Shaabi, Faysal (Abdul Latif) al-, also spelled Faysal (`Abd al-Latif) ash-Sha`bi (b. 1935? - d. [shot while attempting to escape from a detention camp] April 1970), foreign minister (1969) and prime minister (1969) of South Yemen; brother-in-law of Qahtan Muhammad al-Shaabi.
Shaabi, Najeeb Qahtan al-, also spelled Najib Qahtan ash-Sha`bi (b. 1953, Sha`b village, Lahj, Western Aden Protectorate [now in Yemen]), Yemeni presidential candidate (1999); son of Qahtan Muhammad al-Shaabi.
Shaabi, Qahtan Muhammad al-, al-Shaabi also spelled ash-Sha`bi (b. 1920, Lahj, Western Aden Protectorate [now in Yemen] - d. July 7, 1981), president of South Yemen (1967-69).
Shaath, Nabil, Arabic Nabil Sha`th (b. 1938, Safed, Palestine [now in Israel]), foreign minister (2003-05) and acting prime minister (2005) of the Palestinian Authority.
Shabanov, Ivan (Mikhailovich) (b. Oct. 18, 1939), head of the administration of Voronezh oblast (1996-2000).
Shabib, Talib (b. 1934 - d. Oct. 12, 1997, London, England), foreign minister of Iraq (1963). Later he served as ambassador in several countries. In the late 1960s, he fell out with Saddam Hussein, then a vice president who later seized power in 1979. He went into exile and worked for the United Arab Emirates as a diplomatic adviser. He also served on the executive committee of the Iraqi National Congress, an umbrella group of dissident factions he helped found in 1992.
Shabunin, Ivan (Petrovich) (b. Oct. 9, 1935 - d. Sept. 20, 2006), head of the administration of Volgograd oblast (1991-97).
Shafer, Raymond P(hilip) (b. March 5, 1917, New Castle, Pa. - d. Dec. 12, 2006, Meadville, Pa.), governor of Pennsylvania (1967-71). A Republican, he was lieutenant governor in 1963-67. As governor, he led an overhaul of the state constitution, which had grown outdated, winning several changes from the Republican-controlled legislature and voters. Spending grew under his watch as the state government began giving more to education and public assistance. Many state taxes increased: the sales tax went from 5 to 6% in 1968, the highest in the nation at the time; the cigarette tax was raised; and numerous business taxes went up. Shafer's popularity sank in 1969 when he proposed a state income tax, an idea so disliked that he was hanged in effigy by 250 protesters in Boston, who said they were holding a "second Boston Tea Party." In 1967 he called out the National Guard to try to halt a bitter strike by 15,000 steel-hauling truck drivers, later brokering a deal to end the strike. He also reluctantly signed legislation in 1970 making Pennsylvania the first state in the nation to permit its public employees to join unions and strike. By the time his term ended (he was the last of the state's governors limited to a single term), the state's finances were in shambles; it was estimated that the state was spending $2 million more per day than it brought in. In 1971 Pres. Richard Nixon appointed Shafer chairman of the National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse. The Shafer Commission, as it was known, in 1972 recommended that state and federal governments decriminalize the personal use of marijuana but continue to declare it an illegal substance. Nixon rejected the report.
Shafiq (Zaki), Ahmed (Mohamed) (b. Nov. 25, 1941), prime minister of Egypt (2011). He was commander of the air force (1996-2002) and minister of civil aviation (2002-11). In 2012 he was a presidential candidate.
Shafiq, Mohammad Musa (b. 1932, Kabul, Afghanistan - d. [executed] 1979), foreign minister (1971-73) and prime minister (1972-73) of Afghanistan.
Shafranik, Yury (Konstantinovich) (b. Feb. 27, 1952), head of the administration of Tyumen oblast (1991-93).
Shagari, Alhaji Shehu (Usman Aliyu) (b. May 25, 1925, Shagari village [now in Sokoto state], Nigeria), president of Nigeria (1979-83). He joined the Northern People's Congress and in 1954 was elected to the federal House of Representatives for Sokoto West. He became parliamentary secretary to Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, prime minister in 1957-66, who helped to shape Shagari's political thought. He was made federal minister of economic development (1959-60), pensions (1960-62), internal affairs (1962-65), and works (1965-66). After the 1966 military takeover he retired for a time. In 1970 he became federal commissioner for economic development, agriculture, and natural resources, with special responsibility for rehabilitating those parts of the country affected by the civil war. He was made federal commissioner for finance in 1971 and became a governor of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. He retired again in 1975, but in 1978 he helped to form the National Party of Nigeria, which he led to victory in the 1979 elections. He was elected president, defeating his major rival, Chief Obafemi Awolowo, by a narrow margin. His inauguration marked an end of 13 years of military rule. A strong believer in consensus and compromise rather than confrontation politics, he tried to persuade the four opposition parties to join his party in a coalition government. He was reelected in August 1983, but disenchantment over high-level corruption and economic austerity measures clouded the future, and on December 31 he was ousted in a coup by military officers who accused him of turning Nigeria into a "debtor and beggar." He was detained until July 1986 and then banned for life from holding public office or taking part in any political activities.
Shah, Ghulam Mohammad (b. July 20, 1920, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir - d. Jan. 6, 2009, Srinagar), chief minister of Jammu and Kashmir (1984-86).
Shah, Narendra Bikram (b. Jan. 1, 1940, Dhading, central Nepal), foreign minister of Nepal (2002-03). He was ambassador to the U.S.S.R. in 1983-85 and permanent representative to the United Nations in 1995-99.
Shah, Purendra Bikram (b. September 1900, Birganj, southern Nepal), defense minister (1956-59) and foreign minister (1958-59) of Nepal.
Shah, Syed Abdullah (b. 1931, Bajara Sehwan village, Dadu district, Sind, India [now in Sindh, Pakistan] - d. April 14, 2007, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan), chief minister of Sindh (1993-96). He joined the Pakistan People's Party (PPP) in 1970 and became a minister in the party's first governments, headed by chief ministers Mumtaz Ali Bhutto and Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi. He also played an active role in the Movement for the Restoration of Democracy against the dictatorship of Gen. Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq and was put behind bars. When PPP chairperson Benazir Bhutto became prime minister in 1988, Shah became the speaker of the Sindh Assembly and later, in 1993, chief minister. It was during his tenure as chief minister that both his own brother, Syed Ehsan Ali Shah, and Benazir's brother Murtaza Bhutto were killed. After the latter incident, he tendered his resignation but Bhutto did not accept it. While he was chief minister, he openly demanded that the areas of Jaisalmer and Junagadh (now in India) should be "returned" to Sindh. After the dissolution of the PPP government, Shah went into exile (in Canada and the United States) for 10 years.
Shah, Syed Muzaffar Hussain (b. 1945, Karachi, Sind, India [now in Sindh, Pakistan]), chief minister of Sindh (1992-93).
Shaha, Rishikesh (b. 1925, Tansen, Nepal - d. Nov. 13, 2002, Chandol, Kathmandu, Nepal), finance minister (1960-62) and foreign minister (1962) of Nepal.
Shahabuddin, Khwaja (b. May 31, 1898 - d. Feb. 9, 1977, Karachi, Pakistan), home affairs minister of Pakistan (1948-51) and governor of North-West Frontier Province (1951-54); brother of Khwaja Nazimuddin. In 1954 he became Pakistan's ambassador to Saudi Arabia with additional charge of Yemen. In 1958 he became ambassador to the United Arab Republic. He was concurrently high commissioner to Nigeria and ambassador to Cameroon, Senegal, Togo, and Sierra Leone from 1961 to 1964.
Shahbandar, Abdul Rahman, Arabic `Abd al-Rahman Shahbandar (b. 1879 - d. [assassinated] July 6, 1940, Damascus, Syria), foreign minister of Syria (1920).
Shaheed, Ahmed (b. Jan. 27, 1964), foreign minister of Maldives (2005-07, 2008-10).
Shaheen, (Cynthia) Jeanne, née Bowers (b. Jan. 28, 1947, St. Charles, Mo.), governor of New Hampshire (1997-2003). A Democrat, she was first elected to the New Hampshire state senate in 1990. During three terms as a legislator, she focused her efforts on making health care more accessible and affordable, creating good paying jobs, and improving public education. She won landmark legislative battles for health care reform, passing legislation to stabilize health insurance rates and eliminate discrimination against individuals with pre-existing conditions; to guarantee adequate hospital stays for women after childbirth; and to limit managed care organizations' practice of forcing health care providers into exclusive contracts that deny individuals access to their physician of choice. Shaheen was also one of the leaders in the fight to open up the electric utility industry to competition, in an effort to lower New Hampshire's highest-in-the-nation electric rates. Recognizing the importance of higher education and of research and development to the creation of good-paying jobs in New Hampshire, Shaheen was a strong supporter of the state university and community-technical college system, and fought to create the first state-sponsored industrial research centre. In 1996 she was elected the state's first female governor, and the first Democrat since 1980. She defeated Republican Ovide Lamontagne, a former Board of Education chairman who had never held public office. She was reelected in 1998 over Jay Lucas and in 2000 over Gordon Humphrey. In 2002 she ran for the U.S. Senate but lost to Republican John Sununu. In a 2008 rematch, she defeated Sununu.
Shahi, Agha (b. Aug. 25, 1920, Bangalore, India - d. Sept. 6, 2006, Islamabad, Pakistan), foreign minister of Pakistan (1978, 1981-82). He also served as permanent representative to the United Nations (1967-72) and ambassador to China (1972-73).
Shahid, Abdulla, foreign minister of Maldives (2007-08). He was elected speaker of the People's Majlis in 2009.
Shahidan (bin) Kassim, Datuk Seri (b. June 17, 1951, Arau, Perlis, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), chief minister of Perlis (1995-2008). He received the titles Dato' Seri (Dec. 4, 1995) and Datuk Seri (Oct. 25, 2002).
Shaikhly, Abdul Karim al-, Arabic `Abd al-Karim al-Shaykhli (b. 1937 - d. [assassinated] April 1980, Baghdad, Iraq), foreign minister of Iraq (1968-71).
Shaimiyev, Mintimer (Sharipovich) (b. Jan. 20, 1937), chairman of the Supreme Council (1990-91) and president (1991-2010) of Tatarstan.
Shaklein, Nikolay (Ivanovich) (b. Dec. 20, 1943), governor of Kirov oblast (2004-09).
Shalala, Donna (Edna) (b. Feb. 14, 1941, Cleveland, Ohio), U.S. secretary of health and human services (1993-2001). In 1962-64 she served in Iran as one of the first Peace Corps volunteers. In 1977-80 she was assistant secretary for policy research and development at the Department of Housing and Urban Development in the administration of Pres. Jimmy Carter. Then, at age 39, she became the president of Hunter College, City University of New York, where she added to her reputation as a feminist by overseeing dramatic increases in the representation of women and minorities among faculty and administrators. In 1988 she became the chancellor of the University of Wisconsin-Madison and thus the first woman to head a Big Ten university. There she instituted the "Madison Plan" to combat racism. In 1993 she became Pres. Bill Clinton's secretary of health and human services. As the debate over universal health care came before Congress in 1994, she was one of the administration's key players, although Hillary Clinton took charge of that unsuccessful campaign. Shalala helped organize the Children's Health Insurance Programs (CHIP), which provides insurance for more than 2.5 million children, as well as crusading to end racial health disparities, violence against women, and for better medications to treat AIDS. Many of her campaigns worked alongside private and advocacy organizations to improve the health of children and young adults, especially in the fight against tobacco use. Serving until the end of the Clinton administration, she was the longest-serving health secretary in U.S. history. In 2001 she became president of the University of Miami.
Shalgham, Abdel Rahman (Mohamed), Arabic `Abd al-Rahman (Muhammad) Shalqam (b. Nov. 21, 1949, al-Ghrefa, Libya), foreign minister of Libya (2000-09). He was ambassador to Italy in 1984-95 and became permanent representative to the United Nations in 2009.
Shalikashvili, John (Malchase David) (b. June 27, 1936, Warsaw, Poland - d. July 23, 2011, Tacoma, Wash.), U.S. military figure. His father, who was originally from Georgia (Caucasus), served as an officer in the Polish army until its defeat by the Germans in 1939 and later enlisted in the Georgian Legion, a Nazi-organized group of ethnic Georgians that fought the Soviets in an effort to end Communist rule; before the war ended he also became a member of the Waffen-SS. In 1944 the younger Shalikashvili fled Poland with his mother and settled in Germany. When he was 16, the family immigrated to the U.S. In 1958 he became a U.S. citizen and was drafted into the army as a private; he was commissioned a second lieutenant in 1959. Following service at various domestic posts, he was sent to Vietnam in 1968, where, with the rank of major, he served as a senior district adviser to South Vietnamese forces. He spent most of the 1970s and '80s serving in Europe, rising to brigadier general in 1982 and lieutenant general in 1989. In 1991 he took command of Operation Provide Comfort, airlifting food and medical supplies to Kurdish refugees in Iraq after the Gulf War and protecting them from aggression by Saddam Hussein's Iraqi forces while also calming the concerns of Turkey which had its own restive Kurdish minority. He received wide praise for his handling of the delicate situation. In 1992 he took up the post of NATO's Supreme Allied Commander Europe (and commander-in-chief of the U.S. European Command), and in 1993 Pres. Bill Clinton named him chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the first foreign-born holder of this office. He retired from the army in 1997.
Shalom, Silvan (b. Aug. 4, 1958, Gabčs, Tunisia), finance minister (2001-03) and foreign minister (2003-06) of Israel.
Shamanov, Vladimir (Anatolyevich) (b. Feb. 15, 1957, Barnaul, Altay kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), head of the administration of Ulyanovsk oblast (2001-04). In 2004 he was appointed as Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov's assistant for veterans affairs.
Shamba, Sergey (Mironovich) (b. March 15, 1951, Gudauta, Abkhaz A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R.), foreign minister (1997-2004, 2004-10) and prime minister (2010-11) of Abkhazia. He resigned from the position of foreign minister in June 2004 and ran in the presidential elections of October 3, taking third place behind Sergey Bagapsh and Raul Khadjimba. During this time, Shamba also created the Abkhaz Social Democratic Party, filling the post of party chair. In December 2004 the outgoing president Vladislav Ardzinba reappointed him foreign minister.
Shami, Ali (Hussein) al- (b. April 21, 1945, Beirut, Lebanon), foreign minister of Lebanon (2009-11).
Shamikh, Mubarak Abdallah al-, Arabic al-Mubarak `Abd Allah al-Shamikh (b. May 15, 1950, Benghazi, Libya), secretary of the General People's Committee (2000-03) and of the General People's Congress (2009-10) of Libya.
Shamir, Yitzhak, original name Yitzhak Jazernicki, Russian Yezernitsky (b. Oct. 15, 1915, Ruzinoy, Poland, Russian Empire [now Ruzhany, Belarus] - d. June 30, 2012, Tel Aviv, Israel), prime minister of Israel (1983-84, 1986-92). He emigrated to Palestine in 1935. He joined the Israel Freedom Fighters ("Stern Gang"), was arrested by the British in 1941, escaped in 1942, was again arrested in 1946, sent to a prison camp in Eritrea, escaped once more, made his way to France, and returned to Palestine early in 1948. He is believed to have played a prominent part in planning the killings of British minister Lord Moyne and UN diplomat Count Folke Bernadotte. In 1955-65 he served as a Mossad secret-service operative in Europe. In 1970 he joined Menachem Begin's Herut movement, which in 1973 joined with other parties to form the Likud. First elected to the Knesset in 1973, he became its speaker after Likud's electoral victory in 1977. Begin, as prime minister, appointed him foreign minister in 1980. On Sept. 2, 1983, he was elected to succeed the retiring Begin as Likud leader, and on October 10 the Knesset approved a coalition government headed by Shamir. The elections of July 1984 were indecisive; in September, Shamir and Labour Party leader Shimon Peres formed a coalition government in which Peres served as prime minister for the first half of a 50-month term, with Shamir as deputy prime minister and foreign minister, the roles being reversed for the second 25 months. After another election deadlock in 1988, the two parties again formed a coalition government, with Shamir remaining prime minister. This government fell in 1990, but he succeeded in forming a new coalition, without Labour but including several representatives of ultraconservative groups. His government was defeated in the 1992 elections.
Shams-ud-Din, Khwaja (b. 1922 - d. April 19, 1999, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir), prime minister of Jammu and Kashmir (1963-64).
Shams-ud Doha, Aminur Rahman (b. Jan. 24, 1929, Murshidabad [now in West Bengal], India - d. March 3, 2012, Lebanon), foreign minister of Bangladesh (1982-85). He earlier served as ambassador to Yugoslavia, Iran, and the United Kingdom.
Shamsul Huq, Mohammad (b. Dec. 2, 1910, Comilla, Bengal, India [now in Bangladesh]), foreign minister of Bangladesh (1977-81).
Shamuyarira, Nathan (Marwirakuwa) (b. Sept. 29, 1928), foreign minister of Zimbabwe (1988-95).
Shankar, Ramsewak (b. Nov. 6, 1937), president of Suriname (1988-90).
Shanker, P(unjala) Shiv (b. Aug. 10, 1929, Mamidi Palli [now in Andhra Pradesh], India), foreign minister of India (1986) and governor of Sikkim (1994-95) and Kerala (1995-96).
Shanks, Lyle Allen (b. Oct. 14, 1924, Helensville, New Zealand - d. Jan. 5, 2009, Wellington, New Zealand), resident commissioner of Niue (1962-68).
Shanmugam, Kasiviswanathan (b. March 26, 1959), home affairs minister (2010-11) and foreign minister (2011- ) of Singapore.
Shanmugam, P(anchanatham) (b. March 29, 1927, Neduncadu, near Karaikal, French India [now in India] - d. Feb. 2, 2013, Karaikal), chief minister of Pondicherry (2000-01). He was a member of the Lok Sabha from Pondicherry thrice consecutively from 1980 to 1991. He was first elected to the Pondicherry territorial assembly in 1955 from Neduncadu constituency.
Shantsev, Valery (Pavlinovich) (b. June 29, 1947, Susanino, Kostroma oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Nizhny Novgorod oblast (2005- ). He was vice mayor of Moscow in 1996-2005.
Sharaa, Farouk al-, Arabic Faruq al-Shara` (b. 1938, Daraa, Syria), foreign minister (1984-2006) and vice president (2006- ) of Syria. He was also ambassador to Italy (1976-80).
Sharaf, Essam (Abdulaziz), Arabic `Asam `Abd al-`Aziz Sharaf (b. 1952, Giza governorate, Egypt), prime minister of Egypt (2011). He was transport minister in 2004-05.
Sharaf, Sharif Abdul Hamid, Arabic Sharif `Abd al-Hamid Sharaf (b. July 8, 1939, Baghdad, Iraq - d. July 3, 1980, Amman, Jordan), prime minister, foreign minister, and defense minister of Jordan (1979-80); son of Sharaf ibn Rajih Al Fawwaz.
