35). He was made viscount in March 1855.
Septans, Joseph (Méciste) (b. Sept. 16, 1812, Brest, France - d. ...), commandant of Nossi-Bé (1855-56).
Sepúlveda Amor, Bernardo (b. Dec. 14, 1941, Mexico City, Mexico), foreign minister of Mexico (1982-88). He was also ambassador to the United States (1982) and the United Kingdom and Ireland (1989-93).
Serageddin, Fuad, until 1952 Fuad Serageddin Pasha, Arabic Fu´ad Siraj al-Din Basha (b. Nov. 2, 1910, Kafr Al Garaida, Beheira governorate [now in Kafr Al Sheikh governorate], Egypt - d. Aug. 9, 2000), Egyptian politician. He first entered the parliament in 1936, rose to leading positions in the al-Wafd party while still in his 30s, and served in the cabinet as minister of agriculture (1942-43), interior (1943-44, 1950-52), communications (1949), and finance (1950-52). After the 1952 Free Officers' coup toppled the monarchy and abolished all political parties, he became a tireless campaigner for democracy. Pres. Gamal Abdel Nasser's government detained him several times and he served three years in prison before being put under house arrest. Serageddin revived al-Wafd in 1978 when Pres. Anwar as-Sadat allowed the formation of parties. But he fell out with Sadat within a year and froze the party's activities. He was detained on Sadat's orders in 1981. In 1984, he revived the party again under the administration of Pres. Hosni Mubarak. The party had only five members in the 455-seat People's Assembly at the time of his death, but this was the largest single opposition group; Serageddin was not one of the legislators.
Seraphim, civil name Vissarion (Christou) Tikas (b. Aug. 15, 1913, Artesianon, near Karditsa, northern Greece - d. April 10, 1998, Athens, Greece), head of the Orthodox Church of Greece (1974-98). He received a degree in theology from Athens University and was ordained priest in 1942. During the Nazi occupation of Greece during World War II, he set up soup kitchens, orphanages, and schools around Athens. He later joined resistance fighters in the mountains and was awarded numerous medals for bravery and valour. He was promoted to metropolitan, or bishop, in 1949 (first of Arta, then in 1958 of Ioannina). He became Archbishop of Athens and All Greece in a controversial election in January 1974, shortly before the fall of the military junta that ruled Greece in 1967-74. He was one of the few remaining members of the old guard who guided the country after the restoration of democracy. During his years as church leader, he squabbled with conservative and Socialist government leaders alike. His most dramatic clash came in the mid-1980s when Socialist premier Andreas Papandreou tried to expropriate the church's vast land holdings. Seraphim eventually won the battle and in retaliation excommunicated seven government officials. He also never hid his dislike for the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church and the other Orthodox branches. In the early 1990s, he charged that missionary activities of Roman Catholics in eastern Europe threatened Orthodoxy, and demanded that Greece expel the pope's diplomatic envoy. The government ignored his request. In his later years, Seraphim fought with his own priests and bishops. As his health deteriorated he accused his clergy "of standing over me like a bunch of vultures" waiting for him to die.
Seraphine, Oliver (James) (b. Aug. 2, 1943, Roseau, Dominica), interim prime minister and foreign minister of Dominica (1979-80). He was also minister of communications, works, and housing (1975-76) and agriculture, lands, fisheries, and CARICOM affairs (1976-79).
Serdyuk, Zinovy (Timofeyevich) (b. Nov. 15 [Nov. 2, O.S.], 1903, Arbuzinka, Kherson province, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. Aug. 8, 1982, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Moldavian S.S.R. (1954-61). He was also first secretary of the party committees of Kiev (1947-49) and Lvov (1952-54) oblasti.
Serdyukov, Anatoly (Eduardovich) (b. Jan. 8, 1962, Krasnodar kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), defense minister of Russia (2007-12); son-in-law of Viktor Zubkov. Russia's first civilian defense minister, he oversaw an attempted streamlining of the military, which caused resentment within the armed forces. In 2012 he was sacked amid a probe into an alleged large-scale embezzlement in the ministry's structures.
Serdyukov, Valery (Pavlovich) (b. Nov. 9, 1945), governor of Leningrad oblast (1998-2012).
