Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer, Edzard (b. Feb. 21, 1859, Maarseveen, Utrecht, Netherlands - d. Jan. 18, 1936, The Hague, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Groningen (1917-25).
Tjibaou, Jean-Marie (b. Jan. 30, 1936, Hienghène parish, eastern coast of New Caledonia - d. May 4, 1989, Wadrilla, New Caledonia), New Caledonian leader. He was ordained a priest in 1965. In 1970, feeling that the priesthood confined him to a "mysticoreligious ghetto," he left and devoted himself primarily to social work. In 1977 he was elected mayor of Hienghène and vice-president of the Union Calédonienne, the main independence party. He was elected vice-premier in the government of New Caledonia in 1982. A moderate, concerned chiefly with economic and social affairs, he emerged on Nov. 18, 1984, in Hienghène, as a deeply determined supporter of "the active boycott policy adopted by the FLNKS" (the Front de Libération Nationale Kanake et Socialiste, a militant independence movement of the Kanaks [Melanesians]). A few days later he was confirmed as the political leader of the independence movement. In 1984-85 there were violent confrontations between the Kanaks of the FLNKS and the caldoches, those of European descent. France decided to institute a "transitional regime" that would allow the groups concerned to express their views on the future of the country. Four regions were set up, and regional elections were held in September 1985. In October, as expected, Tjibaou, Léopold Jorédié, and Yeiwéné Yeiwéné, all three members of the Union Calédonienne, were elected premiers of the three regions where the independence movement had won the elections. Tjibaou stated that the division of the country into regions would allow the independence faction to "organize independence at the grassroots." Tjibaou and Yeiwéné were assassinated by members of a Kanak splinter group who believed the FLNKS had sold out the idea of independence by signing the 1988 Matignon peace accord.
Tjokropranolo (b. May 20, 1924, Temanggung, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Tengah, Indonesia] - d. July 22, 1998, Jakarta, Indonesia), governor of Jakarta Raya (1977-82).
Tkachev, Aleksandr (Nikolayevich) (b. Dec. 23, 1960), head of the administration of Krasnodar kray (2001- ).
Tkeshelashvili, Eka(terine) (b. May 23, 1977, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Georgia (2008). She was also justice minister (2007-08) and deputy prime minister and state minister for reintegration (2010-12).
Tkhakushinov, Aslan(chery Kitovich) (b. July 12, 1947, Ulyap, Krasnogvardeysky rayon, Adygey autonomous oblast, Krasnodar kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), president (2007-11) and head of the republic (2011- ) of Adygeya.
Tlustý, Vlastimil (b. Sept. 19, 1955, Slaný, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), finance minister of the Czech Republic (2006-07).
Tmetuchl, Roman (b. Feb. 11, 1926, Palau - d. July 1, 1999, Palau), Palau politician. As chairman of the Palau Political Status Commission, he led residents to reject the Micronesia Constitution, later adopted only by what became the Federated States of Micronesia. He was a presidential candidate in 1980, 1984, and 1988 and governor of Airai state (1981-90).
To Huu, original name Nguyen Kim Thanh (b. Oct. 4, 1920, Hue, Vietnam - d. Dec. 9, 2002, Hanoi, Vietnam), Vietnamese politician. He became active in politics and joined the Communist Party in 1938. At age 19, he was imprisoned by the French, but he escaped three years later. Fighting alongside Ho Chi Minh, To Huu, who began writing poetry at the age of 6, publicly proclaimed that "I am both a revolutionary and a poet. For me, poems are a weapon for the revolution." One of his most famous poems, "Since Then," described his awakening to Communism as the moment when the "sun of truth shone on my heart." In postwar Vietnam, he held a number of senior government posts. He joined the Politburo in 1976 and was appointed deputy prime minister in 1980. He was ousted from the government in 1986 for mishandling the economy. His works continued to be taught in schools throughout Vietnam.
Toafa, Maatia (b. May 1, 1954), deputy prime minister (2003-04), prime minister (2004-06, 2010), and finance minister (2013- ) of Tuvalu.
Tobar Zaldumbide, Carlos (b. Dec. 29, 1912, Quito, Ecuador), foreign minister of Ecuador (1956-60). He was also ambassador to France (1963-64).
Tobback, Louis (Marie Joseph) (b. May 3, 1938, Leuven, Belgium), interior minister of Belgium (1988-94, 1998). He is also mayor of Leuven (1995- ).
Tobgay, Lyonchen Tshering (b. Sept. 16, 1965), prime minister of Bhutan (2013- ).
Tobgye, Lyonpo Sonam (b. Nov. 15, 1949, Nangkor, Pema Gatshel, Bhutan), chief advisor of Bhutan (2013). He has been chief justice of the Supreme Court from 2010.
Tobin, Brian (Vincent) (b. Oct. 21, 1954, Stephenville, Newfoundland), premier of Newfoundland (1996-2000). He was elected to the Canadian House of Commons as MP for Humber-St. Barbe-Baie Verte, Newfoundland, in 1980 and reelected in 1984, 1988, and 1993; he was parliamentary secretary to the minister of fisheries and oceans (1981-84), opposition forestry critic and associate critic for transport (1984-87), opposition critic for regional industrial expansion and privatization (1987-88), chairman of the Liberal caucus (1988-90), opposition critic for transport (1989-90), opposition critic for employment (1990-92), chair of the caucus committee on communications (1992), and minister of fisheries and oceans (1993-96). As member of the Liberal "Rat Pack," along with Don Boudria, John Nunziata, and Sheila Copps, he was credited with keeping the spark alive in the Liberal Party. He prevented a bill imposing a user pay system in Atlantic Canada that would have hurt inshore fishermen - in 1987 he forced the debate to be postponed for the summer recess and the proposal was never revived. He imposed a series of moratoria on Atlantic groundfisheries - he successfully stood up to two U.S. trawlers off the East Coast and imposed a licencing fee on American vessels going through Canadian waters. In 1994, he announced at the United Nations that Canada would seize foreign fishing vessels outside the 200-mile-limit - in the following confrontation, a Spanish trawler was arrested and later threats to expand the campaign if European Union ships did not stop fishing for turbot led to a settlement with the EU. In 1996 he became premier of Newfoundland; he resigned that position to return to the federal cabinet as industry minister (2000-02).
Tobin, Maurice J(oseph) (b. May 22, 1901, Roxbury, Mass. - d. July 19, 1953, Boston, Mass.), U.S. politician. He served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives (1926-28), was mayor of Boston (1938-45), and governor of Massachusetts (1945-47). In 1948 Pres. Harry S. Truman appointed him secretary of labour. In 1949 and early 1950 Tobin led in campaigns to repeal the Taft-Hartley labour law, to raise unemployment benefits, and institute larger retirement benefits for labour. When a clothing union official, alarmed at unemployment, advocated in May 1950 a 35-hour week, Tobin called the idea impractical "at present." Later Tobin was called upon to supervise the supply of labour for U.S. remobilization, and on September 29 he set up an office of defense manpower to develop "plans, policies, and programs" for assuring adequate labour supplies to war plants.
Toby, Jean (François) (b. Jan. 29, 1900, Saint-Pierre Quilbignon [now part of Brest], Finistère, France - d. June 28, 1964, Plougonvelin, Finistère), lieutenant governor of Niger (1942-54) and governor of Ivory Coast (1943) and of the French Settlements in Oceania/French Polynesia (1954-58).
Tod, David (b. Feb. 21, 1805, near Youngstown, Ohio - d. Nov. 13, 1868, Youngstown), governor of Ohio (1862-64). He was also U.S. minister to Brazil (1847-51).
Todd, Damian Roderic, byname Ric Todd (b. Aug. 29, 1959), governor of the Turks and Caicos Islands (2011-13). He was British ambassador to Slovakia (2001-04) and Poland (2007-11) and in 2013 was appointed high commissioner to Cyprus, effective April 2014.
Todd, Sir (Reginald Stephen) Garfield (b. July 13, 1908, Invercargill, New Zealand - d. Oct. 13, 2002, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe), prime minister of Southern Rhodesia (1953-58). He came to Southern Rhodesia in 1934 as a missionary for the Church of Christ. A school he established 400 km southwest of the capital Harare produced many of the country's black political leaders, who studied and later taught there. He entered parliament for the governing white supremacist United Party in 1946. His rugged good looks, fluent oratory, and lucid memory smoothed his path to the premiership in 1953. In power, he deployed white troops to crush striking black mineworkers and faced mounting unrest over unpopular land reforms. He claimed he was forced to resign after hardliners in his party opposed his plans to liberalize voting rights for blacks and to improve education services for the black majority, but colleagues said his autocratic unpredictability triggered his replacement by Edgar Whitehead. Out of office, Todd joined African nationalist leaders in 1960 in a call for British troops to remove Whitehead by force. When Whitehead was himself replaced by Ian Smith, who declared unilateral independence from Britain in 1965, he was restricted to his ranch. He was detained by the Smith regime in 1972-76. Nominated a senator after Zimbabwe's 1980 independence, Todd at first strongly supported Robert Mugabe's policies but later accused him of allowing rampant corruption to destroy the hopes of a rising black generation. He became a bitter critic of President Mugabe and in 2002 was stripped of his passport and vote under new citizenship laws. He was knighted in 1986, with Mugabe's approval, at the behest of the New Zealand government.
Todd, John Rawling (b. Feb. 15, 1929 - d. July 18, 2002), administrator of the British Indian Ocean Territory (1967-75).
Todd, Ron(ald) (b. March 11, 1927, Walthamstow, east London, England - d. April 30, 2005, Romford, Essex, England), British union leader. His active trade union career began while working for Ford. He eventually became the chief negotiator for the company's huge labour force and from there graduated to become the head of the nation's biggest trade union, the Transport and General Workers' Union. His election to the general secretaryship in 1984 was disfigured by allegations of ballot-rigging; as a result a further election was called the following year. He was always a blunt public speaker who did not encode his speeches. The period of his leadership could be counted as one of the most difficult ones for the trade union movement in the 20th century. In fact since Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher effectively shut out the trade unions from her domestic economic policies, most of Todd's negotiations, not always amicable, were with Labour leader Neil Kinnock. Sometimes he was at odds with Kinnock over Labour's plans to reform trade union legislation, but he was equally occasionally at odds with his own trade union colleagues. The ongoing row was generally over Labour's plans for "selective" reform of so-called union bashing legislation passed during the Thatcher years, while many trade unionists wanted the entirety of this legislation to be wiped from the statute book. In 1990, he found himself accused of double standards. At the Trades Union Congress he agreed that his union would support the Labour line while at the same time agreeing to back a motion which conflicted with it. It was also around this period that he mounted an attack on the moderates within his union who, he claimed, were trying to oust him from office before his retirement in 1992.
Todea, Alexandru (Gheorghe) Cardinal (b. June 5, 1912, Teleac village, Transylvania, Hungary [now in Romania] - d. May 21, 2002, Târgu Mures, Transylvania), archbishop of Fagaras and Alba Iulia, head of the Romanian Greek-Catholic Church (1990-94). He studied theology in Rome and was ordained as a priest in 1939. He returned to Romania in 1940. Between 1946 and 1948 he was imprisoned several times. In 1948, as the Communist state took the official position that "no religious community and none of its officials may have relations with religious communities abroad" and that "foreign religious cults may not exercise jurisdiction on Romanian territory," he was again arrested. He escaped from prison and remained in hiding for three years, during which he was secretly made a bishop at a meeting of church leaders. He was arrested again in 1951. After a trial in 1952, he was handed a life sentence to forced labour. He was released 12 years later, when Communist leader Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej amnestied all political prisoners. He then continued to fight for religious freedom, writing over 30 petitions to Communist authorities. At a secret meeting in 1986, the church's bishops elected Todea leader of the church, giving him the rank of metropolitan. After the collapse of the regime in 1989, the church was recognized by the state. In 1990, Pope John Paul II recognized Todea as leader of the Romanian Eastern Rite church. A year later the Vatican gave him the rank of cardinal. He retired from the executive leadership of the church in 1994 after suffering a paralyzing stroke.
Todorov, Nikolay (Todorov) (b. June 21, 1921, Varna, Bulgaria - d. Aug. 27, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria), acting president of Bulgaria (1990). He was ambassador to Greece in 1979-83 and speaker of the constituent Grand National Assembly in 1990-91.
Todorov (Georgiev), Stanko (b. Dec. 10, 1920, Pernik, Bulgaria - d. Dec. 17, 1996), prime minister (1971-81) and acting president (1990) of Bulgaria. He joined the Communist movement as a youth. His party career took off after the Communists seized power in 1944. He became a member of the policy-setting Communist Party Politburo in 1961. He served as prime minister under Bulgaria's Communist strongman, Todor Zhivkov. He was parliament chairman in 1981-90. As pressure mounted throughout Eastern Europe for change, Todorov was among a group of reform-minded top-level Communists who toppled Zhivkov in a Politburo coup in November 1989, opening the way for multiparty elections in 1990. Although he won a parliament seat, Todorov resigned later that year, citing health reasons, and withdrew from politics.
Togliatti, Palmiro (b. March 26, 1893, Genoa, Italy - d. Aug. 21, 1964, Yalta, Ukrainian S.S.R.), Italian politician. He joined a revolutionary group of the Socialist Party, formed by Antonio Gramsci, and launched with him the weekly L'Ordine nuovo ("New Order") in 1919. The paper became the rallying point for the left wing that broke away from the Socialist Party in 1921 and formed the Communist Party. In 1924 he became a member of the party's Central Committee. When, in 1926, almost all the leaders of the party, banned by Benito Mussolini, were arrested, Togliatti, who had attended a plenum of the Comintern executive, remained in Moscow and became secretary-general of the party in exile. He organized clandestine party congresses at Lyon (1926) and Cologne (1931) and became a member of the Comintern secretariat (1935), using the name Ercoli. During World War II he broadcast from the U.S.S.R. to Italy, encouraging the resistance movement. He returned to Italy in March 1944 and joined the government of Pietro Badoglio in April as minister without portfolio. He later served as vice premier (1944-45) and justice minister (1945-46). When in May 1947 Alcide De Gasperi expelled the Communists from the government, Togliatti launched a series of general strikes in northern Italy. A revolutionary situation arose when he was gravely wounded by a young Fascist on July 14, 1948; workers rose on strike all over Italy and resisted troops in street fighting. Advocating an "Italian road to socialism," he did not aim at the overthrow of the parliamentary system and rejected interference by any centralized international organization in the policy of national parties. He made the Italian Communist Party the most powerful in western Europe. In 1964 the Soviet Union renamed the city of Stavropol, in Kuybyshev (now Samara) oblast, in his honour (as Tolyatti).
Togo, Shigenori (b. December 1882, Kagoshima prefecture, Kyushu, Japan - d. July 23, 1950, Sugamo prison, Tokyo, Japan), Japanese politician. He entered foreign service and was stationed successively in Hankow, Mukden, and Switzerland. In 1918 he was named embassy second secretary, and stationed in Berlin. For two years beginning in 1921 he was in Tokyo as chief of the first section of the European and American Bureau of Affairs. Later he went to Washington, D.C., as first secretary of the embassy, and to Berlin as embassy councillor. He was named ambassador in 1937, serving in Berlin for a year, and then in Moscow until September 1940. On Oct. 18, 1941, he was named foreign minister in the government of Premier Hideki Tojo, and was in that post at the time of the Pearl Harbor attack. He also held the position of foreign minister in the Baron Kantaro Suzuki cabinet just before Japan's surrender. In 1948 he was sentenced to 20 years' imprisonment by an international war crimes tribunal.
Togoimi, Youssouf (b. March 26, 1953, Zouar, Chad - d. Sept. 24, 2002, Tripoli, Libya), justice minister (1991-93), defense minister (1995-97), and interior minister (1997) of Chad. A former comrade of Pres. Idriss Déby in the fight against the Libyans in the late 1980s, he launched a rebellion in a northern Chad region bordering Libya in December 1998. He headed the Movement for Democracy and Justice in Chad. On Aug. 28, 2002, he was injured after his vehicle struck a land mine in northern Chad; he was flown to the Libyan capital Tripoli for treatment, where he died the next month.
Tohian, Paul (b. Nov. 28, 1949 - d. May 13, 2004, Kavieng, New Ireland, Papua New Guinea), governor of New Ireland (1997-2002).
