Rulers

Index Y


A. Yadav
Yadav, Akhilesh (b. July 1, 1973, Saifai, Etawah district, Uttar Pradesh, India), chief minister of Uttar Pradesh (2012- ); son of Mulayam Singh Yadav.


L.P. Yadav
Yadav, Laloo Prasad (b. June 11, 1948, Phulwara, Gopalganj district, Bihar, India), chief minister of Bihar (1990-97). He rose to fame when he was jailed in June 1975 by the government of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi under the Maintenance of Internal Security Act (MISA). He named his eldest daughter Misa in memory of his detention. Yadav was then a key member of a student movement led by Jayaprakash Narayan, a social activist. When he was freed in 1977, Yadav became a lower-house lawmaker in the federal parliament. Newspapers then noted he did not have enough money to buy himself a train ticket to New Delhi. As a member of a socialist movement spearheading job quotas in government for lower Hindu castes, Yadav, who belonged to a backward community of cowherds, rose to prominence in the then Janata Party, which split several times later. For two decades, he reigned as a low-caste radical riding a modern democratic system to defy a centuries-old Hindu hierarchy. In 1990, he rode to power as the chief minister of the eastern Indian state of Bihar on the crest of a huge wave of low-caste support. In 1997 he faced a leadership challenge from fellow caste man Sharad Yadav in the party's presidential elections. On July 5, Laloo Yadav formed the breakaway Rashtriya Janata Dal, saying there had been irregularities in the party poll in which Sharad Yadav emerged winner. Around the same time, the federal police closed in on him in the "fodder" scandal case involving the suspected embezzlement of animal welfare funds. Yadav, who said he was innocent, finally resigned on July 25 as federal police received a court warrant to arrest him in the $280 million scandal. Even as he quit, he angered critics by naming his politically inexperienced wife, Rabri Devi, as his successor. In 2013 he was sentenced to five years in prison, a ruling that automatically took away his membership of parliament, where he had been a familiar face, occupying one of the front benches.


M.S. Yadav
Yadav, Mulayam Singh (b. Nov. 21, 1939, Saifai, Etawah district, United Provinces [now Uttar Pradesh], India), Indian politician. Chief of the Samajwadi (Socialist) Party, he is a former wrestler and college lecturer who aggressively wooed low castes, the poor, and minority Muslim voters. He was chief minister of Uttar Pradesh (1989-91, 1993-95, 2003-07) and defense minister of India (1996-98).


R.B. Yadav

R.N. Yadav
Yadav, Ram Baran (b. Feb. 4, 1948, Dhanusha district, Nepal), president of Nepal (2008- ).

Yadav, Ram Naresh (b. July 1, 1928, Andhipur village [now in Uttar Pradesh], India), chief minister of Uttar Pradesh (1977-79) and governor of Madhya Pradesh (2011- ) and Chhattisgarh (2014).


U. Yadav
Yadav, Upendra (b. 1960, Bhagbatpur village, Saptari district, Nepal), foreign minister of Nepal (2008-09, 2011). He is the chairman of the Madhesi People's Rights Forum (since 1996).

Yafi, Abdullah (Aref), Arabic `Abd Allah `Arif al-Yafi` (b. Sept. 7, 1901, Beirut, Lebanon - d. Nov. 4, 1986, Beirut), prime minister of Lebanon (1938-39, 1951-52, 1953-54, 1956, 1966, 1968-69).

Yahorau, Uladzimir (b. Nov. 7, 1939), interior minister of Belarus (1990-94).

Yahya ibn Muhammad (al-Mutawakkil Alallah) (b. 1867, Yemen - d. Feb. 17, 1948, near Sana, Yemen), imam of Yemen (1904-48). He succeeded his father as imam of Yemen, which was then a province of the Ottoman Empire, in 1904 and thus also became religious head of the Zaydi sect of Shi`i Muslims. He assembled a military force to fight Turkish rule, but made peace in 1911, when the autonomy of his personal rule over the Yemen was recognized, and remained loyal to the sultan until 1918, although he took no active part in World War I. After the Turkish collapse, he became embroiled with Britain; he rejected the Anglo-Turkish boundary delimitation of 1902-04, and he occupied and advanced historical claims to part of the Western Aden Protectorate. He recovered al-Hudaydah and other ports from Asir (1925) but was evicted from the Aden Protectorate in 1928. An Anglo-Yemeni treaty of February 1934 emboldened him to precipitate war with Saudi Arabia. After summary defeat, he received a generous treaty (May 1934). Although he signed diplomatic agreements with Italy, the U.S.S.R., the Netherlands, France, and the United States, he forbade resident diplomats. He welcomed Italian, Soviet, and British medical missions, however. When he reorganized and centralized his government, he employed some Arab, European, and American advisers. He remained neutral in World War II. Under his guidance Yemen joined the Arab League (1945) and the United Nations (1947). Discontent with his isolationist autocracy resulted in active opposition from 1946, and in 1948, when he was on the way to his estate outside the capital, he was intercepted by an unknown car and shot by a machine gun. After a brief civil war, he was succeeded by his eldest son, Ahmad.


Yahya Khan
Yahya Khan, Agha Mohammad (b. Feb. 4, 1917, near Peshawar, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Aug. 9, 1980, Rawalpindi, Pakistan), president of Pakistan (1969-71). He graduated first in his class from the Indian Military Academy at Dehra Dun, served in the Middle East and Italy during World War II, and, after India was partitioned in 1947, organized the Pakistani Staff College. He fought in the war with India over Kashmir and became Pakistan's youngest brigadier general at 34, youngest general at 40, and, in 1966, youngest commander in chief at 49. When street riots took hundreds of lives in 1969, Pres. Mohammad Ayub Khan called on his protégé Yahya to take over the government. Declaring martial law within minutes of Ayub's resignation, Yahya said, "I will not tolerate disorder. Let everyone return to his post." He was credited with stopping the disorders, and in the next two years business monopolies were curbed, charges of corruption were lodged against hundreds of former officials, minimum wages were raised, and spending for education and development increased. He proclaimed his hope of returning to his military career and, to that end, organized free elections in December 1970. These exacerbated divisions between dominant West Pakistan and long-neglected East Pakistan. The Awami Party, led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, swept the elections in East Pakistan and promptly demanded autonomy. Civil war erupted, East Pakistan declared independence as Bangladesh, and when India intervened in December 1971 Bangladeshi nationhood was assured. With this loss Yahya resigned. He was put under house arrest by his successor, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, but was paralyzed by a stroke shortly afterward and later released.


Yaki

Yakis
Yaki, Roy (b. Nov. 24, 1951, Ponowi, Papua New Guinea), finance minister (1997) and foreign minister (1997-99) of Papua New Guinea.

Yakimov, Anatoly (Mikhailovich) (b. March 10, 1949, Novosibirsk, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. June 2013, Krasnoyarsk, Russia), head of the administration of Evenkia autonomous okrug (1991-97).

Yakis, Yasar (b. 1938, Akçakoca, Turkey), foreign minister of Turkey (2002-03).

Yakovlev, Mikhail (Danilovich) (b. Nov. 21, 1910, Petropavlovka, Russia [now in Kharkov oblast, Ukraine] - d. July 16, 1999), foreign minister of the Russian S.F.S.R. (1959-60). He was also Soviet ambassador to Congo (Léopoldville) (1960-61), Iraq (1961-65), and Sweden (1971-82).

Yakovlev, Vladimir (Anatolyevich) (b. Nov. 25, 1944), governor of Saint Petersburg (1996-2003) and plenipotentiary of the president in Yuzhny federal district (2004). In 2004-07 he was Russian minister of regional development.

Yakubu II (Andani) (b. c. 1951 - d. March 27, 2002, Yendi, northern Ghana), ruler of Dagomba (1974-2002). He was killed during ethnic confrontations between rival clans. Initial reports said he was beheaded, but his brother said he died from bullet wounds.

Yakubu, Jibril (Baba), administrator of Zamfara (1996-99).


Yakushev
Yakushev, Vladimir (Vladimirovich) (b. June 14, 1968, Neftekamsk, Bashkir A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Tyumen oblast (2005- ). He was mayor of Tyumen city in 2005.

Yali, James (b. 1963?), governor of Madang (2002-07). He is the adopted son of Yali Singina (1912-1975), a war hero turned cargo cult leader along New Guinea's north coast, mentioned in Jared Diamond's Guns, Germs, and Steel. On Dec. 14, 2004, he was arrested and charged with the rape of his 17-year-old sister-in-law. On Dec. 13, 2005, he was found guilty. He was sentenced to 12 years imprisonment on Jan. 19, 2006; under Papua New Guinea law, he would thus automatically lose his governorship and his seat in the national parliament, but he appealed and remained titular governor until the 2007 elections, although he was in jail.

Yamada, Keiji (b. April 5, 1954), governor of Kyoto (2002- ).


Yamagata
Yamagata, Aritomo, in full Koshaku (Duke, or Prince) Aritomo Yamagata (b. June 14, 1838, Hagi, Japan - d. Feb. 1, 1922, Odawara, Japan), prime minister of Japan (1889-91, 1898-1900). Swept into the currents of revolutionary loyalism to the emperor that followed the growth of foreign influence under the shogunate, he emerged from the Meiji Restoration of 1868 as a leader of the semimodern militia of the Choshu region, the Kiheitai. As vice minister of military affairs from 1871 and later army minister and from 1878 chief of the general staff, he took a leading part in the introduction of the conscription system (1873) and of the Prussian general staff system (1878). As home minister (1883-89) he set up the central police system and perfected central control over local government. He was created a count in 1884. In 1889 he became the first prime minister under the newly established parliamentary system. After resigning in 1891, he served as minister of justice (1892-93) and president of the Privy Council (1893). He was for a time commander of the 1st army in Korea during the Chinese-Japanese War of 1894-95 and was created marquess in 1895 and promoted to field marshal in 1898. During his second premiership he accelerated the expansionist policy in Asia. He was again chief of staff during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 and in 1907 was awarded the title of prince for his distinguished service. He was the most honoured and respected member of the group of elder statesmen known as genro, especially after Hirobumi Ito's assassination in 1909. He was president of the Privy Council again in 1905-09 and from 1909 until his death. In addition to an important advisory role in foreign affairs, he virtually controlled the selection of prime ministers. However, when he meddled in the crown prince's marriage in 1921 he was publicly censured.