Seregni (Mosquera), Líber (b. Dec. 13, 1916, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. July 31, 2004, Montevideo), Uruguayan politician. He retired from the army at the rank of general in 1969, when he was commander of the first division, because he refused to follow orders from the right-wing government of Jorge Pacheco Areco to crack down harshly on street protests when the country was in the grips of a profound political, social, and economic crisis. In 1971 he co-founded the left-wing Broad Front (Frente Amplio; FA) coalition, which brought together Marxist, social democratic, and Christian democratic currents, along with splinter groups from the traditional Colorado and Nacional parties. It took around 18% of the vote in the 1971 elections, with Seregni running for the presidency. Following the coup of June 1973, he was imprisoned by his former brothers in arms from July 1973 to November 1974. After a period of provisional liberty, he was imprisoned again in 1976, sentenced to 14 years in prison, and stripped of his rank. He was finally freed in 1984 during the dying days of the dictatorship. Parliament reinstated him as a retired military officer following the restoration of democracy in 1985. As the FA was banned from the 1984 elections, Seregni had to wait to stand in 1989, when he won 21%. Although he ran for the presidency twice, he never sought legislative posts like other FA leaders. He led the FA until 1996, when internal discrepancies and the coalition's decision to ignore agreements he had made led him to stand down. But he remained active in public life until he retired in 2003. His death caused a spontaneous outpouring of grief from ordinary Uruguayans of all political bents, though he was still controversial in military circles.
Sergeyenkov, Vladimir (Nilovich) (b. Dec. 5, 1938 - d. Sept. 27, 2014), governor of Kirov oblast (1996-2004).
Sergeyev, Igor (Dmitriyevich) (b. April 20, 1938, Verkhny, Donetsk oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now in Luhansk oblast, Ukraine] - d. Nov. 10, 2006, Moscow, Russia), defense minister of Russia (1997-2001). A former head of Russia's Strategic Forces, Marshal Sergeyev had the difficult task of overseeing widescale reforms in the demoralized, cash-strapped armed forces. Between 2001 and 2004 he served as Pres. Vladimir Putin's adviser on matters of strategic stability.
Sergeyev, Yuriy (Anatoliyovych) (b. Feb. 5, 1956, Leninakan, Armenian S.S.R. [now Gyumri, Armenia]), Ukrainian diplomat. He has been ambassador to Greece (1997-2000), Albania (1999-2000), France (2003-07), and The Bahamas (2008- ) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2007-15).
Sérgio de Sousa, António Sérgio de Sousa, visconde de (b. 1809 - d. 1878), governor-general of Angola (1851-53), governor of Macau (1868-72), and governor-general of Portuguese India (1877-78). He became visconde de Sérgio de Sousa on June 30, 1877.
Seriche Bioko (Malabo), Cristino (b. 1940?), prime minister of Equatorial Guinea (1982-92).
Serinata, Lalu (b. Nov. 21, 1941), governor of Nusa Tenggara Barat (2003-08).
Serksnys, Gediminas (b. Feb. 11, 1948, Kaunas, Lithuanian S.S.R.), Lithuanian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2000-06).
Serna e Hinojosa, José de la, in full José de la Serna y Martínez de Hinojosa, (from 1824) 1er conde de los Andes (b. 1770, Jerez de la Frontera, Spain - d. 1832, Cádiz, Spain), acting viceroy of Peru (1821-24).
Serpa, Justiniano (José) de (b. Jan. 12, 1856, Aquiras, Ceará, Brazil - d. Aug. 1, 1923, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Ceará (1920-23).