Toivo ya Toivo, (Herman) Andimba (b. Aug. 22, 1924, Omangundu, South West Africa [now Namibia]), Namibian political leader. In early 1950 he helped to form an organization to assist Ovambo contract workers in South Africa. In 1959 he helped to form the Ovambo People's Organization, the precursor to the South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO). When he tried to smuggle a tape to the UN Trusteeship Council listing the grievances of Ovambo workers, he was arrested and placed under restriction in Ovamboland. In 1966 the authorities discovered a training camp for SWAPO guerrillas at Ongulumbashe in Ovamboland. Toivo and his associates were arrested and put on trial for treason two years later. He was sentenced to 20 years in prison. He was released in March 1984 after 16 years, nearly all of which were spent on Robben Island, where South Africa confined many of its political prisoners. Despite his long incarceration he tried to resist being released until all the other Namibian political prisoners were freed with him; he was literally compelled to leave his prison cell. He at once announced his determination to resume his struggle for Namibian independence, but though he was the veteran leader of SWAPO, he insisted that its younger president, Sam Nujoma, should continue as leader. Instead, Toivo was elected secretary-general. It was hoped that under his moderating influence SWAPO would be drawn into the South African-supported Multi-Party Conference, but Toivo quickly dispelled that illusion. Only in 1989 did he return from exile and became actively involved in preparing Namibia for independence, which was achieved in 1990. He was appointed a member of the Namibian Legislative Assembly and became minister of mines and energy (1990-99), labour (1999-2002), and prisons (2002-04).
Tojo, Hideki, until 1941 called Eiki Tojo (b. Dec. 30, 1884, Tokyo, Japan - d. Dec. 23, 1948, Sugamo prison, Tokyo), prime minister of Japan (1941-44). He graduated from the Imperial Military Academy in 1905 and from the Military Staff College in 1915. He served as a military attaché in Switzerland and Germany in 1919-22. In 1928 he was given command of the 1st Infantry Regiment, one of the two which mutinied in Tokyo in 1936. Known as an efficient administrator, skillful field commander, and stern disciplinarian, he became chief of staff of the Kwantung army in Manchuria in 1937. He was vice-minister of war (1938-39) and minister of war (1940-41) in the governments of Duke Fumimaro Konoe and was one of the leading advocates of Japan's pact with Germany and Italy (1940). He succeeded Konoe as prime minister on Oct. 18, 1941, remaining minister of war and also holding other portfolios at times. One of the most aggressive militarists in the Japanese leadership, he was determined to consolidate and extend Japanese power in Asia and the Pacific. He ordered the attack on the U.S. base at Pearl Harbor, Dec. 7, 1941, and thereafter scored smashing victories throughout Southeast Asia and the Pacific. But when the Japanese forces were unable to sustain their gains in the face of the Allied counteroffensive and, especially, when the Mariana Islands were lost, he was held responsible and was compelled to resign in July 1944. Following Japan's surrender, his arrest was ordered; he was saved when he shot himself in a suicide attempt (Sept. 11, 1945), but was indicted as a war criminal (April 29, 1946) and subsequently tried before the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, found guilty (Nov. 12, 1948), and hanged.
Toka, Salchak (Kalbakkhorekovich) (b. Dec. 15 [Dec. 2, O.S.], 1901, Mergen, China [now in Tuva, Russia] - d. May 11, 1973, Kyzyl, Tuva A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), first secretary of the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party (1932-44). After the incorporation of Tuva into the U.S.S.R., he was first secretary of the Tuva regional committee (1944-73), and a candidate member (1952-71) and member (1971-73) of the Central Committee, of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Tokayev, Kasymzhomart (Kemelevich) (b. May 17, 1953, Alma-Ata, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Almaty, Kazakhstan]), foreign minister (1994-99, 2002-07) and prime minister (1999-2002) of Kazakhstan. He has also been chairman of the Senate (2007-11, 2013- ).
Tolba, Mohamed Ould (b. 1962, R'Kiz, Trarza region, Mauritania), foreign minister of Mauritania (2002-03).
Tolbert, William R(ichard), Jr. (b. May 13, 1913, Bensonville, Liberia - d. April 12, 1980, Monrovia, Liberia), president of Liberia (1971-80). He entered politics in the early 1940s. In 1943 he was elected to the House of Representatives where Pres. William Tubman singled him out for the vice-presidency, which he held for 20 years (1951-71). Tolbert was also Liberia's leading Baptist and the president (1965-70) of the Baptist World Alliance. When Tolbert came to power in 1971 he attempted to stamp out the corruption and inefficiency that had grown under Tubman, and to reinvigorate the economy. But in time corruption seeped back, and the economic climate of 1980 was against him. The March arrest of opposition leaders who had called for a general strike sparked a coup led by Master Sgt. Samuel Doe. Tolbert was shot at once and his older brother Frank was also later executed.
Toledo (Manrique), Alejandro (Celestino) (b. March 28, 1946, Cabana, Ancash department [now region], Peru), president of Peru (2001-06). A former shoeshine boy, he benefited from scholarships and won a doctorate in economics from Stanford University (1976), then established himself as an economist working for major international organizations. In 1995 he first ran for president, finishing fourth. In 2000, incumbent Alberto Fujimori's smear tactics ultimately helped Toledo, who led the centrist Perú Posible party. Toledo dropped out of the runoff in protest and launched a series of popular demonstrations against Fujimori's claimed victory. After Fujimori resigned in November, Toledo led the pack of new candidates for the April 2001 elections and won 36.5% of the vote in the first round. His opponent, former president Alan García, exploited media allegations against Toledo of infidelity, immoral behaviour, and cocaine use. Toledo also fell out with campaign chief Álvaro Vargas Llosa (son of Mario Vargas Llosa, the novelist who lost the 1990 presidential race to Fujimori), who began to advocate blank ballots to protest the candidacies of both Toledo and García. On the other hand, Toledo was aided by his wife, Belgian-born American anthropologist Eliane Karp, who gave campaign speeches in Quechua (which Toledo himself did not speak). He won the June runoff with 53.1% of the ballots. Fewer than 3% of votes were blank. Toledo, called "El Cholo" ("the Indian"), became Peru's first democratically elected president of Quechua ethnicity. Held back by scandals and by his own dissolute handling of power, he never really connected to his people and walked a high wire as heads of state in neighbouring countries were brought down by popular resistance. Poverty and discontent persisted, although the economy grew about 5% a year. He ran for the presidency again in 2011, coming only fourth.
Tolentino, Arturo M(odesto) (b. Sept. 19, 1910, Manila, Philippines - d. Aug. 2, 2004, Manila), foreign secretary of the Philippines (1984-85). He served as a congressman representing Manila from 1949 to 1957, and as senator from 1957 until 1972, when Congress was abolished with the declaration of martial law. He held the Senate presidency from 1965 to 1966. A renowned authority on the constitution and a respected lawmaker, he authored or sponsored some 2,000 bills. A stalwart in the Nacionalista Party, Tolentino was a strong contender for the party's nomination as standard-bearer in the 1965 presidential election, but his presidential hopes faded when a disgruntled Ferdinand Marcos bolted the Liberal Party and joined the Nationalists. As foreign secretary under President Marcos, he led the Philippine delegation to the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, where he pressed for the adoption of the archipelagic doctrine, which benefited the Philippines and other country archipelagoes. He was Marcos' running mate in the 1986 snap elections. Marcos and Tolentino were proclaimed the winners, and Tolentino took his oath on Feb. 16, 1986. Nine days later, Marcos was forced to flee to Hawaii by the "people power" revolt. In July 1986 Tolentino was proclaimed acting president by hundreds of Marcos loyalists, including soldiers, who had barricaded themselves at the Manila Hotel to install a rebel government. When the massive popular support the rebels were expecting failed to materialize, Tolentino agreed to disperse his followers. In 1992, he was reelected senator and served his term until 1995.
Tolentino Dipp, Hugo (b. Aug. 28, 1930, Santo Domingo de Guzmán, Dominican Republic), foreign minister of the Dominican Republic (2000-03).
Tolokonsky, Viktor (Aleksandrovich) (b. May 27, 1953), governor of Novosibirsk oblast (2000-10), plenipotentiary of the president in Sibirsky federal district (2010-14), and acting governor of Krasnoyarsk kray (2014- ). He was also mayor of Novosibirsk (1993-2000).
Tolstoshein, Konstantin (Borisovich) (b. March 9, 1952, Artyom, Primorsky kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), acting governor of Primorsky kray (2001, 2001). He was also mayor of Vladivostok (1994-96).
Tomada, Carlos (Alfonso) (b. May 4, 1948, Buenos Aires, Argentina), labour minister of Argentina (2003- ).
Tomás, Américo de Deus Rodrigues (b. Nov. 19, 1894, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Sept. 18, 1987, Cascais, near Lisbon), president of Portugal (1958-74). Educated at Lisbon Naval Academy, he served during World War I on ships protecting troop convoys for the Western Front. He was largely responsible for the major hydrographic survey of Portugal's coastline, on which he himself worked (1920-36). He was appointed special assistant to the minister of the navy in 1936 and president of the National Board for the Merchant Navy in 1940. As minister of the navy (1944-58), he instituted a program of building new merchant ships and lighthouses. He became a rear admiral in 1951. Chosen by Prime Minister António Salazar to fill the office of president, Tomás defeated Gen. Humberto Delgado in the 1958 elections, which were held under a limited franchise. He was reappointed to the office by an electoral college in 1965 and 1972. Tomás traveled widely in the Portuguese colonies and favoured retention of power by military force. When Salazar became incapacitated by illness in 1968, Tomás replaced him as prime minister with Marcelo Caetano. After being deposed by the revolution of April 1974, Tomás spent four years in exile before he was allowed to return to Portugal in 1978.
Tomasi Kulimoetoke I (d. 1928), king of `Uvea (Wallis) (1924-28).
Tomasi Kulimoetoke II, original name Tomasi Iloaï (b. July 26, 1918, Mata-Utu, Wallis - d. May 7, 2007, Mata-Utu), prime minister (1953-57) and king (1959-2007) of `Uvea (Wallis); grandson of Tomasi Kulimoetoke I.
Tomasini, René (b. April 16, 1919 - d. May 5, 1983), French politician; general secretary of the Union of Democrats for the Republic (1971-72).
Tomasini, Roberto (Jorge) (b. 1929), public works minister of Argentina (1985-86).
Tomassoni, Mirko (b. April 24, 1969, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2007-08).
Tomaszewski, Janusz (Teofil) (b. 1956, Pabianice, Poland), interior minister of Poland (1997-99).
Tombalbaye, N'Garta, until Aug. 30, 1973, François Tombalbaye (b. June 15, 1918, Bessada, Chad - d. [assassinated] April 13, 1975, N'Djamena, Chad), president of Chad (1960-75).
Tombura, Joseph (James) (b. 1929?, Wau, southern Sudan - d. ...), chairman of the High Executive Council of Southern Sudan (1982-83).
Tomcic, Zlatko (b. July 10, 1945, Zagreb, Croatia), acting president of Croatia (2000). He was president of the Sabor (Assembly) in 2000-03.
Tomeing, Litokwa (b. Oct. 14, 1939, Wotje Atoll, Marshall Islands), president of the Marshall Islands (2008-09). He was speaker of the Nitijela in 2000-08.
Tomelleri, Angelo (b. June 26, 1924, Verona, Italy - d. June 23, 1985), president of Veneto (1970-72, 1973-80).
Tomic, Dragan (b. 1936, Pristina, Yugoslavia [now in Kosovo]), president of the National Assembly (1994-2001) and acting president (1997) of Serbia.
Tomic, Dragan, byname of Dragomir Tomic (b. Oct. 5, 1937, Zbevac, Bujanovac, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia]), deputy prime minister of Serbia (1998-2000).
Tomic, Neven (b. April 21, 1958, Mostar [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), finance minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1994-96).
Tompkins, Daniel D.1 (b. June 21, 1774, Fox Meadows [now Scarsdale], N.Y. - d. June 11, 1825, Tompkinsville, Staten Island, N.Y.), governor of New York (1807-17) and U.S. vice president (1817-25).
1 He appears to have added the middle initial merely to distinguish himself from another Daniel Tompkins in his school classes.
Tomsic, Vida, née Bernot (b. June 26, 1913, Ljubljana, Austria-Hungary [now in Slovenia] - d. 1998), president of the People's Assembly of Slovenia (1962-63). She was also president of the Council of the People of the Federal Assembly of Yugoslavia (1967-69).
Ton Duc Thang (b. Aug. 19, 1888, My Hoa Hung village, Dinh Thanh district, Long Xuyen province, Vietnam - d. March 30, 1980, Hanoi, Vietnam), president of North Vietnam (1969-76) and of Vietnam (1976-80). He was involved early in anti-colonialist agitation. In 1912 he went to France and joined the French navy. In April 1919, at Sevastopol aboard the battle cruiser Waldeck-Rousseau which was operating against Soviet revolutionaries, he participated in an uprising that almost succeeded in turning the ship over to the Bolsheviks. Discharged, he returned to Vietnam in 1920. In 1929 he was arrested for his revolutionary activities and was sentenced to 20 years hard labour, which he served on the Poulo Condore (Con Son) prison island off the southern coast of Vietnam. Freed after the August 1945 revolution which brought Ho Chi Minh's Vietnam League for Independence (Viet Minh) to power, he was appointed president of Hoi Lien Hien Quoc Dan Viet Nam (Lien Viet), the National Popular Front Association, in 1951. Following the Geneva Conference of 1954, which recognized Viet Minh rule in North Vietnam, the Lien Viet was reorganized under the name Mat tran To quoc (Fatherland Front). With him as president, it tried to attract the allegiance of the South Vietnamese. He also served as vice-chairman and then chairman of the Standing Committee of the National Assembly. In 1960 he became vice president of North Vietnam. He became president after the death of Ho Chi Minh and held the largely ceremonial post until his own death. His neutrality in internal Communist Party affairs helped to avoid splits in the Vietnamese leadership. He was also chairman of the Soviet-Vietnamese Friendship Society from 1950 to 1969 and was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize in 1955.
Toncic-Sorinj, Lujo (b. April 12, 1915, Vienna, Austria - d. May 20, 2005, Salzburg, Austria), foreign minister of Austria (1966-68) and secretary-general of the Council of Europe (1969-74).
Tonckens (Joachimus Lunsinghszoon), Warmolt (b. Nov. 22, 1848, Peize, Drenthe, Netherlands - d. Sept. 9, 1922, Utrecht, Netherlands), governor-general of Dutch Guiana (1888-89 [acting], 1896-1902).
Tondo, Renzo (b. Aug. 7, 1956, Tolmezzo, Udine province, Italy), president of Friuli-Venezia Giulia (2001-03, 2008-13).
Tonelli, Ideler (Santiago) (b. Dec. 18, 1924), Argentine labour minister (1987-89) and federal interventor in Corrientes (1993).
Tong, Anote (b. June 11, 1952, Fanning island, Gilbert and Ellice Islands [now in Kiribati]), president of Kiribati (2003- ). He served as senior assistant secretary in the Ministry of Education (1976-77) and secretary for the Ministry of Communication and Works (1980-82). He was the minister for natural resources development in 1994-96 and the member of parliament for Maiana Island and a senior member of the Boutokaan Te Koaua party in 1996-2003. In 2003 he defeated his brother Harry Tong in the presidential election. He also took on the External Affairs and Immigration portfolio.
Tong Sang, Gaston (b. Aug. 7, 1949, Bora Bora, French Settlements in Oceania [now French Polynesia]), president of French Polynesia (2006-07, 2008-09, 2009-11).
Tong Siv Eng (b. 1919 - d. June 12, 2001, Bangkok, Thailand), Cambodian politician. She and her husband, Pung Peng Cheng, were among Norodom Sihanouk's closest aides during the monarch's six decades in Cambodia's political spotlight. She began teaching Sihanouk's 12 children in 1956. She was elected to the National Assembly in 1958 and became Cambodia's first female minister in 1959. She served in Sihanouk's governments as Minister of Social Action (1959-63) and then as Minister of Health (1963-68). She was reelected to a third term in the National Assembly which was cut short in 1970 when Sihanouk was overthrown in a coup. She played an unheralded but crucial behind-the-scenes role in helping to end Cambodia's protracted civil war in the late 1980s. In 1987 and 1988, she brokered the first three meetings between then-prince Sihanouk and Prime Minister Hun Sen, leaders of opposing factions in the civil war. Sihanouk led anti-communist forces against Hun Sen's Vietnamese-backed government. The three meetings in France triggered a process that led to the Paris Peace Accords in 1991, ending more than 20 years of civil strife.
Tonkin, David (Oliver) (b. July 20, 1929 - d. Oct. 1, 2000), premier of South Australia (1979-82).
Toome, Indrek (b. Sept. 19, 1943, Tallinn, Estonia), premier of the Estonian S.S.R. (1988-90).
Topi, Bamir (Myrteza) (b. April 24, 1957, Tiranë, Albania), president of Albania (2007-12). He was also minister of agriculture and food (1996-97).
Topolánek, Mirek (b. May 15, 1956, Vsetín, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), prime minister of the Czech Republic (2006-09).
Topoyev, Esen (Tolenovich) (b. Feb. 28, 1952, Kyzyl-Kiya, Kirgiz S.S.R.), defense minister of Kyrgyzstan (1999-2005).
Toptani, Abdi Bej (b. 1864, Tiranë, Ottoman Empire [now in Albania] - d. 1942, Tiranë), member of the High Council of Albania (1920-21).
Toptani, Esat (Salih) Pashë (b. 1863, Tiranë, Ottoman Empire [now in Albania] - d. [assassinated] June 13, 1920, Paris, France), chairman of the Provisional Government of Albania (1914-16).
