Zaccaleoni, Federico Maria Domenico Michele (b. Sept. 28, 1760, Piperno, Italy - d. 18...), consul of the Roman Republic (1798, 1798-99).
Zackhras, Ruben (Rakin) (b. Dec. 4, 1947, Ailinglaplap Atoll, Marshall Islands), interior minister (1982-84), justice minister (1984-87), finance minister (1989-97), and acting president (2009) of the Marshall Islands.
Zackios, Gerald (b. April 1, 1965, Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands), foreign minister of the Marshall Islands (2001-08).
Zacklin, Ralph (b. Oct. 13, 1937, Leeds, England), interim UN high commissioner for human rights (1997).
Zafferani, Andrea (b. Dec. 19, 1982, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2010-11).
Zafferani, Rosa (b. Aug. 16, 1960, Jersey City, N.J.), captain-regent of San Marino (1999, 2008).
Zafra (y Miranda), Juan Bautista (b. 1840 - d. 1886), member of the Council of Secretaries of State and of the Superior Governing Junta of the Dominican Republic (1876).
Zafrulla Khan, Sir Muhammad, original name Chaudhri Muhammad Zafrulla (b. Feb. 6, 1893, Sialkot, Punjab, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Sept. 1, 1985, Lahore, Pakistan), Pakistani politician. He entered the Punjab Legislative Council in 1926 and was a delegate to all three Round Table Conferences on Indian reforms in London (1930, 1931, 1932). In 1931-32 he was president of the All-India Muslim League, and in 1935-41 he was the Muslim member of the viceroy's executive council and was knighted. He was called upon to represent the government of India abroad and in 1942 was sent as agent general to China to open direct diplomatic relations with the Kuomintang regime at Chongqing. At this stage, his instinct was to preserve the unity of India; he hoped for a just settlement of Muslim demands without partition. But when it was announced that Pakistan would come into being, he resigned from the Federal Court of India where he had been serving from 1941 as a judge, and opted for Pakistan. He presented the Muslim League's case to the commission under Sir Cyril Radcliffe which was to decide the boundary between the two states. After partition, he became foreign minister of Pakistan (1947-54). He was deeply involved in the disputes with India over Kashmir and the waters of the Indus, presenting his country's case at the UN. In 1954-61 he was a judge of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) at The Hague. He was Pakistan's permanent representative at the UN in 1961-64 and president of the UN General Assembly in 1962-63. He was again a judge of the ICJ in 1964-73 and its president in 1970-73. He belonged to the Ahmadiyya sect, which was declared non-Muslim by the Pakistan National Assembly in 1974; thereafter he lived in England, visiting Pakistan only infrequently.
Zafy, Albert (b. May 1, 1927, Betsiaka, Madagascar), president of Madagascar (1993-96). He was also minister of social affairs (1972-75).
Zaghlul Pasha (ibn Ibrahim), Saad, Arabic Sa`d Zaghlul Basha (ibn Ibrahim) (b. July 1857, Ibyanah, Egypt - d. Aug. 23, 1927, Cairo, Egypt), Egyptian statesman; son-in-law of Mustafa Fahmy Pasha. He was minister of education (a newly created post) in 1906-10 and minister of justice in 1910-12, resigning after a disagreement with the khedive Abbas Hilmi II. He was elected to the Legislative Assembly in 1913 and became its vice president. He soon became the principal spokesman of the nationalist movement. With the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Egypt became a British protectorate and the Legislative Assembly was dissolved. Discontent grew during the war, and on Nov. 13, 1918, two days after the armistice, a delegation (wafd) of three prominent former members of the Assembly, led by Zaghlul, informed the British high commissioner that they regarded themselves and not the government as the true representatives of the Egyptian people and demanded independence. This was initially refused, and Zaghlul temporarily exiled to Malta in 1919, but in 1920 the British essentially agreed to it. But when Zaghlul refused to endorse any agreement, he was deported to the Seychelles in 1921. Transferred to Gibraltar in 1922, he was released in 1923 to take part in the first elections under the new constitution of the nominally independent Egypt. His Wafd Party dominated the January 1924 elections and he became prime minister. When negotiations for further British concessions failed, serious disorders erupted again and numerous British officials and Egyptian "collaborationists" were murdered by extremists. After what amounted to an ultimatum from the British high commissioner, Zaghlul resigned in November. He later contented himself with the presidency of the Chamber but remained the most influential politician in Egypt.
Zahar, Mahmoud, Arabic Mahmud al-Zahar (b. 1951, Gaza city, Gaza Strip), foreign minister of the Palestinian Authority (2006-07).
Zahedi, Ardeshir (b. Oct. 16, 1928, Tehran, Iran), foreign minister of Iran (1967-71); son of Fazlollah Zahedi. He was also ambassador to the United States (1960-62, 1973-79) and the United Kingdom (1962-67).
Zahedi, Fazlollah (b. 1897, Iran - d. Sept. 2, 1963, Geneva, Switzerland), prime minister of Iran (1953-55). He was also interior (1951) and foreign (1953) minister.
Zahir, (Sharifi) Abdul (b. May 3, 1910, Laghman or Nangarhar province, Afghanistan - d. Oct. 21, 1982), prime minister of Afghanistan (1971-72). He was also minister of health (1955-58, 1964-65), ambassador to Pakistan (1958-61) and Italy (1969-71), and president of the parliament (1961-64, 1965-69).
Zahir Shah, Mohammad (b. Oct. 15, 1914, Kabul, Afghanistan - d. July 23, 2007, Kabul), king of Afghanistan (1933-73); son of Mohammad Nadir Shah; nephew of Sardar Mohammad Hashim Khan and Sardar Shah Mahmud Khan. In 1931 he married Princess Homaira (d. 2002). In 1932 he became assistant war minister and in 1933 acting education minister. He came to the throne at the age of 19, after the assassination of his father. Until 1963 his older relatives ran the government, but then he took control and ushered in the constitution of 1964 which guaranteed civil rights, gave women the right to vote, and barred the royal family from holding high-level government posts. He followed a program of economic development, including irrigation and highway construction, accepting aid from both the United States and the Soviet Union. He maintained Afghanistan's neutrality in the Cold War, as he had in World War II. In the early 1970s the country suffered drought and famine. Pashto tribes along the Pakistan border continued to press for autonomy, and his reforms seemed to have little effect outside the Kabul area. In a bloodless coup on July 17, 1973, Zahir Shah, who was in Italy at the time, was deposed by his brother-in-law, Gen. Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan, who proclaimed Afghanistan a republic with himself as president. Zahir Shah formally abdicated on August 24 and remained in exile in Rome. He could only watch as Afghanistan descended into decades of civil war from 1978. In 1991 he suffered stab wounds in an assassination attempt. In 2001 he was considered as a possible head of an interim government for his country. He returned to Afghanistan on April 18, 2002, but said he had no plans to regain his throne. He was allowed to live in his former palace and granted the title "Father of the Nation."
Zahiruddin bin Syed Hassan, Tun Syed (b. Oct. 11, 1918, Pondok Tanjung, Kerian, Perak, Malaya [now in Malaysia] - d. April 20, 2013, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia), governor of Malacca (1975-84). He was Malaysian high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1974-75) and ambassador to Ireland (1975).
Zaia, Luca (b. March 27, 1968, Conegliano, Veneto, Italy), president of Veneto (2010- ). He was agriculture minister of Italy in 2008-10.
Zaid ibn Shaker, Sharif, Arabic Sharif Zayd ibn Shakir (b. Sept. 9, 1934, Amman, Jordan - d. Aug. 30, 2002, Amman), prime minister of Jordan (1989, 1991-93, 1995-96). He was a 10th-generation descendant through the male line from Abdullah ibn Hassan, grand sharif of Mecca in 1630-31. A high school classmate of King Hussein, he served in the army for 35 years, becoming known for his courage. He commanded a Jordanian armoured brigade in the 1967 Middle East War that tried to prevent an Israeli advancement into the West Bank and East Jerusalem. In 1968, he fought in the Battle of Karameh when Jordan forced out Israeli troops advancing into Jordan to fight Palestinian guerrillas engaged in cross-border attacks against Israel. During the Black September War of 1970 when Jordan fought a bloody conflict against the Palestine Liberation Organization, he assisted the army commander who crushed the insurgents and thwarted their attempt to topple King Hussein. The king recognized his achievements and loyalty by naming him army chief commander in 1976 and later field marshal. Becoming prime minister for the first time in 1989, he implemented political reforms Hussein introduced following violent riots fueled by price hikes that widened into calls for public freedoms. He held the first general elections after a 22-year hiatus sparked by Jordan's loss of the West Bank to Israel after a 17-year rule. The soft-spoken, cunning army commander revived a multiparty system banned in 1956 and initiated steps toward abolishing martial law, which had been enforced since the first Arab-Israeli war in 1948. The moves earned him his countrymen's respect. Months after his last prime ministerial duty in 1996, he was made an emir, or prince - a move aimed at sending him into retirement as royal title holders are banned from acquiring public posts.