Sharaf ibn Rajih Al Fawwaz, (Sharif) (b. 1880 - d. 1955, Amman, Jordan), regent of Iraq (1941). He fled to Iran on the approach of the Allied forces in 1941, but was captured and exiled to Southern Rhodesia until 1944. He is a 9th-generation descendant through the male line from Abdullah ibn Hassan, grand sharif of Mecca in 1630-31.
Sharansky, Natan, original name Anatoly (Borisovich) Shcharansky (b. Jan. 20, 1948, Stalino, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Donetsk, Ukraine]), Israeli politician. His job as a programmer at the Oil and Gas Research Institute in Moscow supposedly exposed him to state secrets and became the official reason for denying his request for an exit visa when he applied to emigrate to Israel in 1973. He became involved in the dissident movement in Moscow, was harassed by the KGB, and, in 1975, discharged from his job. In March 1977 a presumed fellow dissident, Sanya Lipavsky, named Shcharansky as working in a spy ring with U.S. diplomats, the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, Western journalists, and other dissidents. Arrested in Moscow on March 15, he was brought to trial, condemned as being "guilty of espionage and of assisting a foreign country in hostile activity against the U.S.S.R.," and received a sentence on July 14, 1978, of 13 years, the first three in prison and the rest in a corrective labour camp. His case shocked the West as a striking instance of the Soviet administration's harsh disregard for human rights. On Feb. 11, 1986, he and three men accused of being NATO spies were exchanged for five people from Warsaw Pact countries. He then went to Israel and adopted his current name. He led his new Yisrael ba-Aliya party to a surprisingly strong showing in the 1996 parliamentary elections. The party of immigrants from the former Soviet Union captured seven seats in the 120-member parliament. He became minister of commerce and industry (1996-99), interior (1999-2001), construction and housing (2001-03), and minister without portfolio responsible for Jerusalem affairs (2003-05). He announced his retirement from politics in 2006.
Sharett, Moshe, original name Moshe Shertok (b. Oct. 15, 1894, Kherson, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. July 7, 1965, Tel Aviv, Israel), foreign minister (1948-56) and prime minister (1953-55) of Israel.
Sharif, (Mian Mohammad) Nawaz (b. Dec. 25, 1949, Lahore, Pakistan), Pakistani politician. He joined the Punjab cabinet as finance minister in 1981 and became the province's chief minister in 1985. As leader of the Pakistan Muslim League (PML), the primary party of the coalition Islamic Democratic Alliance, he was elected prime minister in October 1990, after Benazir Bhutto's government was sacked by the president for alleged corruption in August. He became known for his efforts at economic revitalization as well as for his headstrong personality. He was himself dismissed on corruption charges in April 1993. In the October 1993 elections Bhutto regained power, but she was ousted again in November 1996. It was Sharif's turn as prime minister again when his PML won a landslide victory in the elections of Feb. 3, 1997. He soon set out to trim the powers of the president and the military. His attempt to block the appointment of five additional judges to the Supreme Court late in the year sparked a constitutional crisis. After Chief Justice Sajjad Ali Shah, one of Sharif's rivals, was suspended from the court on a technicality, Pres. Farooq Ahmed Leghari, rather than appointing a replacement, resigned from his post, bitterly accusing Sharif of attempting to grab sole power. In May 1998, despite international condemnation, Sharif responded to India's testings of nuclear weapons by sanctioning Pakistan's first-ever tests. In October 1999 he was overthrown in a coup led by Gen. Pervez Musharraf. In April 2000 he was given a life sentence in jail on two charges of hijacking and terrorism; the prosecution said that on the day of the coup Sharif attempted to prevent an aircraft carrying Musharraf from landing when it was running short of fuel. In December 2000 he was taken from prison and exiled to Saudi Arabia. The Supreme Court ruled in August 2007 that he had a right to return, but when he did so in September he was immediately deported again. He returned successfully in November. In February 2009 the Supreme Court disqualified him from public office because of his 2000 conviction, but the ruling was "set aside" in May.
Sharif, (Mian) Shahbaz (b. Sept. 23, 1951), chief minister of Punjab (1997-99, 2008-09, 2009-13). He replaced his brother Nawaz Sharif as president of the Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz on Aug. 3, 2002, but continued to live with the Sharif family in Saudi Arabia. In May 2004 he made an attempt to return to Pakistan, but after landing at Lahore airport he was deported back to Saudi Arabia. He returned with his brother in November 2007. In June 2008 he returned to head a coalition government in Punjab, with the Pakistan People's Party as the junior partner - a reversal of the roles played by the two parties in the federal government. A February 2009 Supreme Court decision disqualified and unseated him as chief minister, but another ruling by the court in March restored him.
Sharif-Emami, Jaafar (b. Sept. 8, 1910, Tehran, Iran - d. June 16, 1998, New York City), prime minister (1960-61, 1978) and foreign minister (1960-61) of Iran. A close confidant of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, he became undersecretary of roads and communications in 1950 and minister of industries and mines in 1957. During his first term as prime minister, he attempted to institute economic reforms, but his unpopularity led to his replacement after 8 months. During his second term, he tried to quell growing civil unrest and mollify the increasingly powerful Islamic fundamentalists, but the situation continued to deteriorate and he resigned (November 1978) after some 3 months in office. After the shah's downfall in early 1979, Sharif-Emami fled to New York.
Sharma, Bhagwat Dayal (b. Jan. 28, 1918, Bairo, Rohtak district, Punjab [now in Haryana], India - d. Feb. 22, 1993, New Delhi, India), chief minister of Haryana (1966-67) and governor of Orissa (1977-80) and Madhya Pradesh (1980-84).
Sharma, Kamalesh (b. Sept. 30, 1941), secretary-general of the Commonwealth (2008- ). He was India's permanent representative to the United Nations (1997-2002) and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (2004-08).
Sharma, Nawal Kishore (b. July 5, 1925, Dausa [now in Rajasthan], India - d. Oct. 8, 2012, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India), governor of Gujarat (2004-09).
Sharma, Om Prakash (b. Oct. 9, 1937, Banchari village, Faridabad district, Punjab [now in Haryana], India), governor of Nagaland (1996-2002).
Sharma, Shankar Dayal (b. Aug. 19, 1918, Bhopal, India - d. Dec. 26, 1999, New Delhi, India), president of India (1992-97). Around 1940 he became actively involved in India's freedom struggle. For his role in the independence movement in Bhopal, he was imprisoned for eight months. After India gained independence (1947), his political career developed through a long association with the Indian National Congress and the Nehru-Gandhi family in particular. He was a member of the All-India Congress Committee for 32 years beginning in 1950, and in 1950-52 he was president of the Bhopal State Congress Committee. He also served as chief minister of Bhopal (1952-56). He was a member of the Madhya Pradesh legislative assembly in 1956-71, and during that period he held a cabinet post for some 11 years. He then moved into the national arena, being a member of the Lok Sabha (lower house) in 1971-77. In 1972-74 he was president of the Indian National Congress and in 1974-77 minister of communications. He was again elected to the Lok Sabha in 1980. He held governorship posts in Andhra Pradesh (1984-85), Punjab (1985-86), and Maharashtra (1986-87) before becoming vice president in 1987. In 1992 he became president, having won 64.8% of the vote in the electoral college, composed of the elected members of both houses of parliament and of the state legislatures. Delivering his emotionally charged inaugural address amid a colourful and joyous ceremony, he called for equal respect for all religions as a basis for the achievement of national goals. He earned the reputation of being scrupulously impartial. He was a sentimental public leader who sometimes broke down in parliament before unruly lawmakers. He once said he believed in retaliating by shaming offenders with acts of kindness.
Sharma, Sheel Kanta (b. Jan. 10, 1950), secretary-general of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (2008-11).
Sharma, Yagya Dutt (b. Oct. 21, 1922, Takhatgarh village, Ropar district, Punjab, India - d. July 4, 1996), governor of Orissa (1990-93).
Sharmarke, Omar Abdirashid Ali, Somali Cumar Cabdirashiid Cali Sharma'arke, Arabic `Umar `Abd al-Rashid `Ali Sharmarki (b. June 19, 1960, Somalia), prime minister of Somalia (2009-10); son of Abdirashid Ali Shermarke.
Sharon, Ariel, byname Arik Sharon, original name Ariel Scheinerman (b. Feb. 27, 1928, Kfar Malal, Palestine [now in Israel]), prime minister of Israel (2001-06). He received military training early in life and took his new name when Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion insisted that all Israeli officers have Hebrew names. In the wars of 1956 and 1967, he both times captured the strategic Mitla pass in the Sinai Peninsula. Resigning from the army in July 1973, he was recalled for the October 1973 Yom Kippur war. That same year he was instrumental in the formation of the Likud party and became a member of the Knesset (parliament). He joined the government in 1977 as minister of agriculture in charge of settlements and remained in that post until becoming defense minister in 1981. In 1982 he was the chief architect of the Israeli invasion of Lebanon. The revelation that Israeli-allied Christian Lebanese militiamen had massacred Palestinian refugees at Sabra and Shatila caused worldwide condemnation. In response, Israel set up a judicial commission which found him indirectly responsible. He resigned as defense minister in 1983, but became minister of industry and trade (1984-90) and of construction and housing (1990-92). In 1996 Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu created for Sharon the cabinet post of minister of national infrastructure. In 1998 he became foreign minister. He succeeded Netanyahu as Likud leader in 1999 and in 2001 defeated Ehud Barak in prime ministerial elections. In 2005, after having withdrawn Israeli settlers and soldiers from the Gaza Strip, which was controversial within Likud, he founded the Kadima party. In 2006 a stroke left him in a coma; after 100 days he was considered permanently incapacitated, officially losing the position of prime minister.
Sharp, Mitchell (William) (b. May 11, 1911, Winnipeg, Man. - d. March 19, 2004, Ottawa, Ont.), trade and commerce minister (1963-66), finance minister (1965-68), and foreign minister (1968-74) of Canada. He held various posts in the Trade Department, but left the civil service in 1958 shortly after the Conservatives swept to power under John Diefenbaker. Sharp's political career began soon afterward when Lester Pearson asked him to help create the Liberal Party's election platform in the early 1960s. He represented Toronto's Eglinton riding in the House of Commons from 1963 to 1978. He was one of the most outspoken foreign affairs ministers in Canadian history; during his tenure, the government established relations with China, shifted its policies regarding the United States, halved its military commitment to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and began new dialogues with Europe and Japan. He left politics for an appointment as commissioner for the Northern Pipeline Agency and also served (1984) as co-chairman of a task force on conflict of interest, which published a report on ethical conduct in the public service. He was a deputy chairman of the Trilateral Commission, a private global policy discussion group, from 1976 to 1986. Later, at the age of 82, he signed on as a $1-a-year personal adviser to Prime Minister Jean Chrétien - and kept at it into his 90s.
Sharpe, Sir Alfred (b. May 19, 1853, Lancaster, Lancashire, England - d. Dec. 10, 1935, London, England), British colonial administrator. He resolved to go to Africa to shoot elephant and trade in ivory. Arriving in the Shire Highlands, south of Lake Nyasa, in 1887, he immediately became involved in a struggle with "Arab" slave traders. In 1889 H.H. Johnston came out to Nyasaland (now Malawi) with commissions from the British government and Cecil Rhodes. The British settlements were now threatened not only by the slavers but by the designs of other colonial powers. To Sharpe fell the task of winning the natives west of Nyasa to the British side, and he brought a large part of what became Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) into treaty relations with the Chartered Company and almost succeeded in adding Katanga (now in Congo [Kinshasa]) to the British sphere. Long struggles with turbulent tribes followed, but finally peace was established, Sharpe being one of the principal instruments in the extinction of the slave trade in that part of Central Africa. During 1889-95 he also explored and mapped Lake Mweru (in Zambia), the northern parts of Zambia, and Katanga. He was appointed vice-consul of Nyasaland protectorate in 1891, commissioner in 1896, and governor in 1908. He retired from the colonial service in 1910. In 1919 he explored the interior of Liberia. He was knighted in 1903.
Sharpe, Sir John (Henry) (b. Nov. 8, 1921 - d. July 11, 1999), finance minister (1968-75) and premier (1975-77) of Bermuda; knighted 1977.
Sharq, Mohammad Hassan (b. 1925, Farah, Afghanistan), prime minister of Afghanistan (1988-89).
Shartava, Zhiuli (Kalistratovich) (b. March 7, 1944 - d. [executed by separatists] Sept. 27, 1993), prime minister of Abkhazia (pro-Georgian government) (1993).
Sharvananda, Suppiah (b. Feb. 22, 1923, Kayts, Jaffna, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. Jan. 24, 2007, Sydney, Australia), governor of Western province, Sri Lanka (1988-94).
Shastri, Bhola Paswan (b. 1914 - d. Jan. 17, 1985), chief minister of Bihar (1968, 1969, 1971-72).
Shastri, Lal Bahadur (b. Oct. 2, 1904, Mughalsarai, United Provinces [now in Uttar Pradesh], India - d. Jan. 11, 1966, Tashkent, Uzbek S.S.R.), prime minister of India (1964-66). He earned the title Shastri ("scholar") in 1926 and it became part of his name. He joined Mohandas Gandhi's Non-cooperation Movement against British rule in India and was imprisoned for a short time in 1921 and several times later. He attained influential positions in the Congress Party of the United Provinces (later Uttar Pradesh) and was elected to the legislature of the United Provinces in 1937 and again in 1946. After independence, he became minister for home affairs and transport in Uttar Pradesh, then in 1952 he was elected to the Indian legislature and became union minister for railways and transport. He resigned in 1956 because he felt that he was constitutionally responsible for a serious railway accident, but returned to the cabinet in 1957, first as minister of transport and communications, then (1958) of commerce and industry. He was appointed to the influential post of minister for home affairs in 1961, but resigned in 1963 under a plan whereby ministers should voluntarily leave office to devote themselves to the reform of the Congress Party. In January 1964, on Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru's illness, he was recalled to the cabinet as minister without portfolio, and after Nehru's death he became prime minister in June. Rising prices, food shortages, and other disappointments at home lowered his reputation temporarily, but his firmness on the outbreak of hostilities with neighbouring Pakistan in 1965 restored his popularity. He died of a heart attack hours after signing an agreement with Pres. Mohammad Ayub Khan of Pakistan to seek a peaceful solution to the Kashmir dispute.
Shastri, Vishnu Kant (b. May 2, 1929, Calcutta, India - d. April 17, 2005, in train near Patna, Bihar, India), governor of Himachal Pradesh (1999-2000) and Uttar Pradesh (2000-04).
Shatalov, Mikhail (Mikhailovich) (b. Oct. 22, 1942), prime minister of North Ossetia-Alania (2002-04).
Shatigadud, byname of Hassan Muhammad Nur, Somali Xasan Maxamed Nuur "Shaatigaduud," Somali politician. He became president of Southwestern Somalia, a state proclaimed in April 2002. Baidoa, its capital, changed hands numerous times between July and December 2002. Shatigadud - chairman of the Rahanwein Resistance Army (RRA) - was opposed to the troops loyal to the faction of his former deputies (and then vice-chairmen of the RRA) Sheikh Aden Madobe and Muhammad Ibrahim Habsade who took control of the city. The state ultimately ceased to exist, and Baidoa became the seat of the recognized government of Somalia. In 2006-07 Shatigadud was finance minister in that government (which moved to Mogadishu in December 2006).
Shavlokhov, Aleksandr (Apollonovich) (b. 1940, Staliniri [now Tskhinvali], South Ossetian autonomous oblast, Georgian S.S.R.), prime minister of South Ossetia (1996-98).
Shaw, Vernon (Lorden) (b. May 13, 1930, Roseau, Dominica), president of Dominica (1998-2003). In 1967 he was appointed Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Education and Health. Ten years later, in 1977, he was promoted to the post of secretary to the cabinet where he remained until he retired in June 1990. However, during that period he served the government of Dominica as ambassador-at-large and functioned at the United Nations, the Organization of American States, and at the London High Commission. Voting strictly along party lines, Parliament elected Shaw as president in 1998 and denied Crispin Sorhaindo a second term. Shaw, the ruling United Workers Party (UWP) nominee, received all of the 18 UWP's votes while the opposition parties' nominee, Sorhaindo, received 13.
Shaways, Rowsch (Nouri) (b. 1947), prime minister (1996-99) and president of the National Assembly (1999-2004) of Iraqi Kurdistan (Kurdish Democratic Party government) and vice president (2004-05) and deputy prime minister (2005-06) of Iraq.
Shawcross, Hartley William Shawcross, Baron (b. Feb. 4, 1902, Giessen, Germany - d. July 10, 2003, Cowbeech, Sussex, England), British politician. He was elected to Parliament when the Labour Party swept to power under Clement Attlee in 1945, ousting Winston Churchill's Conservative Party, and quickly became the new government's attorney general. He then was appointed Britain's chief prosecutor at the Nürnberg, Germany, trials of Nazi war criminals, signing an indictment along with representatives of the United States, France, and the Soviet Union. He called the Nazi defendants "black-hearted murderers, plunderers, and conspirators of which the world has not known their equal." As attorney general, he led one of the nation's most infamous treason cases, prosecuting William Joyce, known as "Lord Haw-Haw," for aiding the Nazi propaganda effort during World War II. Joyce was convicted and hanged. Shawcross also prosecuted Klaus Fuchs, a German-born physicist convicted of giving American and British atomic secrets to the Soviet Union. Shawcross, who also served as one of Britain's representatives at the United Nations through the late 1940s, left his job as attorney general in 1951, then served as president of the Board of Trade until the Labour government was defeated later that year. He stepped down as a lawmaker in 1958. He was knighted in 1945 and was made a life peer in 1959.
Shazar, Zalman, original name Shneur Zalman Rubashov (of which "Shazar" is an acronym) (b. Oct. 6, 1889, Mir, Russia [now in Belarus] - d. Oct. 5, 1974, Jerusalem), president of Israel (1963-73).
Shchelokov, Nikolay (Anisimovich) (b. Nov. 26, 1910, Almaznaya, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. Dec. 13, 1984, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), Soviet politician. He joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) in 1931. He became a local government and party worker in the Dnepropetrovsk region of the Ukraine (1938-41), served as a political officer in the Army (1941-46), and returned to Ukrainian local politics (1947-51). A protégé of Leonid Brezhnev, he was through Brezhnev's influence transferred to Moldavia (1951), holding various political offices there. He headed (1966-82) the U.S.S.R. Ministry of Public Order (from 1968 renamed the Ministry of the Interior), was granted the rank of Soviet Army colonel-general (1967), and was advanced to full general (1976). He was demoted and progressively disgraced under party leaders Yury Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko. Andropov, who as head of the Committee of State Security (KGB) had already been investigating corruption in Shchelokov's department, dismissed Shchelokov from office in December 1982 and removed him from membership of the CPSU Central Committee in June 1983. Under Chernenko he was stripped of military rank (November 1984). His unannounced death and hasty funeral (December 15) gave rise to rumours that he had committed suicide because he was distressed at the possibility of a trial on corruption charges.