Serpa Pinto, Alexandre Alberto da Rocha de, (from 1899) visconde de Serpa Pinto (b. April 20, 1846, Tendais, Viseu district, Portugal - d. Dec. 28, 1900, Lisbon, Portugal), Portuguese colonial administrator. Entering the army in 1864, he served in Mozambique, and in 1869 took part in an expedition against tribes in revolt on the Lower Zambezi, when he ascended the river to near the Victoria Falls. In 1877 he was sent on an expedition to explore the whole region between the colonies of Angola and Mozambique. The explorers left Benguela, Angola, in November for the interior, but Serpa Pinto soon parted from his colleagues, who went north, while he continued east. He crossed the Kwando in June 1878, and in August reached Lialui, the Barotse capital on the Zambezi, where he received help from the Rev. François Coillard which enabled him to continue his journey down the river to the Victoria Falls, whence he turned south, arriving at Pretoria on Feb. 12, 1879, having traveled through Angola and parts of present-day Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa. He was the fourth explorer to traverse Africa from west to east, and was the first to lay down with approximate accuracy the route between Bihe and Lialui. (His expedition furthered plans for a coast-to-coast Portuguese colony, but after a British ultimatum this idea was abandoned in 1888.) In 1884 he attempted, with less success, the exploration of the regions between Mozambique and Lake Nyasa. In 1887 he was named consul general to Zanzibar. In 1889 he organized an expedition with the object of securing for Portugal the Shire Highlands and neighbouring regions (in present Malawi), but the vigorous action of British agents frustrated this design. Shortly afterward he returned to Lisbon and was promoted to the rank of colonel. In 1897 he served as governor of Cape Verde.
Serpa Uribe, Horacio (b. Jan. 4, 1943, Bucaramanga, Colombia), interior minister of Colombia (1994-97). He was a presidential candidate in 1998, 2002, and 2006 and permanent representative to the OAS in 2002-04. In 2007 he was elected governor of Santander department for the period 2008-11.
Serra, Girolamo (Francesco Luciano) (b. July 22, 1761, Genoa [Italy] - d. March 31, 1837, Genoa), member of the Extraordinary Commission of Government (1800-02) and president of the Provisional Government (1814) of Genoa.
Serra, José (b. March 19, 1942, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil), governor of São Paulo (2007-10) and foreign minister of Brazil (2016- ). He was also minister of planning (1995-96) and health (1998-2001) and mayor of São Paulo (2005-06). He was a presidential candidate in 2002 and 2010.
Serra i Serra, Narcís (b. May 30, 1943, Barcelona, Spain), defense minister (1982-91) and deputy prime minister (1991-95) of Spain. He was also mayor of Barcelona (1979-82).
Serra Puche, Jaime (José) (b. Jan. 11, 1951, Mexico City, Mexico), finance minister of Mexico (1994). He was also minister of commerce and industrial development (1988-94).
Serraj, Abdul Hamid, Arabic `Abd al-Hamid Sarraj (b. c. 1923, Hama, Syria - d. September 2013, Egypt), interior minister (1958-61) and chairman of the Executive Council (1960-61) of the Syrian Region of the United Arab Republic. Arrested in Syria after the September 1961 coup, he escaped to Egypt in May 1962.
Serrano, Felixberto M(araña) (b. Aug. 22, 1906, Lemery, Batangas, Philippines - d. Oct. 12, 1990, Manila, Philippines), foreign secretary of the Philippines (1957-61).
Serrano Aguilar, (Nicanor) Alejandro (b. Jan. 14, 1933, Cuenca, Ecuador), vice president of Ecuador (2005-07). He was also mayor of Cuenca (1970-77).
Serrano Elías, Jorge (Antonio) (b. April 26, 1945, Guatemala City, Guatemala), president of Guatemala (1991-93). He served as president of the Council of State during the 1982-83 dictatorship of Gen. Efraín Ríos Montt. As leader of the Movimiento para Acción y Solidaridad during the 1990 presidential election, he campaigned on a platform of respect for human rights and restoration of law and order. During much of the campaign, the popular former dictator Ríos Montt was a leading contender despite constitutional questions about his eligibility. Serrano, an evangelical Christian and a close ally of Ríos Montt, entered the race as an alternative candidate should the general be disqualified. When the Court of Constitutionality did disqualify Ríos Montt just three weeks before the balloting, the little-known Serrano received a surge of transferred support that was sufficient to carry him into the runoff against fellow conservative Jorge Carpio Nicolle. During the previous administration of Pres. Marco Vinicio Cerezo Arévalo, public sentiment had slumped from euphoria to frustration as Cerezo proved ineffectual in the face of an autonomous military, rampant human rights abuses, and deep economic recession. The wide support for Ríos Montt made apparent the renewed appeal of an authoritarian leadership. In the heated runoff campaign, Carpio charged Serrano with religious fanaticism. That the effort failed was an indication of the extent to which conservative Protestantism had become entrenched in this overwhelmingly Roman Catholic country. He won the Jan. 6, 1991, runoff by a 2-1 margin and became the first civilian elected to succeed another civilian president of Guatemala. He was ousted in 1993 after he suspended the constitution and dissolved Congress.