Yamamoto, Gonnohyoe, in full Hakushaku (Count) Gonnohyoe Yamamoto, also called Gombei Yamamoto (b. Nov. 26, 1852, Kagoshima, Japan - d. Dec. 8, 1933, Tokyo, Japan), prime minister of Japan (1913-14, 1923-24). Following the custom by which the clans of Satsuma and Choshu devoted themselves to the navy and army respectively, he entered the navy and by 1896 was a vice admiral, becoming a full admiral in 1904, while he was minister of the navy (1898-1906). In 1913 he became prime minister as a compromise candidate, when the old oligarchs blocked Takashi Hara, head of the dominant political party, from assuming the post. During his premiership, legislation was passed to further the influence of the political parties, the civil-service appointment system was reformed, and Japan became involved on the Chinese mainland, demanding and receiving new railway rights in Manchuria. When naval officers were found to have taken bribes from contractors in 1914, popular anger compelled him to resign, although there was no suggestion that he was personally involved. He then took no part in politics until becoming prime minister again in 1923, heading what was called the "Earthquake Cabinet." Its first meeting took place in the open air, in the midst of the smoking ruins made by the devastating earthquake of September 1, and it had to take immediate measures to relieve the unprecedented situation. On Dec. 29, 1923, the Yamamoto cabinet resigned because of an attempt on the life of the prince regent, Hirohito. He then went into retirement again. He was created a baron in 1902 and a count in 1907 and was also decorated with the G.C.M.G. by Great Britain in 1907. One of the strong men of the Satsuma clan, he was regarded as a brilliant statesman of the old school, but he was never popular like Adm. Heihachiro Togo.


I. Yamamoto
Yamamoto, Isoroku, original name (before adoption) Isoroku Takano (b. April 4, 1884, Nagaoka, Japan - d. April 18, 1943, Shortland Islands, Solomon Islands), Japanese naval officer. He graduated from the naval academy in 1904 and fought as an ensign in the Russo-Japanese War. He was naval attaché at the Japanese embassy in Washington, D.C., during 1926-27. He became vice minister of the Japanese navy in 1936, commander of the First Fleet in 1938, and commander in chief of Japan's Combined Fleet in August 1941. He opposed war with the United States because he feared Japan would lose a protracted struggle with such a powerful opponent. Once the decision to go to war was made, however, he asserted that Japan's only chance for victory lay in a surprise attack that would cripple the American naval forces in the Pacific, after which Japan could seize the rich lands of Southeast Asia and move eastward across the Pacific unopposed. His plan for a carrier-based air strike on Pearl Harbor was adopted by the naval general staff, but meanwhile he was predicting that, if the war with the U.S. lasted more than one year, Japan would eventually be defeated. After the success of the attack on Pearl Harbor (Dec. 7, 1941), Yamamoto sought a decisive battle with what remained of the United States' Pacific forces, namely, its aircraft carriers. But the resulting battle, at Midway Island (June 1942), was won by the Americans. Yamamoto's ensuing campaign in the Solomon Islands was also less than successful. His death resulted when U.S. forces, having broken the Japanese communication codes, knew his whereabouts and ambushed and shot down his plane over the Solomons. He was posthumously given the title of fleet admiral.

Yamamoto, Shigetaro (b. Nov. 14, 1948), governor of Yamaguchi (2012- ).

Yamamoto, Takahiko (b. Sept. 6, 1935), governor of Yamanashi (2003-07).

Yamamoto, Tatsuo, in full Danshaku (Baron) Tatsuo Yamamoto (b. April 7, 1856, Oita prefecture, Japan - d. Nov. 12, 1947), Japanese politician. In 1889 he entered the Bank of Japan of which he was appointed director and then governor (1898-1903). He was made a crown member of the House of Peers in 1903 and became minister of finance (1911-12) and of agriculture and commerce (1913-14, 1918-22). He was created baron in 1920. In 1924 he seceded from the Seiyukai party and established a new party, Seiyuhonto, with Takejiro Tokonami as leader, becoming himself the adviser to the party. When the Kenseikai and the Seiyuhonto parties united to form the Minseito in 1927, he became the adviser to the new party. In 1932-34 he was home affairs minister.


Yamani
Yamani, Ahmad Zaki (b. July 2, 1930, Mecca, Hejaz [now in Saudi Arabia]), Saudi Arabian oil minister (1962-86). He first entered government in Saudi Arabia as legal adviser to the Council of Ministers in 1958-60. On the dismissal of Abdullah Tariki, the kingdom's first oil minister, Yamani in March 1962 became King Faisal's chief spokesman on oil policy and a director of the national oil company, Aramco. In the climactic talks in Tehran in January-February 1971 that broke the power of the oil industry, Yamani emerged as the most subtle and persuasive tactician of the OPEC camp. Wrapped in his gold-threaded black bishla, he symbolized the popular image of the Arab oil sheikh, although in fact he was more of a servant to King Faysal than a policy maker, as he was also to be to King Khalid and his successor, King Fahd. Yamani was the first to suggest that the Arabs might use oil as a weapon against countries supporting Israel. By contrast with this stand during 1971-74, he later became a voice for moderation on oil price increases by OPEC. He was aware at an early stage, when an oil revenue surplus began to pile up after 1974, that the health of the Saudi government depended on maintaining the strength of the U.S. economy. Yamani was present at the assassination of King Faysal in March 1975 and was briefly kidnapped by international terrorists in December of that year during the OPEC ministers' meeting in Vienna. He later recalled that he was so frightened that he began reciting verses from the Qur´an. In October 1986 he was suddenly dismissed.


Yamassoum

Yameen

Yaméogo
Yamassoum, Nagoum (b. 1954), prime minister (1999-2002) and foreign minister (2003-05) of Chad.

Yameen (Abdul Gayoom), Abdulla (b. May 21, 1959), president of Maldives (2013- ); half-brother of Maumoon Abdul Gayoom.

Yaméogo, (Nawalagmba) Maurice (he acquired the name Maurice on his baptism in 1929) (b. Dec. 31, 1921, Koudougou, Upper Volta [now Burkina Faso] - d. Sept. 15, 1993, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso), president (1959-66), foreign minister (1960), defense minister (1961-62), and interior minister (1963-65) of Upper Volta.

Yan, Manuel (Tecson) (b. Jan. 24, 1920, Santa Cruz, Manila, Philippines - d. Dec. 4, 2008, Pasig City, Philippines), foreign minister of the Philippines (1987). He was also chief of staff of the armed forces (1968-72) and ambassador to Thailand (1972-81), Indonesia (1981-87), and the United Kingdom (1991-92).

Yan Huiqing (Pinyin), Wade-Giles Yen Hui-ching, also called W.W. Yen (b. 1877, Shanghai, China - d. May 23, 1950, Shanghai), Chinese diplomat. In 1906 he was named chief English editor of the Commercial Press in Shanghai, and later that year was appointed to the imperial ministry of education. In 1908 he became second secretary of the Chinese legation in Washington, D.C., but returned to China to establish a government press bureau the next year. He became vice-minister of foreign affairs in the government of the Chinese republic, then minister of foreign affairs (1920) after terms as minister to Germany, Sweden, and Denmark. He was prime minister in 1924 and 1926 and also held the portfolios of interior, agriculture, commerce, and foreign affairs. During his subsequent diplomatic career he also served as envoy to London, Washington, and Moscow. In 1933, as chief Chinese delegate at the League of Nations in Geneva, Switzerland, he initiated the charge of aggression against Japan that resulted in League censure and Japan's withdrawal from the League. He spent his later years in educational, health, and charitable activities in China. In 1949 he headed an unofficial delegation that sought without success to form a coalition Chinese government which would incorporate the Communists.

Yan Lisan (b. 1892, Macheng, Hubei, China - d. April 28, 1944, Enshi, Hubei), chairman of the government of Hubei (1939-40).

Yan Xiangwen (b. Jining, Shandong, China - d. Aug. 23, 1921, Xian, Shaanxi, China), military governor of Shaanxi (1921). A general from the Hebei Military Group, he was commander of the 20th Division in Hebei. He led his forces to Shaanxi and expelled Gov. Chen Shufan (a general of the Anhui Military Group) in May 1921. He committed suicide in August as his provincial government received no support.


Yan Xishan
Yan Xishan (Pinyin), Wade-Giles Yen Hsi-shan (b. Oct. 8, 1883, Hebian village, Wutai [now in Dingxiang] county, Shanxi, China - d. May 23, 1960, Taipei, Taiwan), military (1911-27) and civil (1917-29) governor and chairman of the government (1943-49) of Shanxi and president of the Executive Yuan (premier) of the Republic of China (1949-50).

Yanayev, Gennady (Ivanovich) (b. Aug. 26, 1937, Perevoz, Gorky [now Nizhny Novgorod] oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Sept. 24, 2010, Moscow, Russia), Soviet coup plotter. He was elected to the Politburo and Secretariat of the Communist Party in July 1990 and was named vice president of the Soviet Union in December. In an unsuccessful coup attempt in August 1991, he declared a state of emergency, telling television viewers that President Mikhail Gorbachev - who was under house arrest in Crimea - was "resting" and "needs some time to get his health back." Yanayev declared himself acting president. After two days the coup collapsed.

Yanchuk, Stepan (b. May 28, 1944), finance minister of Belarus (1990-95).