Shcherbitsky, Vladimir Vasilyevich (Russian), Ukrainian Volodymyr Vasylyovych Shcherbytsky (b. Feb. 17, 1918, Verkhnyodneprovsk, Katerinoslav province, Russia [now Verkhnyodniprovsk, Ukraine] - d. Feb. 16, 1990), chairman of the Council of Ministers (1961-63, 1965-72) and first secretary of the Communist Party (1972-89) of the Ukrainian S.S.R.
Shea Jia-dong (b. Oct. 9, 1948, Tainan county, Taiwan), finance minister of Taiwan (2000-02). He earlier was a deputy governor of the Central Bank of China.
Shearer, Hugh Lawson (b. May 18, 1923, Martha Brae, Trelawny parish, Jamaica - d. July 5, 2004, Kingston, Jamaica), prime minister (1967-72) and foreign minister (1967-72, 1980-89) of Jamaica.
Sheares, Benjamin Henry (b. Aug. 12, 1907, Singapore - d. May 12, 1981, Singapore), president of Singapore (1970-81). He was a noted gynecologist and professor of medicine at the University of Malaya in Singapore before being unanimously elected president of Singapore by the parliament on Dec. 30, 1970. He was subsequently twice reelected for further four-year terms. He held a largely ceremonial role insofar as he had no executive powers in Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew's government. Sheares's approval, however, was imperative if an act of parliament was to become law. He died in office.
Sheetrit, Meir (b. Oct. 10, 1948, Skar-a-Souk, Morocco), Israeli politician. He immigrated to Israel in 1957 and was mayor of the development town of Yavneh (1974-87). In 1981 he was elected to the Knesset, and has remained a member since that time, except for the years 1988-92, when he served as treasurer of the Jewish Agency. He was appointed deputy speaker of the Knesset in 1996. In February-July 1999 he was finance minister. He was a candidate for the Likud party leadership in September 1999, but came third in the internal party election behind Ariel Sharon and Ehud Olmert. He became minister of justice (2001-03), transportation (2004-06), education, culture, and sport (2006), housing and construction (2006-07), and interior (2007-09).
Sheh bin Syed Abdullah Shahabuddin, Tun Syed (b. March 10, 1910, Alor Star, Kedah [now in Malaysia] - d. Jan. 31, 1969, Georgetown, Penang, Malaysia), head of state of Penang (1967-69).
Sheh (al-Haj) bin Syed Hassan Barakbah, Tun Syed (b. Nov. 10, 1906, Alor Star, Kedah [now in Malaysia] - d. Oct. 8, 1975, Alor Star), head of state of Penang (1969-75).
Shehadie, Sir Nicholas (Michael) (b. Nov. 15, 1926, Sydney, N.S.W.), lord mayor of Sydney (1973-75); knighted 1976.
Shehu, Mehmet (Ismail) (b. Jan. 10, 1913, Corush, Albania - d. Dec. 18, 1981, Tiranë, Albania), Albanian politician. In 1935 he was sent by King Zog I to the Military Academy in Naples, Italy. After he was expelled from the academy for his pro-Communist sympathies, he fought in the Spanish Civil War and was later interned in France. He escaped to Albania in 1942 and joined a partisan unit supported by Tito. After World War II he went to the Voroshilov Military Academy in Moscow and in 1946 was appointed chief of staff of the Albanian Army. A member of the Albanian (Communist) Party of Labour Politburo from 1948, he was party leader Enver Hoxha's trusted aide. Together they opposed Tito's attempt to include Albania in the Yugoslav federation. Shehu was chairman of the Council of Ministers (premier) from 1954 to 1981 after having served as minister of the interior from 1948 to 1954. He was also minister of defense from 1974 to 1980. It was announced in 1981 that Shehu killed himself in a moment of nervous depression. However, there was no national mourning and no state funeral was held, indicating that Shehu had fallen into disgrace. Persistent rumours maintained that he had been killed during a power struggle with Hoxha, and Hoxha in 1982 referred to him as "one of the most dangerous traitors and enemies" of his country, who, he claimed, had worked since before World War II for the American, the Yugoslavian, and then the Soviet intelligence services in turn.
Shehu, Musa (Sheikh), administrator of Rivers (1996-98).
Shehu, Tritan (Masar) (b. April 24, 1949, Tiranë, Albania), foreign minister of Albania (1996-97).
Shein, Ali Mohamed (b. March 13, 1948, Chokocho, Pemba, Zanzibar [now in Tanzania]), vice president of Tanzania (2001-10) and president of Zanzibar (2010- ).
Shekarau, (Alhaji Malam) Ibrahim (b. Nov. 5, 1955, Kano [now in Kano state], Nigeria), governor of Kano (2003-11).
Shekhar, Chandra, original name Chandra Shekhar Singh (b. July 1, 1927, Ibrahimpatti [now in Uttar Pradesh], India - d. July 8, 2007, New Delhi, India), prime minister of India (1990-91). He started his political career with the Praja Socialist Party, but joined the ruling Congress Party in 1964. He was a member of the Rajya Sabha (upper house) in 1962-77 and of the Lok Sabha (lower house) in 1977-84 and 1989-2007. He fell out with Congress Party leader Indira Gandhi in 1975 and was jailed for 21 months during the national emergency declared by her. In 1977 he was one of the founders of the Janata Party which defeated Gandhi, but the prime minister's post went to Morarji Desai, while Shekhar became party president. He undertook a cross-country marathon walk from Kanyakumari to Delhi in 1983 to highlight the problems of rural India and establish a rapport with the masses. In 1988 the Janata Party merged with several other opposition parties to form the Janata Dal under the leadership of V.P. Singh, who became prime minister in 1989. Shekhar broke with Janata Dal on Nov. 5, 1990, and formed the Janata Dal-Socialist faction (later renamed the Samajwadi Janata Party). Backed by Rajiv Gandhi's Congress (I) Party, he replaced Singh as prime minister on November 10 to head a weak minority government in which he also held the defense, home, and several other portfolios. After Congress (I) withdrew its support he resigned on March 6, 1991, remaining in office as a caretaker until new elections were held in May and June, in which his Samajwadi Janata Party won only 5 seats.
Shekhawat, Bhairon Singh (b. Oct. 23, 1923, Khachariyawas village, Sikar district [now in Rajasthan], India - d. May 15, 2010, Jaipur, India), chief minister of Rajasthan (1977-80, 1990-92, 1993-98) and vice president of India (2002-07).
Shelepin, Aleksandr (Nikolayevich) (b. Aug. 18, 1918, Voronezh, Russia - d. Oct. 24, 1994, Moscow, Russia), Soviet government official. He served with the Red Army during the war with Finland (1939-40). In 1940 he joined the Communist Party. As first secretary of the Komsomol's central committee in 1952-58, he directed the mobilization of hundreds of thousands of youths for Nikita Khrushchev's Virgin Lands Program for the economic development of Central Asia. Long regarded as an ally of Khrushchev, Shelepin became a member of the party's Central Committee in 1957 and was chairman of the Committee for State Security (KGB) in 1958-61. As he was not originally from the security branches, his appointment was seen as an attempt by Khrushchev to bring the police apparatus more firmly under party control. He is thought to have ordered the assassination of Ukrainian nationalist leader Stepan Bandera in Germany in 1959. In 1962 he was appointed chairman of the new Committee of Party and State Control, a powerful agency that supervised the economy and local administration. It was speculated that he played a major role in Khrushchev's ouster in 1964. Later that year he joined the party Presidium (later called Politburo). But he was apparently seen as a rival by the new party leader Leonid Brezhnev and was gradually removed from the political scene. His control committee was dissolved in 1965; he subsequently headed the national trade union organization, but after a 1975 trip to Britain in this capacity, which provoked huge protest demonstrations because of his KGB background, he was dropped from the Politburo and lost the trade union post. He was not reelected to the Central Committee at the 25th party congress in 1976.
Shelest, Pyotr Yefimovich, Ukrainian Petro Yukhymovych Shelest (b. Feb. 14, 1908, Andreyevka, Russia [now Andriyivka, Ukraine] - d. Jan. 22, 1996, Moscow, Russia), first secretary of the Ukrainian Communist Party (1963-72). He joined the Communist Party in 1928 and rose through different party and administrative jobs to become the Ukrainian Communist chief. In 1964, he also joined the Soviet Communist Party's Presidium, later renamed to Politburo. His policies promoting the use of the Ukrainian language over Russian and defending Ukrainian culture allowed him to preside over a brief cultural renaissance. In 1972, the Soviet leadership ousted him for encouraging Ukrainian nationalism and ordered a crackdown on Ukrainian intellectuals. After his removal, he served as Soviet deputy prime minister for one year, but owing to poor relations with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, he was dismissed, lost his Politburo seat, and was appointed director of a military enterprise outside Moscow, where he remained until his retirement.
Shema, Ibrahim Shehu (b. September 1957), governor of Katsina (2007- ).
Shen Bingkun (b. 1862, Shanhua, Hunan, China - d. 1913, Beijing, China), governor of Guangxi (1911-12). He held posts in various provinces (Gansu, Yunnan, and then Guangxi) in the late Qing period. He was forced to accept the independence of Guangxi after the republicans took power in 1911. He was ousted by Lu Rongting shortly afterward and then became an advisor of the central government.
Shen Chang-huan, English name Sampson C. Shen (b. Oct. 16, 1913, Jiangsu province, China - d. July 2, 1998, Taipei, Taiwan), foreign minister of Taiwan (1960-66, 1972-78). Between his two periods as foreign minister, he served as Taiwan's ambassador to Spain, the Holy See, and Thailand.
Shen Honglie (b. 1882 [some sources say 1880 or 1881], Tianmen, Hubei, China - d. 1969, Taiwan), chairman of the government of Shandong (1938-41) and Zhejiang (1946-48). He was also mayor of Qingdao special municipality and Chinese minister of agriculture and forestry.
Shen Hongying (b. 1871, Enping, Guangdong, China - d. 1938, Hong Kong), military governor of Guangdong (1923-24).
Shengyun (b. 1858 - d. 1931, Tianjin, China), governor-general of Shengan (1905-08).
Shepilov, Dmitry (Trofimovich) (b. Nov. 4, 1905 - d. Aug. 18, 1995), foreign minister of the Soviet Union (1956-57).
Sher, Bolot, originally Bolotbek (Esentayevich) Sherniyazov, interior minister of Kyrgyzstan (2010). He shortened his name on June 1, 2010.
Sheriff, Ali Modu (b. 1956, Ngala [now in Borno state], Nigeria), governor of Borno (2003-11).
Sherifo, Mahmoud (Ahmed), byname of Mahmoud Ahmed Mahmoud (b. April 4, 1947, Keren, Eritrea), foreign minister of Eritrea (1993-94). He was arrested on Sept. 18, 2001, with 10 other officials after having written in May 2001 an open letter criticizing the concentration of powers in the hands of Pres. Isaias Afewerki and calling for reforms. Officially, they were arrested for "conspiring to overthrow the government, colluding with hostile foreign powers with a view to compromising the sovereignty of the state, undermining Eritrean national security, and endangering Eritrean society and the general welfare of the people."
Shermarke, Abdirashid Ali, Somali Cabdirashiid Cali Sharma'arke, Arabic `Abd al-Rashid `Ali Sharmarki (b. Oct. 16, 1919, Haradere, Somalia - d. [assassinated] Oct. 15, 1969, Las Anod, northern Somalia), prime minister (1960-64) and president (1967-69) of Somalia.
Sherpao, Aftab Ahmad Khan (b. Aug. 20, 1944), chief minister of the North-West Frontier Province (1988-90, 1994-96); brother of Hayat Mohammad Khan Sherpao. He was minister of water and power (2002-04) and interior minister (2004-07) of Pakistan.
Sherpao, Hayat Mohammad Khan (b. 19... - d. Feb. 8, 1975, Peshawar, North-West Frontier Province [now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa], Pakistan), governor of the North-West Frontier Province (1971-72). He was killed in a bomb blast in Peshawar University.
Shershunov, Viktor (Andreyevich) (b. Nov. 16, 1950, Lenger, Chimkent oblast, Kazakh S.S.R. - d. [car accident] Sept. 20, 2007, northeast of Moscow, Russia), head of the administration of Kostroma oblast (1997-2007).
Sherwill, Sir Ambrose (James) (b. Feb. 12, 1890 - d. Sept. 25, 1968), bailiff of Guernsey (1946-59); knighted 1949.
Shettar, Jagadish (Shivappa) (b. Dec. 17, 1955, Kerur village, Bagalkot district, Mysore [now Karnataka], India), chief minister of Karnataka (2012-13).
Shevardnadze, Eduard (Amvrosiyevich), Georgian Eduard (Amvrosis dze) Shevardnadze, baptized on Nov. 23, 1992, with the name Giorgi (not in official use) (b. Jan. 25, 1928, Mamati, Georgian S.S.R.), foreign minister of the Soviet Union (1985-91, 1991) and head of state of Georgia (1992-2003). He joined the Komsomol (Young Communist League) in 1946 and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) in 1948. He was first secretary of Georgia's Komsomol Central Committee in 1957-61. In 1964 he was appointed first deputy minister and the following year minister of internal affairs of the Georgian S.S.R. In 1972 he was elected first secretary of the Tbilisi city committee (July) and of the Central Committee of the Georgian party (September). He became a member of the CPSU Central Committee in 1976 and a candidate member of the Politburo in 1978. On July 1, 1985, the new Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev promoted him to full membership in the Politburo and the next day named him foreign minister. He had no previous experience of foreign affairs. He became one of Gorbachev's closest associates, helping promote the reform policies of glasnost and perestroika and implement the withdrawal from Afghanistan. However, he resigned suddenly on Dec. 20, 1990, protesting against an increasing influence of conservatives in the government. Opposing the separatist tendencies in the republics, he returned briefly as Soviet foreign minister in late 1991, only to see the Soviet Union finally collapse. In 1992 he filled a leadership vacuum in Georgia following the overthrow of Pres. Zviad Gamsakhurdia, becoming head of state as chairman of the State Council (March) and then as chairman of the parliament (November). On Aug. 29, 1995, he survived an assassination attempt. He was elected president by large majorities on Nov. 5, 1995, and April 9, 2000, but was forced out of office in 2003 following claims that he rigged parliamentary elections.
Shevchenko, Valentina Semyonovna (b. March 12, 1935), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian S.S.R. (1984-90).
Shevchuk, Yevgeny (Vasilyevich) (b. June 19, 1968, Rybnitsa, Moldavian S.S.R. [now Rîbnita, Transnistria, Moldova]), president of Transnistria (2011- ).
Shevelyov, Andrey (Vladimirovich) (b. May 24, 1970, Leningrad, Russian S.F.S.R. [now St. Petersburg, Russia]), governor of Tver oblast (2011- ).
Sheyman, Viktar (b. May 26, 1958), interior minister of Belarus (1995).
Shi Jingting (b. 1886, Lijin, Shandong, China - d. Jan. 19, 1969, Taipei, Taiwan), chairman of the government of Shandong (1928-29).
Shi Jiuyong (b. Oct. 9, 1926, Zhejiang, China), president of the International Court of Justice (2003-06).
Shi Yousan (b. 1891, Kalun Village East [now in Changchun], Jilin, China - d. [assassinated] Dec. 1, 1940, near Puyang, Henan, China), chairman of the government of Anhui (1929-30).
Shi Zhaoji, name for Western use Sao-ke Alfred Sze (b. April 10, 1877, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China - d. Jan. 3, 1958, Washington, D.C.), transportation minister (1912) and foreign minister (1923, 1926) of China. He was minister to Great Britain (1914-21, 1929-32), minister (1921-29, 1933-35) and ambassador (1935-37) to the United States, senior adviser to the Chinese delegation at the United Nations conference in San Francisco (1945), and a member of the Advisory Council of the World Bank (1947-50).
Shieh Tung-min, Shieh also spelled Hsieh, Pinyin Xie Dongmin (b. Jan. 25, 1907, Changhua, Taiwan - d. April 8, 2001, Taipei, Taiwan), Taiwanese politician. He served at different times as Kaohsiung county magistrate, director of the Department of Civil Affairs, and speaker of the Taiwan Provincial Assembly. He suffered serious injuries to both hands when a parcel bomb sent to his office blew up on Oct. 10, 1966. The bomb was sent by Wang Sing-nan, later a DPP legislator, to highlight the cause of Taiwan independence. Shieh was assigned to serve as Taiwan provincial governor in 1972 by then premier Chiang Ching-kuo, thereby becoming Taiwan's first civilian governor. Before him, all of Taiwan's provincial governors had military backgrounds. Subsequently Shieh was vice president (1978-84) under Chiang Ching-kuo, and he continued to be influential in the Kuomintang after stepping down. Shieh was the first ethnic Taiwanese to serve as Taiwan governor and vice president. He was one of the Kuomintang heavyweights who often helped mediate in the party's fierce internal strife over policies and ideology under Lee Teng-hui's chairmanship.
Shihab, Alwi (Abdurrahman) (b. Aug. 19, 1946, Rappang, Sulawesi Selatan, Indonesia), foreign minister of Indonesia (1999-2001). He was the deputy chairman of the Nation Awakening Party (PKB), which was founded by Abdurrahman Wahid and was the fourth largest party in parliament in 1999. Known to be close to Wahid, Shihab was instrumental in swinging PKB's support firmly behind Wahid's presidential bid, after Wahid was nominated for the top post by other political groups.
Shikapwasha, Ronnie (b. Dec. 25, 1947, near Kabwe, Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia]), home affairs minister (2003-05, 2006-08) and foreign minister (2005-06) of Zambia.
Shikhmuradov, Boris (Orazovich) (b. May 25, 1949, Ashkhabad, Turkmen S.S.R. [now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan]), foreign minister of Turkmenistan (1995-2000). In March 2001 he became ambassador to China, but when he was recalled in October 2001, he fled instead to Moscow and launched a blistering attack on Pres. Saparmurat Niyazov. The Turkmen government's response was to issue an arrest warrant for Shikhmuradov on a bewildering array of charges, including the theft of military jets worth nearly $30 million. He was also blamed for an alleged assassination attempt on Nov. 25, 2002, when Niyazov's motorcade came under fire. He was arrested Dec. 26, 2002, after indicating he would turn himself in to ease the persecution of other suspects. On December 30, in a trial of less than a day, he was convicted and given the maximum sentence of 25 years in prison for plotting to assassinate the president. Critics said the proceedings were reminiscent of the purges under Soviet ruler Iosif Stalin: a videotaped confession was shown in which Shikhmuradov took blame for the alleged coup attempt ("I am not a person who is capable of running the state, but on the contrary, a criminal who is capable only of destroying the state").