Serrano Palma, José (b. March 4, 1908, Santiago, Chile - d. June 19, 1959, New York), foreign minister of Chile (1956). He was also chargé d'affaires in South Africa (1947-51), permanent representative to the United Nations (1957-59), and ambassador to the United States (1958-59).
Serrano Pinto, Germán (b. March 30, 1940, San José, Costa Rica - d. May 21, 2016), Costa Rican politician. He was minister of labour and social security (1979-82) and first vice president (1990-94).
Serrano Suñer, Ramón, Suñer also spelled Súñer1 (b. Sept. 12, 1901, Cartagena, Murcia, Spain - d. Sept. 1, 2003, Madrid, Spain), Spanish politician. Brother-in-law and confidant of dictator Francisco Franco, he was Franco's envoy during the Spanish Civil War responsible for asking fascist Germany and Italy for military aid. From 1939 he was president of the unified party FET-JONS (Falange Española Tradicionalista-Juntas de Ofensivas Nacional Sindicalistas), the backbone of the Movimiento Nacional. In the government, he served as interior minister (1938-41) and foreign minister (1940-42). He escorted Franco on his interview with Adolf Hitler at Hendaye (October 1940). They negotiated a secret deal with Hitler saying they would join the Axis powers in World War II. Then, when Hitler demanded they act, they made such huge demands that the Germans gave up on them - and on joint plans to storm Gibraltar. His pro-Nazi stance might have been the reason for his demotion by Franco in 1942, when the Allies were beginning to turn the war. Nicknamed the Cuñadísimo ("supreme brother-in-law"), he had been the strongman of the government during the darkest period of revenge and stifling repression. He spent much of his later life trying to rewrite history to make out that he had saved Spain from the world war and that he had fought hard to soften the regime's excesses.
1 He re-stressed his metronym (derived from the Catalan Sunyer) from oxytone to paroxytone to make it sound less Catalan and more Castilian.
Serrato (Bergeróo), José (b. Sept. 30, 1868, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. Sept. 7, 1960, Montevideo), president (1923-27) and foreign minister (1943-45) of Uruguay. He was also minister of development (1903-04), finance (1904-07, 1911-13), and interior (1912-13).
Serreqi, Alfred (Engjell) (b. Aug. 24, 1938, Shkodër, Albania), foreign minister of Albania (1992-96).
Serufuli Ngayabaseka, Eugène (b. March 27, 1962), governor of Nord-Kivu (2000-07).
Servais, (Lambert Joseph) Emmanuel (b. April 11, 1811, Mersch, France [now in Luxembourg] - d. June 17, 1890, Bad Nauheim, Germany), finance minister (1853-57, 1869) and prime minister and foreign minister (1867-74) of Luxembourg. He was also president of the Council of State (1874-87) and of the Chamber of Deputies (1887-90) and mayor of Luxembourg city (1875-90).
Servan-Schreiber, Jean-Jacques ("JJSS") (b. Feb. 13, 1924, Paris, France - d. Nov. 7, 2006, Fécamp, Seine-Maritime, France), French politician. During World War II he trained in the U.S. as a fighter pilot for the Free French forces of Charles de Gaulle, though he never saw combat. He founded and managed (1953-70) L'Express, a weekly newsmagazine which was to play a key role in calling on France to grant independence to its colonies. He was inducted into the army in 1956; afterwards he published his first book, Lieutenant en Algérie (1957; Lieutenant in Algeria), which exposed French atrocities in the Algerian war. He was indicted for subverting the troops' morale, but the charges were subsequently dropped. The book was later credited with helping turn public opinion against the war. In the best-seller Le Défi américain (1967; The American Challenge) he detailed the mechanisms of an economic power struggle brewing between Europe and the United States. He believed Europe needed to learn from the American experience and unite to meet the challenge of U.S. technological innovation. He was secretary general (1969-71) and president (1971-75, 1977-79) of the Radical Party. Elected as a deputy to the National Assembly in 1970, he founded the Mouvement Réformateur ("Reform Movement") in 1972 with Jean Lecanuet and served briefly as minister of reforms in the government of Pres. Valéry Giscard d'Estaing in 1974, being dismissed within two weeks for opposing a government decision to hold nuclear tests. In 1976-78 he was president of the Regional Council of Lorraine. He left the Radical Party in 1979, at the time of the first direct elections to the European Parliament, in order to campaign for Emploi, Égalité, Europe, a party he co-founded with Françoise Giroud but which disappeared after polling just 1.8% of the vote.