Yandarbiyev
Yandarbiyev, Zelimkhan (Abdulmuslimovich) (b. Sept. 12, 1952, Vydrika, Kazakh S.S.R. - d. Feb. 13, 2004, Doha, Qatar), president of Chechnya (1996-97). He was born in Kazakhstan, where the entire Chechen population had been deported eight years before by Soviet ruler Iosif Stalin, who said they might conspire with Hitler's invading armies. He returned to Chechnya with his family after Stalin died. He ran foul of Soviet authorities at an early age, helping to form a literary association called "Pkharmat" which was shut down by the KGB for alleged nationalist tendencies in 1979. He helped form the Vainakh Democratic Party (the Vainakhs are an ethnic group to which the Chechens belong) in 1989, which later helped overthrow Chechnya's communist-installed overlords, brought Dzhokhar Dudayev to power in 1991, and began its history of confrontation with Moscow. He stood by Dudayev's side throughout the Russian attack in early 1995 and was described as one of Russia's most wanted men. He disappeared from the public eye after Russian forces took the Chechen capital Grozny, destroying much of it, and went into hiding with other rebels in the southern mountains. Named Dudayev's vice president on April 17, 1993, he was the logical successor as president of the self-proclaimed Republic of Ichkeria when Dudayev was killed in a Russian rocket attack in April 1996. He stressed that the fighting would not stop unless Russia gave in. "The tragedy of Russia's leaders is that they cannot understand the truth, that a war for freedom cannot be stopped," he said. On May 27, 1996, in Moscow he signed a ceasefire agreement. After elections he transferred presidential powers to Aslan Maskhadov in February 1997. He later refused to cooperate with the Maskhadov administration and went over to the opposition. He later went into exile in Doha, Qatar, where he died in an explosion.

Yanepa, James (d. November 1999, Manila, Philippines), premier of Eastern Highlands (1976-86).

Yánez Pelletier, Jesús (b. June 21, 1917, Caibarién, Cuba - d. Sept. 18, 2000, Havana, Cuba), Cuban human rights activist. He was often introduced as "the man who saved Fidel," a former prison guard who refused orders by his superiors in Pres. Fulgencio Batista's army to poison Fidel Castro when the future Cuban leader was jailed in 1953-55 after he and his followers launched a disastrous attack on the Moncada military barracks in the eastern city of Santiago. Later, Yánez joined the rebel forces and after the revolution in 1959, served as one of Castro's bodyguards. On Castro's first trip to the United States as Cuba's new prime minister, Yánez accompanied him and can be seen in black-and-white photographs of Castro's meeting with Vice Pres. Richard Nixon. Over time, Yánez grew disillusioned with the new government and ultimately spent more than a decade in prison for his political views. He joined the government opposition after he was freed in the 1970s. Yánez had originally belonged to the Cuban Commission of Human Rights and Reconciliation, but broke away and helped form the Cuban Pro Human Rights Committee, of which he was vice president.


P. Yang

Yang Aiyuan
Yang (Yunji), Philemon (b. June 14, 1947, Jikejem-Oku, British Cameroons [now in Cameroon]), prime minister of Cameroon (2009- ). He was minister of mines and energy (1979-84) and ambassador (1984-95) and high commissioner (1995-2004) to Canada.

Yang, Timothy (Chin-tien), Pinyin Yang Jintian (b. July 1, 1942), foreign minister of Taiwan (2009-12).

Yang Aiyuan (b. 1886, Wutai, Shanxi, China - d. 1959, Taiwan), chairman of the government of Chahar (1928-30).


Yang Hucheng

Yang Jiechi
Yang Hucheng (b. 1893, Pucheng, Shaanxi, China - d. [executed] Sept. 6, 1949, Chongqing, China), chairman of the government of Shaanxi (1930-33).

Yang Jiechi (b. May 1950, Shanghai, China), foreign minister of China (2007-13). He was ambassador to the United States in 2001-05.

Yang Jincheng (b. 1880, Xiushan, Sichuan, China - d. July 1922), military governor of Guizhou (1911-12). He went to the Japanese College of Army Commanders after graduating from its counterpart in Guizhou province. He returned in November 1910 and was named president of the Guizhou Provincial Army College. He was a lieutenant general and one of the military advisors in the president's office.

Yang Shande (b. 1873, Huaining, Anhui, China - d. Aug. 13, 1919, Zhejiang province, China), military governor of Zhejiang (1917-19). He was a brigade commander in the late Qing period and held military posts in both Jiangsu and Zhejiang.


Yang Shangkun
Yang Shangkun (b. July 5, 1907, Shuangjiang, Sichuan, China - d. Sept. 14, 1998, Beijing, China), Chinese politician. He took part in the 1934-35 Long March, the Red Army's epic flight from Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist forces. During the war against Japan he headed a drama troupe performing propaganda plays for the communist forces. After the communist victory in 1949, he directed the general office of the party Central Committee, the centre of power. A Russian speaker, he joined three delegations to Moscow from 1957 to 1963 before the ideological rift between the two communist giants widened. Radical Red Guards accused him of conspiring against Chairman Mao Zedong and purged him at the outset of the Cultural Revolution in 1966. Accused of tapping the Great Helmsman's telephone, he was lampooned in wall posters wearing earphones and listening to Mao's conversations. His penalty was a harrowing mass "struggle session" at a Beijing rally and 12 years of political exile. In 1978, the year Deng Xiaoping began to consolidate power, Yang was rehabilitated and became deputy governor of Guangdong province in southern China. He continued to move up the hierarchy, becoming one of the 17 members of the policy-making party Politburo in 1982. In 1983 he became Deng's right-hand military man with the rank of general. In 1987, when Deng resigned from most of his official posts and forced other aging cadres to step down with him, Yang stayed on as the Politburo's oldest member. His career was capped in 1988 when he became president, a ceremonial but prestigious post. In 1989, it was Yang who announced on national television that the army had been brought into Beijing to clear student protesters from Tiananmen Square. He was forced to retire from his official posts in 1993.

Yang Shukan (b. 1881, Ba county, Sichuan [now in Chongqing municipality], China - d. August 1942, Chongqing), civil governor of Guangdong (1924).

Yang Shuzhuang (b. 1882, Fuzhou, Fujian, China - d. Jan. 10, 1934, Shanghai, China), chairman of the government of Fujian (1927-30).

Yang Yide (b. 1873, Tianjin, China - d. 1944, Tianjin), acting military governor (1922-23) and acting civil governor (1922) of Zhili.


Yang Yongtai
Yang Yongtai (b. 1880, Maoming, Guangdong, China - d. [assassinated] Oct. 25, 1936, Hankou [now part of Wuhan], Hubei, China), chairman of the government of Hubei (1935-36).

Yang Yuting (b. 1886, Faku, Liaoning, China - d. [executed] Jan. 11, 1929), military governor of Jiangsu (1925).

Yang Zengxin (b. 1867, Mengzi, Yunnan, China - d. [in a coup] July 6, 1928, Dihua [now Urumqi], Xinjiang, China), governor of Xinjiang (1912-28).

Yangiboyev, Bakhodir, Russian in full Bakhadir Yangibayevich Yangibayev (b. 1960, Beruniysky rayon, Kara-Kalpak A.S.S.R., Uzbek S.S.R.), prime minister of Karakalpakstan (2006- ).


Yanukovych

Yar'Adua

Yarin
Yanukovych, Viktor (Fedorovych) (b. July 9, 1950, Yenakiyevo, Donetsk oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.), prime minister (2002-05, 2006-07) and president (2010-14) of Ukraine. He was governor of Donetsk oblast in 1997-2002.

Yar'Adua, Umaru Musa (b. Aug. 16, 1951, Katsina, Nigeria - d. May 5, 2010, Abuja, Nigeria), governor of Katsina (1999-2007) and president of Nigeria (2007-10). In 2008-10 he was chairman of the Economic Community of West African States.

Yarin, Andrey (Veniaminovich) (b. Feb. 13, 1970, Nizhny Tagil, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Kabardino-Balkariya (2006-09).


Yarmoshyn
Yarmoshyn, Uladzimir (Vasilyevich), Russian Vladimir (Vasilyevich) Yermoshin (b. Oct. 26, 1942, Pronsk, Ryazan oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Belarus (2000-01). He became mayor of Minsk in 1995 and was widely respected for large-scale construction and restoration projects in the capital. In 1999 he asked Pres. Alyaksandr Lukashenka to relieve him of his duties after more than 50 young people died in a stampede at an underground railway station in Minsk. The president ordered him to remain in his post. In 2000 Lukashenka dismissed Syarhey Linh as premier and named Yarmoshyn as new head of government.


Yastrebov

Yatsenyuk

Yavlinsky
Yastrebov, Sergey (Nikolayevich) (b. June 30, 1954), governor of Yaroslavl oblast (2012- ).

Yatsenyuk, Arseniy (Petrovych) (b. May 22, 1974, Chernovtsy, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Chernivtsi, Ukraine]), foreign minister (2007) and prime minister (2014) of Ukraine. In 2007-08 he was chairman of the Verkhovna Rada (parliament). He was a presidential candidate in 2010.

Yavlinsky, Grigory (Alekseyevich) (b. April 10, 1952, Lvov, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Lviv, Ukraine]), Russian presidential candidate (1996, 2000).


Yawer

Yazdi
Yawer, Ghazi (Mashal Ajil) al-, Arabic in full Shaykh Ghazi Ahmad Mash`al `Ajil al-Yawar (b. 1958, Mosul, Iraq), president of the Governing Council (2004), president (2004-05), and vice president (2005-06) of Iraq.

Yazdi, Ebrahim (b. 1931, Qazvin, Iran), foreign minister of Iran (1979). He was forced out after failing to stop the occupation of the U.S. embassy by militant students in November 1979. He later led a small opposition party, the Iran Freedom Movement, with little influence.