Shikhsaidov, Khizri (Isayevich) (b. Aug. 1, 1947, Buynaksk, Dagestan A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Dagestan (1997-2004).
Shilowa, Mbhazima (Samuel) (b. April 30, 1958, Olifantshoek village, Transvaal [now in Limpopo province], South Africa), premier of Gauteng (1999-2008).
Shimoun XIX Benyamin (b. 1887 - d. [assassinated] March 16, 1918), patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East (1903-18).
Shimoun XXI Ishaya (b. 1908 - d. [assassinated] Nov. 6, 1975, San Francisco, Calif.), patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East (1920-75).
Shin Hyon Hwak (b. 1920, Chilgok, North Kyongsang province, Korea [now in South Korea] - d. April 26, 2007, Seoul, South Korea), prime minister of South Korea (1979-80). He was minister of restoration in 1959-60. In 1973, he was elected as a member of the National Assembly on the ticket of the then-ruling Republican Party, the predecessor of the Grand National Party. Under the Park Chung Hee regime, he was appointed as minister of health and social affairs in 1975 and then deputy prime minister and minister of economic planning in 1978. He served as prime minister for about six months after Park was assassinated. He was once again elected as a Republican Party lawmaker in 1979. After the presidency was handed to another authoritarian ruler, Chun Doo Hwan, in 1980, Shin moved to Samsung Group, one of the nation's biggest family-run industrial conglomerates; in 1986-91 he was a chairman of Samsung Corp., the group's trading arm.
Shinde, Sushil Kumar (b. Sept. 4, 1941, Solapur [now in Maharashtra], India), chief minister of Maharashtra (2003-04), governor of Andhra Pradesh (2004-06), and home affairs minister of India (2012- ).
Shinwell, Emanuel Shinwell, Baron, byname Manny Shinwell (b. Oct. 18, 1884, London, England - d. May 8, 1986, London), British politician. He joined a trade union in 1901, later organized striking Clydeside seamen, and after a demonstration in 1919 was imprisoned for incitement to riot. He was Labour member of Parliament for Linlithgow (1922-24, 1928-31), serving as parliamentary secretary to the Department of Mines (1924, 1930-31) and as financial secretary to the War Office (1929-30). He lost his seat in 1931 but four years later was elected for the Seaham division of Durham, defeating his former leader, Ramsay MacDonald, who had deserted Labour in 1931 to form the National Government. Although staunchly patriotic, Shinwell stayed outside the World War II coalition government. When Labour gained power, he was appointed minister of fuel and power (1945-47) and carried through the nationalization of the mines. Severely criticized for coal shortages during the bitter winter of 1946-47, he lost his seat in the cabinet until appointed minister of defense (1950-51). He sat in the House of Commons as member for the Easington division of Durham (1950-70), but he lost his seat on Labour's National Executive in 1951 and four years later left the shadow cabinet. Chairman of the Parliamentary Labour Party for the period 1964-67, he resigned after strongly opposing an attempt to join the European Communities. He went to the House of Lords as a life peer in 1970. Concern over the growth of militant left-wing influence in the Labour Party caused him to resign the post of party whip in 1982. His 100th birthday was enthusiastically celebrated by politicians of all persuasions; although a hard-hitting speaker, he had always been generous to individuals and was much loved.
Shiokawa, Masajuro (b. Oct. 13, 1921, Higashiosaka, Japan), finance minister of Japan (2001-03).
Shiotani, Yoshiko (b. April 5, 1939), governor of Kumamoto (2000-08).
Shipanga, Andreas (Zack) (b. Oct. 26, 1931, Ondangwa, northern South West Africa [now Namibia] - d. May 10, 2012, Uuhehe village, Oshikoto region, Namibia), chairman of the Transitional Government of National Unity of Namibia (1987, 1988).
Shipley, Dame Jenny, byname of Jennifer Mary Shipley, née Robson (b. Feb. 4, 1952, Gore, New Zealand), prime minister of New Zealand (1997-99). Having held a variety of positions on community organizations and in local government, she entered national politics in 1987 by successfully contesting the Ashburton seat for the New Zealand National Party (NP). She was appointed to cabinet in 1990. As minister of social welfare she oversaw major organizational and policy reforms. In 1993 she was appointed minister of health and sought to secure public health services that kept pace with the changing face of modern medicine and people's rising expectations balanced against what New Zealand could realistically afford. She was a strong supporter of the economic and social reforms of the 1980s and '90s. In 1990-96 she was also the minister of women's affairs and actively promoted legislative change that advanced the status of New Zealand women. In 1996 she was appointed to the portfolios of state services, transport, state owned enterprises, accident rehabilitation compensation insurance, and Radio New Zealand. In these roles she pursued policies consistent with her belief in an economic programme that repays debt, lowers taxes, reduces trade barriers, and sells assets where appropriate. In September 1997 she was reappointed minister of women's affairs and relinquished the state services portfolio. She challenged Prime Minister Jim Bolger's leadership and succeeded in replacing him as NP leader in November 1997, then in December became the country's first female prime minister. In 1998 the coalition with the New Zealand First Party collapsed, but she maintained herself in office until the 1999 elections, when the NP was defeated by the Labour Party. She quit as party leader on Oct. 8, 2001. She was knighted in 2009.
Shippard, Sir Sidney (Godolphin Alexander) (b. May 29, 1837, Brussels, Belgium - d. March 29, 1902, London, England), British colonial administrator. After holding important appointments in Griqualand West as attorney general (1875-77) and recorder of the high court (1877-78), he became a Cape Supreme Court judge (1880-85). When Britain formally took over Bechuanaland, he became chief magistrate and administrator of British Bechuanaland and resident commissioner of the Bechuanaland protectorate (1885-95). He was knighted in 1887. He enthusiastically approved of Cecil Rhodes's plans to extend British influence northward, forestalling possible advance there by the Germans or the Boers. In 1887, he pressed Sir Hercules Robinson, the high commissioner in South Africa, not to sanction a treaty between Lobengula, ruler of Matabeleland-Mashonaland (now in Zimbabwe), and Piet Grobler, who represented the Transvaal, but to send the Rev. J.S. Moffat to negotiate a treaty (February 1888) pledging the chief not to cede territory without British consent. He then helped to persuade Lobengula to grant to Rhodes's agents in October 1888 the C.O. Rudd mineral concession, which became the basis of the British South Africa Company, chartered in 1889. Shippard's complicity in the raid (December 1895) of L.S. Jameson was suspected, but never proved. He persuaded two protectorate chiefs in 1894 to let the company administer their territory on the Transvaal border, including Pitsani, the jumping-off point for the raid. He was in Johannesburg during the abortive rising in December, and publicly, though unofficially, asked the Reform Committee to lay down its arms. He afterward retired to England and was made a director of the British South Africa Company in 1898.
Shirdon, Abdi Farah, Somali Cabdi Faarax Shirdoon (b. 1958, Dhusamareb, Somalia), prime minister of Somalia (2012- ).
Shirk, George H(enry) (b. May 1, 1913, Oklahoma City, Okla. - d. March 1977, Oklahoma City), mayor of Oklahoma City (1964-67).
Shiroka, Kolë (b. 1922 - d. May 21, 1994, Belgrade, Serbia), president of the Presidency (1982-83) and secretary of the League of Communists (1985-86) of Kosovo.
Shishakli, Adib (al-Hasan) al- (b. 1909, Hama, Syria - d. [assassinated] Sept. 28, 1964, Ceres, Brazil), president of Syria (1953-54).
Shishkin, Nikolay Pavlovich (b. Aug. 11, 1830 - d. Dec. 11, 1902), acting foreign minister of Russia (1895, 1896-97).
Shkolnikov, Aleksey Mikhailovich (b. Jan. 15 [Jan. 2, O.S.], 1914, Pashino [or Yegoryevsk], Ryazan province, Russia - d. Feb. 7, 2003, Moscow, Russia), deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Russian S.F.S.R. (1965-73).
Shoigu, Sergey (Kuzhugetovich) (b. May 21, 1955, Chadan, Tuva autonomous oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Moscow oblast (2012) and defense minister of Russia (2012- ). Earlier he was chairman of the state committee (1991-94) and minister (1994-2012) for civil defense, emergency situations, and disaster relief and a deputy prime minister (2000). He was also leader (1999-2001) and co-chairman of the Supreme Council (2001-02) of the United Russia party.
Shoman, Assad (b. Feb. 13, 1943, Belize, British Honduras [now Belize]), foreign minister of Belize (2002-03).
Shoman, Lisa (Marie) (b. Jan. 27, 1964, Belize, British Honduras [now Belize]), foreign minister of Belize (2007-08); niece of Assad Shoman. She was ambassador to the United States in 2000-07.
Shonekan, Ernest (Adegunle Oladeinde) (b. May 9, 1936, Lagos, Nigeria), interim president of Nigeria (1993).
Short, Sir Apenera (Pera) (b. Feb. 4, 1916, Takuvaine, Cook Islands - d. June 15, 2011, Muri, Cook Islands), queen's representative of the Cook Islands (1990-2000); knighted 1997.
Short, Clare (b. Feb. 15, 1946, Birmingham, England), British politician. Elected as Labour MP for Birmingham Ladywood in 1983, she served on Neil Kinnock's shadow ministerial team, and on Labour's return to power in 1997 was appointed by Prime Minister Tony Blair as secretary of state for international development. She resigned in May 2003 in protest against the Iraq war and became one of Blair's harshest critics.
Shpak, Georgy (Ivanovich) (b. Sept. 8, 1943, Rostov, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Ryazan oblast (2004-08).
Shport, Vyacheslav (Ivanovich) (b. June 16, 1954, Komsomolsk-na-Amure, Khabarovsk kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Khabarovsk kray (2009- ).
Shrestha, Narayan Kaji, byname Prakash (b. Oct. 18, 1960, Jaubari, Gorkha district, Nepal), home affairs minister (2011) and foreign minister (2011-12, 2012-13) of Nepal. He was general secretary of the Communist Party of Nepal (Unity Centre) in 1995-2003 and then co-general secretary (2003-07) and general secretary (2007-09) of the CPN (Unity Centre-Masal). He made himself public in 2008 after 18 years of clandestine political activity.
Shtansky, Nina (Viktorovna) (b. April 10, 1977, Tiraspol, Moldavian S.S.R. [now in Transnistria, Moldova]), foreign minister of Transnistria (2012- ).
Shtygashev, Vladimir (Nikolayevich) (b. Oct. 18, 1939), chairman of the Supreme Council of Khakassia (1992-97).
Shtyrov, Vyacheslav (Anatolyevich) (b. May 23, 1953, Khandyga, Yakut A.S.S.R. [now Republic of Sakha], Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister (1993-94) and president (2002-10) of Sakha.
Shtyurmer, Boris Vladimirovich1 (b. July 27 [July 15, O.S.], 1848 - d. Sept. 2 [Aug. 20, O.S.], 1917, Petrograd [St. Petersburg], Russia), prime minister of Russia (1916). He began his career in the Russian Senate in 1872, was appointed president of the zemstvo board of the government of Tver in 1892, and then governor of Novgorod in 1894 and of Yaroslavl in 1896. For many years he was master of ceremonies at the imperial court, and he became a department head in the Ministry of the Interior. On Feb. 2, 1916, while Emperor Nikolay II was at the front with his troops, leaving the administration of the country to his wife, Aleksandra, and to her personal advisor, Grigory Rasputin, Shtyurmer, because of his association with those two, was made prime minister. But Aleksandra and Rasputin were the decision-makers, and he did not establish policies of his own. In March he was also given the key post of interior minister, but he failed to deal effectively with domestic problems, including inflation, a transportation breakdown, and consequent food shortages. On July 20 he exchanged the interior post for the more prestigious office of foreign minister, but he proved to be equally incompetent in that position. His reactionary attitude provoked strong opposition; rumours accusing him of being a German sympathizer were widespread but without proof. Willfully or not, however, he aided Germany during World War I by his inept administration. When the Duma met in November, Pavel Milyukov indicted him as at once the puppet and the patron of the "dark forces" behind the throne. He was forced to resign on November 23 and became grand chamberlain of the imperial court. He was arrested after the revolution of March 1917 and died in prison.
1 During World War I, before becoming prime minister, he asked Nikolay II for permission to change his German surname Shtyurmer (Stürmer) to Panin, but nothing came of this.
Shuaibu, Habibu (Idris), administrator of Plateau (1996-98) and Niger (1998-99).
Shukairy, Ahmed (Asaad), also spelled Ahmad Shuqayri, etc., Arabic Ahmad (Asa`d) al-Shukayri (b. 1907, Tebnin, southern Lebanon - d. Feb. 26, 1980, Amman, Jordan), Palestinian leader. Having been involved in the Palestinian nationalist movement, he fled Palestine after the abortive Arab revolt of 1936-39. Returning in the late 1940s, he held several positions in the civil administration before the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948. He later became an official of the Arab League and represented Saudi Arabia and then Syria at the United Nations in the early 1950s. He was elected chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) after it was formed in 1964, and as such was a leading spokesman for the Palestinian cause and a negotiator with Arab governments and international organizations. After the Arab defeat in the Six-Day War (1967) he found himself increasingly isolated by a younger, more militant Palestinian leadership, and he resigned in December of that year. He then retired from active politics, making only occasional statements on the Palestine situation.
Shukla, Ravi Shankar (b. 1877 - d. Dec. 31, 1956), chief minister of the Central Provinces and Berar (1946-50) and Madhya Pradesh (1950-56).
Shukla, Shyama Charan (b. Feb. 27, 1925, Raipur [now in Chhattisgarh], India - d. Feb. 14, 2007, Raipur), chief minister of Madhya Pradesh (1969-72, 1975-77, 1989-90); son of Ravi Shankar Shukla.
Shukla, Vidya Charan (b. 1927), foreign minister of India (1990-91); brother of Shyama Charan Shukla.
Shultz, George (Pratt) (b. Dec. 13, 1920, New York City), U.S. secretary of state (1982-89). He served as secretary of labor (1969-70), director of the Office of Management and Budget (1970-72), and secretary of the treasury (1972-74) in Richard Nixon's administration. He was untouched by the Watergate scandal and left government months before Nixon's resignation to become president of Bechtel Corp., an international engineering firm. It came as no surprise to government leaders when Pres. Ronald Reagan named Shultz to be secretary of state after the forced resignation of Alexander Haig in 1982. Shultz had wanted the job when the Reagan administration came to power, but instead became head of a new Economic Policy Advisory Board in 1981. In 1982, however, his nomination to be Haig's replacement sailed through the Senate with no opposition. Shultz was known as a quiet, soft-spoken team player whose personal style contrasted dramatically with that of the mercurial Haig, who frequently clashed with the White House and other cabinet members over questions of policy and jurisdiction. Shultz also had the advantage of having worked at Bechtel with Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger, who had been involved in a running feud with Haig. In taking over at the State Department, Shultz made the point that policy would not change, since he served the same president. An agreement he worked out with Lebanon and Israel in 1983 fell apart under Syrian pressure. He also failed to entice Palestinians into negotiations with Israel, or even to talk to him. His most lasting achievement may have been to recognize the change in Moscow after Mikhail Gorbachev's ascent to power in 1985 and to play a leading role within the administration in responding to Soviet arms control overtures. He left office with Reagan in 1989.
Shumyatky, Boris Zakharovich (b. Nov. 4, 1886 - d. July 29, 1938), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Far-Eastern Republic (1920-21).
Shushkevich, Stanislau (Stanislavavich), Russian Stanislav Stanislavovich Shushkevich (b. Dec. 15, 1934, Minsk, Belorussian S.S.R.), chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Belarus (1991-94).
Shuteyev, Vasily (Ivanovich) (b. July 23, 1942), head of the administration of Kursk oblast (1991-96).
Shvernik, Nikolay (Mikhailovich) (b. May 19 [May 7, O.S.], 1888, St. Petersburg, Russia - d. Dec. 24, 1970, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. (1946-53).
Siam, Said, Arabic in full Sa`id Muhammad Sha`ban Siyyam (b. 1959, Shati refugee camp, Gaza Strip - d. [Israeli airstrike] Jan. 15, 2009, Gaza city, Gaza Strip), interior minister of the Palestinian Authority (2006-07, continuing in the Gaza Strip 2007-09).
Siazon, Domingo (Lim, Jr.) (b. July 9, 1939, Aparri, Cagayan, Philippines), foreign secretary of the Philippines (1995-2001). He has also been ambassador to Japan (1993-95, 2001-10). In 1985-93 he was director-general of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization.
Siba, Thurston K. (b. July 28, 1937), governor of Kosrae (1991-95).
Sibanyoni, Shadrack J(ohn) S(elwyn) (b. Nov. 17, 1927, Middelburg, South Africa - d. May 20, 2007, Manzini, Swaziland), foreign minister of Swaziland (1986-87).
Sibomana, Adrien (b. Sept. 4, 1953, Bukeye, Burundi), prime minister of Burundi (1988-93).
Sibour, Paul (Émile) Daclin (b. June 1, 1840, Châlon-sur-Saône, Saône-et-Loire, France - d. ...), governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1896-99).
Sicaud, Pierre (René Jean) (b. March 14, 1911, Le Mans, France - d. Jan. 15, 1998, Île de Groix, France), governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1955-58) and of French Polynesia (1958-61).
Sicurani, Jean (Charles) (b. May 13, 1915, Bône [now Annaba], Algeria - d. July 9, 1977, Paris), French high commissioner of the Sudanese Republic (1958-60) and governor of French Polynesia (1965-69).
Sid Cara, Chérif (b. Nov. 26, 1902, Mila, near Constantine, Algeria - d. March 6, 1999, Grenoble, France), co-president of the Central Committee of Public Safety of Algeria (1958).
C. Sid Cara
N. Sid Cara
Sid Cara, Nafissa (b. April 18, 1910, Saint-Arnaud, Algeria - d. Jan. 1, 2002), French politician; sister of Chérif Sid Cara. As a secretary of state in 1959-62, she was the first Muslim member of a French government.
Sid'Ahmed, Ahmed Ould, Arabic Ahmad walad Sid'Ahmad (b. Aug. 11, 1949, Tidjikja, Mauritania), foreign minister of Mauritania (1998-2001, 2005-07). He was ambassador to Egypt (1988-90), Senegal (1992-93), Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands (1993-96), the United States (1997-98), and Syria (2003-05) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1996-97).
Siddaramaiah, K. (b. Aug. 12, 1948, Siddaramanahundi, Mysore district, Mysore [now Karnataka] state, India), chief minister of Karnataka (2013- ).
Siddhi Savetsila (b. Jan. 7, 1920, Bangkok, Siam [now Thailand]), foreign minister of Thailand (1980-90).
Sidhu, Shivinder Singh (b. Oct. 13, 1929), secretary-general of the International Civil Aviation Organization (1988-91) and governor of Manipur (2004-08), Meghalaya (2007-08), and Goa (2008-11).