Seselj, Vojislav (b. Oct. 11, 1954, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), Yugoslav politician. He joined the Communist party at the age of 17, but left it later. In 1984 he was sentenced to eight years imprisonment, accused of writing an anti-communist essay. He served 22 months. In 1991 he founded the ultra-nationalist Serbian Radical Party. He became deputy prime minister of Serbia in March 1998, serving in that position until October 2000, when Vojislav Kostunica of the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) won the Yugoslav presidency over Slobodan Milosevic. Thereafter support for his party, previously allied with Milosevic's Socialists, fell steeply. He was one of DOS's fiercest public critics. He was a presidential candidate in 2002, finishing third with 23%. In February 2003 he gave himself up to the war crimes tribunal in The Hague, while formally retaining his position as Serbian Radical Party president. He stood accused of having formed a joint criminal enterprise together with Milosevic in 1991-93 aimed at driving non-Serbs from swathes of Croatia, Bosnia, and northern Serbia. In 2016 he was acquitted, the court finding that he was primarily pursuing a political project and was not an accomplice to any of the crimes.
Sessions, William S(teele) (b. May 27, 1930, Fort Smith, Ark.), director (1987-93) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). He served in the U.S. Air Force in 1951-55, being discharged with the rank of captain. In 1969 he went to Washington to work in the Justice Department as chief of the government operations section of the criminal division. In 1971, Pres. Richard Nixon appointed him U.S. attorney for the Western District of Texas, and three years later Pres. Gerald Ford appointed him to the U.S. District Court for that district. In the latter capacity, he served in El Paso in 1974-80 and then moved to San Antonio as chief judge of the district; he took steps to computerize the court's records. After FBI director William Webster became director of central intelligence on May 26, 1987, several distinguished citizens, including former Pennsylvania governor Richard Thornburgh, refused Pres. Ronald Reagan's request to take over the agency. Sessions finally accepted the nomination, which Reagan formally announced on July 24. Despite criticism of the delay, the nomination was well received in the Senate, which confirmed it 90-0 on September 25. He was scheduled to be sworn in on October 1, but he fainted on the airplane taking him to Washington for the ceremony. After being hospitalized he was finally sworn in on November 2, ending a surprisingly long vacancy in the most important law-enforcement job in the U.S. On Jan. 15, 1993, during the last days of the George Bush administration, a U.S. Justice Department report accused Sessions of misuse of the director's security staff and travel abuses. He declared that all the charges were groundless and he would not resign. Pres. Bill Clinton, on the advice of Attorney General Janet Reno, dismissed him on July 19.
Sestier, Henri Victor (Anne Claude) (b. Oct. 25, 1857, Paris, France - d. 19...), resident-superior of Annam (1910-12).
Setälä, Eemil Nestor (b. Feb. 27, 1864, Kokemäki, Finland - d. Feb. 8, 1935, near Helsinki, Finland), foreign minister of Finland (1925-26). He was also minister of education (1925) and ambassador to Denmark and Hungary (1927-30).
Seth, Krishna Mohan (b. Dec. 19, 1939, Allahabad, India), governor of Tripura (2000-03), Chhattisgarh (2003-07), and Madhya Pradesh (2004).
Sethi, Prakash Chandra (b. Oct. 19, 1920, Jhalrapatan [now in Rajasthan], India - d. Feb. 21, 1996, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India), chief minister of Madhya Pradesh (1972-75) and home affairs minister of India (1982-84). He was also Indian minister of chemicals and fertilizers (1975-76), works and housing (1980), petroleum, chemicals, and fertilizers (1980-82), railways (1982), and planning (1984) and minister without portfolio (1976-77).