Toribiong, Johnson (b. July 22, 1946, Airai village, Palau), president of Palau (2009-13); nephew of Roman Tmetuchl. He was formerly ambassador to Taiwan (2001-08). He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 1992.
Toriello Garrido, Jorge (b. 1908? - d. June 16, 1998), member of the Revolutionary Government Junta of Guatemala (1944-45).
Torlopov, Vladimir (Aleksandrovich) (b. Nov. 14, 1949, Syktyvkar, Komi A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), head of the republic of Komi (2002-10).
Torode, Mike, byname of Michael William Torode, chief minister of Guernsey (2007-08).
Torp, Oscar Fredrik (b. June 8, 1893, Hafslund, near Sarpsborg, Norway - d. May 1, 1958, Oslo, Norway), prime minister of Norway (1951-55). He was also mayor of Oslo (1935-36), minister (1940-45 in exile) of social affairs (1936-39), finance (1939-42), defense (1942-45), supply and reconstruction (1945-48), and trade and shipping (acting, 1954), governor of Vestfold (1948-58), and president of the Storting (1955-58).
Torre, Xavier (Antoine) (b. 1910 - d. January 2003), high commissioner of French Cameroons (1958-60).
Torreblanca Galindo, (Carlos) Zeferino (b. March 14, 1954, Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico), governor of Guerrero (2005-11).
Torrelio Villa, Celso (b. June 3, 1933, Padilla, Chuquisaca, Bolivia - d. April 24, 1999, Buenos Aires, Argentina), president of Bolivia (1981-82). It took him 25 years to rise from sublieutenant to brigadier general but only seven months to win his next promotion to general of division on July 23, 1981. He was chosen to join the ruling military junta by virtue of his seniority, and his appointment as president followed from his position as senior member of that body. He was above U.S. suspicion of involvement in the drug business, and the U.S. reestablished diplomatic relations with Bolivia in early November 1981. Torrelio's actions in promising an increased role for foreign firms in the mining, metallurgical, and petroleum sectors, freedom from fears of nationalization, and acceptance of an International Monetary Fund presence in running the economy marked him as someone who rejected the nationalistic economic model in place in Bolivia since 1952. Torrelio lifted almost all restrictions on civil rights and after 10 months handed power to another soldier, Guido Vildoso Calderón, who governed only 3 months before a civilian president, Hernán Siles Zuazo, took office.
Torrens, Sir Arthur Wellesley (b. Aug. 18, 1809 - d. Aug. 24, 1855, Paris, France), lieutenant governor of Saint Lucia (1844-48).
Torrens, Sir Henry d'Oyley (b. Feb. 24, 1823 - d. Dec. 1, 1889, England), governor of Malta (1888-89).
Torres, Paulo Francisco (b. May 29, 1903, Cantagalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Jan. 12, 2000, Brasília, Brazil), governor of Acre (1955-56) and Rio de Janeiro (1964-66) and president of the Senate of Brazil (1973-75).
Torres Gonzales, Juan José (b. March 5, 1921, Sacaba, Cochabamba, Bolivia - d. June 1/2, 1976, Argentina), president of Bolivia (1970-71). He lived in Argentina since 1973 and was a leading member of the Bolivian opposition in exile. On June 1, 1976, he was kidnapped from his home in Buenos Aires and was found shot dead in an automobile trunk outside the city on the following day.
Torres Sánchez, Enrique (b. Feb. 22, 1903, Nazas, Durango, Mexico - d. [assassinated] April 1, 1965, Colonia J. Agustín Castro, Durango), governor of Durango (1950-56).
Torres y Torres Lara, Carlos (Guillermo Juan) (b. November 1942, Lima, Peru - d. June 16, 2000, Lima), prime minister and foreign minister of Peru (1991). He was also minister of labour (1990-91) and president of the Congress (1997-98).
Torrijos (Espino), Martín (Erasto) (b. July 18, 1963, Panama City, Panama), president of Panama (2004-09). The son of former military strongman Gen. Omar Torrijos Herrera, he was sent by his father at the age of 15 to fight in Nicaragua's civil war. The younger Torrijos belonged to a Panamanian brigade fighting alongside the Sandinista rebel group. In 1992, he joined the campaign staff of Panamanian presidential candidate Ernesto Pérez Balladares. He was made vice-minister of government and justice after the Revolutionary Democratic Party (PRD) won the election. He was chosen by the PRD as the candidate to replace Pérez Balladares in 1999. A shy public speaker with his father's good looks, Torrijos ran on an ambiguous "populist-lite" platform, which consisted of unspecified plans to ease economic reforms made by Pérez Balladares, while still maintaining a pro-business atmosphere in Panama. Critics say the PRD platform lacked substance, but many said a Torrijos victory could be a positive step in Panama's economic and social development. Once the far-and-away favourite to win the election, Torrijos watched his support slide, and finally lost to opposition candidate Mireya Moscoso. In 2004, however, his lead in the opinion polls held through the election.
Torrijos Herrera, Omar (Efraín) (b. Feb. 13, 1929, Santiago de Veraguas, Panama - d. July 31, 1981, near Penonomé, western Panama), de facto ruler of Panama (1968-81). In 1952 he was commissioned a second lieutenant in the National Guard (the country's only military force), becoming lieutenant colonel in 1966 and colonel in 1968. He was named military aide to Pres. Arnulfo Arias in October 1968. Less than two weeks later Torrijos and Col. Boris Martínez led a coup that toppled Arias. The next year, he effectively took sole power by exiling Martínez and taking the title of brigadier general. A newly elected assembly in 1972 gave him full civil and military powers for a six-year term as Chief of Government and Supreme Leader of the Panamanian Revolution. He won agreement with U.S. Pres. Jimmy Carter for the pact (signed Sept. 7, 1977) that would transfer sovereignty of the Panama Canal to Panama by the end of 1999. In 1978, he relinquished the post of chief of government, though he retained command of the National Guard. Torrijos, who once described himself as a "dictator with a heart," represented no clear ideology. He visited Fidel Castro in Cuba and backed the Sandinista National Liberation Front's effort to overthrow Pres. Anastasio Somoza of Nicaragua. On the other hand, he suppressed leftist labour agitators and students in Panama and allowed the deposed shah of Iran to reside on the Panamanian island of Contadora in December 1979. He was also responsible, together with the Vatican, for persuading the Argentine government to release former president Isabel Perón from house arrest and permit her exile to Spain. He died in an airplane crash in a jungle area while making a military inspection tour.
Tosenovský, Evzen (b. Feb. 26, 1956, Ostrava, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), governor of Moravskoslezský kraj (2000-08). He was also chairman of the Association of Czech Regions, established in 2001 to help solve common problems of regions and to serve as their platform for communication with central government offices.
Tosovský, Josef (b. Sept. 28, 1950, Náchod, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), prime minister of the Czech Republic (1997-98). In December 1989 he became chief of the Czechoslovak (later, Czech) central bank. He often clashed over monetary policy with Premier Václav Klaus, an economist who was credited early on as the architect of the post-Communist transformation, but who saw his political fortunes collapse late in 1997. An inflation hawk who earned the 1995 "Banker of the Year" honour at the International Bankers' Forum, Tosovský reluctantly accepted Pres. Václav Havel's plea in December 1997 to guide the country to early polls in June 1998. He was picked by Havel as a compromise choice after Klaus's three-party centre-right administration fell apart over a funding scandal within Klaus's Civic Democratic Party. Tosovský insisted that his stint as premier should be short-term and come with assurances that his role in the central bank would be waiting for him. His deputy at the bank, meanwhile, carried the title of "acting governor." The erudite and unassuming Tosovský had a solid reputation in financial markets but was little known outside. However, he soon earned an 85% public approval rating while rebuilding the government. But his lack of affiliation to any political party made him an easy target for partisan bickering and almost scuttled the confirmation of his caretaker government. He refused to bend to demands from either end of the political spectrum. In July 1998 he was reappointed governor of the central bank. He resigned in 2000 and from 2001 worked for the Financial Stability Institute within the Bank for International Settlements in Switzerland. In 2007 he was considered for the post of managing director of the International Monetary Fund.
Totu, Ioan (V.) (b. May 14, 1931 - d. April 21, 1992, Bucharest, Romania), foreign minister of Romania (1986-89). One of 21 former Communist officials charged with trying to crush the revolution that toppled Nicolae Ceausescu in December 1989, he was sentenced to 16 years in prison on April 20, 1992. He then committed suicide by hanging himself.
Touadéra, Faustin Archange (b. April 21, 1957, Bangui, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic]), prime minister of the Central African Republic (2008-13).
Toucey, Isaac (b. Nov. 5, 1796, Newtown, Conn. - d. July 30, 1869, Hartford, Conn.), governor of Connecticut (1846-47) and U.S. attorney general (1848-49) and secretary of the Navy (1857-61).
Touchard, Philippe Victor (b. July 21, 1810, Versailles, France - d. Feb. 20, 1879, Paris, France), governor of Guadeloupe (1857-59).
Touhami, Hassan al- (b. 1924, Quesna, al-Minufiyah governorate, Egypt - d. Dec. 9, 2009), secretary-general of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (1974-75).
Toumpas, Ioannis (Nikolaou) (b. Jan. 24, 1901 - d. 1995), foreign minister of Greece (1966). He was also minister of interior (1964-65, 1965), public order (1965), public works (1965), Northern Greece (1965, 1965), and industry (1965-66).
Toungui, Paul (b. Sept. 7, 1950, Okondja, Gabon), finance minister (1990-94, 2002-08) and foreign minister (2008-12) of Gabon; husband of Pascaline Mferri Bongo Ondimba. He was also minister of mines, energy, and oil (1994-2002).
Toura Gaba, Pierre (Jules) (b. Dec. 28, 1920, Maibyan, near Moissala, Chad - d. March 7, 1998, N'Djamena, Chad), foreign minister of Chad (1960-61). He was also minister of education (1961-62) and ambassador to West Germany (1966-73) and the United States (1976-79) where he remained in exile until 1991.
Touray, Omar (Alieu) (b. Nov. 5, 1965, Farafenni, Gambia), foreign minister of The Gambia (2008-09). In 2007-08 he was permanent representative to the United Nations. In 2002-07 he served as ambassador to Ethiopia and high commissioner to South Africa and Kenya.
Touré, Abdoulaye (b. c. 1920, Kankan, French Guinea [now Guinea] - d. [executed] July 1985?), foreign minister of Guinea (1979-84). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1969-72) and minister of the trade and communications domain (1972-79).
Touré, Ahmed Sékou (b. Jan. 9, 1922, Faranah, French Guinea [now Guinea] - d. March 26, 1984, Cleveland, Ohio), president (1958-84) and foreign minister (1958-61) of Guinea. He became a trade union leader and organized the first successful strike (76 days) in French West Africa. He became active in politics when he helped Félix Houphouët-Boigny of Ivory Coast form the African Democratic Rally (Rassemblement Démocratique Africain) in 1946. In 1947 he set up the Guinean Democratic Party. Touré, who proved to be a powerful orator, was elected to the French National Assembly in 1951 and 1954, but both times was not allowed to take his seat. In 1955 he was elected mayor of Conakry, and he was finally admitted to the National Assembly in 1956. As vice president of the Executive Council of Guinea from 1957, he advocated plans for the country's industrialization. When in 1958 the French territories were offered to decide by referendum on whether to join a new French Community or to become independent, Touré led a successful campaign for independence, declaring that "we prefer poverty in liberty to wealth in slavery." On Oct. 2, 1958, Guinea was declared independent and he became the first head of an independent state in French-speaking Africa. The abrupt withdrawal of French personnel and equipment threatened an economic breakdown, and Touré accepted support from the Communist bloc while also seeking help from Western nations. By 1961 he was committed to nonalignment. He was a strong supporter of Ghanaian leader Kwame Nkrumah's plans for the political unity of Africa; when Nkrumah was deposed in 1966, Touré granted him asylum. After exiles in Portuguese Guinea attempted an invasion in 1970, he ruled increasingly with an iron hand. He was reelected without opposition in 1961, 1968, 1974, and 1982.
Touré, Amadou Toumani ("ATT") (b. Nov. 4, 1948, Mopti, French Sudan [now Mali]), president of Mali (1991-92, 2002-12).
Touré, Aminata (b. Oct. 12, 1962, Dakar, Senegal), prime minister of Senegal (2013-14). She was justice minister in 2012-13.
Touré, Hamadoun (b. Sept. 3, 1953), secretary-general of the International Telecommunication Union (2007- ).
Touré, Sidya (b. Aug. 15, 1945, Dimbokro, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire]), prime minister of Guinea (1996-99). He was cleared of plotting to overthrow the government by an appeals court on July 21, 2004. During the three months that he was under investigation, he was barred from talking to the press, holding public meetings, and leaving the country. He was a presidential candidate in 2010.
Touré, Younoussi (b. Jan. 1, 1941, Niodougou, Timbuktu region, French Sudan [now Mali]), prime minister of Mali (1992-93).
Tournie, Henri (Charles Ferdinand Louis) (b. March 10, 1852, Montauban, Tarn-et-Garonne, France - d. ...), interim governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1896).
Toussaint-Louverture, Louverture also spelled L'Ouverture, original name François Dominique Toussaint (b. May 20, 1743, Bréda, near Cape François, Saint-Domingue [now Haiti] - d. April 7, 1803, Fort-de-Joux, France), Haitian leader. Born into slavery, he was legally freed in 1777. A sudden slave revolt in August 1791 found him uncommitted at first, but he ultimately joined the black forces. By 1793 his military victories had won him the sobriquet Louverture, as a man who "makes an opening everywhere." When France went to war with Spain and Britain that year, he joined the Spaniards of the neighbouring colony of Santo Domingo. His victories in the north, mulatto successes in the south, and British occupation of the coasts combined to bring the French close to disaster. Yet, in May 1794, after France had freed all slaves, which Spain and Britain refused to do, he went over to the French. The French governor, Étienne Laveaux, made him lieutenant governor, and the Spaniards were expelled. He eased Laveaux out in 1796. French commissioner Léger Félicité Sonthonax made Toussaint governor-general, but Toussaint forced Sonthonax out as well in 1797. He rid himself of another nominal French superior, Gabriel Hédouville, in 1798, and in the same year forced the withdrawal of the British. Controlling all Saint-Domingue, he then overran Spanish Santo Domingo (1801) and freed its slaves. In command of the entire island, he dictated a constitution that made him governor-general for life with near absolute powers. The restoration of peace between France and Britain was the prelude to his downfall. A force of 30,000 troops sent to restore French authority arrived in January 1802. In May, he agreed to lay down his arms. A few weeks later, suspected of plotting an uprising, he was seized and sent to Fort-de-Joux in the French Alps, where he died.
Tovar Faja, Roberto (b. Nov. 12, 1944, San José, Costa Rica), foreign minister of Costa Rica (2002-06).
Toxopeus, Edzo (Hendrik) (b. Feb. 19, 1918, Amersfoort, Netherlands - d. Aug. 23, 2009, Oegstgeest, Netherlands), interior minister of the Netherlands (1959-65) and queen's commissioner of Groningen (1970-80).
Toxqui Fernández de Lara, Alfredo (b. Aug. 5, 1913, San Pedro Cholula, Puebla, Mexico - d. April 1, 2004, Puebla, Puebla, Mexico), governor of Puebla (1975-81).
Tozoun, Kokou (Biossey), foreign minister of Togo (2003-05). He was also minister of civil service, work, and employment (1998-2003), communication and civic education (2005-06), and justice (2007-11).
Trad, Petro, Arabic Butrus Turad (b. 1886, Beirut, Lebanon - d. 1947), president of Lebanon (1943).
Traficant, James (Anthony, Jr.) (b. May 8, 1941, Youngstown, Ohio), U.S. politician. He was sheriff of Mahoning County in 1981-85. In 1983 state prosecutors charged him with taking bribes to overlook gambling and other illicit activities. A local jury acquitted him; Traficant said he was running his own sting operation when he took the money. He later lost a civil tax case and was ordered to pay more than $100,000 in back taxes. Traficant first won election to Congress as a Democrat in 1984, after his acquittal. He won reelection eight times. He feuded with his party while taking an isolationist and populist path. He broke fully with Democrats in 2001 when he voted with Republicans to seat Dennis Hastert as speaker of the House. He continued to call himself a Democrat, but his party stripped him of committee assignments and regarded him an outcast. He declined to join the Republicans, a move that would have made reelection difficult in his district. Easily recognizable among the gray suits of Congress, Traficant often wore '70s-vintage denim or plaid jackets with bell-bottom pants. He regularly took advantage of the platform his seat in Congress presented him, delivering speeches that his colleagues largely ignored but were watched by a national C-SPAN television audience. There, he berated the enforcers of federal tax law, the Internal Revenue Service, as the "Internal Rectal Service." His trademark expression, "Beam me up," came from the old Star Trek TV show. In April 2002 he was convicted of bribery, racketeering, corruption, and tax evasion. On July 24 he was expelled from the House. On July 30 he was sentenced to eight years in prison. From prison he ran for the House as an independent in November, winning 15% of the vote. He was released in September 2009.