Sidi, Ahmed Salem Ould, Arabic Ahmad Salim walad Sidi (d. March 1981), acting prime minister of Mauritania (1979). He was executed after an attempted coup against Pres. Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidalla.
Sidibé, Cissé Mariam Kaďdama (Cissé is married name) (b. Jan. 4, 1948, Tombouctou, Mali), prime minister of Mali (2011-12). The country's first female prime minister, she was earlier minister of plan and international cooperation (1991-92), agriculture and environment (1992), and rural development (2002).
Sidibé, Mandé (b. Jan. 20, 1940, Bafoulabé, near Kayes, French Sudan [now Mali] - d. Aug. 25, 2009, Paris, France), prime minister of Mali (2000-02).
Sidibé, Modibo (b. Nov. 4, 1952, Bamako, French Sudan [now Mali]), foreign minister (1997-2002) and prime minister (2007-11) of Mali; brother of Mandé Sidibé.
Sidibé, Souleymane (Yacouba), byname Bebel (b. May 24, 1949, Ké-Macina circle, near Ségou, French Sudan [now Mali]), foreign minister of Mali (1991-92). The colonel was security minister in 2002-04.
Sidimé, Lamine (b. 1944, Mamou, French Guinea [now Guinea]), prime minister of Guinea (1999-2004). Since 1992 he is president of the Supreme Court.
Sidorski, Syarhey (Syarheyevich), Russian Sergey (Sergeyevich) Sidorsky (b. March 13, 1954, Gomel, Belorussian S.S.R.), prime minister of Belarus (2003-10).
Siegelman, Don(ald Eugene) (b. Feb. 24, 1946, Mobile, Ala.), governor of Alabama (1999-2003). He was first elected to public office in 1978 as secretary of state and reelected to the same office in 1982. In 1986 he was elected attorney general, and in 1994 lieutenant governor. In the 1998 gubernatorial election Siegelman, a Democrat in a Southern state that had grown increasingly Republican, dared to take on the religious right by backing gambling to help pay for education. From a lieutenant governor's office that traditionally has been a political dead end in Alabama, he ousted Republican governor Fob James. His GOP critics labeled him a liberal and Bill Clinton clone, but Siegelman won by currying the support of business and independents enthusiastic about his plan to create college scholarships and bolster funding of public schools. He drew fire from Christian conservatives who sided with James largely because of his stand in favour of teacher-led prayer in public schools. In an October 1999 referendum, voters rejected his education lottery scheme 54%-46%. "I have no Plan B," he said, and state spending on education was cut. He had success in attracting automakers Honda and Hyundai to the state, got a compromise between trial lawyers and business leaders on limits to jury awards, and installed the CHIP children's health care program. He convinced voters to approve Amendment One for $425 million in bonds to fund road and bridge building. But he continued to have trouble on education funding. A special session in mid-2001 rejected his entire proposal; another in December 2001 passed $140 million in business and telephone taxes. In a close election in 2002 he was defeated by Republican Bob Riley. In June 2006 Siegelman was convicted on federal charges of bribery and conspiracy.
Siew, Vincent (C.), Wade-Giles Hsiao Wan-chang, Pinyin Xiao Wanchang (b. Jan. 3, 1939, Chiayi, Taiwan), premier (1997-2000) and vice president (2008- ) of Taiwan. He led the Mainland Affairs Council and the Council for Economic Planning and Development, Taiwan's top economic policy planning agency, in 1993-94. He was Taiwan's top policymaker toward rival China, which lies just across the Taiwan Strait, when he headed the Mainland Affairs Council in 1994-95. Under Siew, the Mainland Affairs Council set up "offshore transshipment centres" that allowed Taiwan and mainland ships to sail directly across the Taiwan Strait for the first time since 1949. Siew, who was generally seen as a liberal, also represented Pres. Lee Teng-hui at two Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summits and was handpicked by Lee to run for a parliament seat in 1995. After Lien Chan, who was elected vice president in 1996, tendered his resignation as prime minister in 1997, Pres. Lee Teng-hui named Siew, a rising star in the Nationalist Party (Kuomintang), to succeed him. Siew vowed to improve the island's icy relations with China and maintain its status as an "Asian tiger" economy. He was Lien Chan's running mate in the 2000 elections, but the Kuomintang was defeated. In 2008, however, he stood again as Kuomintang vice presidential candidate, and the ticket led by Ma Ying-jeou was successful.
Sifi, Mokdad, Arabic Muqdad Sifi (b. April 21, 1940, Tebessa, Algeria), prime minister of Algeria (1994-95). He ran for president in 1999, backed by a faction in the main ruling RND party. He pledged to "free Algerians from economic misery and Islamic terror."
Sigcau (a Mandlonke), Botha (Manzolwandle Jongilizwe) (b. 1913 - d. Dec. 1, 1978, Umtata, Transkei), paramount chief of East amaPondo (1937-78) and president of Transkei (1976-78).
Sigcau, Stella (Margaret Nomzamo) (b. Jan. 4, 1937, Lusikisiki, East Pondoland, Cape province [now in Eastern Cape], South Africa - d. May 7, 2006, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa), prime minister of Transkei (1987); daughter of Botha Sigcau. She entered politics during Transkei's 1968 election and won a seat for Lusikisiki. She became Transkei's interior affairs minister after that homeland's independence and was prime minister for three months before Gen. Bantu Holomisa - the chief of the defense force at the time - ousted her. She led the Transkei National Independence Party for 13 years until 1990, when she disbanded the party. She was appointed public enterprises minister in the first post-apartheid government of South Africa in 1994, became minister of public works in 1999, and died in office.
Sigcawu, Xolilizwe (Mzikayise) (b. June 26, 1926 - d. Dec. 31, 2005, Pretoria, South Africa), paramount chief of the Xhosa (1965-2005).
Sigrah, Rensley A. (b. March 2, 1955), governor of Kosrae (1999-2007).
Sigrist, Albert (b. April 9, 1923 - d. March 19, 2005, Rafz, Zürich, Switzerland), president of the government of Zürich (1984-85).
Sigua, Tengiz (Ippolitovich), Georgian Tengiz (Ippolitis dze) Sigua (b. Sept. 11, 1934), prime minister of Georgia (1990-91, 1992-93).
Sigurdardóttir, Jóhanna (b. Oct. 4, 1942, Reykjavík, Iceland), prime minister of Iceland (2009- ). A member of the Althing since 1978, she was minister of social affairs in 1987-94 and 2007-09. She was perhaps best known for her reaction to a failed bid to become chairman of the Social Democratic Party in 1994. Despite a heavy loss, she predicted: "My time will come." In 1995, she quit the Social Democrats and formed her own party, Thjódvaki - translated as "Waking The Nation" - which won four parliamentary seats. She rejoined her old party when it merged with three other centre-left groups, including Thjódvaki, in 2000 as the Social Democratic Alliance. When the conservative-led government resigned in January 2009 after weeks of raucous street protests whipped up by anger and desolation at the startling collapse of Iceland's financial system, she became leader of an interim government, a coalition of the Social Democrats and the Left-Green Movement, to take the country to elections in April. She not only became the first female prime minister of Iceland (which had a female president before), but more notably the modern world's first openly gay or lesbian national leader (head of state or government).
Siimann, Mart (b. Sept. 21, 1946, Kilingi-Nőmme, Pärnu county, Estonian S.S.R.), prime minister of Estonia (1997-99).
Sikatana, Mundia (Fred), foreign minister of Zambia (2006-07).
Sikivou, Semesa (Koroikilai) (b. 1917 - d. 1990), foreign minister of Fiji (1985-86). He also served as permanent representative to the United Nations (1970-76).
Sikorski, Radoslaw (Tomasz), byname Radek Sikorski (b. Feb. 23, 1963, Bydgoszcz, Poland), defense minister (2005-07) and foreign minister (2007- ) of Poland.
Sikorski, Wladyslaw (Eugeniusz) (b. May 20, 1881, Tuszów Narodowy, Austria-Hungary [now in Poland] - d. July 4, 1943, Gibraltar), Polish statesman. A reserve officer of the Austrian army, he was, with Józef Pilsudski, one of the founders, in 1908, of a secret military organization of Polish nationalists, and from August 1914 to September 1916, during World War I, he headed the military department of the Supreme National Committee, organizing the Polish Legion to fight on the Austrian side against Russia. Having distinguished himself in the Russo-Polish War (1920-21), he was appointed chief of the Polish general staff on April 1, 1921. In 1922-23 he served briefly as prime minister of Poland. As minister of military affairs in 1924-25, he contributed to the modernization of the armed forces. Commander of the Lwów army corps from December 1925, he remained neutral during Pilsudski's coup d'état of May 1926. Even so, he was dismissed from his post in March 1928. He then joined the anti-Pilsudski group headed by Ignacy Paderewski, Wincenty Witos, and Wojciech Korfanty. When World War II broke out with the German attack on Poland in 1939, Sikorski went to Paris to become prime minister of the exile government, moving to London in 1940. He established good relations with Allied leaders and organized Polish forces in various parts of the world. But when in April 1943 his government asked the International Red Cross to investigate the killing at Katyn of thousands of Polish officers who had been in Soviet hands, Soviet ruler Iosif Stalin broke off Soviet-Polish diplomatic relations. In July Sikorski was killed in an air crash at Gibraltar, after inspecting Polish forces in the Middle East.
Sikua, (David) Derek (b. Sept. 10, 1959), prime minister of the Solomon Islands (2007-10).
Silajdzic, Haris (b. Oct. 1, 1945, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), foreign minister (1990-93), prime minister (1993-96), and co-prime minister (1997-2000) of Bosnia and Herzegovina. He became a familiar figure in the Western media during the Bosnian conflict, appealing for military intervention to end the Serb siege of Sarajevo. In November 1995, he played a central role at peace talks in the United States that led to the signing of a peace treaty ending the war. He resigned from the prime minister's post and from the Party of Democratic Action (SDA) in January 1996 to form his own party (the Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina) and contest national elections. Handsome, mercurial, intellectual, and combative, Silajdzic was a solo artist rather than a team player. He rebelled against SDA party discipline and what he saw as its flirtation with Muslim fundamentalism. Easily the second most popular Muslim in Bosnia after Pres. Alija Izetbegovic, Silajdzic campaigned for a united, multi-ethnic Bosnia. He appealed to those who wanted a change from the SDA, but change at the hands of someone tested and familiar. He ran as a candidate for the presidency in the country's first peacetime elections held in September 1996, but lost to Izetbegovic, who was elected as the chairman of a new three-man collective presidency. Silajdzic's nomination as co-prime minister in December 1996 gave a boost to his political career after his party's poor showing in the elections. He temporarily withdrew from the political scene in 2001, but in 2006-10 he was the Muslim member of the tripartite presidency, holding its rotating chairmanship in 2008 and 2010.
Silajdzic, Samir (b. May 19, 1963, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), premier of Sarajevo canton (2006-08).
Silayev, Boris (Ivanovich) (b. Feb. 28, 1946, Lyalichi village, Mikhailov rayon, Primorsky kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), Kyrgyz politician. An ethnic Russian, he was mayor of Bishkek in 1995-98. In April 1998, he became sole deputy prime minister (previously there were three) and in that capacity was acting prime minister twice (1998, 1999). In 1999 he was named to the new post of first deputy prime minister, but resigned in 2000. In 2001 he moved to Moscow.
Silayev, Ivan (Stepanovich) (b. Oct. 21, 1930, Nizhny Novgorod oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), Soviet politician. He became deputy minister of aviation in 1974, first deputy in 1977, and minister of the machine tool industries in 1980. In 1981 he became minister of aviation. He joined the Communist Party in 1959 and became a full member of the Central Committee in 1981. From 1985 to 1990 he was a deputy prime minister. He survived criticism for economic failure by Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev at a Communist Party plenum in June 1987, and in 1988 he assumed responsibility for economic cooperation with West Germany. He was nominated Russian prime minister by Russian president Boris Yeltsin in 1990 as a compromise candidate. His background in the defense economy made him suspect from the reformers' point of view, but he kept his promise to pursue market reforms. After the failed coup of Aug. 19-21, 1991, he was nominated by Yeltsin to oversee economic policy on an all-Union scale. However, the inability of the republics to agree on a reform agenda led Russia to decide to go it alone, although an economic union was agreed to on paper. In September Silayev became in effect Soviet prime minister as chairman of the interrepublican committee that coordinated communications, transport, energy, nuclear energy, aviation, and statistics. This body recruited able personnel after the demise of many all-Union ministries. He was in a position to play a vital role in helping to implement the goals of Russian economic reform on an all-Union basis - at least in the sectors under his aegis. These sectors were almost all in the former military-industrial complex, where he gained his industrial experience. His task was exacerbated by growing regionalism and in December the Soviet Union was finally dissolved.
Siles (del Valle), Juan Ignacio (b. April 10, 1961, Chile), foreign minister of Bolivia (2003-05); nephew of Jaime del Valle Alliende.
Siles Reyes, (Mariano) Hernando (b. Aug. 5, 1882, Sucre, Bolivia - d. Nov. 23, 1942), president of Bolivia (1926-30).
Siles Salinas, Luis Adolfo (b. June 21, 1925, La Paz, Bolivia - d. Oct. 19, 2005), president of Bolivia (1969); son of Hernando Siles Reyes; half-brother of Hernán Siles Zuazo. A founder and leader of the Social Democratic Party, he was vice president under Pres. René Barrientos, who was killed in a helicopter crash in April 1969. Siles took over the presidency, but was toppled five months later in a military coup led by Gen. Alfredo Ovando, who began 16 years of coups and military dictatorships in Bolivia. Siles was sent into exile in neighbouring Chile, but returned home a few months later, becoming a devoted human rights activist and playing a key role in the pro-democracy efforts that succeeded in 1982 with the restoration of an elected government.
Siles Zuazo, Hernán (b. March 21, 1914, La Paz, Bolivia - d. Aug. 6, 1996, Montevideo, Uruguay), president of Bolivia (1956-60, 1982-85); son of Hernando Siles Reyes. Nicknamed el conejo ("the rabbit"), he was first elected to parliament in 1942, having helped form the Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario (MNR) together with Víctor Paz Estenssoro, Wálter Guevara Arze, and the writer Augusto Céspedes. Members of the MNR, including Siles Zuazo, were forced into exile in 1946, but he returned in 1952 when he joined mining union leader Juan Lechín Oquendo in a successful uprising that resulted in Paz Estenssoro taking power. Siles Zuazo became vice president. When he was elected president in 1956, he faced an economic crisis after the price of tin plummeted. He brought the unions into line by going on a hunger strike and was then able to impose an International Monetary Fund agreement on the country, which helped relaunch the economy. He was defeated in the 1960 elections and then served as ambassador to Paraguay and Spain. In 1963 Paz Estenssoro and Siles Zuazo came into conflict when the former put himself forward for a third time for president. Siles Zuazo defeated the move, but this precipitated a military coup in 1964, and he was forced into exile. After having helped destabilize three military regimes that had usurped his election victories in 1978, 1979, and 1980, he returned to power in 1982 when the military junta agreed to hand over power to a civilian government. He inherited widespread social unrest and an economy in shambles. His four-year term was cut short when hyperinflation, a hostile Congress, and angry labour unions forced him to call early elections. He then went into a voluntary exile in Uruguay.
Silk, John (M.) (b. Sept. 15, 1956, Kwajalein island, Kwajalein atoll, Marshall Islands), foreign minister of the Marshall Islands (2009-12).
Silva, Estanislau (da Conceiçăo Aleixo Maria) da (b. Aug. 4, 1952, Dili, Portuguese Timor [now East Timor]), prime minister of East Timor (2007).
E. da Silva
Silva, Israel Pinheiro da (b. Jan. 4, 1896, Caeté, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. July 6, 1973, Belo Horizonte, Brazil), prefect of the Distrito Federal (1960-61) and governor of Minas Gerais (1966-71).
Silva Calderón, Álvaro (b. 1929, Teresen, Venezuela), secretary-general of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (2002-03).
Silva Cienfuegos-Jovellanos, Pedro de (b. Aug. 18, 1945, Gijón, Asturias, Spain), president of the government of Asturias (1983-91).
Silva Cimma, Enrique (b. Nov. 11, 1918, Iquique, Chile - d. July 14, 2012), foreign minister of Chile (1990-94).
Silva Nieto, Fernando (b. Nov. 24, 1950, San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, Mexico), governor of San Luis Potosí (1997-2003).
Silveira, Antônio Francisco Azeredo da (b. 1917, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. 1990), foreign minister of Brazil (1974-79).
Silveira, Joaquim Xavier da, Júnior (b. 1864, Săo Paulo, Brazil - d. 1912, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Rio Grande do Norte (1890) and prefect of the Distrito Federal (1901-02).
Silveira, Luiz Henrique da (b. Feb. 25, 1940, Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brazil), governor of Santa Catarina (2003-10).
Silveira, Maria do Carmo (Trovoada Pires de Carvalho) (b. 1960?), prime minister and finance minister of Săo Tomé and Príncipe (2005-06).
Silvestre, Achille (Louis Auguste), administrator of Kwangchowan (1929-32), resident-superior of Cambodia (1932-35), and governor of French Somaliland (1935).
Silvestrini, Achille Cardinal (b. Oct. 25, 1923, Brisighella, Emilia-Romagna, Italy), foreign minister of Vatican City (1979-88). He was elevated to cardinal on June 28, 1988.
Sim Var (b. Feb. 2, 1906, Tbaung Khmum, Kompong Cham province, eastern Cambodia - d. Oct. 12, 1989, Paris), prime minister (1957-58, 1958) and foreign minister (1957-58) of Cambodia. He was also defense minister (1953, 1958), agriculture minister (1954-55), president of the National Assembly (1955-56), and ambassador to Japan (1958-64, 1970-74).
Sima, Hans (b. June 4, 1918, Saifnitz, Kärnten, Austria - d. Oct. 7, 2006, Klagenfurt, Kärnten), Landeshauptmann of Kärnten (1965-74).
Simăo, Leonardo (Santos) (b. June 6, 1953, Matsinhe, Gaza province, Mozambique), foreign minister of Mozambique (1994-2005).
Simasius, Remigijus (b. Jan. 12, 1974, Taurage, Lithuanian S.S.R.), justice minister of Lithuania (2008- ).
Simbananiye, Artémon (b. 1935, Bururi district, Burundi), foreign minister of Burundi (1971-74).