Setiawan, Danny (b. Aug. 28, 1945, Purwakarta, Netherlands East Indies [now Indonesia]), governor of Jawa Barat (2003-08).
Setubal, Olavo Egydio (de Sousa Aranha) (b. April 16, 1923, São Paulo, Brazil - d. Aug. 27, 2008, São Paulo), foreign minister of Brazil (1985-86). He was mayor of São Paulo in 1975-79.
Seval, Jacques (Jean Frédéric) (b. July 12, 1930, Casablanca, Morocco), prefect of Réunion (1980-81). He was also prefect of the départements of Indre (1981-82) and Somme (1984-86).
Sevele of Vailahi, Lord, originally Feleti (Vaka'uta) Sevele, also called Fred Sevele (b. July 7, 1944), prime minister (2006-10) and foreign and defense minister (2009-10) of Tonga. In December 2010 he was made a life peer.
Severin, Adrian (b. March 28, 1954, Bucharest, Romania), foreign minister of Romania (1996-97).
Severino, Rodolfo C(erteza, Jr.) (b. April 27, 1936, Manila, Philippines), secretary-general (1998-2003) of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Through the years, he carved for himself a distinguished career in diplomacy, performing various capacities in the Department of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of the Philippines and the foreign service. He served as third, second, and first secretary in the Philippine embassy in Washington, D.C., in 1967-74. He was involved in the normalization of relations between the Philippines and China, and thereafter, served as chargé d'affaires of the Philippine embassy in Beijing in 1976-78. He was Philippine consul general in Houston, Texas, in 1979-86, then became assistant secretary for Asian and Pacific affairs (1986-88). In 1989-92 he served as ambassador to Malaysia. In 1992-97, he was the undersecretary of foreign affairs for policy, overseeing all ASEAN-related matters, among others. The appointment of Severino as secretary-general of ASEAN was recommended by the 30th ASEAN Ministerial Meeting in Kuala Lumpur in July 1997 and approved by the ASEAN heads of government. He officially assumed his duties as secretary-general of ASEAN on Jan. 5, 1998, at the ASEAN Secretariat in Jakarta and held office for five years.
Sevic, Aleksandar (b. Jan. 19, 1897, Ruma, Austria-Hungary [now in Vojvodina, Serbia] - d. Oct. 24, 1975), prime minister of Vojvodina (1945-47).
Sevilla Sacasa, Guillermo (b. Sept. 11, 1908, León, Nicaragua - d. Dec. 16, 1997, Potomac, Md.), Nicaraguan politician. He was a criminal court judge and served in the National Congress for 12 years. In 1936, he was serving as president of the National Congress when the country's presidency and vice presidency fell vacant, but a later report that, being next in line, he briefly became president appears to be mistaken (Julián Irías continued to act as provisional president between the acceptance of the resignations and the election of Carlos Brenes Jarquín to complete the term). He was ambassador to the United States from 1943 (and dean of the Washington diplomatic corps from 1958) until 1979, when he was evicted from the Nicaraguan embassy by supporters of the Sandinista rebels after the overthrow of Anastasio Somoza, his brother-in-law. Sevilla Sacasa left the embassy under protest. He refused to turn control of the embassy to Sandinista representatives until 10 days after his country's civil war ended.
Sevryugin, Nikolay (Vasilyevich) (b. Feb. 16, 1939 - d. March 26, 2002), head of the administration of Tula oblast (1991-97).
Seward, William H(enry) (b. May 16, 1801, Florida, N.Y. - d. Oct. 10, 1872, Auburn, N.Y.), governor of New York (1839-43) and U.S. secretary of state (1861-69).
Sewayel, Sheikh Ibrahim (ibn Abdullah) al- (b. Aug. 31, 1916, Unayzah, Nejd [now in Saudi Arabia]), foreign minister of Saudi Arabia (1960-62). He was also ambassador to Iraq (1957-60).
Sexwale, Tokyo, byname of Mosima Gabriel Sexwale (b. March 5, 1953, Orlando West area, Soweto township, Johannesburg, South Africa), premier of Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vereeniging/Gauteng (1994-98). He left politics in 1998 to pursue business interests but made a return as minister of human settlements (2009-13) under Pres. Jacob Zuma.