Yazov, Dmitry (Timofeyevich) (b. Nov. 8, 1924 [official birth date Nov. 8, 1923], Omsk region, Russian S.F.S.R.), Soviet defense minister (1987-91). He joined the Red Army in 1941. During World War II he was a deputy company commander and fought on the Leningrad front. He became a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) in 1944. After the war he held various command posts and graduated in 1956 from the Frunze Military Academy and in 1967 from the General Staff Academy. He held various posts in the Leningrad Military District (MD) in 1958-65 and, as a major general (lieutenant general in British Army equivalent), commanded a division in the Transbaikal MD (1967-71). He was then promoted to lieutenant general and commanded an army in the Transcaucasian MD in Azerbaijan. He was transferred to the Defense Ministry in 1974 and worked in the cadres department. He became a colonel general in 1976 and first deputy commander in chief of the Far Eastern MD. In 1979 he became commander in chief of Soviet forces in Czechoslovakia, and in 1980 he was made commander of the Central Asian MD. He became a candidate member (1981) and a full member (1987) of the Central Committee of the CPSU. He became an army general under Yury Andropov in 1984 and commander of the Far Eastern MD. Mikhail Gorbachev met him in July 1986, and his subsequent rapid promotions suggested that the general secretary was very impressed by him. Gorbachev appointed Yazov as head of cadres and a deputy defense minister in early 1987. He was named defense minister in May 1987 and a candidate member of the CPSU Politburo a month later. Yazov's primary task as defense minister appeared to be the perestroika (restructuring) of military personnel. In 1990 he became the last person to be appointed marshal of the Soviet Union. In 1991 he participated in the abortive coup against Gorbachev.


Ydígoras
Ydígoras Fuentes, (José) Miguel (Ramón) (b. Oct. 17, 1895, Retalhuleu, Guatemala - d. Oct. 6, 1982, Guatemala City, Guatemala), president of Guatemala (1958-63).

Ye Chucang (b. 1887, Wu county, Jiangsu, China - d. Feb. 15, 1946, Shanghai, China), chairman of the government of Jiangsu (1930-31).

Ye Fei, original name Sixto Tiongco (b. May 7, 1914, Tiaong, Philippines - d. April 18, 1999, Beijing, China), governor of Fujian (1954-59).

Ye Gaung (b. 1921 - d. May 13, 1998), foreign minister of Burma (1985-88).

Ye Jianying, Wade-Giles romanization Yeh Chien-ying (b. May 14, 1897, Yanyangpu, Meixian county, Guangdong, China - d. Oct. 22, 1986, Beijing, China), Chinese statesman. He joined the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in 1927, served as commander of the first column in the Long March (1934-35), participated in the peaceful settlement of the Xian Incident in which Chiang Kai-shek was arrested (1936), and was chief of staff of the Eighth Route Army during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-45). He became a member of the Central Committee of the CCP in 1945. He was deputy chief of the general staff of the Communist armed forces during the 1945-49 civil war and became mayor of Beijing when the city was occupied by the Communists in early 1949. After the establishment of the People's Republic, he became mayor of Guangzhou, chairman of the government of Guangdong (1949-53), and commander of the Guangdong Military District and of the South China Military Region. In 1955 he was made a marshal, China's highest military rank. In 1966 he became a member of the Politburo of the CCP. He rose to power in 1971 when he replaced Lin Biao as defense minister, although he was not officially appointed to the post until 1975. He became a member of the powerful Politburo Standing Committee in 1973. After Mao's death in 1976, Ye played a key role in bringing down the Gang of Four and supported Hua Guofeng and Deng Xiaoping. In 1976-77 he served as the CCP's deputy chairman, and in 1978 he was replaced as defense minister and made chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (nominal chief of state), a post he held until 1983. Ye and Deng became politically estranged with Ye regarding Deng's reformist policies as too much of a departure from the Maoist doctrine he still embraced. Deng managed to manoeuvre Ye into retirement in September 1985.

Ye Ju (b. 1881, Huiyang, Guangdong, China - d. 1934, Hong Kong), civil governor of Guangdong (1924).

Ye Xuanping (b. 1924, Meixian county, Guangdong, China), governor of Guangdong (1985-91); son of Ye Jianying. He was mayor of Guangzhou in 1980-85.


Yeddyurappa
Yeddyurappa, B(ookanakere) S(iddalingappa), before Oct. 11, 2007, spelled Yediyurappa (b. Feb. 27, 1943, Bookanakere, Mandya district, Mysore [now Karnataka], India), chief minister of Karnataka (2007, 2008-11).

Yefremov, Anatoly (Antonovich) (b. Jan. 30, 1952 - d. Oct. 13, 2009, Arkhangelsk, Russia), head of the administration of Arkhangelsk oblast (1996-2004).

Yeghen Pasha, Ahmad Midhat (b. April 14, 1871 - d. Jan. 14, 1944), foreign minister of Egypt (1929-30).

Yegorov, Nikolay (Dmitriyevich) (b. May 3, 1951, Zasovky Labinsky rayon, Krasnodar kray, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. April 25, 1997, Moscow, Russia), Russian politician. In 1992, he became head of the administration of Krasnodar kray. In 1994, Pres. Boris Yeltsin made him minister in charge of nationalities and regional policy. He was promoted to deputy prime minister and given responsibility for the breakaway region of Chechnya. He thus was in Yeltsin's hard-line inner circle, dubbed the "party of war," that endorsed sending troops to crush the tiny southern republic's self-proclaimed independence. The 20-month war was a disaster for Moscow almost from the start, and the hawkish Yegorov was blamed for the failed policies that culminated in a military conflict. He was removed as nationalities minister in early 1995. In June, he was fired as deputy prime minister, among three high-ranking officials to lose their jobs for the botched handling of an incident in which Chechen rebels took 2,000 civilians hostage in a hospital. More than 100 people died as a result of the hostage-taking in the southern Russian city of Budyonnovsk. Yegorov subsequently became an adviser to Yeltsin and was appointed in 1996 as head of the presidential administration. He was dismissed later and returned to his old job as head of the Krasnodar region in the summer. In running to retain his post, he was routed (57%-25%) in October by Communist candidate Nikolay Kondratenko. But the election was annulled on the ground that turnout was below 50%. The legislature then lowered the minimum turnout level to 25%, and the kray electoral commission called a new election for December. Yegorov earned the dubious distinction of becoming the incumbent to lose by the largest margin, winning 4.8% of the vote to about 82% for Kondratenko.

Yegorov, Vladimir (Grigoryevich) (b. Nov. 26, 1938), head of the administration of Kaliningrad oblast (2000-05). He was also admiral commander of the Baltic Fleet (1991-2000).


Yekhanurov
Yekhanurov, Yuriy (Ivanovych) (b. Aug. 23, 1948, Belkachi, Uchur district, Yakut A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister (2005-06) and defense minister (2007-09) of Ukraine. He was also minister of economy (1997), deputy prime minister (1999-2001), and governor of Dnipropetrovsk oblast (2005).

Yelagin, Vladimir (Vasilyevich) (b. April 20, 1955), head of the administration of Orenburg oblast (1991-99). He was also Russian minister for the social and economic development of Chechnya (2000-02).


Yeltsin
Yeltsin, Boris (Nikolayevich) (b. Feb. 1, 1931, Butka, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. April 23, 2007, Moscow, Russia), president of Russia (1991-99). He joined the Communist Party in 1961. In 1976 he became first secretary of the Sverdlovsk oblast party committee. His career really took off after Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in 1985. He was named first secretary of the Moscow city party committee and in 1986 was elevated to the Politburo as a nonvoting member. An estrangement between himself and Gorbachev set in when Yeltsin began criticizing the slow pace of reform at party meetings. He was forced to resign from the Moscow party leadership in 1987 and from the Politburo in 1988 and became a deputy minister for construction. He staged a remarkable comeback when he won a multicandidate election to the new U.S.S.R. Congress of People's Deputies in 1989 and in May 1990 the parliament of the Russian S.F.S.R. elected him president of the Russian republic. In July 1990 he quit the Communist Party. He won the first popular elections for the Russian presidency in June 1991. In August, as hardline Communists were attempting to stage a coup against Gorbachev, Yeltsin called on the population to resist. The coup collapsed after a few days; thereafter he eclipsed Gorbachev as the country's most powerful political figure, and the Soviet Union ceased to exist in December. In 1993 he unconstitutionally dissolved the legislature, which resisted and voted to depose him but was suppressed by army troops loyal to Yeltsin. In 1994 he sent troops into breakaway Chechnya, and the war eroded his already declining popularity. Nevertheless, he won reelection over Communist challenger Gennady Zyuganov in 1996. Overall, his presidency was marked by economic meltdown, soaring crime, and a massive drop in life expectancy. He resigned abruptly on Dec. 31, 1999.

Yem Sambaur (b. Feb. 2, 1913 - d. 1989, Paris, France), prime minister (1949, 1949-50) and foreign minister (1970) of Cambodia. He was also interior minister (1949, 1949-50), information minister (1949), defense minister (1949-50), finance minister (1954), and justice minister (1966-67, 1970-71, 1972).

Yen Chia-kan, Pinyin Yan Jiagan (b. Oct. 23, 1905, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China - d. Dec. 24, 1993, Taipei, Taiwan), governor of Taiwan province (1954-57) and premier (1963-72) and president (1975-78) of Taiwan.

Yentchabre, Yandja (b. April 21, 1953, Dapaong [now in Tône prefecture], French Togoland [now Togo]), acting foreign minister of Togo (1995). He was also minister of territorial development (1992-95, 2005-07) and trade, industry, crafts, and small- and medium-scale enterprises (2007-08).


Yeo
Yeo, George (Yong-Boon), Pinyin Yang Rongwen (b. Sept. 13, 1954, Singapore), foreign minister of Singapore (2004-11). He was also minister of information and arts (1990-99), health (1994-97), and trade and industry (1999-2004).