Trajkovski, Boris (b. June 25, 1956, Strumica, Macedonia - d. Feb. 26, 2004, near Bitonja, Bosnia and Herzegovina), president of Macedonia (1999-2004). Earlier he was deputy foreign minister. He was presidential candidate for the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity (VMRO-DPMNE). From his election in late 1999, his term was marked by tensions between Slavic-speaking Macedonians and the former Yugoslav republic's large ethnic Albanian minority. Although his powers were limited and his role largely ceremonial, he presided over a NATO-brokered peace deal in 2001 that ended months of armed clashes and prevented a full-blown civil war in the state. He was killed when the plane that was to take him to Mostar for an economic conference crashed in thick fog.
Tran Duc Luong (b. May 5, 1937, Pho Khanh village, Duc Pho district, Quang Ngai province, central Vietnam), president of Vietnam (1997-2006). He joined the Communist Party on Dec. 19, 1959, and became a full member on Jan. 3, 1961. He was elected to the National Assembly in 1981 and became head of its Science and Technology Commission. He was elected an alternate member of the party's powerful Central Committee in March 1982 and a full member in December 1986. In 1987, he was appointed vice chairman of the Council of Ministers (deputy prime minister), a post he held until he became president. In 1990 he headed a Hanoi delegation to Moscow to negotiate new trade terms after a disintegrating Soviet Union announced it was ending massive aid to its Southeast Asian ally. Unlike other pragmatists in Vietnam's elite power structure, he was viewed as a proponent of a cautious rather than open-arms approach to the free-market reform process which was introduced in the late 1980s. He was elected a member of the Politburo in June 1996. He emerged late as frontrunner for the presidency; political sources said he was a compromise candidate after no agreement could be reached on whether to appoint Defense Minister Gen. Doan Khue or Foreign Minister Nguyen Manh Cam, a career diplomat. While endowed with economic expertise, he was viewed as being politically closer to the centre of the ruling Communist Party than to the southern reformers at the upper levels of the Hanoi leadership. As such, he sat at the opposite end of Vietnam's narrow political spectrum to the new, reform-minded prime minister, Phan Van Khai. He was elected to a second term as president in 2002. His tenure was marked by several trips abroad to drum up investment, trade, and agricultural cooperation.
Tran Duc Luong
Tran Van Chuong (b. June 2, 1898 - d. [murdered] July 23, 1986, Washington, D.C.), foreign minister of Vietnam (1945). He was South Vietnam's ambassador to the United States in 1954-63.
Tran Van Do (b. 1904 - d. Dec. 20, 1990, Paris, France), foreign minister of South Vietnam (1954-55, 1965-68).
Tran Van Huong (b. Dec. 1, 1903, My Tho, Vietnam - d. Jan. 27, 1982), prime minister (1964-65, 1968-69) and president (1975) of South Vietnam.
Tran Van Huu (b. 1896, Vinh Long, Vietnam - d. Jan. 17, 1984, Paris, France), premier of South Vietnam (1950-52). A member of the wealthy landowning class and former governor of Cochinchina (southern Vietnam), he was named premier by the French-appointed chief of state and former emperor Bao Dai in 1950; he also held the portfolios of foreign affairs and defense. He pressed for greater independence for Vietnam while seeking more widely based Western aid in the struggle against the Communist Viet Minh. However, he was considered by many Vietnamese to be too representative of a narrow, French-influenced sector of society and failed to unite the country. Replaced in 1952, he lived in France from 1955. He came to be known as a spokesman of the "Third Force" which wanted Vietnam to be united free of foreign influence, supporting neither the southern U.S.-backed regime nor the Communist North Vietnamese. Adversaries charged his tactics played into the hands of the Communist leaders. He hailed the January 1973 Paris peace treaty as "the freeing of the Vietnamese people from the yoke of foreign domination."
Tran Van Lam (b. 1913, Cholon [now part of Ho Chi Minh City], Vietnam - d. Feb. 6, 2001, Canberra, Australia), foreign minister of South Vietnam (1969-73). He was also ambassador to Australia (1961-64) and New Zealand (1962-64). He settled in Australia after the fall of the Saigon government in 1975.
Tranchevent, Auguste Victor Arnoux (b. March 19, 1835, Saint-Brieuc, Côtes-du-Nord [now Côtes-d'Armor], France - d. February 1894), interim commandant of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1876-77).
Traoré, Diarra (b. 1935 - d. July 8, 1985), prime minister of Guinea (1984). He was executed following a coup attempt of July 4, 1985.
Traoré, Dioncounda (b. Feb. 23, 1942, Kati, French Sudan [now Mali]), defense minister (1993-94), foreign minister (1994-97), and interim president (2012-13) of Mali. He was elected as president of the National Assembly on Sept. 3, 2007.
Traoré, Jean (b. 1938 - d. July 20, 1999), foreign minister of Guinea (1985-92).
Traoré, Lassana (b. 1945, Bamako, French Sudan [now Mali]), foreign minister of Mali (2002-04).
Traoré, Moussa (b. Sept. 23, 1936, Sébétou, French Sudan [now Mali]), president of Mali (1968-91). He seized power in a military coup in 1968 and, as secretary-general of the only legal political party, the Mali People's Democratic Union, was elected president without opposition in 1979 and 1985. His heavy-handed and increasingly bloody military rule ended in a 1991 coup by military officers, who in a rare move in Africa voluntarily yielded power to a civilian transition government the following year. Traoré was condemned to death in 1993 for allegedly ordering the killing of more than 100 demonstrators. Pres. Alpha Oumar Konaré later commuted the sentence to life in prison. In 1999 he was again sentenced to death for misappropriating public funds, but the sentence was again commuted. Konaré pardoned him in 2002.
Trautmann, Catherine (Elisabeth), née Argence (b. Jan. 15, 1951, Strasbourg, France), French politician. As mayor of Strasbourg (1989-97, 2000-01), she became a hero for leading a dogged resistance to the far right. She had the city's statue of Joan of Arc removed to prevent the National Front from staging a ceremony around it in April 1997. She was minister of culture in 1997-2000.
Travanut, Renzo (b. April 1, 1946, Aquileia [now in Friuli-Venezia Giulia], Italy), president of Friuli-Venezia Giulia (1994).
Traykov (Girovski), Georgi (b. April 8, 1898, Vurbeni, Ottoman Empire [now in Greece] - d. 1975), president of Bulgaria (1964-71).
Trazegnies (Granda), Fernando (Carlos Léopold) de (b. Sept. 3, 1935, Lima, Peru), foreign minister of Peru (1998-2000).
Treadell, Vicki, byname of Victoria Marguerite Treadell, née Jansz (b. Nov. 4, 1959, in present Malaysia), governor of Pitcairn Island (2010- ).
Treadwell, James (b. Feb. 10, 1920 - d. Jan. 7, 2010), British political agent in Abu Dhabi (1968-71). He then became the first British ambassador to the United Arab Emirates (1971-73).
Trebilco, Raymond Edward, byname Ray Trebilco (b. 1926, Box Hill, Victoria, Australia - d. June 1998), administrator of Norfolk Island (1982-85).
Tredos, Ferdinand Charles Alexandre (b. June 20, 1820, Villefranche-de-Conflent, Pyrénées-Orientales, France - d. ...), acting governor of Senegal (1869).
Treen, David C(onner) (b. July 16, 1928, Baton Rouge, La. - d. Oct. 29, 2009, Metairie, La.), governor of Louisiana (1980-84).
Trees, Stanley Graham (b. May 17, 1914 - d. April 1997), administrator of Tristan da Cunha (1975-78).
Trejo Noel, Ramón Alberto (b. Aug. 7, 1920, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. [air accident] May 14, 1984, near Ushuaia, Argentina), governor of Tierra del Fuego (1983-84).
Trejos Fernández, José Joaquín (b. April 18, 1916, San José, Costa Rica - d. Feb. 10, 2010, San Pedro de Montes de Oca, Costa Rica), president of Costa Rica (1966-70).
Trelles Montes, (Julio) Óscar (b. Aug. 23, 1904, Lima, Peru - d. 1990), prime minister and interior minister of Peru (1963). He was also minister of public health (1945-46) and president of the Senate (1980-81).
Trench, Sir David (Clive Crosbie) (b. June 2, 1915 - d. Dec. 4, 1988), high commissioner for the Western Pacific (1961-64) and governor of Hong Kong (1964-71); knighted 1962.
Trench, Martin Edwin (b. Nov. 30, 1869, Dennison, Minn. - d. Jan. 6, 1927, Worcester, Mass.), governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands (1925-27).
Trentinian, (Louis) Edgard de (b. Aug. 25, 1851, Brest, France - d. May 24, 1942, Paris, France), governor of French Sudan (1895-99).
Trepczynski, Stanislaw (b. April 7, 1924, Lodz, Poland - d. June 20, 2002), president of the UN General Assembly (1972-73). He was also Polish ambassador to Italy (1977-81).
Trepov, Aleksandr (Fyodorovich) (b. Sept. 27 [Sept. 15, O.S.], 1862 - d. Nov. 10, 1928, Nice, France), prime minister of Russia (1916-17). He was also minister of railways (1915-17).
Treurnicht, Andries (Petrus) (b. Feb. 19, 1921, Piketberg, South Africa - d. April 22, 1993, Cape Town, South Africa), South African politician. He was a minister of the Dutch Reformed Church (1946-60) and became the editor of its influential journal Die Kerkbode. In this capacity he came to the attention of Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd, who was seeking some philosophical justification for the policy of apartheid. Treurnicht provided this and was invited by Verwoerd's successor, B.J. Vorster, to become editor of the new Pretoria daily Hoofstad (1967-71), a mouthpiece of conservative opinion. A staunch supporter of the ruling National Party (NP), he was elected to parliament as NP member for Waterberg in a 1971 by-election and eventually joined the government as deputy minister for Bantu administration and education (1976-78), (Bantu) education and training (1978-79), and plural relations (1978-79), and as minister of public works, statistics, and tourism (1979-80) and state administration and statistics (1980-82). He was also Transvaal leader of the NP (1978-82). Known as "Dr. No" for his firm stand against any dilution of the apartheid system (he triggered the Soweto uprising of 1976 when he insisted that black children be taught in Afrikaans), his views clashed with reformers of the governing party, and in 1982 he left the cabinet and broke away from the NP when it accepted a proposal to create a tricameral parliament, with separate chambers for Coloureds and Indians. He then founded the Conservative Party, which won 23 seats in the 1987 elections, becoming the official opposition. He always distanced himself and his party from violence and from militant right-wing groups such as the neo-Nazi Afrikaner Resistance Movement and towards the end of his life softened the party's approach and participated in multiparty constitutional talks.
Trevelyan, Humphrey Trevelyan, Baron (b. Nov. 27, 1905, Hindhead, Surrey, England - d. Feb. 8, 1985, London, England), British diplomat. He joined the Indian Civil Service in 1929. After he was transferred (1932) to the Political Department, he worked successively in the central princely states, in Delhi, Gwalior, Mysore, and Bahawalpur, and in the southern Rajputana states before being sent (1944) to Washington, D.C., as secretary to the agent-general for India. He returned to Delhi (1946) as joint secretary in the External Affairs Department but left when India achieved independence (1947). Trevelyan successively served as counsellor in Baghdad (1948-51), economic and financial adviser at the U.K. High Commission for Germany (1951-53), British chargé d'affaires at Beijing (1953-55), and ambassador to Egypt (1955-56) at the time of the Suez crisis. He went as under secretary to the UN in 1958 but soon resigned to become ambassador to Iraq (1958-61). He was deputy under secretary of state at the Foreign Office in London (1962) before going as ambassador to Moscow (1962-65). He retired in 1965 but was sent by Prime Minister Harold Wilson as high commissioner in Southern Arabia (1967) during the troubles in Aden that preceded the establishment of independent Yemen (Aden). Knighted in 1955, he was created a life peer in 1968.
Treviño Martínez, Jorge (Alonso) (b. Nov. 2, 1935, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico), governor of Nuevo León (1985-91).
Triaca, (Alberto) Jorge (b. 1930? - d. Oct. 22, 2008, Buenos Aires, Argentina), labour minister of Argentina (1989-91).
Trifunovic, Bogdan (b. Dec. 28, 1933, Turija, Vojvodina, Serbia - d. July 25, 2007, Belgrade, Serbia), chairman of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Serbia (1989-90). In 1993-96 he was president of the Constitutional Court of Yugoslavia and in 1996-99 Yugoslav ambassador to France.
Triki, Ali (Abdessalam), Triki also spelled Treiki or Treki, Arabic `Ali `Abd al-Salam al-Tariki (b. 1938, Misurata, Libya), foreign minister of Libya (1976-82, 1984-86) and president of the United Nations General Assembly (2009-10). He was also permanent representative of Libya to the United Nations (1982-84, 1986-91, 2003-04).
Trikoupis, Charilaos (Spyridonou) (b. July 23, 1832, Navplion, Greece - d. April 11, 1896, Cannes, France), Greek statesman. After serving as a diplomat and representing the London Greeks in the Constituent Assembly in Athens (1862), he entered the Chamber of Deputies in 1865 and became foreign (1866-68, 1875, 1877-78, 1878, 1880, 1882-83), interior (1875, 1882-83, 1888), finance (1878, 1880, 1883-85, 1886-90, 1892-93, 1893-95), and military (1882-85, 1886-90) minister. He was prime minister for short periods in 1875, 1878, and 1880, but at first had no opportunity to begin carrying out his policy - to develop the resources of the country and create an army and navy. He became prime minister for the fourth time in 1882 and at once set about the task of putting Greek finance upon a firmer basis and of increasing the prosperity of the country by building roads, railways, and harbours. He was defeated in the general election of April 1885 and replaced by Theodoros Diligiannis, but resumed office in May 1886. His difficulties were increased by the large expenditures which had been incurred by Diligiannis for military preparations. Trikoupis nevertheless believed that he could raise the value of Greek paper currency to par in a few years, and based his calculations on that assumption. His dexterity in finance was generally admired, and his schemes for the construction of roads and railways met with success. But Greece could not meet its obligations, and he failed in his attempts to make terms with the creditors of the country. He resigned in 1890, but returned to power twice again, in 1892-93 and 1893-95. After the general election of 1895, at which he was defeated, he retired from public life. Though he has been criticized for being excessively ambitious and far too optimistic, his abilities and character were unquestioned. He had no sympathy with the arts of the demagogue.
Trillard, Adolphe Joseph Antoine (b. April 18, 1826, Fort-de-France, Martinique - d. ...), governor of French India (1875-78).
Trimble, (William) David Trimble, Baron (b. Oct. 15, 1944, Belfast, Northern Ireland), Northern Ireland politician. He began his political career in 1973 when he joined the Vanguard Party, which was established after the abolition of Northern Ireland's parliament in 1972. He supported the strikes by Protestant workers that brought down the short-lived power-sharing assembly in 1974. Later Vanguard split, and Trimble, as part of its relatively moderate faction, joined the mainstream Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) in 1978. When the Irish Republican Army (IRA) called a ceasefire in 1994, he opposed negotiations with its political wing Sinn Féin and warned his party not to make concessions to terrorism. In 1995 his record as a hardliner helped him win the leadership of the UUP. But he agreed to take part in peace talks which embraced every political group in Northern Ireland. It was the dialogue between Trimble and Roman Catholic leader John Hume that was crucial. Both had enough credit with the more militant members of their communities to deliver the necessary compromises to secure what became known as the Good Friday Agreement (April 10, 1998). In October 1998 the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the two architects of the agreement. Trimble walked a tightrope as first minister (from July 1, 1998) of a new 108-member Northern Ireland Assembly in which Protestants and Catholics shared power. In 2001 he resigned as the IRA stalled on disarmament; he was reelected four months later. His government was suspended in 2002 after allegations the IRA was spying on U.K. officials in the province and still failing to hand over weapons. He was also a member of the British Parliament from 1990 until 2005, when he lost his seat and the UUP was decimated; he then resigned as party leader. In 2006 he was made a life peer.
Tripathi, (Pandit) Kamlapati (b. Sept. 3, 1905 - d. Oct. 8, 1990), chief minister of Uttar Pradesh (1971-73).
Tripathi, Keshari Nath (b. Nov. 10, 1934, Allahabad, United Provinces [now in Uttar Pradesh], India), governor of West Bengal (2014- ).
Tripathy, Sarasiva (b. April 21, 1910 - d. Sept. 9, 1980, Cuttack, Orissa, India), chief minister of Orissa (1965-67).