Za´in (ibn `Abd al-`Aziz), (Mawlay) al- (d. between July 1926 and 1936), sultan of Morocco in rebellion (1911).
Zainal, Acub (b. Sept. 19, 1927), governor of Irian Jaya (1973-75).
Zainal, Rusli (b. Dec. 3, 1957, Mandah village, Indragiri Hilir regency, Riau province, Indonesia), governor of Riau (2003-08, 2008-13).
Zaitsev, Vladimir (Vasilyevich) (b. 1951), head of the administration of Lipetsk oblast (1992-93).
Zakayev, Akhmed (Khalidovich) (b. April 26, 1956), foreign minister of Chechnya (2006-07).
Zakharanka, Yury (b. Jan. 4, 1952 - disappeared May 7, 1999), interior minister of Belarus (1994-95). After being fired as minister by Pres. Alyaksandr Lukashenka in October 1995, General Zakharanka was demoted to the rank of colonel and dismissed from the Interior Ministry in April 1996. He subsequently joined the opposition. It is widely believed that he was kidnapped and probably killed; he was the first of several disappearance cases in Belarus: opposition politician Viktar Hanchar and businessman Anatol Krasouski went missing Sept. 16, 1999, and Lukashenka's former official cameraman Dzmitry Zavadski on July 7, 2000.
Zakharka, Vasil (Ivanavich) (b. April 1, 1877 - d. March 14, 1943), chairman of the Council of Ministers (1925-43) and of the Rada (1928-43) of the Belorussian People's Republic in exile.
Zaki, Ahmed (b. April 16, 1931 - d. Nov. 15, 1996), foreign minister (1968-75) and prime minister (1972-75) of Maldives. He was also speaker of the Citizens' Majlis (1960, 1990-93), justice minister (1960), permanent representative to the United Nations (1979-83, 1993-96), and attorney general (1983-90).
Zaki, Akram (b. Oct. 27, 1931, Gujranwala, Punjab, India [now in Pakistan]), acting foreign minister of Pakistan (1991). He was also ambassador to China (1987-91).
Zakrewsky, Arsenij Andrejewitsch (Arseny Andreyevich Zakrevsky) (b. Sept. 24 [Sept. 13, O.S.], 1783 - d. Jan. 23 [Jan. 11, O.S.], 1865), governor-general of Finland (1824-31) and interior minister of Russia (1828-31). He was also governor-general of Moscow (1848-59).
Zaldívar (Larraín), (José) Andrés (Rafael) (b. March 18, 1936, Santiago, Chile), finance minister (1968-70) and interior minister (2006) of Chile. He was president of the Senate in 1998-2004.
Zambrano (Cavazos), (José) Nicéforo (b. Feb. 22, 1861, Hacienda de Santo Domingo, San Nicolás de los Garza municipality, Nuevo León, Mexico - d. Sept. 20, 1940, Monterrey, Nuevo León), governor of Nuevo León (1917-19).
Zambrano Velasco, José Alberto (b. April 15, 1930, Mérida, Venezuela - d. Sept. 1, 2004, Caracas, Venezuela), foreign minister of Venezuela (1979-84).
Zamfirescu, Duiliu (Lascar) (b. 1858, Plainesti, Romania - d. 1922, Bucharest, Romania), foreign minister of Romania (1920).
Zammit Dimech, Francis (b. Oct. 23, 1954), foreign minister of Malta (2012-13). He was also minister of transport and communications (1992-94), environment (1994-96, 1998-2002), resources and infrastructure (2002-03), and tourism and culture (2003-08).
Zamor, (Emmanuel) Oreste (b. 1861, Hinche, Haiti - d. [murdered in jail] July 27, 1915, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), president of Haiti (1914).
Zamora, Gerardo (b. Jan. 6, 1964), governor of Santiago del Estero (2005-13).
Zanardelli, Giuseppe (b. Oct. 29, 1826, Brescia, Lombardy, Austrian Empire [now in Italy] - d. Dec. 26, 1903, Maderno, Italy), prime minister of Italy (1901-03). A combatant in the volunteer corps during the war of 1848, he returned to Brescia after the defeat of Novara. Elected deputy in 1859, he received various administrative appointments, but attained a political office only in 1876 when the Left, of which he had been a prominent and influential member, came into power. Minister of public works in the Agostino Depretis cabinet of 1876, and minister of the interior in the Benedetto Cairoli cabinet of 1878, he was overthrown with Cairoli in December 1878, but returned to power as minister of justice in the Depretis cabinet of 1881. Abandoned by Depretis in 1883, he remained in opposition until 1887, when he again joined Depretis as minister of justice, retaining his portfolio throughout the ensuing Francesco Crispi ministry until 1891. After the fall of the Giovanni Giolitti cabinet in 1893, he made a strenuous but unsuccessful attempt to form an administration. Elected president of the Chamber in 1894 and 1896, he exercised that office with ability until, in December 1897, he accepted the portfolio of justice in the Marchese di Rudinì cabinet, but resigned the following spring. Returning to the presidency of the Chamber, he again abandoned his post in order to associate himself with the obstructionist campaign against the Public Safety Bill (1899-1900), and was rewarded by being enabled to form an administration with the support of the Extreme Left in 1901. Although the period was marked by strikes, he decreased excessive taxes on the poor and put an end to strikebreaking by the army. His Divorce Bill, although voted in the Chamber, had to be withdrawn on account of the strong opposition of the country. In 1903 he resigned on account of ill health.
Zandanshatar, Gombojav (b. 1970, Baatsagaan soum, Bayankhongor province, Mongolia), foreign minister of Mongolia (2009-12).
Zanella, Riccardo (b. June 27, 1876, Fiume, Hungary [now Rijeka, Croatia] - d. March 30, 1959, Rome, Italy), president of Fiume (1921-22).
Zang Shiyi (b. 1885, Mukden, Fengtian [now Shenyang, Liaoning], China - d. Nov. 13, 1956, Fushun, Liaoning), chairman of the government of Liaoning (1929-32).
Zannier, Lamberto (b. June 15, 1954, Fagagna, Italy), head of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (2008-11) and secretary-general of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (2011- ).
Zanotti, Marino (b. April 29, 1952, Faetano, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (1992-93, 1997-98).
Zaorálek, Lubomír (b. Sept. 6, 1956, Ostrava, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), foreign minister of the Czech Republic (2014- ). He was speaker of the Chamber of Deputies in 2002-06.
Zapata (Salazar), Emiliano (b. Aug. 8, 1879, Anenecuilco, Morelos, Mexico - d. April 10, 1919, Chinameca, Morelos), Mexican revolutionary. In 1897 he joined a village protest against the hacienda that had appropriated the peasants' lands and was arrested for his rebellious attitude. After obtaining a pardon, he organized new protests. He supported Francisco Madero against dictator Porfirio Díaz in 1910-11 but when Madero refused to return the ejidos (communal lands) to the villages, Zapata prepared the Plan of Ayala, the signers of which vowed to expropriate, with payment, a third of the area of the haciendas; those haciendas that refused to accept this plan would have their lands expropriated without compensation. The Zapatistas, under the slogan "Tierra y Libertad" ("Land and Liberty"), adopted guerrilla tactics. On Nov. 24, 1914, he ordered his Liberation Army of the South, numbering 25,000 men, to occupy Mexico City, where he and Pancho Villa visited the National Palace and promised to fight together until they put a civilian president in the palace, and Villa accepted the Plan of Ayala. At the height of his success Zapata controlled Morelos and large parts of adjoining states. In those areas he destroyed the haciendas and gave land to his followers; he also attempted to establish schools and social services. He won various battles, but in 1917 Venustiano Carranza's generals defeated Villa and isolated Zapata. In 1919 Zapata was trapped when one of Carranza's officers, Jesús Guajardo, pretended to rebel in favour of Zapata, and as proof of his loyalty even killed some Carrancista soldiers, then requested a face-to-face meeting. When Zapata arrived, Guajardo's troops presented arms, ostensibly as a guard of honour, but at a sign from their leader fired on and killed Zapata.