Yeoh Ghim Seng, Pinyin Yang Jincheng (b. June 22, 1918, Ipoh, Perak, Federated Malay States [now in Malaysia] - d. June 3, 1993), acting president of Singapore (1970-71, 1981, 1985). He was speaker of parliament in 1970-89.


Yerodia

Yeroshchenko

Yesipovsky
Yerodia Ndombasi (Bingolo Futa Bingolo), Abdoulaye, also known as Singama Luvila Massamba (b. Jan. 5, 1933, Mbanza-Ngungu, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)]), chairman of the Executive Council of the People's Republic of the Congo (rebel government at Stanleyville; 1965-...) and foreign minister of Congo (Kinshasa) (1999-2000).

Yeroshchenko, Sergey (Vladimirovich) (b. May 28, 1961, Cheremkhovo, Irkutsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Irkutsk oblast (2012- ).

Yesipovsky, Igor (Eduardovich) (b. March 28, 1960, Dneprodzerzhinsk, Ukrainian S.S.R. - d. [helicopter crash] May 10, 2009, 90 km southeast of Irkutsk, Russia), governor of Irkutsk oblast (2008-09).


M. Yevdokimov
Yevdokimov, Mikhail (Sergeyevich) (b. Dec. 6, 1957, Novokuznetsk, Kemerovo oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Aug. 7, 2005, near Biysk, Altay kray, Russia), head of the administration of Altay kray (2004-05). He had no discernible political agenda but was elected thanks to his name recognition as an actor and stand-up comedian. For this similarity he was known as Russia's Arnold Schwarzenegger. His tenure was marred by opposition attempts to unseat him. The local assembly near-unanimously voted no confidence in him in March 2005, but he kept his post after agreeing with the Kremlin to replace much of his team. He was killed when his car hit a tree.

Yevdokimov, Yury (Alekseyevich) (b. Jan. 1, 1946), head of the administration (1996-97) and governor (1997-2009) of Murmansk oblast.


Yevkurov
Yevkurov, Yunus-Bek (Bamatgireyevich) (b. July 29, 1963, Tarskoye, North Ossetian A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), president (2008-11) and head of the republic (2011- ) of Ingushetia. He sustained serious injuries in a bomb attack on his motorcade on June 22, 2009; he resumed office in August.

Yevloyeva, Khava (Isakovna) (b. April 12, 1954, Beloyarka, Akmolinsk oblast, Kazakh S.S.R.), acting prime minister of Ingushetia (2008).

Yhombi-Opango, (Jacques) Joachim (b. Jan. 14, 1939, Fort-Rousset, Middle Congo [now Owando, Congo (Brazzaville)]), Congo (Brazzaville) politician. Nicknamed the King of Owando, after his northern stronghold, this French-trained general and former army chief of staff became head of state after the 1977 assassination of military ruler Marien Ngouabi. He handed power to his arch-foe Denis Sassou-Nguesso in 1979. He was Pres. Pascal Lissouba's prime minister from 1993 to 1996. When clashes erupted in 1993, his supporters fought alongside Lissouba's. Living in exile in Benin from 1997, he was convicted in absentia for embezzlement and sentenced on Dec. 28, 2001, to 20 years hard labour. Yhombi-Opango, Lissouba, and Claude Antoine Dacosta were convicted for their part in a $150 million oil deal with the American company Occidental Petroleum to which they sold oil in 1993 at less than a quarter of the market price. He returned to Brazzaville on Aug. 10, 2007.

Yikuang, Prince Qing (b. 1836, most probably Beijing, China - d. Nov. 29, 1918, Tianjin, China), premier of China (1911); great-grandson of the Qianlong emperor. He was the premier of the first-ever "constitutional government" in the Qing dynasty. But the government turned out to consist mostly of royal family members. He was widely considered to be "cheating" the public and as a consequence resigned months later and advised that Yuan Shikai succeed to his post. He quit politics after the founding of the republic and spent his later days in Tianjin.


Yilmaz
Yilmaz, (Ahmet) Mesut (b. Nov. 6, 1947, Istanbul, Turkey), Turkish politician. He entered parliament in 1983 after three years of army rule that cracked down on extremist political violence. He served as foreign minister (1987-90) and led the country as prime minister for three months in 1991 until his Motherland Party was defeated in a general election by the True Path Party, then led by Süleyman Demirel who became president in May 1993 and left his post to Tansu Çiller. The two conservative parties were close on policy but the leaders were poles apart. Çiller was a dramatic, instinctive political survivor, and Yilmaz more measured and thoughtful. Their rivalry defined Yilmaz's career. He spent many years - largely unsuccessfully - attempting to frustrate Çiller and pin corruption charges on her. Yilmaz took control of Motherland in April 1993 after the sudden death of its founder Turgut Özal. In 1996 he was again prime minister for a short period. He came to power a third time in 1997 at the head of a secularist alliance cobbled together to replace an Islamist-led coalition that collapsed under pressure from the powerful military. He came out of his shell in this period in office, but some of his more fiery rhetoric hindered Turkey's decades-old efforts to come closer to the European Union. He upset Italy with strong comments in a row over Turkish Kurd rebel chief Abdullah Öcalan, who was seeking asylum in Italy, and enraged Germany by comparing its policy on the European Union's eastward expansion with Adolf Hitler's Lebensraum campaign of conquest in eastern Europe. His coalition presided over a crackdown on political Islam. He also tried, with some success, to carve out a reputation for fiscal prudence. He was toppled by a parliamentary censure vote in 1998.

Yin Changheng (b. 1884, Peng county, Sichuan, China - d. 1952, Chongqing, China), military (1911-13) and civil (1911-12) governor of Sichuan.


Yingluck
Yingluck Shinawatra (b. June 21, 1967, Chiang Mai province, Thailand), prime minister (2011-14) and defense minister (2013-14) of Thailand; sister of Thaksin Shinawatra. She was the country's first woman prime minister.

Yinusa (Bankole Oladoja) Ogundipe Arapasowu I (b. Oct. 20 or Nov. 28, 1920, Nigeria - d. July 6, 2007, Ibadan, Nigeria), Olubadan of Ibadan (1999-2007).

Yoadimnadji, Pascal (b. 1950?, Béboto, Logone Oriental region, southern Chad - d. Feb. 23, 2007, Paris, France), prime minister of Chad (2005-07). He was also president of the national electoral commission in 1996 during Chad's first multiparty elections, minister of mines, energy, and oil (1997-98), tourism development (1998-99), environment and water (1999), and agriculture (2004-05), and president of the Constitutional Council (1999-2004).


Yoda
Yoda, Alain Bédouma, also called Bédouma Alain Yoda (b. Dec. 31, 1951, Komtočga, Upper Volta [now Burkina Faso]), foreign minister of Burkina Faso (2008-11). He was also minister of transport and tourism (1997-2000), trade and promotion of enterprises and crafts (2000-02), and health (2002-08).

Yodoyman, Joseph (b. 1950, Garoua, Cameroon - d. Nov. 22, 1993, Paris, France), prime minister of Chad (1992-93). He was also minister of planning and reconstruction (1982-86).


Yohannes
Yohannes IV (English John IV), personal name Kassa Mercha Golja (b. July 11, 1837, May Beha, Temben, Ethiopia - d. March 9, 1889, Metemma, Ethiopia), emperor of Ethiopia (1871-89). A dejazmatch (earl) of Tigray in northern Ethiopia, he gave his assistance to the British expedition against Emperor Tewodros II in 1868 and, after the latter's death and the British withdrawal, succeeded in fighting his way to the Ethiopian throne, being crowned in January 1872. His weaponry was superior to that of his main rival, Menelik II, king of Shewa, who did not recognize Yohannes as emperor until 1878 when Yohannes, in return, recognized Menelik's control of the south. In 1882 a marriage was arranged between Yohannes' son Araya and Menelik's daughter Zauditu, and Menelik was designated Yohannes' successor as emperor. Yohannes tried to reduce the power of the other regional nobles and to revive the Ethiopian Orthodox Church; Muslim or pagan officials had to convert or renounce their positions. He had to face several external threats. The first was posed by the expansionist khedive (Ottoman viceroy) Ismail Pasha of Egypt, who moved troops into Ethiopia in 1872, but Yohannes won decisive victories in 1875 and 1876. In 1885 Italy occupied the Red Sea port of Mitsiwa (now Massawa, Eritrea) and then began to expand inland toward Tigray, only to be soundly defeated by Yohannes in 1887. Meanwhile, the Mahdist (Islamic revivalist) forces of the Sudan had also come into conflict with Ethiopia. After they devastated the old capital, Gonder, in 1888, Yohannes in 1889 led about 100,000 troops against an estimated 60,000-70,000 Mahdists at the Battle of Metemma. An initial Ethiopian victory turned to a rout when Yohannes was killed in the fighting.

Yokich, Stephen P(hilip) (b. Aug. 20, 1935, Detroit, Mich. - d. Aug. 16, 2002, Detroit), president of the United Automobile Workers (1995-2002). He held a series of offices with Local 155 before union president Walter Reuther appointed him to the Region 1 staff in 1969. Yokich was elected Region 1 director in 1977. He directed the UAW's Agricultural Implement Department in 1980-83 and the Skilled Trades Department in 1980-95. Directing the organizing department from 1983 to 1989, most of his success came outside the auto industry; some 22,000 State of Michigan workers joined the union in 1985. He headed the union's General Motors Division from 1989 until his election as president. The union's overall membership continued to dwindle, from 826,000 when he became president in 1995 to about 672,000 at the end of 2001. During his presidency, he won lucrative contracts for the union but did not succeed in organizing workers at U.S. factories owned by foreign automakers, the so-called "transplants."