Seybold, John S(tates) (b. July 2, 1897, Topeka, Kan. - d. Feb. 28, 1984), governor of the Panama Canal Zone (1952-56). He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1920 and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Coast Artillery Corps. He transferred to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) on Sept. 4, 1920. He was assigned to the military survey of Panama from 1922 to 1925. During World War II he was chief, Procurement Division, Office of the Chief of Engineers, in charge of procurement of engineer and construction supplies in all theatres of operation and, from 1943, executive officer and chief of supply for engineer operations in North African and European theatres of operations. He was district engineer, USACE, in the districts of Syracuse, N.Y. (1945-46), and Baltimore, Md. (1946-47), in charge of flood control work and river and harbour improvements. In 1947-50 he was district engineer at Garrison Engineer District, Bismarck, N.D., in charge of construction of Garrison Dam and Hydroelectric Plant, largest earth-filled dam in the world, and in 1950-51 division engineer, South Pacific Engineer Division, San Francisco, Calif., in charge of river-harbour improvements at San Francisco, Los Angeles, San Diego, and Hawaii, and supervisor of flood control work in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona, together with military construction of Army and Air Force bases in those states. As Canal Zone governor, he completed a program to stabilize the slope of Contractors Hill in Gaillard Cut, thus reducing the danger of slides in the canal; a plan to make possible double-culvert operation of the canal locks during major locks overhaul; and the conversion of the canal electric system from 25 to 60 cycles. He retired as major general in 1955.
Seyda, Marian (b. July 7, 1879, Posen, Germany [now Poznan, Poland] - d. May 17, 1967, Buenos Aires, Argentina), foreign minister (1923) and justice minister in exile (1940-41) of Poland.
Seydewitz, Otto Theodor von (b. Sept. 11, 1818, Grossbadegast, Anhalt-Dessau [now in Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany] - d. Nov. 12, 1898, Breslau, Schlesien, Prussia, Germany [now Wroclaw, Poland]), president of the Reichstag of Germany (1879) and Oberpräsident of Schlesien (1879-94).
Seydoux Fornier de Clausonne, François (Louis Auguste) (b. Feb. 15, 1905, Berlin, Germany - d. Aug. 30, 1981, Paris, France), French high commissioner of Austria (1955). He was also ambassador to Austria (1955-58) and West Germany (1958-62, 1965-70).
Seydoux Fornier de Clausonne, Roger (b. March 28, 1908, Paris, France - d. July 3, 1985, Paris), high commissioner of Tunisia (1955-56); brother of François Seydoux Fornier de Clausonne. He was also French ambassador to Tunisia (1956-57), Morocco (1960-62), and the Soviet Union (1968-73) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1962-67) and NATO (1967-68).
Seymour, Frederick (b. Sept. 6, 1820, Belfast, Ireland [now in Northern Ireland] - d. June 10, 1869, Bella Coola, British Columbia), president of Nevis (1854-57), superintendent (1857-62) and lieutenant governor (1862-64) of British Honduras, and lieutenant governor of British Columbia (1864-69).
Seymour, Horatio (b. May 31, 1810, Pompey Hill, Onondaga county, N.Y. - d. Feb. 12, 1886, Utica, N.Y.), governor of New York (1853-55, 1863-65). He was military secretary to Gov. William L. Marcy (1833-39) and a member of the New York Assembly (1842-46) and in 1842 was elected mayor of Utica for a year. The Democrats of New York nominated him for governor in 1850 but he failed to win election; two years later he succeeded, but in 1854 he lost his bid for a second term, mainly because he had vetoed a bill prohibiting the sale of intoxicating liquors (which was declared unconstitutional almost immediately after its reenactment in 1855). In national politics Seymour, a conservative, supported the policies of Franklin Pierce and James Buchanan. While strongly supporting the preservation of the Union, he advocated compromise to avoid war. When war broke out he gave his full support to the Union cause, but opposed Pres. Abraham Lincoln's policy in respect to emancipation, military arrests, and conscription. In his second term as governor of New York, he felt that the draft quotas discriminated against New York City and appealed to Lincoln to correct the situation. When draft riots occurred in July 1863 he proclaimed the city and county of New York to be in a state of insurrection but in one of his speeches he adopted a conciliatory tone that weakened him politically; he was defeated for reelection in 1864. In 1868 he was nominated as the Democratic presidential candidate, Francis P. Blair, Jr., being nominated for the vice-presidency. Although the popular vote was fairly close, in the electoral college the Republican candidate, Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, won 214 votes to Seymour's 80. Thereafter he only participated in politics as a private citizen.