Simeon II, civil name Simeon (Borisov) Sakskoburggotski (b. June 16, 1937, Sofia, Bulgaria), king (1943-46) and prime minister (2001-05) of Bulgaria. When his father, Boris III, died under mysterious circumstances in 1943, the six-year-old crown prince ascended the throne under a regency including Boris' brother Prince Kirill, former war minister Lieut.Gen. Nikola Mihov, and former premier Bogdan Filov. After Bulgaria left the Axis side in World War II and the Communists, aided by the Soviet Red Army, seized power in 1944, the regents were arrested and later executed as enemies of the state and collaborators with the Germans. He then ruled through another three-man regency, but a referendum on Sept. 8, 1946, resulted in the abolition of the monarchy, and Simeon and his mother, Queen Ioanna, went into exile in Egypt. In 1951, they were granted asylum by Spain. Simeon eventually married a Spanish heiress, Margarita, and worked as a business consultant. For 13 years he was chairman of the Spanish subsidiary of the French defense and electronics group Thomson CSF. He first returned to Bulgaria in 1996, and other visits followed. The Bulgarian government returned the royal residence to his family in 1998. In April 2001 he launched the National Movement Simeon II, which won 120 of 240 seats in the June parliamentary elections, and he became prime minister in July, using the surname Sakskoburggotski, derived from the name of his royal house, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. He famously declared Bulgarians would have a higher standard of living within 800 days, just more than halfway through his mandate. Support for his party dropped by half when that deadline passed. In the 2005 elections his party won only 53 seats and he lost his post, although his party remained in government as part of a coalition headed by the Socialist Party.
Simete, Emeni, byname of Erménégilde Narcisse Maria Simete (b. Nov. 23, 1958), president of the Territorial Assembly of Wallis and Futuna (2005-07).
Simic, Vladimir (b. 1894, Vranje, Serbia - d. 1974, Belgrade, Serbia), president of the Federal Assembly of Yugoslavia (1945-53).
Simina, Wesley W. (b. Sept. 10, 1961), governor of Chuuk (2005-11).
Simitis, Kostas, byname of Konstantinos (Georgiou) Simitis (b. June 23, 1936, Athens, Greece), prime minister of Greece (1996-2004). He participated in clandestine political activities against the 1967-74 dictatorship. From 1969 he was exiled in Germany, where he continued to be active in Greek liberation politics. When democracy was restored in 1974, he returned to Greece and became a founder of the Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK). PASOK first became the ruling party in Greece in 1981, and he held the portfolios of agriculture (1981-85), national economy (1985-87), education (1989), and industry, energy, technology, and commerce (1993-95) during the administrations of Andreas Papandreou. He was elected to parliament in 1985 for the district of Piraeus. He criticized Papandreou for clinging to power in spite of his failing health; finally, on Jan. 18, 1996, he was elected by PASOK parliamentary deputies to succeed the ailing leader as prime minister, receiving 86 votes against 75 for Akis Tsochatzopoulos. He advocated a plan for economic stability that would help Greece follow European Union (EU) policies in preparation for an EU single currency. Following Papandreou's death in June, Simitis was also elected president of PASOK. Confident that PASOK had grown in popularity under his premiership, he called for an early election in August and was successful on September 22. He revived the economy and laid the groundwork for a settlement with Turkey and for Cyprus' admission to the European Union during the EU summit in Helsinki in 1999. Narrowly reelected in 2000, he spearheaded Greece's admission to the euro zone (Jan. 1, 2001) and cracked down on domestic extremists by dismantling the November 17 group. He retired in 2004.
Simmonds, Kennedy A(lphonse) (b. April 12, 1936, Basseterre, St. Kitts), premier (1980-83) and prime minister and foreign minister (1983-95) of St. Kitts and Nevis. A founding member of the People's Action Movement (PAM) in 1965, he made three unsuccessful attempts to enter the House of Assembly before winning a by-election in the Central Basseterre constituency in January 1979. The seat had become vacant on the death of the sitting member, Premier Robert Bradshaw. Simmonds was reelected in the general election of Feb. 18, 1980, when the coalition of the PAM and the smaller Nevis Reformation Party (NRP) defeated the Labour Party, which had held power for 30 years. In St. Kitts, Simmonds was in the minority, Labour winning 58% of the votes and four of the seven seats, but the NRP's two Nevis seats gave the coalition a single-seat majority. Simmonds led his country to full independence on Sept. 19, 1983. The opposition, which had claimed that Simmonds had no right to proceed to independence without holding new elections, also complained that the independence constitution gave too much power to Nevis, the lesser of the two islands in the new federation. Simmonds replied that the draft constitution, which gave Nevisians "autonomy over certain of their affairs," had been thoroughly discussed throughout the country. Simmonds' pro-business administration intended to diversify agriculture, strengthen light industry and tourism, and seek more aid from the U.S. The 15-year rule of the PAM was ended in 1995 elections won by the Labour Party; Simmonds lost his seat.
Simmons, Sir Ira Marcus (b. March 17, 1917 - d. Oct. 5, 1974), governor of Saint Lucia (1971-74); knighted 1974.
Simon, François C. Antoine (b. Oct. 10, 1844, Les Cayes, Haiti - d. Jan. 10, 1923), president of Haiti (1908-11).
Simon, John (Allsebrook) Simon, (1st) Viscount (b. Feb. 28, 1873, Manchester, England - d. Jan. 11, 1954, London, England), British home secretary (1915-16, 1935-37), foreign secretary (1931-35), chancellor of the exchequer (1937-40), and lord chancellor (1940-45). He was knighted in 1910 and made a viscount in 1940.
Simon, Pedro Jorge (b. Jan. 31, 1930, Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), governor of Rio Grande do Sul (1987-90).
Simon, William E(dward) (b. Nov. 27, 1927, Paterson, N.J. - d. June 3, 2000, Santa Barbara, Calif.), U.S. treasury secretary (1974-77). Having made his name on Wall Street, he was appointed deputy treasury secretary in 1973. That same year he also took the helm of the new Federal Energy Office, which dealt with problems arising from the Arab oil embargo. As Pres. Richard Nixon's "energy czar," he tried to ease public anger prompted by fuel shortages which created long lines at gasoline pumps from coast to coast. In 1974, he was promoted to become treasury secretary. He spent just four months under Nixon before the embattled president resigned in the Watergate scandal. He retained his job under Pres. Gerald Ford. While some expected Simon to pursue a political career in his native New Jersey after Ford lost his bid for reelection against Jimmy Carter in 1976, he decided instead to return to the world of finance. He was also an active member of the U.S. Olympic Committee for more than 30 years, serving a four-year stint as its president (1981-85).
Simon (Munaro), Yehude (Isa) (b. July 18, 1947, Chiclayo, Peru), prime minister of Peru (2008-09). He served as a lawmaker for the United Left party from 1985 to 1990 before he was accused of ties to Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) rebels by Alberto Fujimori's government. He was arrested in 1992 and served more than eight years in prison before being pardoned in 2000. He was elected president of Lambayeque region in 2003.
Simon-Sam, (Paul) Tirésias (Augustin Antoine), ci-devant duc de l'Acul du Nord (b. May 15, 1835, Grande Rivičre du Nord, Haiti - d. 1916), member of the Council of Secretaries of State (1896) and president (1896-1902) of Haiti.
Simonet, Henri (François) (b. May 10, 1931, Brussels, Belgium - d. Feb. 15, 1996), foreign minister of Belgium (1977-80). Earlier he was a vice president of the European Commission (1973-77).
Simonet, Jacques (b. Dec. 21, 1963, Watermaal-Bosvoorde [Watermael-Boitsfort], Belgium - d. June 14, 2007), minister-president of Brussels-Capital (1999-2000, 2004); son of Henri Simonet.
Simonis, Heide, née Steinhardt (b. July 4, 1943, Bonn, Germany), minister-president of Schleswig-Holstein (1993-2005).
Simonise, Jean-Robert (b. Jacmel, Haiti), foreign minister of Haiti (1991-92).
Simons, Carlos W. (b. Oct. 8, 1954), member of the Advisory Council of the Turks and Caicos Islands (1986-87).
Simons, Walter (b. Sept. 24, 1861, Elberfeld, Prussia [now part of Wuppertal, Germany] - d. July 14, 1937, Babelsberg [now part of Potsdam], Germany), acting president of Germany (1925). After serving in the German foreign ministry from 1911 to 1921, he became president of the German Supreme Court (1922-29). When Pres. Friedrich Ebert died, Simons became temporary president (March-May 1925) until the election and installation of Paul von Hindenburg.
Simony, Carl Fredrik (b. March 12, 1909, Sukkertoppen, Greenland - d. Dec. 4, 1983), governor of North Greenland (1945-47) and South Greenland (1945-50); son of Christian Simony.
Simony, Christian (b. 1881 - d. 1961), acting inspector of South Greenland (1924).
Simonyte, Ingrida (b. Nov. 15, 1974, Vilnius, Lithuanian S.S.R.), finance minister of Lithuania (2009- ).
Simpson Miller, Portia (Lucretia), until 1998 Portia Simpson (b. Dec. 12, 1945, Wood Hall, St. Catherine parish, Jamaica), prime minister and defense minister of Jamaica (2006-07, 2012- ).
Simson, (Martin) Eduard (Sigismund) (from 1880:) von (b. Nov. 10, 1810, Königsberg, Prussia [now Kaliningrad, Russia] - d. May 2, 1899, Berlin, Germany), president of the Reichstag of Germany (1871-74).
Sinckler, Christopher (Peter) (b. Oct. 1, 1967, Barbados), foreign minister (2008) and finance minister (2010- ) of Barbados.
Sindermann, Horst (b. Sept. 5, 1915, Dresden, Germany - d. April 20, 1990, East Berlin, East Germany), East German politician. He joined the Communist Party in 1929. He was arrested in 1933 for anti-Nazi activities and spent more than a decade in prison and in the Sachsenhausen and Mauthausen concentration camps. After World War II he worked as a journalist and editor for Socialist Unity (Communist) Party (SED) newspapers in Dresden, Chemnitz, and East Berlin until he was named to the SED Central Committee in 1959. As first secretary (1963-71) of the SED district council in Halle, he worked to develop industry in that region. He joined the Politburo as a candidate member in 1963 and gained full membership in 1967. As chairman of the Council of Ministers (premier; 1973-76), vice-chairman of the Council of State (1976-89), and president of the Volkskammer (parliament; 1976-89), he was one of East Germany's most visible officials until the Communist leadership was ousted in the 1989 pro-democracy movement. Despite the apparent importance of his posts and his position at the head of the faltering East German economy, he held little real political power. He faced possible prosecution in a judicial inquiry in 1989, but because of his declining health charges were never brought.
Sindikubwabo, Théodore (b. 1928, Zivu, Butare prefecture, Rwanda - d. c. 1998, Kinshasa, Congo [Kinshasa]?), acting president of Rwanda (1994). He was president of the National Development Council (parliament) from 1989 to 1994. He is thought to have fled to Kinshasa in late 1996 where he eventually died.
Singh, Ajai (b. Nov. 20, 1935), governor of Assam (2003-08).
Singh, Datuk Ajit (b. Sept. 25, 1938, Muar, Johor [now in Malaysia]), secretary-general (1993-98) of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). He joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Malaysia in August 1963. He served in Malaysian missions in Canberra, Addis Ababa, and New York and held various posts in the Foreign Ministry. He was posted as ambassador to Vietnam, 1980-82; to Austria, 1982-85; Brazil (with concurrent accreditation to Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, and Venezuela), 1985-89; and Germany, July-November 1992. He was selected as the first secretary-general of ASEAN by ASEAN heads of state and government, effective Jan. 1, 1993. His tenure as director-general of ASEAN-Malaysia from July 1989 to July 1992 provided him with an opportunity to play an active role at various ASEAN meetings. He had hands-on experience on the multifaceted activities of ASEAN and had become familiar with various issues and challenges faced by ASEAN as it moved into a new and higher plane of intensified intra-ASEAN cooperation. Singh had wide diplomatic experience, particularly in multilateral diplomacy, having represented his country at numerous meetings of the bodies of the United Nations (UN) such as the UN General Assembly, Special Committee Against Apartheid, the Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the United Nations Commission on Narcotics and Drugs (UNCND). He also represented his country at various meetings of the Non-Aligned Movement, the Commonwealth, and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).
Singh, Amarinder (b. March 11, 1942, Patiala, India), chief minister of Punjab (India) (2002-07); son of Yadavindra Singh.
Singh, Anshuman (b. July 7, 1935, Allahabad [now in Uttar Pradesh], India), governor of Gujarat (1998-99) and Rajasthan (1999-2003).
Singh, Arjun (b. Nov. 5, 1930, Churhat, Sidhi district [now in Madhya Pradesh], India - d. March 4, 2011, New Delhi, India), Indian politician. Chief minister of Madhya Pradesh (1980-85, 1988-89), governor of Punjab (1985), and lieutenant governor of Delhi (1989-90), he had the knack of bouncing back to centre-stage from near wilderness. He proved his exceptional abilities as a troubleshooter when, within hours of his reelection as chief minister, he was called upon to take the gubernatorial assignment in Punjab. He was instrumental in conducting popular elections in the strife-torn state and installing a popular ministry. He also paved the way for the Rajiv-Longowal accord that attempted to end the militancy in the state. He was union minister of commerce (1985-86), communications (1986-88), and human resources development (1991-94, 2004-09). In 1995 he and N.D. Tiwari and a few Rajiv Gandhi loyalists staged a rebellion and formed the Indira Congress, popularly known as the Congress (Tiwari) faction, but the 1996 general election proved a disaster for both the breakaway faction and the mother organization and Singh returned to the Congress.
Singh, (Kunwar) Awadesh Pratap (b. October 1888 - d. June 16, 1967, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India), chief minister of Vindhya Pradesh (1948-49).
Singh, Balmiki Prasad (b. Nov. 4, 1941), governor of Sikkim (2008- ).
Balmiki P. Singh
Singh, Bhanu Prakash (b. June 22, 1929), governor of Goa (1991-94).
Singh, Bhanu Pratap (b. Aug. 10, 1917, Bulandshahr [now in Uttar Pradesh], India), governor of Karnataka (1990-91).
Singh, Bhishma Narain (b. July 13, 1933, Palamau, Bihar, India), governor of Meghalaya (1983-89), Assam (1984-89), Sikkim (1985-86), Arunachal Pradesh (1987), and Tamil Nadu (1991-93).
Singh (Bahadur), Sir Bhopal (b. Feb. 24, 1884, Udaipur [now in Rajasthan], India - d. July 4, 1955, Udaipur), maharana of Udaipur (1930-47) and rajpramukh of Rajasthan (1948-55).
Singh, Bhopinder (b. March 20, 1946, Allahabad, India), lieutenant governor of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (2006- ) and Puducherry (2008).
Singh, Bir Bahadur (b. Jan. 18, 1935, Harnahi village [now in Uttar Pradesh], India - d. May 30, 1989), chief minister of Uttar Pradesh (1985-88).
Singh, Bodhachandra (b. 1909 - d. Dec. 9, 1955), maharaja of Manipur (1941-49); son of Churachandra Singh.
Singh, (Sardar) Buta (b. March 21, 1934, Mustafapur village, Jalandhar district, Punjab, India), home affairs minister of India (1986-89) and governor of Bihar (2004-06).
Singh, C(handreshwar) P(rasad) N(arain) (b. April 18, 1901, Parsgarh, Bihar, India), governor of Punjab (1953-58), acting governor of Tamil Nadu (1977), and governor of Uttar Pradesh (1980-85). Before 1953 he served as India's first ambassador to Nepal.
Singh, (Chaudhary) Charan (b. Dec. 23, 1902, Noorpur, Meerut district, United Provinces [now in Uttar Pradesh], India - d. May 29, 1987, New Delhi, India), prime minister of India (1979-80). Joining the Indian National Congress in 1929, he was jailed several times in the years before Indian independence in 1947. He served in the United Provinces (later Uttar Pradesh) state assembly from 1937 on, held various state ministerial offices (1951-67), and became chief minister of the state (1967-68, 1970). He broke with the Congress party in 1967 and formed the agricultural-based Bharatiya Kranti Dal (Indian Revolutionary Party), which merged with others in 1974 to form the Lok Dal (People's Party). With other federal opposition leaders, he was imprisoned (1975-76) following Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's declaration of a state of emergency. In 1977 he helped forge a coalition challenging Gandhi for reelection, allying his Lok Dal with Morarji Desai's Janata Party. He served as minister of home affairs (1977-78) and deputy prime minister and finance minister (January-July 1979) in India's first non-Congress government, led by Desai; in the former capacity he decided to arrest Gandhi on charges of corruption. But the government was fractious from the outset; he broke with Desai in 1978, then rejoined him in 1979, but broke again the same year because of objections to the involvement in the coalition of a right-wing Hindu organization. In July 1979 he became prime minister with the support of Gandhi, but he served for less than a month before Gandhi withdrew her support and he then headed a caretaker government until the elections of January 1980 which returned Gandhi to power. He never again held high office, and his party fell into disarray after he suffered an incapacitating stroke in 1985.
Singh, Churachandra (b. April 15, 1885 - d. Nov. 7, 1941), raja (1891-1918) and maharaja (1918-41) of Manipur.
Singh (Narayan Singh), Dharam (b. Dec. 25, 1936), chief minister of Karnataka (2004-06).
Singh, Digvijay (b. Feb. 28, 1947, Indore [now in Madhya Pradesh], India), chief minister of Madhya Pradesh (1993-2003).
Singh, (Rajah) Dinesh (b. July 19, 1925, Kalakankar [now in Uttar Pradesh], India - d. Nov. 30, 1995, New Delhi, India), foreign minister of India (1969-70, 1993-95).
Singh, Gopal (b. Nov. 29, 1919, Serai Niamat Khan, North-West Frontier Province [now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa], India [now in Pakistan]), administrator of Dadra and Nagar Haveli (1984-89), lieutenant governor of Goa, Daman, and Diu (1984-87), governor of Goa (1987-89), governor of Nagaland (1989-90), and acting governor of Arunachal Pradesh (1990).
Singh, (Kunwar) Govind Narayan (b. 1920? - d. May 10, 2005, New Delhi, India), chief minister of Madhya Pradesh (1967-69) and governor of Bihar (1988-89); son of Awadesh Pratap Singh.
Singh (Bahadur), Gulab (b. March 12, 1903 - d. 1950), maharaja of Rewa (1918-46).
Singh, Harihar Prasad (b. 1899? - d. 19...), chief minister of Bihar (1969).
Singh, Hukam (b. Feb. 28, 1926, Charkhi Dadri [now in Bhiwani district, Haryana], India), chief minister of Haryana (1990-91).
Singh, Iqbal (b. June 4, 1945, Okara Mandi, Jalandhar district, Punjab, India), lieutenant governor of Puducherry (2009- ).
Singh, Jaswant (b. Jan. 3, 1938, Jasol, Barmer district [now in Rajasthan], India), finance minister (1996, 2002-04) and foreign minister (1998-2002) of India.
Singh, Joginder Jaswant (b. Sept. 17, 1945, Bahawalpur, India [now in Pakistan]), governor of Arunachal Pradesh (2008- ). He was India's chief of army staff in 2005-07, the first Sikh to hold the position.
Singh, K(anwar) Bahadur (b. 1910 - d. May 8, 2007, Kota, Rajasthan, India), lieutenant governor of Himachal Pradesh (1967-71).