Zapata Bello, Rolando (Rodrigo) (b. Aug. 11, 1968, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico), governor of Yucatán (2012- ).
Zápotocký, Antonín (b. Dec. 19, 1884, Zákolany, near Kladno, Bohemia, Austria-Hungary [now in Czech Republic] - d. Nov. 13, 1957, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), Czechoslovak political leader. He early joined the Social Democratic Party and became secretary of the stonemasons' union in Kladno. His political activities earned him a term in jail in 1905. On his release, he became trade union secretary of the Social Democratic Party in Kladno and political secretary of the Kladno Trade Union Federation. In 1911 he was elected to the Kladno town council and again he served a jail term for political activity. After army service in World War I he was named secretary-general of the Social Democratic Party in Kladno. He organized a general strike in the Kladno mines and smelters in 1920 and was sentenced to two years' imprisonment. While he was in jail, the party split in 1921, and he joined the new Communist Party on his release and was named secretary of its Prague district. He was elected to the Czechoslovak parliament in 1925, but devoted most of his time to organizing a Communist labour federation, becoming its secretary-general (1929-39). During the Nazi occupation he was confined in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp. On his release by Soviet troops in 1945 he became chairman of the Revolutionary Trade Union Movement, composed of all of Czechoslovakia's organized labour, and a deputy to (and in 1946 briefly chairman of) the National Assembly. He was a major architect of the successful Communist takeover of the government in 1948, when he became a member of the political secretariat and premier of Czechoslovakia. He survived the party purge of 1952, but his position was weakened by the rise of other leaders. He became president, a largely ceremonial post, in 1953 and died in office.
Zarandia, Vazha, Russian Ivan Illarionovich Zarandia (b. Nov. 1, 1932, Okum village, Galsky rayon, Abkhaz A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R.), prime minister of Abkhazia (1992-93).
Zardari, Asif Ali (b. July 26, 1955, Nawabshah, Sindh, Pakistan), president of Pakistan (2008-13); widower of Benazir Bhutto. Never popular and always shrouded in controversy, Zardari - once jailed for 11 years for alleged corruption - nevertheless made history simply by presiding over the first civilian government in Pakistan to complete a full term in office and hand over to another at the ballot box.
Zarif, Mohammad Javad (b. Jan. 8, 1960, Tehran, Iran), foreign minister of Iran (2013- ). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (2002-07).
Zarifi, Khamrokhon, surname until 2007 Zaripov (b. Dec. 25, 1948, Farkhor district, Tadzhik S.S.R.), foreign minister of Tajikistan (2006-13). He was also ambassador to Austria (1997-2003), Switzerland (1998-2003), Hungary (1999-2002), and the U.S. (2003-06).
Zarins, Karlis (Reinholds) (b. Dec. 4, 1879, Ipiku parish, Russia [now in Latvia] - d. April 29, 1963, London, England), foreign minister of Latvia (1931-33) and head of its diplomatic service in exile (1940-63). He was minister to Sweden in 1923-30.
Zarouk, Mubarak, also spelled Zarrouk (b. April 4, 1916, Tokar, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan - d. April 26, 1965, Khartoum, The Sudan), foreign minister (1956) and finance minister (1964-65) of The Sudan.
Zatlers, Valdis (b. March 22, 1955, Riga, Latvian S.S.R.), president of Latvia (2007-11).
Zavala (Solís), Joaquín (b. Nov. 30, 1835, Managua, Nicaragua - d. Dec. 30, 1906, Managua), president of Nicaragua (1879-83, 1893).
Zavala Ortiz, Miguel Ángel (b. Dec. 24, 1906 - d. May 20, 1982), foreign minister of Argentina (1963-66).
Zavgayev, Doku (Gapurovich) (b. Dec. 22, 1940, Chechen-Ingush A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), Moscow-installed head of state of Chechnya (1995-96). He has also been Russian ambassador to Tanzania (1997-2004) and Slovenia (2009- ).
Zawawi, Qais ibn `Abd al-Munim az- (b. Aug. 27, 1935 - d. [car crash] Sept. 11, 1995), Omani politician. He was an effective and influential minister of state for foreign affairs (1973-82) and deputy prime minister for financial and economic affairs (1982-95).
Zaynalov, Shamil (Magomedovich) (b. Nov. 14, 1946, Khasavyurt, Dagestan A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Dagestan (2006-10).
Zbogar, Samuel (b. March 5, 1962, Postojna, Slovenia), foreign minister of Slovenia (2008-12). He was ambassador to the United States in 2004-08.
Zea Hernández, Germán (b. April 15, 1905, Bogotá, Colombia - d. March 8, 1989), foreign minister (1966-68) and interior minister (1978-81) of Colombia. He was also mayor of Bogotá (1938-41), governor of Cundinamarca (1943-44), justice minister (1958-60), and permanent representative to the UN (1961-65, 1975-77).
Zebari, Hoshyar (Mahmud Muhammad al-) (b. 1953, Aqrah, Iraq), foreign minister of Iraq (2003- ).
Zebic, Jovan (b. May 5, 1939, Runjani, near Loznica, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia] - d. March 15, 2007, Belgrade, Serbia), deputy premier (1991-93) and finance minister (1991-92) of Serbia and deputy premier (1993-97, 1998-2000), acting finance minister (1993), and finance minister (1994-97) of Yugoslavia.
Zedillo (Ponce de León), Ernesto (b. Dec. 27, 1951, Mexico City, Mexico), president of Mexico (1994-2000). In 1971 he joined the dominant Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). As undersecretary (1987-88) and secretary (1988-92) of planning and budget, he successfully controlled Mexico's immense foreign debt, reduced the inflation rate from 160% to about 8% in five years, and helped balance the budget. As secretary of education (1992-93), he decentralized the public school system, attempted to raise literacy, and oversaw a revision of history textbooks that played down the role of some revolutionary heroes. In 1993 he became campaign manager for PRI presidential candidate Luis Donaldo Colosio, and when Colosio was assassinated on March 23, 1994, Zedillo was chosen to replace him. He campaigned on promises to open and modernize Mexico's economy. On August 21 he defeated eight other candidates with 50.2% of the vote; it was the closest victory in the PRI's history. Taking office on December 1, he promised to spend more money on education, health, and basic services while maintaining a balanced budget, but his hopes were quickly dashed when the stock market plunged, and on December 20 he was forced to devalue the peso by about 14% against the U.S. dollar and then allow it to float, leading to a further drop in value. In 1995 he accepted the terms of a U.S. bailout package. As a result of a 1996 agreement to reduce PRI control over the political process, he became, after the 1997 elections, the first Mexican president in decades to face a Congress not dominated by the PRI. With him also ended a 71-year PRI hold on the presidency. Following his initiative, the PRI had held its first ever primary elections in 1999; in the past, Mexican presidents had effectively handpicked their successors. The chosen candidate then lost the 2000 election.
Zedkaia, Jurelang (b. July 13, 1950, Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands), president of the Marshall Islands (2009-12). He was speaker of the Nitijela in 2008-09.
Zeeland, Paul (Guillaume) van, from 1963 Paul, vicomte van Zeeland (b. Nov. 11, 1893, Soignies, Belgium - d. Sept. 22, 1973, Brussels, Belgium), prime minister (1935-37) and foreign minister (1935-36, 1949-54) of Belgium.