Yokoyama, Knock, byname of Isamu Yamada (b. Jan. 30, 1932, Kobe, Japan - d. May 3, 2007), governor of Osaka (1995-99). He entered show business after working as an interpreter for the U.S. military in Japan. He became famous as a member of the stand-up comedy group Manga Torio. He won a seat in the House of Councillors as an independent in 1968 and went on to serve four terms in the chamber. He quit the Diet in 1995 in the middle of his fourth term, after he won election as Osaka governor over Takuya Hirano, the candidate backed by the Liberal-Democratic Party, the Social Democratic Party, Shinshinto, New Party Sakigake, and the Komei party. As governor, he did not follow the common practice of consensus-building behind the scenes in the Osaka prefectural assembly, raising strong criticism from assembly members. But his humble approach won respect from voters, and he was reelected governor in 1999 with huge support. However, he was forced to step down in December of that year after he was accused of groping a female campaigner in a car during the election campaign. He was the first sitting governor of a Japanese prefecture to be indicted on a molestation charge. In August 2000 he received a suspended 18-month prison term for the assault.


Yon

R. Yong

Yong Teck Lee
Yon Hyong Muk (b. Nov. 3, 1931, North Hamgyong province, Korea [now in North Korea] - d. Oct. 22, 2005), premier of North Korea (1988-92). In September 1990 he made an unprecedented three-day official visit to South Korea, the highest-level official contact since 1948. He was vice-chairman of the National Defense Commission in 2003-05.

Yong (Yin Fatt), Roderick (b. 1933?), secretary-general of ASEAN (1986-89).

Yong Teck Lee, Datuk (b. Oct. 3, 1958), chief minister of Sabah (1996-98). He received the title Datuk in September 1990.


Yonli

Yoo

Yoon
Yonli, Paramanga Ernest (b. Dec. 31, 1956, Tansarga, Tapoa province, Upper Volta [now Burkina Faso]), prime minister of Burkina Faso (2000-07); son-in-law of Saye Zerbo. He was also minister of civil service and institutional development (1999-2000) and ambassador to the United States (2008-11).

Yoo Chong Ha (b. July 28, 1936), foreign minister of South Korea (1996-98).

Yoon Young Kwan (b. Jan. 12, 1951 [lunar calendar], Namwon, North Cholla province, South Korea), foreign minister of South Korea (2003-04).


Yorgancioglu
Yorgancioglu, Özkan (b. Aug. 1, 1954, Lempa, Cyprus), prime minister of North Cyprus (2013- ). He was also minister of youth and sports (2004-06).


Yoshida
Yoshida, Shigeru (b. Sept. 22, 1878, Tokyo, Japan - d. Oct. 20, 1967, Oiso, Japan), foreign minister (1945-47, 1948-52) and prime minister (1946-47, 1948-54) of Japan. He held many minor diplomatic posts in the Far East and Europe and was second secretary at the Japanese embassy in Washington, D.C. (1916-17). In 1928 he was appointed minister to Sweden, Norway, and Denmark and then vice foreign minister (1928-30) and ambassador to Italy (1930-32). When the army vetoed his appointment as foreign minister, he was instead made ambassador to Great Britain (1936-39). In June 1945 he was arrested for advocating an early Japanese surrender. When the surrender and Allied occupation came in September, he was freed and became foreign minister. In 1946, when the head of the Liberal Party, Ichiro Hatoyama, was declared by the Allies to be ineligible to participate in politics, Yoshida became party president and succeeded to the prime ministership. He formed five separate cabinets until 1954. He grappled boldly with formidable problems: millions of soldiers had to be demobilized, a new constitution was promulgated, and the country was guided to economic recovery. His foreign policy was based on the belief that if Japan caused little trouble to the occupying authorities, public interest in the United States would shift from Japan, which would be able to ease out from under the yoke of occupation without too many difficulties. In 1951 he negotiated the peace treaty that brought an end to the occupation. He also pursued an obdurate anti-Communist policy, which he used to justify a security pact with the United States. In 1954, when conservatives opposed to him, led by Hatoyama, formed the Democratic Party and threatened a no-confidence motion, Yoshida resigned. He stayed in the Diet until 1962.

Yoshimura, Goro (b. 1926 - d. May 7, 2007, Nagano, Japan), governor of Nagano (1980-2000).


Youde
Youde, Sir Edward (b. June 19, 1924, Penarth, Glamorgan, Wales - d. Dec. 4, 1986, Beijing, China), British diplomat. He served with the Royal Navy (1943-46) and entered the diplomatic service in 1947. He served at home in the Foreign Office (1951-53 and 1962-65), was first secretary at Washington (1956-59), and was counsellor and head of chancery to the U.K.'s mission at the UN (1965-69). He became head of personnel services at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (1971-73), assistant under secretary of state (1973-74), deputy under secretary (1978-80), and under secretary (1980-82) as "chief clerk" responsible for the administration of Britain's diplomatic service worldwide. Youde was knighted in 1977. As ambassador at Beijing (1974-78) he gradually established a more cordial relationship with the Chinese after the death (1976) of Mao Zedong and the disgrace of the "Gang of Four." Having earlier held diplomatic posts in China (1948-51, 1953-56, 1960-62) he was deeply versed in the culture and politics of China when he became governor of Hong Kong in 1982. He played an important part in the negotiations that led to the 1984 Sino-British agreement, designed to return the British crown colony to China in 1997. He died in office.


Youlou
Youlou, Fulbert, originally (until baptism in 1926) just Youlou (b. July 9, 1917, Madibou, near Brazzaville, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)] - d. May 5, 1972, Madrid, Spain), president of Congo (Brazzaville) (1959-63).


A. Young
Young, Andrew (Jackson, Jr.) (b. March 12, 1932, New Orleans, La.), U.S. ambassador to the United Nations (1977-79). He was a key aide to the Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., during the civil rights movement of the 1960s and in 1972 became the first black elected to Congress from an Atlanta district. He was reelected to two more terms before being appointed UN ambassador by Pres. Jimmy Carter. He periodically made undiplomatic statements, and on a trip through Africa managed to antagonize Great Britain, Sweden, and even the Soviet Union with charges of racism. Nevertheless, he seemed to have the strong support of Carter, who frequently praised his work in strengthening U.S. ties to the third world. However, the president had to ask for his resignation in 1979 when it was revealed that Young, contrary to U.S. policy to have no dealings with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), had met secretly with its representative at the UN to discuss a forthcoming debate on Palestine. Young's resignation prompted an immediate outcry from black leaders, who charged that Carter had fired Young under pressure from American-Jewish leaders. Black clergymen, led by the Rev. Jesse Jackson of Chicago and D.C. Delegate Walter Fauntroy, visited the Middle East, met with PLO leader Yasir Arafat, and returned to call for U.S. recognition of the PLO and for Israel to negotiate with the Palestinians. Other black leaders denounced these overtures to the PLO. Young's personal popularity in the third world was evident when the African and Asian countries voted to put off the UN debate, which the U.S. had been trying to avoid, as a tribute to him. He was mayor of Atlanta in 1982-90. In 1990 he was defeated in the Democratic primary for governor of Georgia.

Young, Andrew Clarence David (b. April 15, 1899, Pitcairn Island - d. March 18, 1988, Pitcairn Island), chief magistrate of Pitcairn Island (1940).

Young, Arthur Herbert (b. July 4, 1873, Pitcairn Island - buried July 1, 1943, Pitcairn Island), chief magistrate of Pitcairn Island (1907, 1930-31); son of Simon Young.

Young, Benjamin Stanley (b. Dec. 13, 1851, Pitcairn Island - buried Aug. 16, 1934, Pitcairn Island), chief magistrate of Pitcairn Island (1884-85, 1892); son of Simon Young.

Young, Brian (Michael John) (b. Sept. 10, 1954, Pitcairn Island), chief magistrate of Pitcairn Island (1985-90).

Young, Charles Carleton Vieder (b. April 20, 1850, Pitcairn Island - d. May 31, 1941, Pitcairn Island), chief magistrate of Pitcairn Island (1890-91); son of Moses Young.


C. Young
Young, Sir Colville (Norbert) (b. Nov. 20, 1932), governor-general of Belize (1993- ); knighted 1994.

Young, Sir Dennis (Charles) (b. 1938, London, England), acting governor-general of Papua New Guinea (1989-90, 1991); knighted 1999. He was speaker of parliament in 1982 and 1987-92.

Young, Edward, byname Ned Young (b. 1766, Peel, Isle of Man [or Saint Kitts?] - d. Dec. 25, 1800, Pitcairn Island), leader of Pitcairn Island (1793-1800).

Young, George Martin Frederick (b. 1822, Pitcairn Island - d. Sept. 25, 1899, Norfolk Island), chief magistrate of Pitcairn Island (1855-56) and Norfolk Island (1856-57, 1859).

Young, Sir Harold (William) (b. June 30, 1923, Port Broughton, South Australia - d. Nov. 21, 2006, Adelaide, South Australia), president of the Senate of Australia (1981-83); knighted 1983.

Young (of Farnworth in the County Palatine of Lancaster), Janet (Mary) Young, Baroness, née Baker (b. Oct. 23, 1926, Widnes, Lancashire, England - d. Sept. 6, 2002, Oxford, England), British politician. She began her political career on Oxford City Council, becoming leader of its Tory group. Made a life peer in 1971, she entered the House of Lords, where she held several government positions, including minister of state for education (1979-81). She was the only other woman in Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher's cabinet, being leader of the House of Lords (1981-83), chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (1981-82), and lord privy seal (1982-83). In government she earned a reputation for toughness and the nickname "the Iron Lady of the Lords." She was an advocate of traditional values who campaigned against allowing unmarried couples to adopt children and opposed easier divorce.