Singh, K(anwar) Natwar (b. May 16, 1931, Bharatpur [now in Rajasthan], India), foreign minister of India (2004-05).
Singh, Kalyan (b. 1932, Atrauli, Aligarh district [now in Uttar Pradesh], India), chief minister of Uttar Pradesh (1991-92, 1997-98, 1998-99).
Singh, Karan (b. March 9, 1931, Cannes, France), regent (1949-52), head of state (1952-65), and governor (1965-67) of Jammu and Kashmir.
Singh, Khadga Man (b. March 1907, Kathmandu, Nepal), foreign minister of Nepal (1952-53).
Singh, M(aharaj) K(umar) Priyobrata (b. Feb. 17, 1911 - d. Oct. 29, 2005, Imphal, Manipur, India), chief minister of Manipur (1947-49); son of Churachandra Singh; brother of Bodhachandra Singh.
Singh, M(airembam) Koireng (b. Dec. 19, 1915 - d. Dec. 27, 1994), chief minister of Manipur (1963-67, 1967, 1968-69).
Singh, Manmohan (b. Sept. 26, 19321, Gah village, Punjab, India [now in Pakistan]), finance minister (1991-96), prime minister (2004- ), and foreign minister (2005-06) of India. He had worked at almost every level of the Indian civil service - including as head of the central Reserve Bank of India (1982-85) and also on the board of the Asian Development Bank and the International Monetary Fund - when he was tapped by Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao to reel India back from the worst financial crisis in its history. In 1991 hard currency reserves had sunk so low, India was on the brink of defaulting on its foreign loans. As finance minister Singh unleashed sweeping change that broke sharply with India's state-directed economy. He began the process of abolishing what was known as the "license raj," a system of economic management ruled by government monopolies, quotas, and permits that dictated what firms could make. He devalued the rupee to spur exports, loosened foreign investment rules, opened oil refining, telecommunications, and the stock exchanges, slashed taxes, and sought to cut through red tape ensnaring companies. Foreign investors rushed in, inflation halved from 17 to 8.5%, and an economic boom was sparked. When the Congress party was voted out of power in 1996, he stayed in politics, heading the opposition in the upper house of parliament. Generally known for being honest and most-often described as soft-spoken, he was a key ally of the Gandhi family and was seen as confidant of Sonia Gandhi. He was pitchforked into the prime minister's post by the shock decision of Gandhi to turn down the role after she led Congress to a stunning upset win over the ruling Hindu nationalists in 2004. A Sikh, he became India's first non-Hindu prime minister. He remained in office after Congress won the 2009 elections.
1 Official date. He explained that he lost his mother a few weeks after his birth, and therefore never got to know his birthday, and at the time he was enrolled in primary school an approximate date was given as his date of birth for the school records.
Singh, Markandey (b. 1925? - d. April 6, 2007, New Delhi, India), lieutenant governor of Delhi (1990-92).
Singh, Martand (b. March 15, 1923 - d. Nov. 20, 1995, Rewa, Madhya Pradesh, India), maharaja of Rewa (1946-47) and rajpramukh of Vindhya Pradesh (1948-49).
Singh, Nagendra (b. March 18, 1914, Dungarpur [now in Rajasthan], India - d. Dec. 11, 1988), president of the International Court of Justice (1985-88).
Singh, Naresh Chandra (b. Nov. 21, 1908 - d. Sept. 11, 1987), raja of Sarangarh (1946-47) and chief minister of Madhya Pradesh (1969).
Singh, Okram Ibobi (b. July 19, 1948, Athokpam village, Thoubal district, Manipur), chief minister of Manipur (2002- ).
Singh, R(aj) K(umar) Dorendra (b. Sept. 30, 1934), chief minister of Manipur (1974-77, 1980, 1992-93).
Singh, R(aj) K(umar) Jaichandra (b. Feb. 28, 1942 - d. June 13, 1994), chief minister of Manipur (1988-90).
Singh, R(aj) K(umar) Ranbir (b. 1929? - d. Jan. 27, 2006, Imphal, Manipur, India), chief minister of Manipur (1990-92).
Singh, Raman (b. Oct. 15, 1952), chief minister of Chhattisgarh (2003- ).
Singh (Bahadur), Ranaudip (b. April 3, 1825 - d. [assassinated] Nov. 22, 1885, Kathmandu, Nepal), prime minister of Nepal (1877-85); brother of Jang Bahadur Rana.
Singh, Rao Birendra, Birendra also spelled Birender (b. Feb. 20, 1921, Nangal, Punjab [now in Haryana], India - d. Sept. 30, 2009, Gurgaon, Haryana, India), chief minister of Haryana (1967).
Singh, S(hilendra) K(umar) (b. Jan. 24, 1932 - d. Dec. 1, 2009, Delhi, India), governor of Arunachal Pradesh (2004-07) and Rajasthan (2007-09). He previously served as India's ambassador to Jordan, Lebanon, and Cyprus (1974-77), Afghanistan (1977-79), Austria (1982-85), and Pakistan (1985-89).
Singh, Sardar Gurnam (b. 1899 - d. [plane crash] May 31, 1973), chief minister of Punjab (1967, 1969-70).
Singh, Sardar Hukam (b. Aug. 30, 1895, Montgomery, India [now Sahiwal, Pakistan] - d. May 27, 1983, New Delhi, India), governor of Rajasthan (1967-72). He was speaker of the Lok Sabha in 1962-67.
Singh, Sardar Raghbir (b. 1894 - d. Jan. 7, 1955), premier (1951-52) and chief minister (1954-55) of PEPSU.
Singh, Sardar Swaran (b. Aug. 19, 1907, Shankar village, Jalandhar district, Punjab, India - d. Oct. 30, 1994, Delhi, India), foreign minister (1964-66, 1970-74) and defense minister (1966-70, 1974-75) of India.
Singh, Sardar Ujjal (b. Dec. 27, 1895, Sindhi Sagar Doab, Punjab, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Feb. 15, 1983, New Delhi, India), governor of Madras (1966-71).
Singh, Sarup (b. Jan. 9, 1917, Sanghi village, Rohtak district, Punjab [now in Haryana], India - d. Aug. 5, 2003), governor of Kerala (1990) and Gujarat (1990-95) and lieutenant governor of Pondicherry (1990-93).
Singh, Tribhuvan Narain (b. Aug. 8, 1908, Varanasi [now in Uttar Pradesh], India - d. Aug. 3, 1982, Varanasi), chief minister of Uttar Pradesh (1970-71).
Singh, Urmila (b. Aug. 6, 1946, Gondwana, Raipur district [now in Chhattisgarh], India), governor of Himachal Pradesh (2010- ).
Singh, Sir Vijay (Raghubar) (b. July 13, 1931, Ba, Viti Levu island, Fiji - d. Sept. 25, 2006, Brisbane, Australia), Fijian politician. He was first elected into the Legislative Council in British colonial Fiji in 1959. In 1965, together with Ratu Kamisese Mara, he formed Fiji's first multiracial political party, the Alliance Party. After the party's victory in the 1966 elections, he was appointed minister of social services. He played an active role in the multiparty talks held in London, which resulted in the new constitution and Fiji's independence in 1970. He served in Prime Minister Mara's government in a variety of positions, including speaker of the House of Representatives, before being appointed attorney-general in 1977, a post he held till 1979. He was knighted in 1976. Following the coup in 1987, which saw the ouster of an ethnic-Indian-dominated government, Sir Vijay campaigned for the expulsion of Fiji from the Commonwealth and succeeded. He was then barred from entering Fiji and took up residence in Australia. He returned to Fiji after the restoration of democracy.
Singh, Virbhadra (b. June 23, 1934, Sarahan [now in Himachal Pradesh], India), chief minister of Himachal Pradesh (1983-90, 1993-98, 2003-07, 2012- ).
Singh, Vishwanath Pratap (b. June 25, 1931, Allahabad, India - d. Nov. 27, 2008, Delhi, India), prime minister of India (1989-90). As a member of the Congress Party, he became a member of the Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh in 1969, won election to the Lok Sabha (lower house of the federal parliament) in 1971, became a deputy minister of commerce in 1974, and was minister of commerce in 1976-77. He became chief minister of Uttar Pradesh in 1980 but resigned in 1982 when he proved unable to end violent outrages in the state. He returned to the post of commerce minister in 1983. In 1984 Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi appointed Singh finance minister. In that post he hired an American detective agency to investigate the illegal foreign assets of prominent Indians, some apparently close to Gandhi. The move irked Gandhi and in January 1987 Singh was transferred to the post of defense minister. He soon announced an investigation into alleged kickbacks paid in the purchase by the Indian navy of West German submarines. He resigned on April 12 after his investigations were squelched. By July it was clear to Gandhi that Singh's popularity was becoming a serious threat. In an effort to undermine Singh's position, on July 15 Gandhi expelled from the party three key politicians who supported Singh. Singh quickly tendered his resignation from the party. Gandhi refused it, but on July 19 he expelled him too. Singh created an alliance of centrist opposition parties called the National Front, and after the general elections of December 1989 he was able to form a coalition government together with two other major opposition parties. Though it started with enormous goodwill, antipathy between coalition partners and feuds within his own Janata Dal party left Singh little time to tackle India's problems, and he was defeated in a confidence vote in parliament on Nov. 7, 1990.
Singh, W(ahengbam) Nipamacha (b. March 1, 1930, Wangoi, Manipur, India - d. July 17, 2012, Imphal, Manipur), chief minister of Manipur (1997-2001).
Singh, Yadavindra (b. Jan. 7, 1913 - d. June 17, 1974, The Hague, Netherlands), maharaja of Patiala (1938-47) and rajpramukh of PEPSU (1948-56).
Singh, Zail, original name Jarnail Singh (b. May 5, 1916, Sandhwan, Faridkot [now in Punjab], India - d. Dec. 25, 1994, Chandigarh, India), president of India (1982-87). In 1931 he was inspired by the deeds of Bhagat Singh, a revolutionary executed by the British, and became active in the Akali Dal, a Sikh organization. His traditional studies in Sikh holy books earned him the title Giani ("learned man"). In 1938 he established the Praja Mandal, an organization allied to the Indian National Congress, in the princely state of Faridkot. This brought him a five-year jail sentence. Having nicknamed himself Jail Singh during his incarceration, he came to like the name so that he changed it only slightly to Zail and kept it. In 1946 he led a movement to assert the right of people in Faridkot to hoist the national flag. He even set up a "parallel government" and was arrested again. After India became independent in 1947, Faridkot was merged in the Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU), which itself was integrated with Punjab in 1956. Singh served as a minister in PEPSU and then in Punjab. He was a member of the Rajya Sabha (upper house of parliament) in 1956-62 and chief minister of Punjab in 1972-77. He continued to support Indira Gandhi after she was voted out as prime minister in 1977, and was rewarded for his loyalty when she returned to office in 1980, being named minister of home affairs. He had been elected to the Lok Sabha (lower house) from Hoshiarpur. In 1982 he was named the Congress (I) Party's presidential candidate and easily defeated H.R. Khanna, becoming India's first Sikh president. Many saw it as a move by Gandhi to appease extremist Sikhs in Punjab, but if so, it had no lasting effect. Singh died after sustaining serious injuries in a car accident on Nov. 29, 1994.
Singhateh, Sir Farimang Mamadi (b. 1912 - d. May 19, 1977), governor-general of The Gambia (1966-70); knighted 1966.
Sinha, S(rinivas) K(umar) (b. 1926), governor of Assam (1997-2003), Arunachal Pradesh (1999), and Jammu and Kashmir (2003-08).
Sinha, Sarat Chandra (b. Jan. 1, 1914, Bhakatpara village, Dhubri district, Assam, India - d. Dec. 25, 2005, Guwahati, Assam), chief minister of Assam (1972-78).
Sinha, Satyendra Narayan (b. July 12, 1917, Koima village, Aurangabad district, Bihar, India - d. Sept. 4, 2006, Patna, Bihar), chief minister of Bihar (1989).
Sinha, Yashwant (b. Nov. 6, 1937, Patna, Bihar, India), finance minister (1990-91, 1998-2002) and foreign minister (2002-04) of India.
Siniora, Fouad (Abdul Basset), Arabic Fu´ad `Abd al-Basit al-Sanyura (b. July 1943, Sidon, Lebanon), finance minister (2000-04) and prime minister (2005-09) of Lebanon.
Sinon, Guy (Philippe François) (b. Oct. 27, 1933, Mahe island, Seychelles - d. June 30, 1991), foreign minister of Seychelles (1977-79).
Sinowatz, Fred (b. Feb. 5, 1929, Neufeld an der Leitha, Burgenland, Austria - d. Aug. 11, 2008, Vienna, Austria), chancellor of Austria (1983-86). He entered the Burgenland state government service in 1953, became an active member of the Socialist Party (SPÖ), and was elected to the state legislature (Landtag) in 1961. The same year he became party secretary to the Burgenland SPÖ organization. When the SPÖ won the 1964 state election, Sinowatz became first president of the Landtag. He was state spokesman on cultural affairs from 1966 until he became federal minister of education and the arts in 1971. He presided over far-reaching reforms of the Austrian school system, aimed at achieving equality of opportunity for the nation's youth. Sinowatz, having been vice-chancellor since 1981, became chancellor in May 1983 at the head of a coalition government consisting of the SPÖ and the Austrian Freedom Party (FPÖ). He succeeded Bruno Kreisky who resigned after the SPÖ lost its absolute majority in the April election to the Nationalrat (lower house of parliament) but had remained as SPÖ leader during the coalition negotiations with the FPÖ. Five months later, at a national convention of the SPÖ, Sinowatz was elected party chairman. During his chancellorship, Austria gained notoriety for a wine scandal in 1985, when vintners were found to have put anti-freeze in their product. He also had to navigate through popular protests against the Hainburg power plant on the Danube in 1984 and through a scandal involving arms shipments to Iraq and Iran in the early 1980s. He resigned as chancellor in 1986 after Kurt Waldheim was elected president against the SPÖ candidate. In 1988 he also resigned as party leader.
Sinunguruza, Thérence (b. Aug. 2, 1959, Rurtyazo, Burundi), foreign minister of Burundi (2001-05). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1993-94) and justice minister (1997-2001).
Sione, Sir Tomu (Malaefono) (b. Nov. 17, 1941, Niutao, Gilbert and Ellice Islands [now in Tuvalu]), governor-general of Tuvalu (1993-94); knighted 2001. He was speaker of parliament in 1998-2002.
Sipötz, Johann (b. Oct. 10, 1941, Pamhagen, Germany [now in Burgenland, Austria]), Landeshauptmann of Burgenland (1987-91).
Sirajuddin ibni al-Marhum Syed Putra Jamalullail, Syed (b. May 16, 1943, Arau, Perlis [now in Malaysia]), raja of Perlis (2000- ) and yang di-pertuan agong (head of state) of Malaysia (2001-06). He is the second child of Syed Putra Jamalullail (raja of Perlis, 1945-2000) and Raja Perempuan Tengku Budriah Tengku Ismail. He is a Sandhurst-trained cadet officer who served as a lieutenant in the armed forces until Dec. 31, 1969. He married Tengku Fauziah Tengku Abdul Rashid on Feb. 15, 1967. The couple have a son, Syed Faizuddin (b. Dec. 30, 1967), and daughter, Sharifah Fazira (b. June 5, 1973). Syed Sirajuddin was appointed the Raja Muda (crown prince) on Oct. 30, 1960. He became regent for the first time when Syed Putra went on an extended European trip between June 3 and Oct. 24, 1967. He became raja after the death of his father in April 2000.
Sircar, Jamiruddin (b. Dec. 1, 1931, Tetulia upazila [subdistrict], Panchagarh district, Bengal, India [now in Bangladesh]), acting president of Bangladesh (2002). He was speaker of parliament in 2001-08.
Siregar, Raja Inal (b. March 5, 1938, Medan, Netherlands East Indies [now in Sumatera Utara, Indonesia] - d. [plane crash] Sept. 5, 2005, Medan), governor of Sumatera Utara (1988-98).
Sirisena, H(ewa) G(ampalage), chief minister of Southern province, Sri Lanka (2001-04).
Sirleaf, Momolu (V. Sackor), foreign minister of Liberia (1995-96).
Sirotkovic, Jakov (b. Feb. 7, 1922, Rab island, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia] - d. Nov. 1, 2002, Zagreb, Croatia), chairman of the Executive Council of Croatia (1974-78).
Sisavang Vong (b. July 14, 1885, Luang Prabang [now in Laos] - d. Oct. 29, 1959, Luang Prabang), king of Luang Prabang (1904-45) and of Laos (1946-59).
Sisavath Keobounphanh (b. May 1, 1928, Houay Kaleum village, Houaphanh province, Laos), prime minister of Laos (1998-2001). He was regarded as a conservative leader. He commanded the Lao army that fought a border war with Thailand in 1986 and was vice president in 1996-98. In a 2001 reshuffle, he was forced to resign to take responsibility for the mismanagement of the impoverished Asian nation's economy.
Sisowath, also spelled Sisovath, or Si Suvata (b. Sept. 7, 1840, Battambang, Cambodia - d. Aug. 9, 1927, Phnom Penh, Cambodia), king of Cambodia (1904-27). With his half-brother Norodom, he was educated at Bangkok; the Thai kingdom, with Vietnam, was holding Cambodia in vassalage and choosing Cambodian sovereigns. When his father, King Ang Duong, died in 1860, he went to the old Cambodian capital Oudong, just north of Phnom Penh, to force out his younger half-brother Si Votha and prevent him from seizing the throne. However, the Thais recalled him to Bangkok and enthroned Norodom, seen as more compliant. Sisowath instead became obbareach ("second king," or heir presumptive). The French secured the protectorate over Cambodia in an 1863 treaty with Norodom, and Sisowath withdrew to Saigon, where he was subsidized by the French, enabling them to control Norodom by the threat of his potential replacement by Sisowath. In 1867 Sisowath left Saigon to quell anti-French uprisings in Cambodia. He made clear his readiness to accede to French direction. When Norodom died in 1904, Sisowath succeeded to the throne. He was crowned in 1906, in which year he also visited France, accompanied by a large suite; he attended the Colonial Exhibition at Marseille and afterwards came to Paris, where he was accorded a very cheerful reception. Throughout his reign, he supported the French resident with consistent friendship and was himself regarded as one of the most enlightened personages in his realm. During World War I he assisted in recruiting labourers and soldiers for France. In 1916 he managed to calm peasant protests against the corvée system.
Sisowath Monipong, Samdech Krom Luong (b. Aug. 20, 1912, Phnom Penh, Cambodia - d. Aug. 31, 1956, Paris, France), prime minister of Cambodia (1950-51).
Sisowath Monireth, Prince (b. Nov. 25, 1909, Phnom Penh, Cambodia - d. [executed] September 1975), prime minister (1945-46) and chairman of the Regency Council (1960) of Cambodia.
Sisowath Monivong (b. Dec. 27, 1875, Phnom Penh, Cambodia - d. April 23, 1941, Phnom Penh), king of Cambodia (1927-41); son of Sisowath.