Zeevi, Rehavam (b. June 20, 1926, Jerusalem, Palestine - d. Oct. 17, 2001, Jerusalem), Israeli politician. He served in the Israeli army from its creation in 1948 until 1974, ending up as a general and chief of operations on the general staff. He was nicknamed "Gandhi" because of his skeletal frame but had nothing else in common with the Indian pacifist leader. After Israel's seizure of the Palestinian territories in the 1967 war he headed the central military region including the occupied West Bank, where he waged an effective campaign against the infiltration of Palestinian guerrillas from Jordan. He left the army in 1974 and entered politics, becoming adviser on counterterrorism to Labour prime minister Yitzhak Rabin until 1977. He founded the Moledet (Homeland) party in 1988 and entered parliament on a platform including the "voluntary" deportation of Palestinians to Arab countries. In 1991 right-wing prime minister Yitzhak Shamir named him a minister without portfolio. The party was renamed "National Union" for the 1999 elections, when it won four seats in the 120-member parliament. In March 2001 Prime Minister Ariel Sharon made him tourism minister, though he would have preferred internal security; he soon became a strong critic of the government, accusing it of being soft on the Palestinians and calling for more raids into the Palestinian territories. He finally announced his resignation in protest at Sharon's decision to withdraw tanks and troops from Palestinian areas of Hebron. The resignation was to take effect on Oct. 17, 2001. Early that day he was shot and fatally wounded in an East Jerusalem hotel, in an attack claimed by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine in reprisal for Israel's assassination of its chief in August.
Zeidane, Zeine Ould, Arabic Zayyin walad Zaydan (b. 1966, Tamchekett, Mauritania), prime minister of Mauritania (2007-08).
Zejnullahu, Jusuf (b. Feb. 9, 1944, Svirce, near Medvedja, Serbia), chairman of the Executive Council of Kosovo (1989-90). In 1999 he moved to the U.S., where he became a citizen in 2005.
Zelaya (López), José Santos (b. Nov. 1, 1853, Managua, Nicaragua - d. May 17, 1919, New York City), president of Nicaragua (1893-1909).
Zelaya (Rosales), (José) Manuel, byname Mel Zelaya (b. Sept. 20, 1952, Catacamas, Olancho department, Honduras), president of Honduras (2006-09). Overthrown in a military coup supported by most of the civil establishment, he continued to be recognized by most countries as the legitimate president. After the military initially exiled him to Costa Rica, he later managed to enter Honduras and took refuge in the Brazilian embassy, but he failed to return to power, and when his regular term ended in January 2010, he left for the Dominican Republic. He returned to Honduras in May 2011.
Zeledón Rodríguez, Benjamín Francisco (b. Oct. 4, 1879, La Concordia, Jinotega department, Nicaragua - d. [killed] Oct. 4, 1912, Barranca Coyotepe, Masaya department, Nicaragua), supreme chief of government of Nicaragua in rebellion (1912).
Zelenin, Dmitry (Vadimovich) (b. Nov. 27, 1962, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Tver oblast (2003-11).
Zeljkovic, Suad (b. Sept. 13, 1960), premier of Sarajevo canton (2012- ).
Zeller, Adrien (b. April 2, 1940, Saverne, Bas-Rhin, France - d. Aug. 22, 2009, Haguenau, Bas-Rhin), president of the Regional Council of Alsace (1996-2009).
Zemaitis, Jonas, byname Vytautas (b. March 15, 1909, Palanga, Russia [now in Lithuania] - d. Nov. 26, 1954, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), Lithuanian resistance leader. An artillery captain in the army of independent Lithuania in 1937-40, he joined the armed resistance against Soviet rule in 1945. He tried to centralize the armed underground forces throughout Lithuania and form a general leadership for partisans. In February 1949 he summoned a congress which established a united resistance organization, the Lithuanian Movement for Freedom; he was elected chairman of its Council, which was declared the supreme political body of the nation, and was conferred the highest military rank of "Freedom Fighter - General of Partisans." In May 1953 he was arrested and transported to Moscow, where he was executed the following year. After the restoration of Lithuanian independence, he was posthumously awarded the rank of brigadier general in January 1998, and on March 12, 2009, he was retrospectively recognized by the Seimas (parliament) as president of Lithuania (Feb. 16, 1949-Nov. 26, 1954).
Zeman, Milos (b. Sept. 28, 1944, Kolín, Bohemia and Moravia [now in Czech Republic]), prime minister (1998-2002) and president (2013- ) of the Czech Republic. In 1968, he joined the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, from which he was expelled in 1970 due to his opposition to the invasion of the Warsaw Pact armies in August 1968 and the "normalization" regime. He actually entered politics in August 1989 when he published an article in the Technický magazín monthly in which he unusually sharply criticized the Communist regime. After the November 1989 revolution, he assisted in the foundation of the Civic Forum (OF), a dominant anti-Communist movement for which he was nominated as deputy to the Federal Assembly. As a deputy (1990-91) he presented himself as a sharp critic of coupon privatization, a project engineered by people around Václav Klaus, then finance minister, which he branded "the swindle of the century." After the split of the OF, Zeman entered the Civic Movement (OH), one of the successor entities. In the mid-1992 elections, however, he ran for the Czechoslovak (later Czech) Social Democratic Party (CSSD) and was elected to the last Czechoslovak federal parliament. In 1993-2001, he was chairman of the CSSD, initially a rather unimportant opposition party (it had gained about 7% of the vote in 1992), which, however, under his leadership became one of the two major political parties in the Czech Republic. He served as chairman of the Chamber of Deputies in 1996-98. The CSSD's victory (with 32% support) in the 1998 elections catapulted him to the premier's post. His political style included insults and disputable lashing-out at his political rivals, which often ended in court, and his verbal attacks on journalists were legendary. He retired after one four-year term, with the CSSD's popularity intact. In 2003, he was an unsuccessful presidential candidate. In 2007 he left the party as a result of his conflict with its leader Jirí Paroubek. In 2013 he was elected president as candidate of the Party of Citizens' Rights, founded in 2009 to enable his return to public life.
Zeng Jiwu (b. 1878, Xinhua, Hunan, China - d. 1944), acting military governor of Hunan (1916).
Zeng Qi, Wade-Giles Tseng Ch'i, also known as Peter Tseng (b. 1892, Longchang, Sichuan, China - d. May 7, 1951, Washington, D.C.), Chinese politician. He was a founder of the Chinese Youth Party in 1923 and later an adviser to Chiang Kai-shek.
Zeng Qinghong (b. July 1939, Jian, Jiangxi, China), vice president of China (2003-08).
Zenteno Anaya, Joaquín (b. Nov. 11, 1921, Cochabamba, Bolivia - d. [assassinated] May 11, 1976, Paris, France), foreign minister of Bolivia (1964-66). He was ambassador to France from 1973.
Zepeda, José (b. 17... - d. [assassinated] Jan. 25, 1837, Managua, Nicaragua), chief of Nicaragua (1835-37).
Zéphirin, Mauclair (b. April 5, 1914, Cap-Haïtien, Haiti - d. Feb. 18, 1961, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), foreign minister of Haiti (1954-55); brother-in-law of Paul Eugène Magloire.
Zerbo, Saye (b. Aug. 27, 1932, Tougan, Upper Volta [now Burkina Faso] - d. Sept. 19, 2013, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso), head of state of Upper Volta (1980-82). At the age of 18 he joined the French Army and was transferred to the armed forces of Upper Volta in 1961, a year after the country had become independent. A former parachutist, he served in Indochina and Algeria and then received advanced training at a school in Fréjus, France, that was reserved for future cadres in the armed forces of Africa and that trained many political leaders who later came to power in sub-Saharan Africa. In 1971 he entered the École Supérieure de Guerre, leaving in 1972 as the first officer from Upper Volta to gain his diploma from the school. He was Upper Volta's foreign minister in 1974-76. After holding various commands he became director of the Bureau of Studies of the armed forces staff. On Nov. 25, 1980, Colonel Zerbo, then commander of the combined forces regiment in Ouagadougou, overthrew his ranking superior, Maj.Gen. Sangoulé Lamizana, president of Upper Volta since 1966, and became the country's new ruler at the head of a Military Committee of Recovery for National Progress. Born in the same village as his predecessor, Zerbo was publicly rumoured to be Lamizana's cousin and, despite the latter's confinement to house arrest after the coup - which involved no loss of life - it was said that they had acted in agreement. Speaking in December 1981 on the anniversary of the establishment of the republic in 1958, Zerbo referred to the "spectres of thirst, famine, disease, and ignorance" that the nation had to continually struggle to overcome. He said that although progress had been made, minimal needs had not yet been met, and that self-sufficiency in food would be the Military Committee's first priority. In 1982 he was himself overthrown in a coup.