Trittin, Jürgen (b. July 25, 1954, Bremen, West Germany), German politician. As a student he was active in a Communist group, but in 1980 he joined the Greens, becoming a member of their more radical "fundamentalist" or "Fundi" wing. But he also proved capable of compromise. He served in Gerhard Schröder's cabinet in Niedersachsen when the northern state was run by a coalition of Social Democrats (SPD) and Greens from 1990 to 1994. As the state's minister for European and federal affairs, he showed flexibility in accepting projects the Greens had previously opposed such as bringing the Expo 2000 world fair to Hannover. But he also remained true to his left-wing roots, by advocating liberal asylum policies and accusing Germany's big parties of making racist sentiment acceptable. His ministry was widely regarded as one of the best-run in the state government. He held the national co-leadership of the Greens in 1994-98. Some moderate Greens accused him of not keeping the "Fundis" under control after a party congress in March 1998 approved hardline plans to raise petrol prices and rejected keeping German soldiers in Bosnia. The party had to hold a second congress in June to water down the decisions after they alienated many potential voters. After the September 1998 federal election, he became environment minister under Chancellor Schröder, keeping the post until the end of the SPD-Green government in 2005.
Trivedi, Ram Krishna (b. Jan. 1, 1921, Myingyan, Burma [now Myanmar]), governor of Gujarat (1986-90).
Troadec, (Jean) René (b. July 6, 1908, Plounéour-Trez, Finistère, France - d. Aug. 10, 1986, Lesneven, Finistère), governor of Chad (1956-59).
Tróccoli, Antonio (Américo) (b. Feb. 21, 1925, Tres Arroyos, Buenos Aires province, Argentina - d. Feb. 27, 1995), interior minister of Argentina (1983-87).
Troelstra, Pieter Jelles (b. April 20, 1860, Leeuwarden, Netherlands - d. May 12, 1930, The Hague, Netherlands), Dutch politician. He began his career as a leader of "Young Friesland," a Frisian revival group. He joined the Social Democratic League in 1890 but opposed the anarchist tendencies of its leader, Domela Nieuwenhuis, and co-founded the Social Democratic Labour Party in August 1894, remaining its leader for 30 years. Although he called for revolution, he primarily used parliamentary tactics. By 1900 his party was dominant on the left, and it soon established itself as the second largest in the country. As its leader in the Second Chamber (lower house) from 1897 to 1925, he supported unemployment insurance legislation (passed in 1913), helped write a constitutional revision granting universal male suffrage (1917), and championed female suffrage in local elections and old-age insurance laws (passed in 1919). As a Socialist leader in a neutral country, he was foremost in the effort to hold an international Socialist conference in Stockholm in May 1917 to attempt bringing about peace. He was accused of being pro-German, in that he had made visits to Berlin to confer with an undersecretary of state for foreign affairs, and accordingly was later refused admission to England. When he led an abortive attempt to overthrow the monarchy in November 1918, the majority of his party and the Socialist trade unions disavowed his actions, and his control over the party was damaged. He nevertheless remained popular with the workers. He retired as party leader in 1924 and from parliament in 1925.
Trooz, Jules (Henri Ghislain Marie) de (b. Feb. 21, 1857, Leuven, Belgium - d. Dec. 31, 1907, Brussels, Belgium), interior minister (1899-1907) and cabinet chief (1907) of Belgium.
Trost, Carlisle A(lbert) H(erman) (b. April 24, 1930, Valmeyer, Ill.), U.S. chief of naval operations (1986-90).
Trotsky, Lev (Davidovich), commonly known in English as Leon Trotsky, original name Lev Davidovich Bronshtein (b. Nov. 7 [Oct. 26, O.S.], 1879, Yanovka, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. Aug. 21, 1940, Coyoacán, near Mexico City, Mexico), Russian revolutionary. In 1898 he was arrested for revolutionary activity and spent 4½ years in prison and in exile in Siberia. He escaped in 1902 with a forged passport bearing the name Trotsky, which he adopted as his revolutionary pseudonym. Upon the outbreak of revolutionary disturbances in 1905, he returned to Russia. Again jailed (1906) and exiled to Siberia, he once again escaped in 1907. He returned to Russia in May 1917, was elected chairman of the Petrograd Soviet in October, was a leader in the November revolution, and became people's commissar of foreign affairs (1917-18) and of war (1918-25). As war commissar, he had the formidable task of building the new Red Army out of the shambles of the old Russian army and turning back attacks by the anti-Communist White armies in the 1918-20 civil war. He was clearly established as the number-two man next to Vladimir Ilich Lenin and was one of the initial five members of the Politburo when that top Communist Party body was created in 1919. In the struggle for power following Lenin's death (1924), however, he fell prey to Iosif Stalin's greater cunning and ruthlessness. Trotsky was expelled in October 1926 from the Politburo and in 1927 from the Central Committee and then from the party itself. In January 1928, he was exiled to remote Alma-Ata. In January 1929 he was banished from the territory of the Soviet Union, moving successively to Turkey, France (1933), Norway (1935), and Mexico (1937). He remained the leader of an anti-Stalinist opposition and in 1938 his followers founded a Fourth International. He was finally assassinated by a Stalinist agent, Ramón Mercader.
Trott, Lyndon (Sean) (b. 1964?), chief minister of Guernsey (2008-12).
Trotter, Jonathan (b. 1797, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England - d. April 5, 1865, New York City), mayor of Brooklyn (1835-36).
Trought, Stuart (b. 1950), president of the States of Alderney (2011- ).
Trouillé, Pierre (Albert) (b. Jan. 25, 1907, Vic-de-Bigorre, Hautes-Pyrénées, France - d. Jan. 20, 1986), prefect of Martinique (1947-50).
Trousdale, William (b. Sept. 23, 1790, Orange county, N.C. - d. March 27, 1872, Nashville, Tenn.), governor of Tennessee (1849-51). He was also U.S. minister to Brazil (1853-57).
Trovoada, Miguel (dos Anjos da Cunha Lisboa) (b. Dec. 27, 1936, São Tomé), prime minister (1975-79) and president (1991-95, 1995-2001) of São Tomé and Príncipe.
Trovoada, Patrice (Emery) (b. March 18, 1962, Libreville, Gabon), foreign minister (2001-02) and prime minister (2008, 2010-12) of São Tomé and Príncipe; son of Miguel Trovoada.
Trowbridge, Sir Richard (John) (b. Jan. 21, 1920, England - d. May 4, 2003, England), governor of Western Australia (1980-83); knighted 1975. After a sea-going career in which he had commanded the Fishery Protection Squadron (1962-64), the guided missile destroyer HMS Hampshire (1967-69), and the Royal Yacht Britannia (1970-75), Rear Admiral Trowbridge found himself summoned from retirement in 1980 to become governor. By that stage in the relationship between Britain and her former colony, it was highly unusual for a non-Australian to be asked to fill such a post, but there was no obvious homegrown candidate available at the time. The premier of the state, Sir Charles Court, happened to be in London, where an old friend was serving as deputy private secretary to the queen; both men knew Trowbridge, and it was decided to ask him. The fact that he was a naval officer somewhat quietened the incipient noises of discontent from Labor politicians in Canberra, and he went on to serve as governor for three years, during which he managed to visit all the shires of the state.
Trucco, Pedro (Agustín), public works minister of Argentina (1986-87).
Trudeau, (Joseph Phillippe) Pierre (Yves) Elliott (b. Oct. 18, 1919, Montreal, Quebec - d. Sept. 28, 2000, Montreal), prime minister of Canada (1968-79, 1980-84). Elected as a "new wave" Liberal to the House of Commons in 1965, Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson appointed him parliamentary secretary in 1966 and minister of justice and attorney general in 1967. When Pearson announced that he would retire, Trudeau campaigned for the leadership of the Liberal Party. His colourful personality and progressive ideas made him the most popular candidate, and he was elected at the leadership convention on April 6, 1968, and became prime minister two weeks later. In a general election on June 25 he won a majority for the Liberal Party. Cosmopolitan and witty with a flair for celebrity, he represented a sharp departure for Canadians from generally dry, provincial politicans of the past. He took a strong stand against terrorists from the Front de Libération du Québec in 1970, invoking the War Measures Act. Although he lost his parliamentary majority in the 1972 elections, he continued to head a minority government, and he regained a majority in 1974. In the elections of May 1979, the Progressive Conservative Party won power as a minority government. Trudeau assured the Canadian people that he would soon retire from political life. But when the Progressive Conservative government was brought down on a vote on the budget in December, he reconsidered his decision. The Liberal Party was returned to power in the general election of Feb. 18, 1980. He then set out to reform Canada's constitution, his proposals including "patriation," i.e., the transfer of the authority to amend Canada's constitution from the British Parliament to Canada. This was realized on April 17, 1982, when Queen Elizabeth II declared Canada's independence from the British Parliament. He retired in 1984.
Truitard, Léon (Hippolyte Claudius) (b. Aug. 9, 1885, Chagny, Saône-et-Loire, France - d. Jan. 2, 1972, Dijon, France), governor of Réunion (1936-38) and Dahomey (1940-43).
Trujillo (Molina), Héctor (Bienvenido) (b. April 6, 1908, San Cristóbal, Dominican Republic - d. Oct. 19, 2002, Miami, Fla.), president of the Dominican Republic (1952-60); brother of Rafael Trujillo.
Trujillo (Molina), Rafael (Leonidas) (b. Oct. 24, 1891, San Cristóbal, Dominican Republic - d. May 30, 1961, Ciudad Trujillo [Santo Domingo], Dominican Republic), dictator of the Dominican Republic (1930-61). In 1918 he entered the Dominican army, which was trained by U.S. Marines during the U.S. occupation of 1916-24. He rose from lieutenant to commanding colonel in the national constabulary between 1919 and 1925 and became a general in 1927. He seized power in the military revolt against Pres. Horacio Vásquez in 1930. For the next 31 years, he remained in absolute control of the Dominican Republic, primarily through his command of the army, whether serving officially as president himself (1930-38, 1942-52) or through a president he placed in office. The capital Santo Domingo was renamed Ciudad Trujillo after him in 1936. He also had a string of resounding titles like Generalissimo. In 1937, 15,000 illegal Haitian immigrants were massacred. Though he modernized the economy, the resulting benefits were inequitably distributed in favour of his own family and supporters. While his rule brought a degree of stability to the republic that it had not previously enjoyed, the people lost their civil and political liberties; he took harsh measures to protect his power and had many of his political opponents murdered. Nevertheless, domestic opposition continued to grow during the later years of his regime, and to this were added foreign pressures to liberalize his rule; in 1960 his government, which had given refuge to a number of ousted Latin American dictators, was ostracized by the Organization of American States. He finally lost support in the army, and this led to his assassination by army elements who ambushed his car and shot him.
Trujillo García, Mario (b. Jan. 21, 1920, Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico - d. Jan. 10, 2007), governor of Tabasco (1971-76).
Truman, Harry S.1 (b. May 8, 1884, Lamar, Mo. - d. Dec. 26, 1972, Kansas City, Mo.), president of the United States (1945-53). He entered politics with the help of Thomas Pendergast, a Democratic boss of Jackson county, Missouri, who achieved statewide power in the early 1930s; Truman was not in his inner circle, but after three individuals rejected Pendergast's offer of support in the 1934 U.S. Senate primary contest, Truman, his fourth choice, quickly accepted. He entered the Senate in 1935 under the cloud of being the puppet of a crooked boss. The outlook for his reelection in 1940 was gloomy as the Pendergast machine lay in shambles. Yet because of the last-minute support of Robert E. Hannegan, a young St. Louis Democratic subboss, he won by a slender margin. The advancement of Hannegan to chairman of the Democratic National Committee in 1944 led to a successful effort to have Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt replace Vice Pres. Henry A. Wallace with Truman on the 1944 presidential ticket. When Roosevelt died on April 12, 1945, Truman became president. World War II ended officially on September 2, after atomic bombs had been dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on Truman's orders. In the 1948 presidential campaign, all public opinion polls showed that New York Gov. Thomas E. Dewey, the Republican nominee, would be an easy winner. Undaunted, Truman carried out a "give 'em hell" campaign and in November upset a complacent Dewey by a 114-electoral-vote margin. He developed a "containment" policy against Communism, thus setting the course of U.S. foreign policy for decades to come. When Communist North Korea attempted to seize South Korea in 1950, he sent U.S. forces to Korea with UN sanction; the war continued throughout his presidency.
1 The family was reluctant to choose between his grandfathers - Anderson Shippe Truman and Solomon Young - in selecting his middle name and so gave him only the letter S as a compromise.
Trumka, Richard L(ouis) (b. July 24, 1949, Nemacolin, Pa.), president of the United Mine Workers of America (1982-95) and of the American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations (2009- ).
Truong Cang (b. 1913 - d. ...), finance minister (1957-58, 1959) and foreign minister (1958) of Cambodia.
Truong Chinh, original name Dang Xuan Khu (b. Feb. 9, 1907, Ha Nam Ninh province, Vietnam - d. Sept. 30, 1988, Hanoi, Vietnam), Vietnamese statesman. He began political activities in 1925 and joined the Revolutionary Youth League. He was a founding member of the Indochinese Communist Party (PCI) in 1930. Like many of his colleagues, he was imprisoned by the French colonial rulers (1932-36) and at the outbreak of World War II fled to China where he helped organize forces that under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh defeated the Japanese occupation forces in 1945 and proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. In the ensuing war against the French, he directed the propaganda machine. From 1941, by which time he had changed his name to Truong Chinh ("Long March") after the epic march of Chinese leader Mao Zedong, he was secretary-general of the PCI. In 1951 the Vietnam Workers' Party was born, with him again as secretary-general. He lost this post in 1956, when his brutal drive to collectivize agriculture had the country on the verge of revolt, but by April 1958 he was restored to prominence as a vice premier and president of the Scientific Research Council. Following the death of Ho Chi Minh in 1969, he, Le Duan, and Pham Van Dong were the top three leaders who led the Communists to victory over the U.S.-backed government of South Vietnam. He was chairman of the Standing Committee of the National Assembly (1960-81) and president of the State Council (1981-87). In 1986, after the death of his rival, Le Duan, he again became secretary-general, but, in a surge of grassroots criticism of the party leadership, was ousted five months later. Even though in the end he spoke out in favour of reform, he was seen as a symbol of failed economic policies. He served as a party adviser until his death.
Truong Tan Sang, byname Tu Sang (b. Jan. 21, 1949, Long An province, Vietnam), president of Vietnam (2011- ).
Truong Tan Sang
Trushin, Vasily (Petrovich) (b. Sept. 19, 1934 - d. Jan. 16, 2006), acting interior minister of the Soviet Union (1991).
Trushnikov, Valery (Georgiyevich) (b. Jan. 1, 1950, Krasny Yar, Serovsky rayon, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. June 17/18, 2008), acting head of the administration of Sverdlovsk oblast (1993-94).
Trutnev, Yury (Petrovich) (b. March 1, 1956, Perm, Russian S.F.S.R.), head of the administration of Perm oblast (2000-04) and plenipotentiary of the president in Dalnevostochny federal district (2013- ). He was mayor of Perm in 1996-2000. In 2004-12 he was Russian minister of natural resources.
Tsafendas, Dimitri (b. Feb. 14, 1918, Lourenço Marques [now Maputo], Mozambique - d. Oct. 7, 1999, Sterkfontein, near Johannesburg, South Africa), South African assassin. He was a parliamentary messenger when he stabbed Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd to death in parliament in Cape Town on Sept. 6, 1966. The assassin claimed that a giant "tapeworm" in his stomach had forced him to kill Verwoerd, who was widely considered the architect of apartheid. Ruled insane, Tsafendas was imprisoned and in 1994 transferred to a mental institution. It was never clearly established if Tsafendas, the son of a Greek father and Mozambican mother, targeted Verwoerd for institutionalizing the system of white rule in South Africa. During the decades that Tsafendas was incarcerated, apartheid was strengthened, with the country's white rulers crushing attempts by the African National Congress and other groups to overthrow it. The system finally collapsed with the nation's first all-race elections in 1994.
Tsalikov, Ruslan (Khadzhismelovich) (b. July 31, 1956, Ordzhonikidze, North Ossetian A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. [now Vladikavkaz, North Ossetia-Alania, Russia]), acting governor of Moscow oblast (2012).
Tsang (Yam-kuen), Donald, Pinyin Zeng Yinquan (b. Oct. 7, 1944, Hong Kong), finance secretary (1995-2001), chief secretary (2001-05), and chief executive (2005-12) of Hong Kong. He was knighted in 1997 during British rule, just before the handover of Hong Kong to China, after which he dropped the title Sir.