Young, Sir John (McIntosh) (b. Dec. 17, 1919, Melbourne, Vic. - d. Oct. 6, 2008, Armadale, Vic.), acting governor of Victoria (1985-86); knighted 1975. He was chief justice of the Supreme Court (1974-91) and lieutenant governor (1974-95) of Victoria.

Young, Sir Mark (Aitchison) (b. June 30, 1886, India - d. May 12, 1974, Winchester, England), acting high commissioner of Palestine (1931) and governor of Barbados (1933-38), Tanganyika (1938-41), and Hong Kong (1941-47); knighted 1934; son of Sir William Mackworth Young.

Young, Moses (b. Sept. 30, 1829, Pitcairn Island - d. July 14, 1909, Pitcairn Island), chief magistrate of Pitcairn Island (1865-66, 1869, 1875, 1881).

Young, Norris Henry (b. Aug. 15, 1887, Pitcairn Island - d. Feb. 10, 1974, Pitcairn Island), chief magistrate of Pitcairn Island (1945-48).

Young, Pervis Ferris (b. March 24, 1928, Pitcairn Island - d. May 29, 2003, Auckland, New Zealand), chief magistrate of Pitcairn Island (1967-75); son of Andrew Clarence David Young.

Young, Roy A(rchibald) (b. May 17, 1882, Marquette, Mich. - d. Dec. 31, 1960, Newton, Mass.), governor of the U.S. Federal Reserve System (1927-30).

Young, Simon (b. Aug. 17, 1823, Pitcairn Island - d. Sept. 26, 1893, Pitcairn Island), chief magistrate of Pitcairn Island (1849).

Young, William Alfred (b. April 4, 1863, Norfolk Island - d. July 1, 1911), president of the Council (1897, 1904) and chief magistrate (1908) of Pitcairn Island; son of Simon Young.

Young, Sir William Douglas (b. Jan. 27, 1859 - d. March 7, 1943), commissioner of the Turks and Caicos Islands (1901-05), administrator of Dominica (1905-13) and Saint Lucia (1914-15), and governor of the Falkland Islands (1915-20); knighted 1919.

Young, Sir William Mackworth (b. Aug. 15, 1840, Cookham, Berkshire, England - d. May 10, 1924, Weybridge, Surrey, England), resident of Mysore and chief commissioner of Coorg (1895-96) and lieutenant governor of Punjab (1897-1902); knighted 1897.

Younger of Leckie (of Alloa in the County of Clackmannan), George (Kenneth Hotson) Younger, (4th) Viscount (b. Sept. 22, 1931, Stirling, Scotland - d. Jan. 26, 2003, Gargunnock, near Stirling), British politician. He was elected to Parliament in the Scottish constituency of Ayr in 1964 and held the seat until he retired from the House of Commons in 1992. He was secretary of state for Scotland in 1979-86 and defense secretary in 1986-89. In the latter role, he strongly supported nuclear defense and said it would be "folly to dismantle or let decay" NATO's deterrent weapons system. "Gentleman George," as he was frequently known, remained one of Margaret Thatcher's staunchest and most loyal allies during her premiership. He stepped down from politics in 1992 to pursue a business career. His chairmanship of the Royal Bank of Scotland (1990-2001) coincided with the most successful decade in its history. He was made a life peer in 1992 to become Baron Younger of Prestwick (of Ayr in the District of Kyle and Carrick) and subsequently inherited the hereditary title Viscount Younger of Leckie - also succeeding as 4th Baronet (of Leckie) - on the death of his father in 1997.

Younousmi, Adoum (b. 1962, Fada, Chad), interim prime minister of Chad (2007). He was also minister of public works and transport (2003-05) and infrastructure (2005-11).

Yousaf, (Mir) Jam Mohammad (b. 1951, Las Bela state [now in Balochistan province], Pakistan - d. Feb. 3, 2013, Islamabad, Pakistan), chief minister of Balochistan (2002-07); son of Jam Mir Ghulam Qadir Khan. He was Pakistani water and power minister in 1993.


Yousfi
Yousfi, Youcef, Arabic Yusuf al-Yusufi (b. Oct. 2, 1941, Batna, Algeria), foreign minister (1999-2000) and prime minister (2014) of Algeria. He has also been energy minister (1997-99, 2010- ), ambassador to Canada (2001-06) and Tunisia (2008-10), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2006-08).


Youssoufi
Youssoufi, Abderrahmane (El), Arabic `Abd al-Rahman al-Yusufi (b. March 8, 1924, Tangier [now in Morocco]), prime minister of Morocco (1998-2002). He joined the old-guard nationalist Istiqlal party, but in 1959 he followed more militant members who broke away from the party to form the left-wing National Union of People's Forces (UNFP). Youssoufi, who was arrested several times in the early 1960s, left Morocco in 1965 to join other Moroccan opposition figures living in France. He returned to Morocco 15 years later when King Hassan announced a general amnesty in 1980. Meanwhile, a disgruntled group within the UNFP led by Abderrahim Bouabid had set up a leftist movement dubbed Socialist Union of Peoples Forces (USFP). Youssoufi joined the USFP group and became its first secretary after the death of the leader (1992). In a sudden protest against what he called the "manipulated" results of elections in 1992/93, Youssoufi presented his resignation and left Morocco again for self-exile in France. Fifteen months later, he returned to Morocco to again head his party after the political bureau rejected his resignation. Youssoufi was among the brokers trying to unite left-wing members of the Koutla (democratic bloc), which included Istiqlal, the Progress and Socialism Party (PPS), and the Democratic Organization of Popular Action (OADP). Youssoufi was regarded as honest and having no personal ambitions in a region where politicians are routinely accused of using government posts to amass wealth. Youssoufi's first year as prime minister was marked by caution as he slowly built consensus among his seven-party coalition "government of alternance" that also included four royal appointees, among them the long-time interior minister Driss Basri, whose influence pervaded many government departments.

Yrjö-Koskinen, Aarno (Armas Sakari friherre) (b. Dec. 9, 1885, Helsinki, Finland - d. June 8, 1951, Helsinki), foreign minister of Finland (1931-32). He was also ambassador to the Soviet Union (1931-39) and Turkey (1940-51).


Ys
Ys, Etienne (Nestor) (b. Feb. 26, 1962, Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles), prime minister of the Netherlands Antilles (2002-03, 2004-06).

Yu Hung-chun, Pinyin Yu Hongjun, also known as O.K. Yui (b. 1898 - d. June 1, 1960), governor of Taiwan province (1953-54) and premier of Taiwan (1954-58).

Yu Kuo-hwa, Pinyin Yu Guohua (b. Jan. 10, 1914, Fenghua, Zhejiang, China - d. Oct. 4, 2000, Taipei, Taiwan), premier of Taiwan (1984-89). During World War II he worked closely with Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. In Taiwan he was finance minister (1967-69), governor of the central bank (1969-84), and chairman of the Council for Economic Planning and Development (1977-84). In these capacities he greatly expanded exports, initiated tax reforms, and increased revenues to finance new programs and balance the budget. After becoming premier in 1984, he carried out - despite political and financial scandals and natural disasters - democratic reforms and a 14-project economic development program. His economic policies, including internationalization and liberalization, became the cornerstone of Taiwan's economic development program. In 1987 he carried out sweeping reforms and changes, including an end to martial law and foreign exchange controls as well as establishment of the right to form opposition parties, register new newspapers, and travel to mainland China for family reunions. Meanwhile, the country was rapidly becoming an economic giant by maintaining its status as a major exporter and a leading trading partner of the U.S., despite strong American pressure to reduce the trade imbalance between the two countries. Yu, who led his country through one of its most difficult periods in history, enjoyed Pres. Chiang Ching-kuo's trust and confidence even while certain opposition leaders and legislators made him the object of criticism. An honest and austere administrator convinced of the importance of the rule of law as the foundation of democracy, Yu deserved a large share of the credit for Taiwan's growing prosperity and democracy.

Yu Myung Hwan (b. April 8, 1946), foreign minister of South Korea (2008-10). He was also ambassador to Israel (2002-04), the Philippines (2004-05), and Japan (2007-08).

Yu Qiuli (b. 1914, Jian county, Jiangxi, China - d. Feb. 3, 1999, Beijing, China), Chinese politician. He lost his left arm following one of many battles during the Long March (1934-35), the yearlong retreat by Communist guerrillas fleeing the then-Nationalist government's efforts to exterminate them. Thousands died of hunger, exhaustion, thirst, cold, or infighting during the grueling trek from southern China to the north. Of the 90,000 to 100,000 people who set out in October 1934, just 7,000 to 8,000 completed the march. "I am a man who has gone through nine deaths," Yu said in a 1984 interview with journalist Harrison Salisbury, recalling how he was wounded and nearly died when his arm was amputated. After the Communists seized power from the Nationalists in 1949, Yu remained active in the military until 1958, when he became petroleum minister. He took charge of building the Daqing oilfield, China's largest. He was appointed vice premier in 1975. Underscoring his continued influence in the military, in 1982 he was made deputy secretary general of the Central Military Commission, through which the Communist Party wields control over the army.


Yu Shyi-kun
Yu Shyi-kun, Pinyin You Xikun (b. April 25, 1948, Taihe village, Dongshan township, Ilan county, Taiwan), premier of Taiwan (2002-05). He was chairman of the Democratic Progressive Party in 2006-07.


Yu Xuezhong

Yu Youren
Yu Xuezhong (b. 1889, Penglai, Shandong, China - d. Sept. 22, 1964, Beijing, China), chairman of the government of Hebei (1932-35), Gansu (1935-37), and Shandong (1941).

Yu Youren (b. 1879, Sanyuan, Shaanxi, China - d. Nov. 10, 1964, Taiwan), chairman of the government of Shaanxi (1928-29).

Yu Zuobai (b. 1889, Beiliu, Guangxi, China - d. 1959, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China), chairman of the government of Guangxi (1929).