Zerenkov, Valery (Georgiyevich) (b. Aug. 13, 1948), governor of Stavropol kray (2012-13).
Zéroual, Liamine, Arabic al-Yamin Zarwal (b. July 3, 1941, Batna, Algeria), president of Algeria (1994-99). He joined the Algerian liberation movement against France at the age of 16. After independence in 1962, he commanded an artillery unit in Sidi-bel-Abbès and was promoted to artillery captain in 1974, to commander in 1975, to lieutenant colonel in 1981, and to general in 1988. He commanded three of Algeria's key military regions before being named land forces chief in 1988. He resigned from the army in 1989 after a dispute with Pres. Chadli Bendjedid and became ambassador to Romania (1990-91). In 1993 he was named defense minister, and in January 1994 he was appointed head of state by the High Security Council. Two attempts to broker peace negotiations with the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), Algeria's main opposition party, ended in failure, but he continued to express an openness to future negotiations if the FIS renounced the use of violence. He won an easy victory in Algeria's first multicandidate presidential elections on Nov. 16, 1995. He immediately pledged to be "a president for all Algerians" in a bid to limit the impact of civil war that has raged in the country since 1992, when the military-backed regime cancelled elections that the FIS was poised to win. However, the conflict - which pitted Muslim fundamentalists against the Algerian security forces - continued. In May 1996, he unveiled proposals for constitutional reforms aimed at resolving the crisis. Although the FIS rejected his blueprint, most legal opposition parties voted in favour of the reforms at a national conference in September and the new constitution was approved by referendum in November. In September 1998 he surprised the public by announcing early presidential elections in which he would not take part.
Zhadobin, Yury (Viktorovich) (b. 1954, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukrainian S.S.R.), defense minister of Belarus (2009- ).
Zhamsuyev, Bair (Bayaskhalanovich) (b. Jan. 29, 1959), head of the administration of Agin-Buryat autonomous okrug (1997-2008).
Zhang Aiping (b. Jan. 9, 1910, Da county, Sichuan, China - d. July 5, 2003, Beijing, China), defense minister of China (1982-88). He joined the Communist Party in 1928 after taking part in a Communist-led rural uprising. He served as a field commander with the Communist guerrilla Red Army that was fighting both Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalists and Japanese invaders, joining in the epic Long March - the Red Army's 12,000-km retreat west to escape Chiang's encircling forces in the mid-1930s. During World War II, Zhang was the commander of a guerrilla band sent to rescue U.S. flight crews who crash-landed in China following the April 1942 bombing raid on Tokyo commanded by Lt.Col. James H. Doolittle. The raid provided a huge psychological boost for the United States after Pearl Harbor, proving that the United States could hit Japan. A decade later, Zhang faced off against the Americans as the head of an army corps in the 1950-53 Korean War, returning home to serve in a series of progressively higher positions in the government, party, and army. He was made a lieutenant general in 1955. Zhang was accused of counterrevolutionary crimes and relieved of all posts in 1966-67 during the Cultural Revolution, when many veteran Communists were attacked by Red Guards inspired by Communist leader Mao Zedong's vision of continuing revolution. He reappeared in 1973 and served as defense minister as well as deputy chief of the army general staff, vice premier, and chairman of a key commission that sought to modernize the vast military.
Zhang Chunqiao (Pinyin), Wade-Giles Chang Chun-chiao (b. 1917, Juye, Shandong, China - d. April 21, 2005), Chinese politician. He was chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of Shanghai (1967-76) and a member of the "Gang of Four," which is blamed for the worst violence of the Cultural Revolution, launched by Mao Zedong to cleanse China of "bourgeois remnants." The Shanghai Revolutionary Committee tried to turn the city, China's most prosperous and Westernized, into a bastion of Maoist radicalism. Zhang was accused of running Shanghai like a warlord, with a private militia of thousands. A month after Mao's death in 1976, the members of the Gang of Four were arrested. Zhang was sentenced to death in January 1981, a penalty that was commuted to life in prison in January 1983. He was released in 1998 on medical parole. His death was officially reported on May 10, 2005, without saying where he lived before his death or explaining the delay in the announcement.
Zhang Dingfan (b. 1891, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China - d. December 1944, Casablanca, Morocco), mayor of Shanghai (c. 1928-29).
Zhang Dulun (b. 1894, Anlu, Hubei, China - d. 1958, Taiwan), chairman of the government of Hubei (1948-49). He was also mayor of Chongqing.
Zhang Fang (b. April 15, 1886, Xinan, Henan, China - d. May 25, 1966), chairman of the government of Henan (1930, 1937-38).
Zhang Fenghui (b. 1881, Qinyang, Henan, China - d. July 29, 1958, Xian, Shaanxi, China), military (1911-14) and civil (1912-13) governor of Shaanxi.
Zhang Fengtai (b. 1857, Anyang, Henan, China - d. June 1925, Anyang, Henan), civil governor of Henan (1913-14, 1920-23). He started holding gubernatorial posts in the late Qing era, as he was a successful candidate in the imperial examination. After the founding of the republic, he was named director of the financial bureau of Henan and then the civil governor. During his term, heavy tax burdens annoyed the public. He was also an advisor of the president's office.
Zhang Fulai (b. 1871, Jiaocheng, Hebei, China - d. 1925, Hankou [now in Wuhan], Hubei, China), military governor of Henan (1922-24). He was a soldier in the army led by Cao Kun and then rose from a simple battalion commander to become a lieutenant general and commander of the 24th Division. He took a strong interest in the war against Zhang Zuolin in 1922. Fearing that the leadership of the Zhili Military Group might turn to Wu Peifu, a military talent, Cao Kun and Cao Rui were inclined not to fight in the military conference on the eve of the war, but Wu and Zhang insisted on it, Zhang saying that "compromising simply means surrender." He was removed upon defeat in the Second Zhili-Fengtian War in 1924.
Zhang Guangjian (b. 1867?, Hefei, Anhui, China - d. May 1938?, Shucheng, Anhui), mayor of Beijing (1912-13) and governor of Gansu (1914-20).
Zhang Guogan (b. 1876, Puqi, Hubei, China - d. Jan. 25, 1959, Beijing, China), governor of Heilongjiang (1916) and education minister (1916, 1924), agriculture and commerce minister (1916, 1917, 1922), interior minister (1922 [acting], 1926), and justice minister (1924, 1926) of China.
Zhang Hu (b. 1875, Xiaoshan, Zhejiang, China - d. Dec. 12, 1937, Beijing, China), finance minister of China (1921-22, 1923).
Zhang Huaizhi (b. 1860, Donge, Shandong, China - d. 1934, Tianjin, China), governor of Chahar (1915-16) and Shandong (1916-18) and staff minister of China (1919-24).
Zhang Jinghui (b. 1871, Taian, Liaoning, China - d. Jan. 11, 1959, Fushun, Liaoning), governor of Chahar (1920-22), army minister (1926-27) and enterprise minister (1927-28) of China, and premier of Manchukuo (1935-45).
Zhang Jingjiang (b. 1876, Wuxing, Zhejiang, China - d. Sept. 3, 1950, New York City), chairman of the government of Zhejiang (1927, 1928-30).
Zhang Jingyao (b. 1881, Huoqiu, Anhui, China - d. [assassinated] May 7, 1933, Beijing, China), governor of Chahar (1917-18) and Hunan (1918-20).
Zhang Lan (b. 1872, Nanchong, Sichuan, China - d. Feb. 9, 1955, Beijing, China), civil governor of Sichuan (1917-20). He helped launch the China League of Democratic Political Groups (later renamed the China Democratic League) in 1941.
Zhang Lichang (b. July 1939, Nanpi, Hebei, China - d. Jan. 10, 2008, Tianjin, China), mayor of Tianjin (1993-98).
Zhang Mingqi (b. 1875, Wudi, Shandong, China - d. September 1945, Tianjin, China), governor-general of Liangguang (1910-11) and civil governor of Guangxi (1913-15) and Guangdong (1915).