Tsankov, Aleksandur (Tsolov) (b. June 29, 1879, Orehovo, Bulgaria - d. July 17, 1959, Belgrano, Argentina), prime minister of Bulgaria (1923-26). Originally a social democrat, he moved considerably to the right and in 1922 became leader of National Concord (Naroden Zgovor), a conservative group drawn from the political intelligentsia and former officers, which conspired to overthrow the radical Agrarian regime of Aleksandur Stamboliyski. To him fell the premiership after the military coup of June 9, 1923, but resistance to his rule claimed thousands of lives during the following months. His new political coalition, the "Democratic Entente," representative of all parties except the Agrarians and the Communists, secured a large majority in the November 1923 elections. He severely repressed even the moderate opposition, but civil disturbances continued. On April 14, 1925, an attempt was made on the life of King Boris III, and on the next day an army general was killed; at the funeral of the general, a bomb was hurled into Sofia cathedral, killing 123 people and wounding 323 others, including Tsankov. He resigned in January 1926 and was made president of the Sobranye (parliament). During the 1930s he headed the Bulgarian fascist movement, but in 1943 he opposed Adolf Hitler's demand for the deportation of Bulgarian Jews. In September 1944, after the Soviet occupation of his country, he formed a short-lived Bulgarian government-in-exile in Vienna under German auspices and tried to recruit a volunteer corps. He was captured by U.S. forces in Badgastein, Austria, in April 1946 and was interned for several months. Having been sentenced to death in absentia by Bulgarian courts, he emigrated to Argentina in 1948.
Tsapin, Aleksandr (Nikolayevich) (b. May 24, 1949), head of the administration of Voronezh oblast (1996). He was also mayor of Voronezh (1990-91, 1995-96, 1997-2001).
Tsaregorodtsev, Aleksandr (Dmitriyevich) (b. Aug. 26, 1946), healthcare and medical industry minister of Russia (1995-96).
Tsasa-di-Ntumba, César (b. 1945?, Kimbenza, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. May 5, 2008, Kinshasa, Congo [Kinshasa]), governor of Bas-Congo (2001-06).
Tsatsos, Konstantinos (Dimitriou) (b. July 1, 1899, Athens, Greece - d. Oct. 8, 1987, Athens), president of Greece (1975-80). Following the German occupation of his country, he escaped to the Middle East. After serving as adviser to the government-in-exile, he served after World War II as minister of hygiene and social welfare (1945), the interior (1945), justice (1945, 1967), aviation (1945), press and information (1945), religious affairs and education (1949), the presidency of the government (1956-58, 1958-61), social welfare (1962-63), and culture and science (1974). He was a close associate of Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis and continued to hold ministerial office until the coup of 1967 precipitated the installation of a military dictatorship. Tsatsos was an active opponent of the regime, and when it was overthrown in 1974, he helped to draft the country's new constitution. In 1975 parliament elected him as chief of state. He was succeeded as president by Karamanlis in 1980 and devoted his retirement to writing and scholarly work.
Tsaty Boungou, (Destin) Arsène (b. Feb. 2, 1952), foreign minister of Congo (1995-97).
Tschoffen, Paul (Marie Joseph Raymond) (b. May 8, 1878, Dinant, Belgium - d. July 11, 1961, Liège, Belgium), justice minister of Belgium (1925).
Tschudi, Hans Peter (b. Oct. 22, 1913, Basel, Switzerland - d. Sept. 30, 2002, Basel), president of Switzerland (1965, 1970). He was elected to the coalition cabinet in 1960 as a representative of the left-of-centre Social Democrats and served as interior minister until his resignation at the end of 1973. He was credited with reforming the Swiss social security system, leading to a doubling of the level of pensions.
Tschütscher, Klaus (b. July 8, 1967), head of government and finance minister of Liechtenstein (2009-13).
Tsedashiyev, Gurodarma (Tsedashiyevich) (b. 1954), head of the administration of Agin-Buryat autonomous okrug (1991-96).
Tsedenbal, Yumjaagiyn (b. Sept. 17, 1916, Uvs province, Mongolia - d. April 20, 1991, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), Mongolian leader. In 1939 he joined the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) and entered the government as deputy minister (later minister) of finance. He was first secretary of the MPRP Central Committee (1940-54, 1958-84) and after serving as deputy commander in chief of the Army and chief of the Army's political directorate, he rose to deputy premier (1948-52) and then premier (1952-74) and head of state (chairman of the People's Great Khural, 1974-84). His growing cult of personality and increasingly autocratic rule bound Mongolia to a repressive, hard-line pro-Soviet policy. He stationed Soviet troops along Mongolia's border with China, replaced traditional Mongolian script with Russian Cyrillic characters, and clung to a stagnant, Soviet-inspired centrally planned economy. Tsedenbal was unexpectedly removed from office in 1984 while on holiday in the Soviet Union, where he remained in exile. He was formally denounced by the Mongolian government in 1988, but he was too ill to return for trial. Parliament stripped Tsedenbal of his title Marshal and revoked his right to wear dozens of medals (including "Hero of Mongolia" and "Hero of Labour") in 1990 during the country's transition to democracy, but Pres. Natsagiyn Bagabandi posthumously restored Tsedenbal's honours in 1997.
Tsekoa, Mohlabi (Kenneth) (b. Aug. 13, 1945), finance minister (2001-02) and foreign minister (2002-04, 2007- ) of Lesotho. He was also high commissioner to the United Kingdom and ambassador to Ireland, Spain, and Portugal (1989-96) and minister of education (2004-07).
Tshêkêdi a Kgama, also called Tshekedi Khama (b. Sept. 17, 1905, Serowe, Bechuanaland [now Botswana] - d. June 10, 1959, London, England), regent of baNgwato (1926-33, 1933-49); son of Kgama III Boikanyo a Sekgoma and half-brother of Sekgoma II a Kgama.
Tshering, Lyonpo Ugyen (b. Aug. 8, 1954), foreign minister of Bhutan (2008-13). He was conferred the title of Dasho in 1998 and that of Lyonpo in 2003.
Tshibanda (Ntungamulongo), Raymond (b. Nov. 20, 1950, Lomela, Kasaï, Belgian Congo [now in Kasaï-Oriental, Congo (Kinshasa)]), foreign minister of Congo (Kinshasa) (2012- ).
Tshisekedi (wa Mulumba), Étienne (b. Dec. 14, 1932, Luluabourg, Belgian Congo [now Kananga, Congo (Kinshasa)]), Zairian politician. A member of the Luba tribe from Kasaï Occidental province, he broke with Pres. Mobutu Sese Seko in 1980 and formed the Union for Democracy and Social Progress. He served as prime minister in 1991 and 1992-94 but was toppled both times after clashes with Mobutu. He was named prime minister a third time April 2, 1997, but angered Mobutu the next day by dismissing parliament and offering six cabinet posts to rebels, who rejected the offer. Mobutu fired him April 9. He was a presidential candidate in 2011. Coming second to incumbent Joseph Kabila, he dismissed the results and had himself "sworn in" on December 23.
Tshombe, Moise (Kapenda) (b. Nov. 10, 1919, Musumba, Katanga, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. June 29, 1969, Algiers, Algeria), Congolese politician. In 1951-53 he was a member of the Katanga provincial council. In 1956 he became head of a Lunda cultural group, and in 1959 founding president of Conakat (Confédération des Associations Tribales du Katanga), a political party supported by the Lunda and by the Belgian mining monopoly Union Minière du Haut Katanga, which controlled the province's rich copper mines. At the Brussels conference called (January 1960) to discuss independence for the Congo, his proposals for a loose confederation of semiautonomous provinces were rejected in favour of Patrice Lumumba's plan for a strongly centralized republic. In elections in May, Conakat won only 8 of 137 seats in the national parliament, but with its allies won a majority in Katanga's provincial assembly, and he became president of the province. With the mutiny of the Force Publique (militia) soon after independence, he declared the secession of Katanga (July 11). He failed to win diplomatic recognition for his state, and in 1963 the United Nations intervened with force and defeated his troops. He then went to live in Madrid, Spain. Recalled in 1964 by Pres. Joseph Kasavubu to become premier (and foreign minister) of the Congo, he had to deal with a rebellion in the east. He was dismissed in 1965 ostensibly for using white mercenaries to suppress the revolt, but he also seemed to threaten Kasavubu's position. He returned to Spain and in March 1967 was sentenced to death in absentia on charges of high treason. In July 1967, his plane was hijacked and he was taken to Algeria. Algeria refused Congolese demands for his extradition and he remained under house arrest near Algiers.
Tshwete, Steve, byname of Stephen Vukile Tshwete (b. Nov. 12, 1938, Springs, South Africa - d. April 26, 2002, Pretoria, South Africa), South African politician. He became involved in politics from an early age, and after leaving school joined the struggle of the African National Congress to overthrow South Africa's apartheid regime. He was arrested in 1963 and sentenced in 1964 to a 15-year term on Robben Island, the notorious island prison off the coast of Cape Town where Nelson Mandela was incarcerated for 18 years. He served as sports minister under President Mandela from 1994 and took up the portfolio of safety and security in 1999 when Thabo Mbeki succeeded Mandela.
Tsikunov, Yury (Fyodorovich) (b. 1947, Tambov oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), acting governor of Kostroma oblast (2007).
Tsiranana, Philibert (b. Oct. 18, 1910, Anahidrano, Madagascar - d. April 16, 1978, Antananarivo, Madagascar), president of Madagascar (1959-72). He founded the Madagascar Social Democratic Party in 1956 and headed the provisional government after France granted partial autonomy to Madagascar in 1958. He became the country's first elected president in May 1959, and in 1960 proclaimed the island's full independence from French colonial rule. He pursued policies of anti-Communism and continued cooperation with France and other Western states. Tsiranana was overwhelmingly reelected in 1965 and again in January 1972, but after worker and student riots in May 1972 he handed over power to a military government and finally stepped down in October. In 1975 he was tried and acquitted of responsibility for the assassination of Col. Richard Ratsimandrava, who headed the government briefly in February of that year.
Tsiranana, Pierre (b. Sept. 25, 1951, Antananarivo, Madagascar), governor of Mahajanga (2002-03); son of Philibert Tsiranana.
Tsizaraina, Émile (b. 1945, Fénérive-Est, eastern Madagascar), governor of Toamasina (2002-05).
Tsochatzopoulos, Akis, byname of Apostolos-Athanasios Tsochatzopoulos (b. Dec. 10, 1939, Athens, Greece), interior minister (1987-89, 1993-94, 1995-96) and defense minister (1996-2001) of Greece. He was also minister of public works (1981-84), minister assigned to the prime minister (1984-85), minister of labour (1985), the presidency of the government (1985-87), public order (1989), transport and communications (1989-90), and development (2001-04).
Tsongas, Paul E(fthemios) (b. Feb. 14, 1941, Lowell, Mass. - d. Jan. 18, 1997, Boston, Mass.), U.S. politician. He became one of Pres. John F. Kennedy's first Peace Corps volunteers, serving in Ethiopia and the West Indies. He began his political career in 1968 when he was elected to the City Council in Lowell. From then on, he never lost a race in Massachusetts. He was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1974 and served two terms before his election to the Senate in 1978. He didn't seek a second term after he was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The soft-spoken Tsongas was one of the first nationally known Democrats to try to give the party a pro-business direction, which became the central theme of his 1992 bid for the presidency. Running after having battled cancer, he also drew attention to the issue of a candidate's health disclosure. He won the New Hampshire primary in February 1992 and went on to win in Maryland, Utah, Arizona, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island. In the end, he could not hold off Bill Clinton. After dropping out of the presidential race in March, Tsongas joined former U.S. senator Warren Rudman (Rep., N.H.) to form the Concord Coalition, a public interest group focusing attention on the nation's economic problems.
Tsuda, Bungo (b. April 24, 1918 - d. Nov. 8, 2007, Yokohama, Japan), governor of Kanagawa (1967-75).
Tsugba, Vyacheslav (Mikhailovich) (b. Jan. 1, 1944, Aatsy village, Gudauta rayon, Abkhaz A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R.), prime minister of Abkhazia (1999-2001).
Tsukanov, Nikolay (Nikolayevich) (b. March 22, 1965, Lipova village, Gusev district, Kaliningrad oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Kaliningrad oblast (2010- ).
Tsvangirai, Morgan (Richard) (b. March 10, 1952, Gutu area, Southern Rhodesia [now Zimbabwe]), prime minister of Zimbabwe (2009-13). He became secretary-general of the main labour federation, the Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions, in 1988 and led it away from its traditional alliance with Pres. Robert Mugabe's ruling party. In 1989 he was imprisoned for six weeks on allegations of spying for South Africa. In 1997, unidentified assailants tried to throw him from a 10th-floor window. In 1999 he founded the Movement for Democratic Change and led labour-backed protests and national strikes against deepening economic hardships. He lost to Mugabe in presidential elections in 2002 marred by extensive violence and voting irregularities. In 2003, after an 18-month trial, he was acquitted of treason in a case stemming from an alleged plot to assassinate Mugabe. In March 2007, police beat and tortured him during and after his arrest for attending an opposition meeting the government had banned. Images shown on news broadcasts around the world of his bruised and bloodied face came to symbolize the challenges his movement faced. He was again a presidential candidate in 2008 and outpolled Mugabe in the first round; he claimed he won an outright majority, but official results showed him just short of 50%. He withdrew from the runoff, citing a campaign of violence against his supporters. Mugabe consistently described Tsvangirai as a stooge of Britain and the United States. Tsvangirai repeatedly shied from defiant anti-government street protests, preferring a strategy of lower profile civil disobedience. He finally became prime minister as part of a power-sharing agreement that allowed Mugabe to remain president. In the following years his standing eroded, however, and in the 2013 presidential elections Mugabe won outright in peaceful circumstances, defeating Tsvangirai 61%-34%. Tsvangirai called it a "farce" but the election was broadly endorsed by African Union observers.
Tsvetkov, Valentin (Ivanovich) (b. Aug. 27, 1948, Magadan, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. [assassinated] Oct. 18, 2002, Moscow, Russia), governor of Magadan oblast (1996-2002).
Tubman, William V(acanarat) S(hadrach) (b. Nov. 29, 1895, Harper, Liberia - d. July 23, 1971, London, England), president of Liberia (1944-71). At about age 19, he received a temporary appointment as a junior collector of customs. He later won election to the local legislature and occupied various public offices, including trial judge, public prosecutor, and arbitration referee. He was elected to the Senate in 1923 and reelected in 1929. In 1930 a League of Nations commission found Liberia guilty of failing to halt the sale of its people into slavery to cocoa planters on Fernando Póo (Spanish Guinea), forcing Pres. Charles D.B. King to resign; Tubman, who had served as an adviser to King, was compelled to quit the Senate. He was, however, reelected in 1934. He opposed the entrenched establishment of American-descended Liberians who had long dominated the national government. Although himself the descendant of American immigrants, Tubman, calling himself the "Convivial Cannibal from the Downcoast Hinterlands," was so effective in advancing the constitutional rights of the majority tribespeople that the leadership of the True Whig Party "kicked him upstairs" to the Supreme Court as an associate justice in 1937. In 1943 he unexpectedly announced his candidacy for the presidency and he won handily in seven successive elections. In June 1944 he and his predecessor, Edwin Barclay (whose granddaughter he married in 1948), returned a visit by U.S. Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt and became the first black guests in the White House since Booker T. Washington in 1901. As president he continued his efforts to extend full rights to the tribespeople. He ended what was regarded as the American economic stranglehold by encouraging other countries to come in. He died in office.
Tubman, Winston (A.) (b. 1941, Pleebo, Maryland county, Liberia), Liberian presidential candidate (2005, 2011); nephew of William V.S. Tubman. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1979-81) and justice minister (1982-83).
Tubylov, Valentin (Kuzmich) (b. Nov. 13, 1935), chairman of the Supreme Council of Udmurtia (1990-95).
Tuccaro, George L(ester) (b. May 10 or 12, 1950, Fort Chipewyan, Alberta), commissioner of the Northwest Territories (2010- ).
Tucker, Jim Guy, byname of James Guy Tucker, Jr. (b. June 13, 1943, Oklahoma City, Okla.), governor of Arkansas (1992-96). The Democrat was elected prosecutor in Little Rock in 1970. In 1972 he was elected Arkansas attorney general, the office Bill Clinton would win four years later when Tucker was elected to succeed Wilbur Mills in Congress. 1978 was the crucial year for both: Clinton ran for governor and won the nomination and election without serious competition; Tucker ran for senator, finishing second in the first primary, just ahead of Congressman Ray Thornton, then lost the runoff 55%-45% to Gov. David Pryor. Tucker ran against Clinton for governor in 1982, when the Republican who beat Clinton in 1980 was the incumbent; Clinton finished first with 42% and Tucker third with 23%. Tucker was elected lieutenant governor in 1990 and cooperated with Clinton during the 1992 presidential campaign. After the election, there was a moment of untidiness in the transition: Tucker's succession was challenged because of differing sections of the state constitution. Only in early December 1992 was it established that Tucker would be governor. In the July 1993 special election for lieutenant governor, Republican Mike Huckabee beat the impeccably pro-Clinton Democrat Nate Coulter. Tucker was dogged by charges of scandal. He was a business partner of Madison Guaranty Savings & Loan operator James McDougal; it was alleged that companies he controlled failed to pay back more than $1 million to failed McDougal entities. But in the 1994 election he was nominated without opposition - the first time that happened since 1914 - and defeated Republican Sheffield Nelson 60%-40%, even while Lieutenant Governor Huckabee was reelected 59%-41%. In July 1996 Tucker resigned following his conviction on fraud and conspiracy charges.