Sisowath Sirik Matak (b. Jan. 22, 1914, Phnom Penh, Cambodia - d. [assassinated] April 21, 1975, Phnom Penh), prime minister of Cambodia (1972).
Sisowath Watchayavong (b. Sept. 13, 1891, Phnom Penh, Cambodia - d. Jan. 30, 1972, Phnom Penh), prime minister of Cambodia (1947-48).
Sisowath Youtevong, Prince (b. 1913, Oudong, Cambodia - d. July 17, 1947, Phnom Penh, Cambodia), prime minister of Cambodia (1946-47).
Sisulu, Lindiwe (Nonceba) (b. May 10, 1954, Johannesburg, South Africa), defense minister of South Africa (2009- ); daughter of Walter Sisulu.
Sisulu, Max (Vuyisile) (b. Aug. 23, 1945, Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa), speaker of the National Assembly of South Africa (2009- ); son of Walter Sisulu.
Sisulu, Walter (Max Ulyate) (b. May 18, 1912, Engcobo, South Africa - d. May 5, 2003, Johannesburg, South Africa), South African political activist. He joined the African National Congress (ANC) in 1940. With Nelson Mandela and Oliver Tambo he formed the ANC Youth League in 1944, hoping to press the older leadership to adopt more aggressive tactics. With the league's backing, he became ANC secretary general (1949-55). He helped organize the 1952 "defiance campaign," a program of civil disobedience against apartheid laws. Initially a staunch black nationalist, he began softening his views after groups representing other races helped the ANC with the defiance campaign. In 1953 he officially advocated the ANC philosophy of non-racialism. He was charged in December 1956 with treason, along with Mandela and 154 other South Africans of all races who had supported the Freedom Charter, calling for a nonracial democracy and a socialist-based economy. All were acquitted in 1961 after a five-year trial. In March 1963 he was convicted of furthering the aims of the ANC - banned three years earlier - and encouraging blacks to strike. He was sentenced to six years in prison and placed under house arrest while appealing. He went underground and joined the ANC's guerrilla wing, exasperating the government when he used a secret ANC transmitter to send a pirate radio message exhorting the nation to unite against apartheid. In July he was arrested at the ANC's secret headquarters in Rivonia, outside Johannesburg. Sisulu and Mandela were convicted in 1964 of plotting anti-government sabotage in a highly publicized trial. The death penalty was expected, but under international pressure, the judge issued life sentences. Both were sent to the notorious Robben Island prison off Cape Town. Sisulu was released in 1989.
Sitai, David (Wote) (b. 1949), foreign minister of the Solomon Islands (1996-97, 2001).
Sitaramayya, B(hogaraju) Pattabhi (b. Nov. 24, 1880, Gundugolanu, West Godavari district [now in Andhra Pradesh], India - d. Dec. 17, 1959, Hyderabad, India), governor of Madhya Pradesh (1952-57).
Sithanen, Rama(krishna) (b. April 21, 1954), finance minister of Mauritius (1991-95, 2005-10).
Sithole, Ndabaningi (b. July 21, 1920, Nyamandhlovu, Matabeleland, Southern Rhodesia [now Zimbabwe] - d. Dec. 12, 2000, Philadelphia, Pa.), Zimbabwean politician. The publication of his book African Nationalism (1959) and its immediate banning by the Rhodesian government brought him a rapturous audience and secured his immediate political future. He was founding president in 1963 of the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) party, which was banned in 1964. Nicknamed Magigwana (Zulu for warrior), he was an early advocate of guerrilla war against the white minority government. He was detained for his political activities in 1964-74. In Salisbury Prison in 1968, he wrote letters to colleagues in exile in Zambia, urging them to find someone to assassinate Smith and his cabinet. His courier was a Rhodesian special branch informer who had the letters photocopied before passing them on. Sithole was tried and convicted the following February. After the verdict he renounced the armed struggle; this obtained for him a relatively short sentence of six years but destroyed his political career. Robert Mugabe ousted Sithole as ZANU leader in August 1974, charging him with "selling out" the struggle for black majority rule. Sithole later formed his own ZANU-Ndonga party. He joined a transitional government of whites and blacks in 1979, but his small opposition group failed to win any seats in elections that swept Mugabe to power in 1980. In 1983 he declared that his life was in danger from Mugabe's party, and he subsequently went into self-imposed exile (settling in Silver Spring, Md.), but he returned in 1992. He was elected to parliament in 1995. In December 1997 he was convicted of conspiring to kill Mugabe in 1995; he was granted an appeal, but as his health deteriorated the case was set aside.
Sitnikov, Sergey (Konstantinovich) (b. Jan. 18, 1963, Kostroma, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Kostroma oblast (2012- ).
Situmorang, Sodjuangon (b. June 7, 1950, Tarutung, Sumatera Utara, Indonesia), acting governor of Kalimantan Tengah (2005) and Papua (2006).
Siurob Ramírez, José (b. Nov. 11, 1886, Querétaro, Mexico - d. 1965, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Querétaro (1915) and Quintana Roo (1927-30) and chief of government of the Distrito Federal (1938-39).
Siuruainen, Eino (Olavi) (b. March 20, 1943, Pudasjärvi, Finland), governor of Oulu (1991-2009).
Sivakou, Yury (b. Aug. 5, 1946), interior minister of Belarus (1999-2000).
Sjachroedin Z(aenal) P(agaralam) (b. Feb. 7, 1947, Tanjungkarang [now Bandar Lampung], Lampung, Indonesia), governor of Lampung (2004-08, 2009- ).
Sjahrir, Sutan (b. March 5, 1909, Padangpandjang, Sumatra, Netherlands East Indies [now Indonesia] - d. April 9, 1966, Zürich, Switzerland), prime minister and foreign minister of Indonesia (1945-47).
Sjarifoeddin, Amir, modern spelling Syarifuddin (b. 1903 - d. Dec. 20, 1948), prime minister of Indonesia (1947-48). He was executed for his complicity in a Communist uprising against President Sukarno's rule.
Skancke, Ragnar (Sigvald) (b. Nov. 9, 1890, Ĺs, Norway - d. [executed] Aug. 28, 1948, Oslo, Norway), Norwegian politician. He was one of the acting councillors of state (from 1941, ministers) during the 1940-45 German occupation.
Skarphédinsson, Össur (b. June 19, 1953, Reykjavík, Iceland), foreign minister of Iceland (2009- ).
Skate, Sir William (Jack), known before knighthood as Bill Skate (b. Sept. 26, 1953, Ara'ara village, Baimuru district, Gulf province, Papua New Guinea - d. Jan. 3, 2006, Brisbane, Australia), prime minister of Papua New Guinea (1997-99). He became general manager of the National Capital District Commission (NCDC) in 1987 and also an adviser to the Paias Wingti government. He entered parliament in 1992 and immediately became speaker. His support was essential to Wingti regaining the prime minister's position. In August 1994 Skate resigned as speaker and the following month was elected deputy opposition leader on the change of government. He formed his own political party, the People's National Congress. He resigned in July 1995 to become the first governor of NCDC. As governor, he promoted civic beautification projects. In the 1997 elections he retained his NCD seat and became the first prime minister from Papua. He negotiated peace with the rebels on Bougainville, but a controversial deal struck with Taiwan in an attempt to revive the country's fledgling economy led to his resignation in 1999. In 2002 he became parliament speaker again and by that virtue became acting governor-general when that post fell vacant in 2003. After serving in the vice-regal post for six months while attempts to elect a new governor-general were twice overruled by the courts, he announced in 2004 that he would relinquish his post as acting governor-general and resume the speakership. Some believed that this was not legally possible, and the Ombudsman Commission directed him to return to Government House, which he defied, telling the Ombudsman he was on "leave of absence" from his role as speaker. The parliament then ousted him as speaker in a motion of no confidence. He was knighted (K.C.M.G.) in January 2005.
Skegro, Borislav (b. March 17, 1955, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina), finance minister of Croatia (1997-2000).
Skele, Andris (b. Jan. 16, 1958, Ape, Latvian S.S.R.), prime minister of Latvia (1995-97, 1999-2000). A no-nonsense businessman, he was credited with giving a big push to the reforms Latvia launched after quitting the Soviet Union in 1991. His main achievements were speeding privatization and getting state finances in order by forcing through balanced budgets. He was forced to resign in 1997 after a string of ministerial resignations amid corruption scandals. He was also involved in increasingly bitter rows with the seven parties that formed his government, making his position untenable. He became prime minister again in 1999 but again resigned in April 2000 over a privatization row within his three party centre-right coalition government.
Skelemani, Phandu (Tombola Chaha) (b. Jan. 5, 1945, Mapoka village, Bechuanaland [now Botswana]), defense minister (2007-08) and foreign minister (2008- ) of Botswana.
Skembarevic, Branislav (b. 1920 - d. Jan. 15, 2003), president of the Presidency of Kosovo (1985-86).
Skerrit, Roosevelt (b. June 8, 1972, Vieille Case, Dominica), prime minister (2004- ) and foreign minister (2007-08, 2010- ) of Dominica.
Skinner, Carlton S. (b. April 8, 1913, Palo Alto, Calif. - d. June 22, 2004, Boston, Mass.), governor of Guam (1949-53). During World War II, he commanded the first racially integrated ship in the U.S. Coast Guard and, after the Coast Guard was merged with the Navy, the first integrated warship in the Navy. In 1948 he drafted Guam's Organic Act (constitution). In 1949, Pres. Harry S. Truman appointed Skinner to be the first civilian governor of Guam. He oversaw the shift from Navy control of the U.S. territory to a civilian representative government. During that time, he established the Territorial College of Guam, now the University of Guam, and established Guam Memorial Hospital.
Skippings, Oswald O('Neil) (b. 1953), chief minister of the Turks and Caicos Islands (1980, 1988-91).
Sklyarov, Ivan (Petrovich) (b. June 22, 1948 - d. Feb. 26, 2007, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia), governor of Nizhny Novgorod oblast (1997-2001). He was mayor of Nizhny Novgorod city in 1994-95.
Skopljak, Pero (b. June 4, 1943, Vitez [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), chairman of the House of Representatives of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2000).
Skosana, Simon S(omkhahlekwa) (b. Jan. 15, 1927, near Middelburg, South Africa - d. Nov. 17, 1986, Johannesburg, South Africa), chief minister of KwaNdebele (1977-86).
Skowron, Werner (b. Oct. 30, 1943), finance minister of East Germany (1990).
Skrabalo, Zdenko (b. Aug. 4, 1929, Sombor, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia]), foreign minister of Croatia (1992-93).
Skrypnyk, Mykola Oleksiyovych (b. Jan. 25 [Jan. 13, O.S.], 1872, Yasinuvata settlement, Bakhmut district, Katerinoslav guberniya, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. [suicide] July 7, 1933), chairman of the People's Secretariat and people's secretary for foreign affairs of the Ukrainian People's Republic (1918).
Skrzeszewski, Stanislaw (b. April 27, 1901, Nowy Sacz, Poland, Russian Empire - d. Dec. 20, 1978, Warsaw, Poland), foreign minister of Poland (1951-56).
Skrzynski, Aleksander (Józef) hrabia (Count), h. Zaremba (b. March 18, 1882, Zagórzany, Galicia, Austria-Hungary [now in Poland] - d. Sept. 25, 1931, Ostrów, Poland), Polish statesman. He entered the diplomatic service in 1906 and, when the new Polish state was established, became its minister at Bucharest, subsequently succeeding in concluding a Polish-Romanian political treaty. In December 1922 he became minister of foreign affairs, inaugurating a pacific policy based on the stabilization of frontiers. He lost office when a cabinet of the right was formed in May 1923, but returned to the foreign minister's post in August 1924. He was credited with having strengthened Poland's economic position by regulating the British and American debts, by a concordat with the Vatican, and by improving relations with Czechoslovakia. He took an active part in the League of Nations, elaborating the scheme for the Geneva Protocol and securing settlement of the Danzig disputes in a manner favourable to Poland. In November 1925 he was entrusted with the formation of a government. It was a coalition cabinet and when the Socialists seceded he lost power in May 1926. Later that month Józef Pilsudski led a coup d'état. In June, Count Skrzynski took part in a duel with Count Stanislaw Maria Szeptycki, former minister of war, who had refused to shake hands with Skrzynski in a Kraków club, saying that he saw in Skrzynski's undecided and weak policy the real cause of the events of May. After the general missed him from 15 paces, Skrzynski refused to fire; the seconds decided that both parties' honour was satisfied. In 1928 he served as neutral member of the standing committee on arbitration between the United States and Peru. He was killed in a car accident.
Skubiszewski, Krzysztof (Jan) (b. Oct. 8, 1926, Poznan, Poland - d. Feb. 8, 2010, Warsaw, Poland), foreign minister of Poland (1989-93).
Skulski, Leopold (b. Nov. 15, 1878, Zamosc, Poland, Russian Empire - d. between 1939 and 1945), prime minister of Poland (1919-20).
Slade, Marcus John (b. Jan. 22, 1801 - d. March 7, 1872), lieutenant governor of Guernsey (1859-64).
Slamet, Hasan (b. Aug. 6, 1926, Tasikmalaya, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Barat, Indonesia]), governor of Maluku (1975-87).
Slánský, Rudolf, original name Rudolf Salzmann (b. July 31, 1901, Nezvestice, near Plzen, Austria-Hungary [now in Czech Republic] - d. Dec. 3, 1952, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), Czechoslovak politician. He joined the Communist Party when it was established in 1921, became editor of the party newspaper, Rudé Právo (1924), was appointed party secretary in Ostrava region (1927), and was elected to the Central Committee (1929). He served in the National Assembly in 1935-37 and, considered an indispensable Communist leader, he spent the years 1939-44 in Moscow while Czechoslovakia was under German control. He helped organize Czechoslovak military units on Soviet soil and assisted the Slovak uprising against the Germans in 1944. After the war he became one of the two top leaders of the party, second only to Klement Gottwald. In 1946 he became secretary-general, with Gottwald as chairman. The two led the Communists in their seizure of power in February 1948. In November 1951, the post of party secretary-general was abolished and he became vice-premier in the government. Shortly afterward, he was arrested and charged with having organized a "Titoist" conspiratorial centre and being the ringleader of a "Jewish" plot to assassinate Gottwald and overthrow the Communist regime with American and British assistance. After the application of physical and psychological pressure, he confessed to the charges in a trial held Nov. 20-27, 1952. With 10 others, he was sentenced to death on December 2 and hanged the next day. The unconvincing charges and the anti-Semitic overtones of the trial (8 of the 11 were Jews) embarrassed the party leadership in later years, and he was posthumously rehabilitated in 1963 and more fully in 1968.
Slater, Douglas (b. Aug. 19, 1955, Clare Valley, Saint Vincent), foreign minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (2010- ).
Slaveski, Trajko (b. 1960, Ohrid, Macedonia), finance minister of Macedonia (2006-09).
Slezevicius, Adolfas (b. Feb. 2, 1948, Mirsiskes, Siauliai district, Lithuanian S.S.R.), prime minister of Lithuania (1993-96).
Slim, Mongi, Arabic al-Munji Salim (b. Sept. 15, 1908, Tunis, Tunisia - d. Oct. 23, 1969, Tunis), president of the UN General Assembly (1961-62) and foreign minister of Tunisia (1962-64).
Slim (of Yarralumla and Bishopston), William (Joseph) Slim, (1st) Viscount (b. Aug. 6, 1891, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England - d. Dec. 14, 1970, London, England), governor-general of Australia (1953-60). In World War I he volunteered as a private, but within a few days became a commissioned officer and saw active service in Belgium, France, Iraq, and the Dardanelles. In 1920 he was granted a regular commission and transferred to the Indian army. In World War II he commanded the 10th infantry brigade of the 5th Indian Division, which advanced into Eritrea (1940), and led the 10th Indian Division in Iraq and Iran, making the first contact with the Soviet army at Tehran (1941). In 1942 he commanded the 1st Burma Corps and assisted in conducting a 1,450-km-long retreat as Japanese forces overran Burma. As commander-in-chief of the 14th Army from 1943, he inflicted a crushing defeat on the Japanese; after repulsing the enemy at Imphal and Kohima in northeastern India (March-July 1944) and capturing Mandalay (March 1945), he drove the Japanese down the Irrawaddy River to Rangoon, which fell on May 3, 1945. He became commander-in-chief of Allied land forces in Southeast Asia in June 1945 and was promoted to the rank of general in August. His plans for the invasion of Malaya were made obsolete by the Japanese surrender on August 14. He became chief of the Imperial General Staff (1948-52) and was promoted to field marshal (1949). As governor-general of Australia, his personality and good humour served him well and he left a positive impression; his original appointment was prolonged for two years. Slim, who had been knighted in 1944, was created a viscount in 1960. From 1964 to June 1970 he was governor and constable of Windsor Castle, a royal residence west of London.
Sliman, Agamemnon (b. March 16, 1878, Athens, Greece - d. 1954, Paris, France), general administrator of Epirus (1935). He was the son of archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann and his Greek wife.
Slobbe, Bartholomaeus Wouther Theodorus van (b. Oct. 31, 1882, Schiedam, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands - d. Nov. 28, 1956, Breda, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands), governor of Curaçao (1930-36).
Slovo, Joe, original name Yossel Mashel Slovo (b. May 23, 1926, Obelai, Lithuania - d. Jan. 6, 1995, Johannesburg, South Africa), South African politician. His family immigrated to South Africa in 1935. He became involved in the labour movement and joined the South African Communist Party (SACP) in 1942, partly, as he said later, because it was the only organization in the country without a colour bar. At the University of Witwatersrand he became friends with Nelson Mandela. The SACP was declared illegal in 1950, but he remained with it when it was reconstituted underground and in 1953 became a member of its Central Committee. In 1954 he was banned from attending meetings. That kept him from attending a historic meeting where the Freedom Charter of the African National Congress (ANC), which he helped draft, was adopted. He was arrested and charged with treason for supporting the charter in 1956, but the charges against him were dropped in 1958. In 1961 he participated in the formation of the ANC military wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe ("Spear of the Nation"). Following Mandela's arrest in 1963, he fled South Africa and lived thereafter in London and in various southern African countries. His first wife, Ruth First, was killed in Maputo, Mozambique, in 1982 by a parcel bomb believed sent by South African security forces; her story was told in the 1988 film A World Apart. The chief white leader in the struggle against apartheid, he was chairman (1984-87, 1991-95) and general secretary (1987-91) of the SACP and in 1985 became the first white person to be elected to the national executive of the ANC. He returned to South Africa under an amnesty in 1990, the same year Mandela was freed. He was appointed minister of housing in the first multiracial government in 1994.
Slyunyayev, Igor (Nikolayevich) (b. Oct. 4, 1966, Isilkul, Omsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Kostroma oblast (2007-12). In 2012 he became Russian minister of regional development.