Zhang Peijue (b. 1876, Longchang, Sichuan, China - d. March 14, 1915, Beijing, China), governor of Sichuan (1912-13). He joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance in 1905 and led his armed forces all the way into Chongqing in late 1911. He was made special advisor to Pres. Yuan Shikai in 1913, but he fled to Tianjin after the failure of the "Second Revolution" against Yuan's dictatorship. He supported the Kuomintang forces and opposed any form of dictatorship or monarchy, for which he was executed by Yuan.
Zhang Qihuang (b. 1877, Yongfu, Guangxi, China - d. May 1927, Deng county, Henan, China), civil governor of Guangxi (1922-23). He was a magistrate in the late Qing period. Upon the 1911 uprising, he represented Guangxi at the conference of the Union of Military Governments in the Provinces. Then he was named the director of Hunan military bureau under the authority of Hunan governor Tan Yankai. In 1925, he became Wu Peifu's secretary-general. He was shot in an ambush launched by a bandit group in Henan province, on Wu's retreat to Sichuan after being defeated by the Northern Expedition army in 1927.
Zhang Rong (b. 1884, Fushun, Fengtian [now Liaoning], China - d. 1912, Mukden, Fengtian [now Shenyang, Liaoning]), military governor of Fengtian (1911-12). He started his anti-Qing activities in the northeastern region in 1904. In September 1905, he was arrested for the attempt to murder the five Qing government secretaries who were to take trains to Europe to learn about the system of constitutional monarchy. He escaped from prison three years later and then fled to Japan, where he joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance. After the outbreak of the Wuchang Uprising in October 1911, he returned to Fengtian and tried to launch a similar uprising there, for which he was killed by Zhang Zuolin, who was still loyal to the Qing government at that time.
Zhang Shaozeng (b. 1871, Dacheng, Hebei, China - d. [assassinated] March 23, 1928, Tianjin, China), governor of Suiyuan (1912-14) and civil governor of Shaanxi (1922).
Zhang Shizhao (b. 1881, Changsha, Hunan, China - d. July 1, 1973, Hong Kong), justice minister (1924-25) and education minister (1925) of China.
Zhang Shuyuan (b. 1879, Wudi, Shandong, China - d. 1934, Wudi), governor of Shandong (1918-19).
Zhang Xiluan (b. 1843, Qiantang [now Hangzhou], Zhejiang, China - d. 1922, Tianjin, China), governor of Zhili (1912), military (1912-15) and civil (1912-13, 1914) governor of Fengtian, and military governor of Jilin (1913-14) and Hubei (1915). Nicknamed "the Quick Horse," he had been the civil governor of Shanxi in the late Qing dynasty and continued his gubernatorial career after the founding of the republic. But he had no army, so he gained little power and was under constant pressure of generals like Wang Zhanyuan and especially Zhang Zuolin, head of a northeastern bandit group who had surrendered to him in the late Qing period. After being a "councillor" in the president's office, he quit politics in 1917 and then led a quiet life in Tianjin.
Zhang Xiyuan (b. 1870, Miyun, Zhili [now in Beijing municipality], China - d. 1941, Tianjin, China), governor of Chahar (1922-24).
Zhang Xueliang (Pinyin), Wade-Giles Chang Hsüeh-liang (b. June 3, 1901, Mukden, Fengtian [now Shenyang, Liaoning], China - d. Oct. 15, 2001, Honolulu, Hawaii), Chinese warlord. Dubbed the "Young Marshal," he inherited his assassinated father Zhang Zuolin's 200,000-strong army and control of Manchuria and parts of northern China at the age of 27. He changed Chinese history by kidnapping Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in the central city of Xian in December 1936 to force him into an alliance with the Communists against the invading Japanese. The abduction gave a new lease on life to Mao Zedong's ragtag Red Army, whose numbers had dwindled to a few thousand and which was on the verge of being wiped out by the Nationalists. After his kidnap Chiang eventually agreed to an alliance and was released unharmed. Zhang escorted Chiang back to the southern Chinese city of Nanjing, then China's capital, but the Young Marshal was placed under house arrest. He was taken to Taiwan in the late 1940s shortly before the Communists won the Chinese civil war and drove the Nationalists from the mainland. Zhang spent decades under house arrest in Taiwan but was rehabilitated after the island embraced democratic reforms in the late 1980s. In 1991 he was allowed to leave Taiwan for the first time to visit his children in the United States. He resettled in Hawaii in 1994. Beijing regarded Zhang as a national hero and had repeatedly invited him to return for a visit.
Zhang Xuesi (b. 1916 - d. 1970), chairman of the government of Liaoning (1945-48); son of Zhang Zuolin; brother of Zhang Xueliang.
Zhang Xun (b. 1854, Fengxin, Jiangxi, China - d. Sept. 12, 1923, Tianjin, China), governor-general of Liangjiang (1911-12) and military governor of Jiangsu (1913) and Anhui (1916-17). He was the general who led the brief Qing restoration in 1917. He served under the leadership of Yuan Shikai from 1896, starting his career as a senior commander. As an imperial general, he refused to surrender to the revolutionary activists when their armed forces approached Nanjing, capital of Liangjiang. He was made Jiangsu governor by President Yuan a year after the founding of the republic. He and his soldiers maintained their long pigtails despite the fall of the Qing government, so his army was called the "Pigtail Army" and he himself "General Pigtail." In June 1917, he led his army all the way into Beijing, then expelled Pres. Li Yuanhong from office and restored ex-emperor Puyi (July 1), but this restoration of the Qing dynasty lasted only 11 days. On July 12, Gen. Duan Qirui's forces took over Beijing and overthrew his government. He fled to the nearby Dutch embassy.
Zhang Yaozeng (b. 1885, Dali, Yunnan, China - d. 1938), justice minister of China (1916-17, 1922, 1924).
Zhang Yilin (b. 1868, Wu county, Jiangsu, China - d. 1943, Chongqing, China), education minister of China (1915-16).
Zhang Yinwu (b. 1891, Boye, Zhili [now Hebei], China - d. May 27, 1949, Beijing, China), mayor of Beiping (c. 1929-30).
Zhang Yipeng (b. 1876, Zhuzhou, Hunan, China - d. Nov. 6, 1944, Chongqing, China), governor of Hunan (1927).
Zhang Yunchuan (b. October 1946, Dongyang, Zhejiang, China), governor of Hunan (2001-03).
Zhang Zaiyang (b. 1874, Yuhang, Zhejiang, China - d. Nov. 17, 1945, Hangzhou, Zhejiang), civil governor of Zhejiang (1922-24).
Zhang Zhenfang (b. 1863, Xiangcheng, Henan, China - d. 1933), military (1912-14) and civil (1913) governor of Henan.
Zhang Zhijiang (b. 1888, Yanchuan, Hebei, China - d. May 12, 1966, Beijing, China), governor of Chahar (1924-26).
Zhang Zhitan (b. 1878, Fengrun, Hebei, China - d. 1946), interior minister (1917 [acting], 1920-21) and transportation minister (1921, 1926-27) of China.
Zhang Zhizhong (b. 1891, Chao county, Anhui, China - d. April 6, 1969, Beijing, China), chairman of the government of Hunan (1937-38) and Xinjiang (1946-47).
Zhang Zizhong (b. 1892, Linqing, Shandong, China - d. [in war] May 16, 1940, Hubei province, China), chairman of the government of Chahar (1935-36).
Zhang Zongchang (b. 1881, Ye county [now Laizhou], Shandong, China - d. [assassinated] Sept. 3, 1932), governor of Shandong (1925-28).
Zhang Zongxiang (b. 1865, Wuxing, Zhejiang, China - d. Oct. 1, 1962, Shanghai, China), justice minister (1914-16) and agriculture and commerce minister (1914 [acting], 1914-15 [acting], 1916) of China.