Tudela van Breugel(-Douglas), Francisco (Antonio Gregorio) (b. July 20, 1955), foreign minister of Peru (1995-97). He was among the hostages held by MRTA rebels from Dec. 17, 1996, to April 22, 1997. In 2000 he became vice president but resigned the same year.
Tudjman, Franjo (b. May 14, 1922, Veliko Trgovisce, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia] - d. Dec. 10, 1999, Zagreb, Croatia), president of Croatia (1990-99). He began fighting for Croatia's sovereignty at age 15, when he became a revolutionary Marxist. Having joined Tito's anti-fascist Partisans in 1941, he rose in the Yugoslav National Army to become one of Yugoslavia's youngest generals in 1960. After realizing that Communist Yugoslavia was not going to grant sovereignty to Croatia, he became disillusioned with his life as a general and a Marxist. In 1961 he retired from military service and later became a professor of history in Zagreb. His thesis that "Serbianized" central authorities in Belgrade were inflating crimes committed in World War II by the Croatian Ustasa regime, while minimizing Croatian contributions to the anti-fascist movement, resulted in his expulsion from the Communist Party in 1967 and dismissal from his job. His dissident activities brought him two periods of imprisonment in 1972 and 1981; he also had his military honours revoked. Inspired by the fall of Communism in Eastern Europe in 1989, he formed the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ). After a three-month campaign in which he recruited 600,000 party members, he defeated the Communist Party in 1990 parliamentary elections and was named president. Croatia declared itself independent in June 1991 and he pushed through a new constitution unfavourable to the large ethnic Serb minority. In 1995 he succeeded in reasserting control over Serb areas of Croatia occupied by the Yugoslav army. He was reelected in 1992 and 1997, but his authoritarian style led to an erosion of domestic support for the HDZ, and his non-cooperation with the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia led to international isolation. He died in office.
Tudor, Sir James Cameron (b. Oct. 18, 1919, St. Michael, Barbados - d. July 9, 1995), foreign minister of Barbados (1971-72, 1986-89); knighted 1987.
Tugambayeva, Maryam, also known as Mariya Tuganbayeva (b. 1907, Cholpon, Przhevalsk uyezd, Russia [now in Kyrgyzstan] - d. March 19, 1986), deputy chairman (1932-37) and joint acting chairman (1937) of the Central Executive Committee of the Kirgiz S.S.R.
Tuia, Pio (Iosefo) (b. 1943?), Ulu-o-Tokelau (1996-97, 1999-2000, 2002-03, 2005-06, 2008-09). He was faipule of Nukunonu in 1996-2011.
Tu'ipelehake, Prince Fatafehi, original name Sione Ngu Manumataongo (b. Jan. 7, 1922, Nuku'alofa, Tonga - d. April 10, 1999, Auckland, New Zealand), prime minister of Tonga (1965-91). A son of Queen Salote, he was the younger brother of King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV. He was educated at Gatton Agricultural College, Queensland, and at Newington College in Sydney. The title Tu'ipelehake, the second most powerful in the kingdom, was awarded to him in 1945. On the death of Salote in 1965, his older brother, who had been prime minister, became king and appointed Tu'ipelehake to the life-time tenure of prime minister. After he had a stroke in 1991 he retired and Baron Vaea took over the position. Tu'ipelehake was a strong advocate of the royal-dominated political system. "There are not many of us who have a clear understanding of what is going on beyond Tonga," he said in a rare interview. "Our local politicians are only good enough within Tonga. When we move out to the international arena I think this is the best approach - for government to call in only our capable people." Like a number of Pacific leaders, Tu'ipelehake was a dedicated Christian and in later life became a fundamentalist, speaking in tongues and practicing faith healing. He was severely ill after retiring in 1991 and lived at 'Atalanga, the royal residency in Epsom, Auckland. He was 11th in the line of succession to the throne.
Tu'ivakano, (17th), original name Siale'ataongo Kaho (b. Jan. 15, 1952, Niutoua, Hahake, Tongatapu, Tonga), prime minister (2010- ) and foreign and defense minister (2011- ) of Tonga; grandnephew of Tevita Tu'ivakano. He succeeded to his noble title Tu'ivakano in January 1986. In 2002-04 he was speaker of the Legislative Assembly.
Tu'ivakano, Tevita, (14th), original name Polutele Kaho (b. Dec. 25, 1869 - d. Aug. 4, 1923), prime minister of Tonga (1912-22). He was appointed Tu'ivakano in 1912.
Tuju, Raphael (b. March 30, 1959, Ndori, Bondo district, Kenya), foreign minister of Kenya (2005-08). He was also minister of tourism and information (2003-04) and information and communications (2004-05).
Tukur, (Alhaji) Bamanga (b. Sept. 15, 1935, Jada [now in Adamawa state], Nigeria), governor of Gongola (1983).
Tulafono, Togiola (Talalelei Aitu) (b. Feb. 28, 1947, Aunu'u island, American Samoa), governor of American Samoa (2003-13).
Tuleyev, Aman (Gumirovich), original full name Amangeldy Moldagazyevich Tuleyev (b. May 13, 1944, Krasnovodsk, Turkmen S.S.R. [now Turkmenbashi, Turkmenistan]), head of the administration of Kemerovo oblast (1997-2001, 2001- ) and Russian presidential candidate (2000). He was also Russian minister of cooperation with the Commonwealth of Independent States (1996-97).
Tulk, Beaton (b. May 22, 1944, Ladle Cove, Newfoundland), premier of Newfoundland (2000-01).
Tull, Sir Louis (Randall) (b. Jan. 27, 1938, Lears, Barbados), foreign minister of Barbados (1981-85); knighted 2006. He was also minister of education (1976-81) and commerce, industry, and consumer affairs (1985-86) and attorney general (1981-85).
Tulo, Sam (b. Oct. 10, 1946, Lemanmanui village, North Solomons province, Papua New Guinea), administrator of Bougainville (1990-95).
Tumanov, Vladislav (Nikolayevich) (b. Jan. 29, 1958), head of the administration of Pskov oblast (1992-96).
Tumkhadzhiyev, Isa (Abubakarovich) (b. Dec. 8, 1981), acting prime minister of Chechnya (2012).
Tun, Petrus (b. March 19, 1936 - d. March 22, 1999, Honolulu, Hawaii), vice president of the Federated States of Micronesia (1979-83) and governor of Yap (1987-95).
Tun Tin (b. 1920, Myitkyina, Burma [now Myanmar]), prime minister of Burma (1988). He was also minister of labour (1974-75), cooperatives (1975-78), and planning and finance (1978-88).
Tung Chee-hwa, Pinyin Dong Jianhua (b. May 29, 1937, Shanghai, China), chief executive of Hong Kong (1997-2005). He moved to Hong Kong with his family in 1947 and joined the Orient Overseas shipping business founded by his father, who died in 1982. In 1986 the company ran into serious financial trouble, and the Chinese government backed a bailout investment, cementing Tung's ties of loyalty to Beijing. In 1984 China and Britain agreed that Hong Kong would revert to China July 1, 1997, with its traditional way of life to remain essentially unchanged for 50 years. In 1985 he became a member of the council that drafted the post-handover constitution, known as the Basic Law. He served in other advisory capacities with the Chinese government and also as a member (1992-96) of the Executive Council of Hong Kong. On Dec. 11, 1996, he was chosen to become the first chief executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, assuming office on July 1, 1997, for a five-year term. Critics saw him as China's man in Hong Kong rather than as a protector of Hong Kong's rights. He came under fire for supporting Beijing's decision to abolish Hong Kong's legislature, which had been elected in 1995, and to replace it with an appointed provisional legislature upon the transfer of sovereignty. Later in 1997 the economy plunged into recession during the Asian financial crisis and critics complained his government did not do enough to revive the economy. He also faced an avian flu outbreak that peaked in 1998, and, after his reelection on Feb. 28, 2002, an outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003; with SARS, he was sharply criticized for responding slowly. Also in 2003, half a million people marched to protest a proposed anti-subversion law supported by Tung. In 2005 he resigned and was elected a vice chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.
Tuomioja, Erkki (Sakari) (b. July 1, 1946, Helsinki, Finland), foreign minister of Finland (2000-07, 2011- ); son of Sakari Tuomioja. A member of parliament in 1970-79 and from 1991, he was chairman of the Social Democratic parliamentary faction in 1996-99 and minister of trade and industry in 1999-2000.
Tuomioja, Sakari (Severi) (b. Aug. 29, 1911, Tampere, Finland - d. Sept. 9, 1964, Helsinki, Finland), foreign minister (1951-52) and prime minister (1953-54) of Finland. He was ambassador to the U.K. in 1955-57 and to Sweden from 1961.
Tupac Amaru II, original name José Gabriel Condorcanqui Noguera (b. 1742?, Tinta region, Peru - d. May 18, 1781, Cusco, Peru), Peruvian Indian revolutionary. Although he received a formal Jesuit education, he maintained his identification with the Indian population and read Los comentarios reales de los Incas ("Royal Commentaries of the Incas"), a prohibited book which sang the glories of his ancient race. He was a cacique (or curaca), i.e., indigenous chief, in the Tinta region of southern Peru. In November 1780 he seized and hanged the corregidor (provincial administrator) Antonio de Arriaga, with whom he had more than once remonstrated, to no avail, about the oppression of Indians. Condorcanqui, who claimed to be a descendant of the last Inca ruler, Tupac Amaru (killed in 1572), then adopted his name and proclaimed a rebellion. It was the last general Indian rebellion against Spain. At first it had the support of some Creoles (Spaniards born in America), but those were later convinced by the Spanish authorities that it was a battle between Indians and Europeans. He advanced against Cusco, the old Inca capital, at the head of 6,000 men, was defeated, but escaped into the hills and a few weeks later appeared again, this time leading an army of 20,000. This was again defeated, but he escaped another time and continued the fight until he was finally captured with his family in April 1781 and taken to Cusco, where he first had to witness the execution of his wife, son, and other associates and then was mutilated, drawn and quartered, and beheaded. The rebellion, which extended to parts of present-day Bolivia, Argentina, and Chile, was kept up until November 1781. The Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement founded in Peru in 1982 named itself after him.
Tupou VI, formerly (2006-12) Prince Tupouto'a Lavaka, or (until 2006) Prince 'Ulukalala Lavaka Ata, in full Prince Lavaka Ata 'Aho'eitu' Unuaki'otona Tuku'aho, 7th Lavaka Ata Kalaniuvalu, 7th 'Ulukalala (b. July 12, 1959, Nuku'alofa, Tonga), foreign minister (1998-2004), defense minister (1998-2004), prime minister (2000-06), and king (2012- ) of Tonga; son of Taufa'ahau Tupou IV; son-in-law of Baron Vaea. He was granted the titles 'Ulukalala and Lavaka Ata in 1989. On Sept. 27, 2006, he was appointed crown prince (backdated to September 11). In 2008 he became Tonga's first high commissioner to Australia.
Tupou, 'Aloua Fetu'utolu (b. March 26, 1949, Neiafu, Vava'u, Tonga - d. April 16, 2005, Nuku'alofa, Tonga), defense minister of Tonga (2004-05). He commanded the Tonga Defence Services from 1977 to 2000, when he was appointed as Tonga's high commissioner (ambassador) in Britain, a post that included representing the South Pacific nation to European Union members, Israel, Russia, and Switzerland. As military chief, he led the first South Pacific peacekeeping force which was deployed in 1994 in Papua New Guinea's civil-war-torn island of Bougainville.
Tupou Mumui (b. 1733 - d. April 29, 1797), chief (Tu'i Kanokupolu) of Tonga (1793-97).
Tupper, Sir Charles, (1st) Baronet (b. July 2, 1821, Amherst, Nova Scotia [now in Canada] - d. Oct. 30, 1915, Bexleyheath, Kent, England), prime minister of Canada (1896). In 1855 he was elected to the Nova Scotia Legislative Assembly, where his star rose rapidly. He became provincial secretary (1856-60) and later premier (1864-67). For some time he had been interested in the union of the British North American provinces and in 1864 the opportunity came to do something about it. Once he had set his mind on confederation he devoted all his considerable energy and determination to its realization, and ignored the growing opposition to union in Nova Scotia. With a majority in the legislature, he pushed confederation through, and in 1867 Nova Scotia became a province of Canada. Despite violent opposition to his action, he was elected in Cumberland for the new Canadian House of Commons. He served in Sir John Macdonald's Conservative government in 1870-73 and again after 1878. As minister of railways and canals (1879-84), he was involved in the arrangements for building the Canadian Pacific Railway. In 1884-87 and 1888-96 he was high commissioner to London. He came back to Canada to help the Conservative government, first to become minister of finance (1887-88) and then in 1896 to become secretary of state and, after Mackenzie Bowell's resignation, prime minister, before the Conservative Party's defeat in the general election of that year. He served as leader of the opposition until 1900 when he retired after sustaining his first personal election defeat in 40 years. He was knighted in 1879 and created a baronet in 1888.
Tupua Tamasese Lealofi IV (b. May 8, 1922 - d. July 1, 1983), prime minister of Western Samoa (1970-73, 1975-76).
Tupua Tamasese Mea'ole (b. June 3, 1905, Vaimoso, Samoa - d. April 5, 1963, Apia, Western Samoa [now Samoa]), co-head of state of Western Samoa (1962-63).
Tupurkovski, Vasil (b. April 8, 1951, Skopje, Macedonia), Macedonian politician. He was the last Macedonian member of the Yugoslav collective presidency. In 1999 he was presidential candidate for the Democratic Alternative.
Turabi, Hassan (Abdullah) al-, Arabic Hasan `Abd Allah al-Turabi (b. Feb. 1, 1932, Kassala, eastern Sudan), Sudanese leader. He became secretary-general of the Islamic Charter Front. In 1965-68 he was a member of the Constituent Assembly. Although he was originally a prominent opponent of the Gaafar Nimeiry regime and was often detained for his activities during the 1970s, he later reconciled with the dictator and served in his cabinet. The 1983 implementation of Shari`ah (Islamic law) under Turabi's counsel as attorney general led to his imprisonment two years later following the fall of the Nimeiry regime. The National Islamic Front (NIF), the political party that Turabi founded in 1986, participated in the coalition government of elected prime minister Sadiq al-Mahdi (Turabi's brother-in-law) but was implicated in the coup that replaced Mahdi with Gen. Omar al-Bashir in 1989. A fundamentalist Islamic military regime was established, and Turabi, by most assessments, assumed the determining role in the government. Although Bashir banned all political parties, the titular leader relied increasingly on advisers and officials drawn from the NIF elite. On March 22, 1991, the government instituted in the predominantly Muslim northern states a stringent code of Islamic religious law. The European-educated Turabi lent to Islamic fundamentalism a cosmopolitan, intellectual cast. His eloquent writings on legal theory and politics espoused a conservative form of populism, ostensibly somewhat at odds with traditional clerical authority. He was speaker of parliament in 1996-98. In December 1999 he was removed from positions of power by his former ally Bashir. He was detained on Feb. 21, 2001, for reaching an agreement with southern rebels, and placed under house arrest three months later; he was pardoned on Oct. 13, 2003. He was again arrested on March 31, 2004, the government accusing him of being implicated in an attempted coup. He was released on June 30, 2005. In January 2009 he was once again arrested after calling on Bashir to surrender to the International Criminal Court.
Turaki, Ibrahim Saminu (b. July 14, 1963), governor of Jigawa (1999-2007).
Turanskaya, Tatyana (Mikhailovna) (b. Nov. 20, 1972, Belgorod-Dnestrovsky, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyy, Ukraine]), prime minister of Transnistria (2013- ).
Turbay Ayala, Julio César, sometimes called Turco (a disparaging reference to his Arab forebears) (b. June 18, 1916, Bogotá, Colombia - d. Sept. 13, 2005, Bogotá), president of Colombia (1978-82). By the age of 21 he was mayor of the town of Girardot. He served in the House of Representatives in 1943-53 and became a leader of the Liberal Party. He was minister of mines and energy (1957-58) and foreign minister (1958-61), served in the Senate (1962-69) and concurrently as UN ambassador (1967-69), and later as ambassador to Great Britain (1973-75) and to the United States (1975-76). During all those years he built a network of alliances that made him boss of the Liberal Party but also incurred the disapproval of Colombians who disliked machine politics. One of his most vocal detractors was fellow Liberal (and former president) Carlos Lleras Restrepo, who challenged Turbay in an indirect primary for the party's 1978 presidential nomination. Turbay turned back the challenge, but he was unable to heal the breach in the party ranks. After a stormy campaign, he narrowly defeated the Conservative candidate, Belisario Betancur Cuartas. Turbay's victory signaled the emergence of Colombia's middle class into the realm of political power formerly restricted to the very wealthy. While clearly not advocating the drastic social changes some critics claimed must be enacted to save Colombian democracy, he made it clear that he regarded his success as a triumph over the ruling elite. Taking office in the midst of labour and student unrest and guerrilla violence, he soon decreed a "security statute" that limited personal freedoms, restricted news coverage, and allowed civilians accused of terrorism to be tried in military courts. In 1980 he negotiated the release of dozens of diplomats held hostage by leftist rebels for 61 days. After his presidential term he remained a major political player and held a number of diplomatic posts, the last being ambassador to the Vatican (1995-98).