Yuan Jinkai (b. 1870, Liaoyang, Fengtian [now Liaoning], China - d. March 1947), chairman of the government of Liaoning (1932-35).


Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai (Pinyin), Wade-Giles Yüan Shih-k'ai (b. Sept. 16, 1859, Xiangcheng, Henan, China - d. June 6, 1916, Beijing, China), president (1912-15, 1916) and emperor (1915-16) of China. He loyally served in the imperial Chinese army and was a protégé of Li Hongzhang. The division under his command was the only one to survive the Boxer Rebellion of 1900, and his stature grew quickly. In 1901 he succeeded Li as governor-general of the metropolitan province (Zhili, Henan, and Shandong); in 1907 he was recalled to Beijing as a grand councillor. He took an important part in modernization and defense programs. After the death of the empress dowager in 1908, he was retired by a court nervous of his prestige, but when the tide of revolution threatened to engulf the Qing dynasty, he was recalled and became prime minister in 1911. Conservatives and revolutionaries alike saw him as the only man who could lead the country to peace and unity, and he became the first president of the Republic of China in 1912. He agreed to share power with a popularly elected National Assembly, but when his plan for a gigantic foreign loan was obstructed by the Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) in 1913, he undermined the assembly and the chairman of the party, Song Jiaoren, was assassinated. This brought about a revolt against him by the followers of Sun Yat-sen, but they were defeated. Yuan thereafter made himself president for life and then boldly tried to set up a new imperial dynasty in 1915, but this was widely opposed even among the conservative forces that had supported him, and his own policy of allowing his commanders to set themselves up as provincial warlords backfired on him. In 1916 he had to abort his imperial attempt, without having been enthroned, and reverted to being president. Later that year he died in office.

Yuan Zuming (b. 1889, Anlong, Guizhou, China - d. Jan. 31, 1927, Changde, Hunan, China), governor of Guizhou (1922-23). He served in the Guizhou army in the Qing era and attained the rank of division commander through frequent promotions. He was also a decision-maker at the chief headquarters of the Guizhou army. He joined the revolutionary army in 1926 and established himself in western Hunan. It was believed he was trying to set up a separate regime in western Hunan and was not interested in the orders issued by the top leaders of the Northern Expedition army, and moreover his potential influence in Guizhou worried the central leadership. As a result, with the support of Tang Shengzhi, Gen. Zhou Lan (later governor of Hunan) invited Yuan to a feast, at which Yuan was murdered by the hosts.


Yudhoyono
Yudhoyono, Susilo Bambang (b. Sept. 9, 1949, Pacitan, Jawa Timur, Indonesia), president of Indonesia (2004- ). He began a bright military career in 1973, becoming the chief of territorial affairs in 1999, one year after Indonesia saw a major political transition with the downfall of President Suharto. He left the army in 2000 to join the Abdurrahman Wahid administration as a minister of mines and energy. In the same year, the Indonesian military gave him the four-star general status as an honorary award. Wahid then promoted him as the coordinating minister for political and security affairs. But in 2001, when the president was facing impeachment from the People's Consultative Assembly, Yudhoyono was fired for refusing to declare a state of emergency which could have become a pretext for Wahid to disband the parliament. In August 2001, Yudhoyono regained his post after Vice President Megawati Sukarnoputri replaced the impeached Wahid. He was noted internationally for his leading role in the anti-terror fight in the wake of the Bali bombing in 2002. He frequently appeared in print and broadcast media when the government decided in 2003 to launch an offensive in the rebellious province of Aceh. In March 2004, Yudhoyono resigned his cabinet post after a public spat with the president and her husband. His Democratic Party made a successful debut in the April election and ranked fourth out of 24 contesting parties by obtaining 7.45% of the votes, far above the minimum threshold to nominate him as presidential candidate. He came up as the frontrunner in the July 5 presidential election involving five contenders and won by a landslide in the September runoff over Sukarnoputri.

Yudin, Nikolay (Pavlovich) (b. 1938), head of the administration of Oryol oblast (1991-93).

Yue Weijun (b. 1883, Pucheng, Shaanxi, China - d. [executed] August 1932, Guangshan, Henan, China), governor of Henan (1925-26).


Yugov

Yun Byung Se
Yugov, Anton (Tanev) (b. Aug. 28 [Aug. 15, O.S.], 1904, Karasuli, Greece - d. July 6, 1991, Sofia, Bulgaria), interior minister (1944-49) and prime minister (1956-62) of Bulgaria.

Yuguda, (Alhaji) Isa (b. June 15, 1956, Bauchi, Nigeria), governor of Bauchi (2007- ); son-in-law of Umaru Musa Yar'Adua.

Yun Byung Se (b. Aug. 3, 1953, Seoul, South Korea), foreign minister of South Korea (2013- ).


Yun Po Sun
Yun Po Sun, Revised Romanization Yun Bo-seon (b. Aug. 26, 1897, Asan, South Chungchong province, Korea [now in South Korea] - d. July 18, 1990, Seoul, South Korea), president of South Korea (1960-62). He served as mayor of Seoul (1948-49) and minister of commerce and industry (1949-50) and was later (1954) elected to the National Assembly. In 1955 he was a founder of the opposition Democratic Party. He was swept into power after the student-led pro-democracy uprising of 1960 squashed the authoritarian rule (1948-60) of Pres. Syngman Rhee. Yun's leadership was ineffectual, and he was overthrown in a bloodless coup led by military leader Park Chung Hee in 1961, remaining in office as a ceremonial figurehead until 1962, when he resigned in protest over a so-called purification decree. He then became a vehement critic of Park and challenged his leadership in the presidential elections of 1963 (losing by a slim margin) and 1967. During Park's regime Yun was twice charged by a military tribunal with instigating the overthrow of the government and received prison sentences, which were suspended. In 1979, after Park was assassinated, Yun was again put on trial for organizing a mass rally in favour of reform and in 1980 received a two-year prison sentence, but was exempted apparently because of his age. He then retired from politics and lived in virtual seclusion and obscurity.


Yurchenko

Yurevich
Yurchenko, Vasily (Alekseyevich) (b. Sept. 26, 1960, Karasuk, Novosibirsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Novosibirsk oblast (2010-14).

Yurevich, Mikhail (Valeryevich) (b. Feb. 13, 1969, Chelyabinsk, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Chelyabinsk oblast (2010-14). In 2005-10 he was mayor of Chelyabinsk.


Yushchenko
Yushchenko, Viktor (Andriyovych) (b. Feb. 23, 1954, Khoruzhevka, Sumy oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Khoruzhivka, Ukraine]), prime minister (1999-2001) and president (2005-10) of Ukraine. In 1977-87 he held positions with the U.S.S.R. state bank. From 1989 he was deputy chairman of the Planning and Economic Department of the Ukrainian republican Agroprombank. In 1990-92 he was vice-governor, and from April 1992 first vice-governor, of the Ukraina Bank. In January 1993, he was appointed by the Verkhovna Rada (parliament) as chairman of the board of the National Bank of Ukraine, and in 1997 he became its governor. As prime minister he gained popularity from his success in invigorating Ukraine's moribund economy - stable economic growth was recorded for the first time since independence in 1991 - and injecting optimism into a populace defeated by years of inflation and wage delays. Nevertheless his opponents in parliament, accusing him of ruining the economy, removed him in a no-confidence vote in 2001; up to 20,000 people picketed outside the legislature to support him. In the 2002 parliamentary elections his Our Ukraine party won the largest number of seats. In September 2004, during the presidential election campaign, he suffered a mysterious dioxin poisoning that left him scarred. When his opponent Viktor Yanukovych was declared the winner in the November runoff, mass protests (called the "Orange Revolution") followed and, after the Supreme Court invalidated the result, a second runoff was held in December and won by Yushchenko. But the country remained divided. In parliamentary elections in 2006 and again in 2007, his party finished only third. For some time he had to accept Yanukovych as his prime minister, and later Yuliya Tymoshenko, a fellow Orange Revolution leader he fell out with in 2005. Running for reelection in 2010, he only came in fifth.

Yusifov, Fikret (b. 1956?), finance minister of Azerbaijan (1993-99).


Yusof bin Ishak
Yusof bin Ishak (b. Aug. 12, 1910, Padang Gajah, Perak, Federated Malay States [now in Malaysia] - d. Nov. 23, 1970, Singapore), yang di-pertuan negara (1959-65) and president (1965-70) of Singapore.

Yusof (bin Haji) Mahal, Datuk (Haji), Yusof also spelled Yussof (b. May 1, 1957, Labuan, British North Borneo [now in Malaysia]), chairman of Labuan Corporation (2009 [acting], 2011- ).


M. Yusuf
Yusuf, Mohammad (b. 1917, Kabul, Afghanistan - d. Jan. 23, 1998, Germany), prime minister of Afghanistan (1963-65). Yusuf served in the Afghan government as minister for industry and mining, and education, before being appointed as prime minister in 1963. When the Afghan monarchy was overthrown in 1973 Yusuf left his post as the Afghan ambassador to Moscow. In 1979, when Soviet troops entered Afghanistan, he sought refuge in Germany where he remained in exile.

Yusuf, Muhammad Abdi, Somali Maxamed Cabdi Yuusuf, prime minister of Somalia (2003-04).

Yusuf Wahba Pasha (b. 1852, Cairo, Egypt - d. Feb. 7, 1934), foreign minister (1912-14) and prime minister (1919-20) of Egypt. He went into history as the third and last Christian prime minister of Egypt, the first being Nubar Pasha and the second Boutros Ghali Pasha.

Yusufbekov, Rustambek (Yusufbekovich) (b. Dec. 31, 1923, Ryn village, Ishkoshim district, Turkestan A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. [now in Gorno-Badakhshan autonomous province, Tajikistan] - d. March 5, 2007), foreign minister of the Tadzhik S.S.R. (1981-84). He was also education minister (1963-74) and deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers (1974-84).