Zhang Zuolin (Pinyin), Wade-Giles Chang Tso-lin, byname Old Marshal (b. 1873, Haicheng, Fengtian [now Liaoning], China - d. June 1928, near Mukden, Fengtian [now Shenyang, Liaoning]), Chinese warlord. He organized a military unit in his native district, which in 1905 was organized into a regiment by the governor of Fengtian province. At the outbreak of the revolution of 1911-12 he used his power to suppress republicanism in Mukden; it was believed he acted in secret collaboration with the Japanese. By 1912 he was in command of a division, and from 1916 he was military governor of Fengtian, becoming, like the rest of the generals, more and more independent of the feeble central governments in Beijing. He helped Duan Qirui to defeat the attempted Qing restoration in 1917. In 1918 he was appointed inspector-general of the three Manchurian provinces and in 1920 he collaborated with Wu Peifu and Cao Kun in defeating Duan Qirui and the Anfu party, and became a marshal. He was now recognized as one of the most potent figures in China. In return for the tacit support of the Japanese, he granted them concessions in Manchuria. After being defeated by Wu in 1922, he lay low in Manchuria, but in 1924 his position was again strong enough for him to extend his control, and in 1926 he established himself in Beijing, where he was formally installed as generalissimo in June 1927. But the armies of the Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) advanced northward under the leadership of Chiang Kai-shek and in early June 1928 Zhang's rule in Beijing ended. On June 4, the train bearing him home was bombed by Japanese extremists who hoped to provoke the Japanese army into occupying Manchuria. He was fatally wounded and according to Japanese reports died the same day, but in Manchuria it was announced that he died June 20. His son Zhang Xueliang succeeded in command of his forces.
Zhang Zuoxiang (b. 1881, Jinzhou, western Fengtian [now Liaoning], China - d. May 7, 1949, Tianjin, China), military (1924-28) and civil (1924, 1927-28) governor and chairman of the government (1928-31) of Jilin.
Zhao Bingjun (b. 1859 [some sources say 1864], Linru, Henan, China - d. Feb. 27, 1914, Tianjin, China), interior minister (1912-13) and premier (1912-13) of China and military governor of Zhili (1913-14). He was a deputy secretary of public security in the late Qing period. He resigned from the republican government in 1913 because of his involvement in the assassination of the "father of the constitution" Song Jiaoren. He was then made the governor of Zhili, in which post he died a sudden death. It is widely believed that Pres. Yuan Shikai had him poisoned to stop him from exposing more about the assassination.
Zhao Daiwen (b. 1867, Wutai, Shanxi, China - d. December 1943, Ji county, Shanxi), governor of Chahar (1928).
Zhao Erfeng (b. 1845 - d. December 1911), governor of Sichuan (1911); brother of Zhao Erxun. An official loyal to the Qing dynasty, he was nominated as envoy to Tibet and governor of Sichuan. In 1909, he agreed to transfer the ownership of the railways in Sichuan to the foreign colonists, which was opposed publicly. As a result, Chengdu declared independence from the Qing after the Wuhan Uprising in 1911, and Pu Dianjun, a constitutional monarchist, was made governor. On Dec. 8, 1911, anti-Pu forces (led by Yin Changheng) supported by the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance occupied Chengdu and expelled Pu. Zhao was executed soon after.
Zhao Erxun (b. 1844 - d. 1927), governor of Hubei (1907-08) and Sichuan (1908-11) and viceroy (1911) and governor (1912) of Fengtian.
Zhao Shoushan (b. 1894, Hu county, Shaanxi, China - d. June 20, 1965, Beijing, China), chairman of the government of Qinghai (1950-52) and chairman of the government (1952-54) and governor (1954-59) of Shaanxi.
Zhao Ti (b. 1871, Ruyang, Henan, China - d. 1933, Beijing, China), military (1914-22) and civil (1917-20) governor of Henan.
Zhao Weixi (b. 1860 - d. 1917), military (1912-13) and civil (1913) governor of Gansu. He was already in office in the late Qing days and managed to regain his post after the revolution. He refused to cut off his long tail, which was a symbol of the Manchu reign, and moreover, his police forces kept arresting those who did cut.
Zhao Ziyang (Wade-Giles Chao Tzu-yang), original name Zhao Xiusheng (Chao Hsiu-sheng) (b. Oct. 17, 1919, Hua county, Henan, China - d. Jan. 17, 2005, Beijing, China), Chinese politician. He joined the Young Communist League in 1932 and the Communist Party in 1938. After the establishment of the People's Republic in 1949, he became one of the architects of agrarian reform in Guangdong province, where he became first party secretary in 1965. Purged in 1967 during the Cultural Revolution but rehabilitated in 1971, he became chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of Guangdong (1974-75) and then (1975-79) of Sichuan, China's most populous province, where he greatly increased production. This caught the attention of de facto leader Deng Xiaoping, and Zhao was quickly made a Politburo alternate in 1977, a full member in 1979, and a member of that body's powerful Standing Committee in February 1980. In April 1980 he was appointed vice premier and in September premier, in which post he was able to extend his Sichuan policies to the whole of China. He was appointed acting general secretary of the Communist Party upon Hu Yaobang's forced resignation in January 1987. In November the 13th party congress confirmed his appointment; Li Peng became premier. In April 1989 massive student demonstrations calling for more democratic government broke out in Beijing. As the protests continued, a serious split developed in the Communist leadership between those who, like Zhao, were somewhat sympathetic to the protesters' demands and those who, like Li, favoured using force to suppress the demonstrations. Deng threw his support to Li, who thereupon used the armed forces to crush the protests in June, and later that month Zhao was dismissed from his leading posts for having "made the mistake of supporting the turmoils and splitting the party." He remained under house arrest until his death.
Zhelev, Zhelyu (Mitev) (b. March 3, 1935, Vesselinovo village, northeastern Bulgaria), president of Bulgaria (1990-97). Because his master's thesis, on the philosophical definition of matter, contained a critique of Lenin's writings on the subject, he was expelled from both the University of Sofia and the Bulgarian Communist Party. Throughout his career, his political views subjected him to detentions, dismissals, and even expulsion from Sofia. But as Mikhail Gorbachev's program of reform took hold in the Soviet Union during the late 1980s, Zhelev founded the Club in Support of Openness and Restructuring in Bulgaria. In December 1989 a coalition of some 16 opposition parties, known as the Union of Democratic Forces (UDF), elected him president of the organization's Coordination Council. He became president of the Parliamentary Union of the UDF on June 5, 1990, and two months later won a bitter and protracted contest for the Bulgarian presidency. Although the Socialists held 211 of the 400 seats in the Grand National Assembly, the election of a president required a two-thirds majority. The UDF, holding 144 seats, was thus able to block the choice of a Socialist candidate. Attempts at compromise by the minority Agrarian Party were unsuccessful, and the UDF eventually threatened to withdraw its deputies and thereby force a new parliamentary election. Such a prospect was more odious to the Socialists than even the election of an opposition president. In the ensuing vote (Aug. 1, 1990) 100 Socialists abstained, but Zhelev won the support of 284 delegates. He addressed Bulgaria's dire economic straits by seeking aid and investment from the West. In September he became the first Bulgarian head of state to visit the United States. On Jan. 19, 1992, he won a five-year mandate in the country's first presidential election by universal suffrage.
Zheng Qian (b. 1870, Liyang, Jiangsu, China - d. April 1929, Shenyang, Liaoning, China), civil governor of Jiangsu (1925).
Zheng Shiqi (b. 1873, Dingyuan, Anhui, China - d. 1935, Jinan, Shandong, China), military governor of Shandong (1923-25) and Anhui (1925).
Zheng Xiaoxu (b. 1860, Fuzhou, Fujian, China - d. March 1938, Changchun, Jilin, China), premier of Manchukuo (1932-35).
Zhilkin, Aleksandr (Aleksandrovich) (b. Aug. 26, 1959), acting governor (2004) and governor (2004- ) of Astrakhan oblast.
Zhirinovsky, Vladimir (Volfovich) (b. April 25, 1946, Alma-Ata, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Almaty, Kazakhstan]), Russian politician. In March 1990 he was elected chairman of the new Liberal Democratic Party of the Soviet Union, which later became the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia. In June 1991 he ran for the Russian presidency and won third place with 7.8% of the vote. In the December 1993 parliamentary elections, his party won 22.8% of the vote and gained 60 seats in the newly formed 450-member State Duma. Democratic opinion leaders in Russia and abroad were alarmed by the extremist, fanatical, xenophobic, and anti-Semitic views of the boorish, bullying Zhirinovsky. He promised to create a dictatorship when elected president, restore the borders of the former Russian empire including Alaska and Finland, drop 100 nuclear bombs on any country making territorial claims on Russia, build giant fans to blow radioactive waste into the Baltic states, and reduce crime by instituting summary executions. People did not know if they should take his high-decibel nationalistic comments seriously, but his campaign proclamations that he was "the last hope of a cheated and humiliated people" and his promise to "bring Russia up off its knees" resonated keenly among some voters. He was at times denied entry to, or expelled from, Germany, Slovenia, Bulgaria, Romania, and Ukraine. In 1994 public records emerged showing that he had a Jewish father and he changed his surname from Eidelshtein to Zhirinovsky in 1964; he only admitted this in 2001. He won only 5.7% of the vote in the 1996 presidential election and 2.7% in 2000. In January 2000 he was elected a deputy speaker of the State Duma. He did not run for president in 2004, but again in 2008, winning 9.3%, and in 2012, winning 6.2%.