Turbott, Sir Ian (Graham) (b. March 9, 1922, Whangarei, New Zealand), administrator of Antigua (1958-64) and administrator (1964-67) and governor (1967-68) of Grenada; knighted 1968.
Turchak, Andrey (Anatolyevich) (b. Dec. 20, 1975, Leningrad, Russian S.F.S.R. [now St. Petersburg, Russia]), governor of Pskov oblast (2009- ).
Turchynov, Oleksandr (Valentynovych) (b. March 31, 1964, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukrainian S.S.R.), acting prime minister (2010, 2014) and acting president (2014) of Ukraine. He was elected chairman of parliament in 2014.
Ture, Kwame, original name Stokely Carmichael (b. June 29, 1941, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad - d. Nov. 15, 1998, Conakry, Guinea), black activist. He moved to the United States in 1952. In the 1960s he plunged into the civil rights revolution. He joined the first freedom rides - bus trips aimed at desegregating public transportation - and suffered the first of what was to be about three dozen jailings when he reached Mississippi. In May 1966, he was elected national chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Witnessing the brutality inflicted upon nonviolent civil-rights demonstrators, he came to support a more radical approach. He raised the rallying cry of "Black Power" as he led a freedom march in Mississippi and was seen as an indirect contributor to the fiery riots that burned through U.S. inner cities that summer. He led a voter-registration drive in Lowndes county, Ala., which raised black enrollment from 70 to 2,600. The Lowndes County Freedom Organization was founded to field candidates in the November election; none were elected, but the organization's panther symbol inspired the creation of the militant Black Panther Party. He did not run for another term as SNCC chairman in 1967 and in February 1968 was made honorary "prime minister" of the Black Panthers. In 1969 he broke with them because they favoured working with radical whites. He said history showed such alliances had "led to complete subversion of the blacks by the whites." He made his home in Guinea, embraced Pan-Africanism, and organized the All-African People's Revolutionary Party. In 1978 he adopted the name Kwame Ture after Pres. Ahmed Sékou Touré of Guinea and former Ghanaian leader Kwame Nkrumah.
Turello, Vinicio (b. Jan. 22, 1930, Bicinicco [now in Friuli-Venezia Giulia], Italy), president of Friuli-Venezia Giulia (1992-93).
Turgot, Anne Robert Jacques, baron de l'Aulne (b. May 10, 1727, Paris, France - d. March 18, 1781, Paris), French comptroller general of finance (1774-76). In January 1752 he became a deputy solicitor general and in December a counselor magistrate to the Parlement (supreme court of law) in Paris. In 1753 he bought, as was the custom, the office of maître des requêtes, the stepping-stone to the upper levels of royal bureaucracy. With 39 other maîtres he was called upon to serve in the Royal Chamber, which acted as a supreme court in 1753-54, when the Parlement was exiled for defying the crown. In 1753-56 he accompanied J.C.M. Vincent de Gournay, intendant of commerce, on his tours of inspection to various French provinces. As an economist he owed a great deal to Gournay, unlike the other Physiocrats, who swore only by François Quesnay. In August 1761 he was appointed intendant of the généralité of Limoges. He was left there for 13 years and displayed his capacities as a reformer. He substituted for the corvée (unpaid work required of peasants for the upkeep of roads) a small tax in money and paid a small wage to those working on the roads, and so improved the methods of construction that he built more than 700 km of the finest highways in the country. After serving briefly as minister of marine, he was appointed comptroller general of finance by Louis XVI on Aug. 24, 1774. Realizing that the young king was inexperienced, he sought to avoid political storms and first concentrated on economies and minor reforms, but in January 1776 he introduced his famous Six Edicts. It was on the sixth edict, that abolishing the corvée, that his enemies, who defended privilege, focused their attack. They succeeded in undermining his position with the king, and he was dismissed on May 12, 1776, and his reforms abandoned.
Türk, Danilo (b. Feb. 19, 1952, Maribor, Slovenia), president of Slovenia (2007-12). He was permanent representative to the United Nations in 1992-2000. He lost his reelection bid as president in 2012.
Türkes, Alparslan, original name Hüseyin Feyzullah (b. Nov. 25, 1917, Nicosia, Cyprus - d. April 4, 1997, Ankara, Turkey), Turkish politician. He expressed open admiration for Adolf Hitler during World War II and was arrested and tried for advocating fascism and pan-Turkism. In 1948 he graduated from the Turkish Military Academy. The same year he was sent to the U.S. where he was given military education. In 1959, he was made a colonel. He was a leader of the military overthrow of the Turkish government in 1960. Following the coup, he ended his military career. In 1965 he was elected chairman of the Republican Peasants Nation Party and was elected to parliament for Ankara. The party manifesto was revised by Türkes according to his right-wing nationalist views, and published in a book named The Nine Lights. In 1969 the party was renamed Nationalist Action Party (MHP). He was also the founder of the paramilitary organization Gray Wolves (Bozkurt), notorious for eliminating supposed enemies of Turkey at home and abroad. In 1975-78 he served as deputy prime minister. Following a coup in 1980 the party was banned and he was arrested and tried. He remained in prison for four and a half years. When the ban was lifted in 1987, Türkes was reelected chairman of the MHP. He returned to parliament in 1991, but his party was shut out of the legislature in the 1995 elections.
Türkmen, Ilter (b. Nov. 8, 1927, Istanbul, Turkey), foreign minister of Turkey (1980-83). He was also ambassador to Greece (1968-72), the Soviet Union (1972-75), and France (1988-91) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1975-78, 1985-88).
Turnage, Thomas K. (b. June 27, 1923, Conroe, Texas - d. Dec. 10, 2000, Rancho Mirage, Calif.), administrator of the U.S. Veterans Administration (1986-89). He spent 39 years in the Army, including combat service during World War II and the Korean War, and retired in 1982 as a major general. He served as the director of Selective Service and as an executive in a blue-ribbon manpower planning task force under Defense Secretary Casper Weinberger. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal and Bronze Star, among many decorations. He was the last administrator of the Veterans Administration and played a major role in preparing the agency to become a cabinet department in 1989. At the time, it was the largest independent agency in the federal government, with more than 240,000 employees and an annual budget of more than $25 billion.
Turnbull, Charles (Wesley) (b. Feb. 5, 1935, Estate Thomas, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands), governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands (1999-2007).
Turnbull, Lucy, née Hughes (b. 1958), lord mayor of Sydney (2003-04); wife of Malcolm Turnbull.
Turnbull, Malcolm (Bligh) (b. Oct. 24, 1954, Sydney, N.S.W.), Australian politician. A descendant of Capt. William Bligh (of the Bounty), and a distant cousin of Labor politician Anna Bligh, he was chairman of the Australian Republican Movement in 1993-2000. In 2004 he entered politics as Liberal member for the Sydney seat of Wentworth. In the Liberal ministry of John Howard he was parliamentary secretary to the prime minister in 2006-07 and minister for environment and water resources in 2007. After the defeat of the Howard government he was shadow treasurer until he successfully challenged Brendan Nelson's leadership and was elected leader of the Liberal Party and leader of the opposition on Sept. 16, 2008. However, after the Labor government secured his support for a carbon-emissions trading scheme, he was himself challenged by some Liberal MPs, and, on Dec. 1, 2009, defeated by Tony Abbott by 42 votes to 41.
Turner, Sir (Tomkyns) Hilgrove (b. 1764 - d. May 7, 1843, Jersey), lieutenant governor of Jersey (1814-16) and governor of Bermuda (1826-32).
Turner, John (Napier) (b. June 7, 1929, Richmond, Surrey, England), prime minister of Canada (1984). After his father died, his mother, a Canadian, took him to Canada in 1932. He won his first election to the House of Commons as a Liberal Party member in 1962 for the Montreal riding of St. Lawrence-St. George. When his riding disappeared in redistricting, he won a seat for the riding of Ottawa-Carleton in 1968. He lost a bid for leadership of the Liberals in 1968 to Pierre Elliott Trudeau. He held several cabinet positions: minister without portfolio (1965-67), registrar general (1967-68), minister of corporate and consumer affairs (1968), solicitor general (1968), minister of justice and attorney general (1968-72), and minister of finance (1972-75). He abruptly resigned the last post on a political disagreement in September 1975 and resigned from parliament in February 1976. When Trudeau announced in February 1984 that he would not seek reelection as Liberal Party leader, Turner ran for the post and won (June 16). Two weeks later he reached what he called his "crowning career achievement"; he was sworn in as prime minister. He soon called a federal election for September 4, using for his campaign slogan, "Today we celebrate our future." His new preelection cabinet, however, looked very much like Trudeau's old cabinet, which had become unpopular. In the elections his party was routed by the Progressive Conservatives under Brian Mulroney. Turner, who won in the riding of Vancouver Quadra, was the only Liberal elected west of Winnipeg. As leader of the opposition in the House of Commons, he vowed that he would rebuild his party. But the Liberals lost a second general election to the Conservatives in 1988, and in 1990 Turner resigned as party leader and left parliament.
Turner, (Robert) Leigh (b. March 13, 1958), commissioner of the British Indian Ocean Territory (2006-08). In 2008-12 he was British ambassador to Ukraine.
Turner, Stansfield (b. Dec. 1, 1923, Highland Park, Ill.), CIA director (1977-81).
Turnquest, Sir Orville (Alton) (b. July 19, 1929, Grants Town, New Providence, Bahamas), governor-general of The Bahamas (1995-2001). He was first appointed cabinet minister in August 1992, following the Free National Movement (FNM) landslide victory at the polls over the Progressive Liberal Party, which had ruled for more than 25 years. He served as deputy prime minister, minister of justice, and minister of foreign affairs, and as the member of parliament for Montagu before he resigned from front-line politics in November 1994. He then became the nation's fifth Bahamian-born governor-general, sworn in on Jan. 3, 1995. Upon his appointment, he was awarded the honour of Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. Michael and St. George by the queen. Recognized as the most celebrated governor-general in Bahamian history, Sir Orville transformed that post, welcoming a wide cross section of persons to Government House, which he often referred to as "The People's House." The patron of the One Bahamas celebrations, Sir Orville took the message of unity to all Family Islands, visiting all schools, a personal goal he undertook. Sir Orville was to retire on Oct. 31, 2001, but the date was pushed back to November 13 to accommodate a formal leave of Queen Elizabeth II in a farewell audience at Buckingham Palace. Sir Orville retired to pave the way for his son Tommy to become prime minister, should the FNM become the next government in the upcoming general elections.
Tursunov, Minavar (Tursunovich) (b. 1915), foreign minister of the Uzbek S.S.R. (1969-80). He was also mayor of Tashkent (1956-58).
Tusar, Vlastimil (b. Oct. 18, 1880, Prague, Austria [now in Czech Republic] - d. March 22, 1924, Berlin, Germany), prime minister of Czechoslovakia (1919-20).
Tusevljak, Spasoje (b. May 28, 1952, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), prime minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2000).
Tusk, Donald (Franciszek) (b. April 22, 1957, Gdansk, Poland), prime minister of Poland (2007- ).
Tutuhatunewa, Frans L(odewijk) J(ohannis) (b. June 16 or 26, 1923, Batavia, Netherlands East Indies [now Jakarta, Indonesia]), president of the South Moluccas in exile (1993-2010).
Tutzó Bennàsar, Francesc (b. 1940, Maó, Minorca island, Baleares, Spain), president of the General Inter-Island Council of Baleares (1982-83).
Tu'ugahala, Paino (b. Oct. 9, 1915, Akaaka village, Wallis island - d. March 31, 1992, Nouméa, New Caledonia), prime minister of `Uvea (1959-92).
Tuvdendorj, Sharavdorjiyn (b. 1966?), defense minister of Mongolia (1999-2000). He was general secretary of the Mongolian National Democratic Party.
Tuyaa, Nyam-Osoryn (b. 1958, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia), foreign minister of Mongolia (1998-2000).
Tuyll van Serooskerken van Vleuten, Jan Maximiliaan baron van (b. Oct. 13, 1771, Zuilen, Utrecht, Netherlands - d. Nov. 25, 1843, Haarlem, Netherlands), governor of Utrecht (1814-28) and Noord-Holland (1828-39).
Twagiramungu, Faustin (b. August 1945, Cyangugu province, Rwanda), prime minister of Rwanda (1994-95). A member of the country's Hutu majority, he moved to Belgium after he was dismissed as prime minister in August 1995 following political disagreements with Pres. Pasteur Bizimungu and Vice Pres. Paul Kagame. After eight years of exile he returned to Rwanda on June 20, 2003, to run in presidential elections.
Tweedsmuir of Elsfield, John Buchan, (1st) Baron (b. Aug. 26, 1875, Perth, Scotland - d. Feb. 11, 1940, Montreal, Quebec), governor-general of Canada (1935-40). He was a writer of highly popular adventure stories, including The Thirty-nine Steps (1915) and Greenmantle (1916). When he entered politics in 1927, he was elected member of Parliament for the Scottish Universities. Upon accepting his appointment as governor-general of Canada, he also received a peerage. In 1936, encouraged by Lady Tweedsmuir, he created the Governor-General's Literary Awards, which continue to be Canada's most prestigious recognition of literary merit. He was the first governor-general who died during his term of office since Confederation.
Twining (of Tanganyika and of Goldaming), Edward Francis Twining, Baron (b. June 29, 1899, Westminster, England - d. July 21, 1967, Westminster), administrator of Saint Lucia (1944-46) and governor of British North Borneo (1946-49) and of Tanganyika (1949-58). He was knighted in 1949 and created a life peer in 1958.
Tyazhlov, Anatoly (Stepanovich) (b. Oct. 11, 1942, Chelyabinsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. July 28, 2008), head of the administration of Moscow oblast (1991-2000).
Tyler, John (b. Feb. 28, 1747, Charles City county, Virginia - d. Jan. 6, 1813, Charles City county), governor of Virginia (1808-11).
Tyler, John (b. March 29, 1790, Charles City county, Va. - d. Jan. 18, 1862, Richmond, Va.), president of the United States (1841-45); son of John Tyler (1747-1813). He began his political career in the Virginia legislature (1811-16, 1823-25, 1839) and was elected a U.S. congressman (1816-21), state governor (1825-27), and U.S. senator (1827-36). He consistently supported states' rights and a strict construction of the constitution. In 1836, when the Senate voted to withdraw a censure of Pres. Andrew Jackson for his removal of federal funds from the Bank of the United States, Tyler refused to vote for it as directed by the Virginia legislature. Instead, he resigned his seat, thereby enhancing his reputation as one of Jackson's most implacable foes. In 1840 the opposition Whig party nominated him for the vice presidency in an effort to attract Southern support. William Henry Harrison and Tyler won after a campaign that avoided the issues and stressed innocuous party insignia and the slogan "Tippecanoe and Tyler too!" When Harrison became the first president to die in office, Tyler's opponents proposed to recognize him as acting president only, but he successfully claimed all the rights and privileges of office, establishing an important precedent. When he vetoed bills to create a new national bank, all but one member of the cabinet resigned; he promptly appointed new members who shared his states'-rights views. Tyler was now a president without a party. In 1844 he was renominated for the presidency by an irregular convention but withdrew in favour of the Democratic nominee, James K. Polk. On the eve of the Civil War he stood firmly against secession, and exerted himself to preserve the Union, but his efforts failed. He was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives but died before it assembled.
Tymoshenko, Yuliya (Volodymyrivna), surname before marriage (1979) Telegina, originally Grigyan (b. Nov. 27, 1960, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukrainian S.S.R.), prime minister of Ukraine (2005, 2007-10). She was a presidential candidate in 2010. In October 2011 she was sentenced to seven years in prison for exceeding her powers when she signed a gas deal with Russia in 2009. She was released from prison in February 2014 at the peak of the revolt against Pres. Viktor Yanukovych. In May 2014 she was again a presidential candidate but lost to Petro Poroshenko.
Tyndall, Joseph (b. Sept. 12, 1927), acting secretary-general of the Caribbean Community (1977-78).
Tzannetakis, Tzannis (Petrou) (b. Sept. 13, 1927, Gytheio, Greece - d. April 1, 2010, Athens, Greece), prime minister of Greece (1989). He served as a navy officer but resigned on April 22, 1967, one day after a military coup that established a dictatorship. In 1969-71 he was imprisoned. After the political changeover of 1974 he joined the New Democracy party and was continuously elected MP from 1977. He was minister of public works (1980-81), tourism (1989, 1989-90), defense (1989-90), and culture (1990-91) and minister of state (1991-92). He was prime minister, foreign minister, and minister of tourism in the coalition government of New Democracy and Coalition of the Left in July-October 1989. In 1990-93 he was vice-premier in the government of Konstantinos Mitsotakis. He was also a member of the Political Council and the Electoral Planning Committee of New Democracy.