Seymour, Thomas H(art) (b. Sept. 29, 1807, Hartford, Conn. - d. Sept. 3, 1868, Hartford), governor of Connecticut (1850-53). He was also minister to Russia (1853-58).
Seyoum Mesfin (b. Jan. 25, 1949, Adigrat, Ethiopia), foreign minister of Ethiopia (1991-2010). From 2011 he is ambassador to China.
Seypidin (Azizi), Chinese Sai Fuding (b. March 12, 1915, Xinjiang, China - d. Nov. 24, 2003), chairman of the People's Council (1955-67) and of the Revolutionary Committee (1972-78) of Xinjiang. He was the "token Uygur" member of the Chinese Communist Party leadership, an alternate member of the Politburo, and from 1954 to 1993 one of the vice-chairmen of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.
Seyss-Inquart, Arthur, original name (until 1906) Arthur Seyss (b. July 22, 1892, Stannern, near Iglau, Moravia, Austria-Hungary [now Stonarov, near Jihlava, Czech Republic] - d. Oct. 16, 1946, Nürnberg, Germany), Austrian Nazi leader. Seriously wounded while serving in the Austro-Hungarian army during World War I, he developed extreme right-wing views after the war. He became a fervent advocate of Austria's unification with Germany and a leader of the "legal" faction of the Austrian Nazis. He was appointed to the Austrian Staatsrat (Council of State) in 1937 in order to bring about conciliation between the Nazis and the government. In February 1938, in response to German pressure, he was named minister of interior and security, and when Germany pushed Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg into resigning, Seyss-Inquart replaced him on March 12. He immediately invited the German army into Austria and, acting as president, promulgated on March 13 the law declaring Austria to be incorporated into the German Reich. He then was named Reichsstatthalter (governor) of the new Austrian provincial administration, which existed until April 30, 1939. He was also given the rank of SS-Obergruppenführer. In October 1939 he was appointed deputy governor in Poland (under Hans Frank) and, in May 1940, Reichskommissar (commissioner) of the occupied Netherlands. He was appointed foreign minister in Adolf Hitler's testament, but did not act as such. When the Canadian 1st Army liberated the Netherlands, he fled to Germany, where he was captured on May 6, 1945. He was tried as a war criminal at Nürnberg, found guilty, and hanged.
Sezer, Ahmet Necdet (b. Sept. 13, 1941, Afyon, Turkey), president of Turkey (2000-07).
Sezgin, Ismet (b. 1928, Aydin, Turkey - d. Dec. 7, 2016, Ankara, Turkey), finance minister (1979-80), interior minister (1991-93), chairman of the Grand National Assembly (1995-96), and defense minister (1997-99) of Turkey. He was also minister of youth and sports (1969-71). He was a close confidante of both the influential generals and Pres. Süleyman Demirel. He was a right-winger who split from conservative former prime minister Tansu Çiller to join the Democrat Turkey Party in 1997.
Sezibera, Richard (b. June 5, 1964, Kigali, Rwanda), secretary-general of the East African Community (2011- ). He was also Rwandan ambassador to the United States, Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil (1999-2003) and minister of health (2008-11).
Sfar, Rachid, Arabic Rashid Safar (b. Sept. 11, 1933, Mahdia, Tunisia), prime minister of Tunisia (1986-87). He was also minister of industry, mines, and energy (1977-79), defense (1979-80), health (1980-84), economy (1984-86), and finance (1986) and president of the Chamber of Deputies (1987-88).
Sforza, Conte Carlo (b. Sept. 24, 1872, Montignoso di Lunigiana, Italy - d. Sept. 4, 1952, Rome, Italy), foreign minister of Italy (1920-21, 1947-51). He was also minister to China (1911-15) and Serbia (1915-18), ambassador to France (1922), and minister without portfolio (1951-52).