Zhivkov, Todor (Hristov) (b. Sept. 7, 1911, Pravets, near Botevgrad, Bulgaria - d. Aug. 5, 1998, Sofia, Bulgaria), Bulgarian politician. By 1930 he had joined the Young Communist League and from there he moved steadily forward in the Communist Party apparatus. During World War II he was a political commissar of a Communist guerrilla detachment. Aided by the Soviet occupation force, a Communist government was created in Bulgaria after the war. He played an important role in the seizure of power as chief of the People's Militia, which rounded up many "reactionary elements." He was elected to the Central Committee of the party in 1945 and became a full member of the Politburo in 1951. In 1954 he was made first secretary of the Central Committee, making him the youngest leader in the Soviet bloc. He dealt harshly with dissenters, imprisoning thousands in camps in 1959-62. In 1962-71 he served as premier and in 1971 was elected president of the State Council. In 1965 he crushed an attempted coup by dissident party members who wanted to move the country away from its tight Soviet orbit. His loyalty to Moscow went so far that he in 1964 secretly proposed Bulgaria should merge with the Soviet Union. The close Soviet ties were economically beneficial; industrialization proceeded steadily and living standards rose substantially under his leadership. When a wave of democratization swept across the Soviet-bloc nations of eastern Europe in 1989, he resigned all his posts to make way for a more moderate Communist leadership. He was subsequently expelled from the party and placed under arrest. He was convicted of embezzlement in 1992 and sentenced to seven years' imprisonment, but failing health meant he never went to jail, and the conviction was overturned in 1996. Early in 1998 he was reinstated as a member of the Socialist Party, which had succeeded the Communists.
Zhou Enlai, Wade-Giles Chou En-lai (b. March 5, 1898, Huaian, Jiangsu, China - d. Jan. 8, 1976, Beijing, China), premier of China (1949-76). In Europe in 1920-24, he became an organizer for the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) which was founded in Shanghai in 1921. He also became a member of the Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) and served as a liaison between the two, but he narrowly escaped execution when the Nationalists broke with and outlawed the CCP in 1927. Shortly thereafter, he was elected to the CCP Central Committee and to its Politburo. In 1931 he went to Jiangxi province, where Zhu De and Mao Zedong were developing Communist rural bases (soviets). Zhou and Mao eventually entered into a lifelong close association. Driven out of Jiangxi by the Kuomintang, they joined the Long March to a new base in northern China (1934-35). In 1936-37 he helped negotiate a united front with the Kuomintang against Japan and until 1943 he was the CCP's chief representative to the Nationalist government. After the Japanese surrender in 1945, he was a leading participant in peace talks with the Nationalists. They were unsuccessful, but his skillful cultivation of the Communists' image among disenchanted liberal politicians and intellectuals became an important factor in the Communists' eventual victory in the civil war. He was premier of the People's Republic of China from its inception in 1949, serving concurrently as foreign minister until 1958. He traveled widely throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa and was renowned for his charm and diplomatic skill. In 1956 he was elected one of four vice-chairmen of the CCP. During the chaotic period of the Cultural Revolution (1966-76) he was an important stabilizing factor, exercising restraints on the extremists.
Zhou Fengqi (b. 1879, Changxing, Zhejiang, China - d. [assassinated] March 7, 1938), chairman of the government of Zhejiang (1927).
Zhou Lan (b. 1892, Hunan province, China - d. 1952, Changsha, Hunan), governor of Hunan (1927-28).
Zhou Peiyi (b. 1879, Bijie, Guizhou, China - d. 1958), civil governor of Guizhou (1911-12).
Zhou Xicheng (b. 1893, Tongzi, Guizhou, China - d. May 1929, near Zhenning, Guizhou), governor of Guizhou (1926-28).
Zhou Xuexi (b. 1866, Jiande, Anhui, China - d. 1947, Beijing, China), finance minister of China (1912-13, 1915-16).
Zhou Yinren (b. 1885, Wuqiang, Hebei, China - d. November 1956, Hong Kong), military governor of Fujian (1924-26).
Zhou Zhaoxiang (b. Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China - d. 1954), civil governor of Hunan (1917).
Zhou Ziqi (b. 1871, Shan county, Shandong, China - d. October 1923, Shanghai, China), Chinese politician. He studied abroad in the U.S. and attached himself to the Chinese embassy from 1896 as secretary, consul, and then chargé d'affaires. After the founding of the republic, he became governor of Shandong (1912-13), then held several ministerial posts including transportation minister (1913-14), finance minister (1914-15, 1920-21), agriculture and commerce minister (1915-16), and acting premier (1922), and also the post of vice-speaker of the Senate. He went to America again after his cabinet fell in 1922.
Zhu De, Wade-Giles Chu Teh (b. Dec. 18, 1886, Yilong, Sichuan, China - d. July 6, 1976, Beijing, China), Chinese military leader. In 1911 he graduated from the Yunnan Military Academy and took part in a revolt that toppled the Qing regime in Yunnan. While studying in Germany in 1922-25, he joined the Chinese Communist Party. In 1927, when the Nationalists and Communists split, he participated in the Communist-led Nanchang Uprising, an event regarded by the Communists as the birth of the Chinese Red Army. Routed by the Nationalists, he made his way, with a few thousand men, south to Hunan province, and there joined with a force led by Mao Zedong in 1928 to form the 4th Red Army, Zhu becoming commander and Mao political commissar. They established a base, or soviet, in Jiangxi province. Beating off four campaigns by the Nationalists (1931-33), he built the army up to 200,000 men. As another campaign threatened to overrun the Jiangxi stronghold, he led the Long March - a 12,000-km-long retreat (1934-35) to Shaanxi province. In 1936 a united front with the Nationalists was created to resist Japanese aggression. Zhu commanded the Red Army's northern forces, renamed the Eighth Route Army. After the Japanese surrender in 1945, the final struggle began for the mastery of China. Zhu commanded the renamed People's Liberation Army (PLA) and his lightning tactics rolled back the Nationalist armies despite their numerical and material superiority and drove them from the mainland in 1949. He remained commander of the PLA in the new People's Republic of China until the post was abolished in 1954 and was created a marshal in 1955. Although a Politburo member from 1934, he was never regarded as a contender for political power. From 1959 he served as chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, and as such was head of state from 1975.
Zhu Huaibing (b. 1881, Huanggang, Hubei, China - d. November 1968, Taipei, Taiwan), chairman of the government of Hubei (1943-44).
Zhu Jiabao (b. 1860, Li county, Yunnan, China - d. Sept. 5, 1928, Tianjin, China), military governor of Anhui (1911), military (1914-16) and civil (1914-17) governor of Zhili, and interior minister of China (1917).
Zhu Jiahua, Wade-Giles Chu Chia-hua (b. 1893, Wuxing, Zhejiang, China - d. Jan. 3, 1963, Taipei, Taiwan), chairman of the government of Zhejiang (1935-37). He was also Chinese minister of education (1932-33) and communications (1933-35) and later education minister of Taiwan.
Zhu Peide (b. 1889, Yanxing, Yunnan, China - d. Feb. 17, 1937, Nanjing, China), governor of Jiangxi (1927).
Zhu Qinglan (b. 1874, Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China - d. Jan. 13, 1941, Xian, Shaanxi, China), governor of Heilongjiang (1913-16) and civil governor of Guangdong (1916-17) and Guangxi (1917).
Zhu Qiqian (b. 1871, Xinyang, Henan, China - d. Feb. 26, 1964, Beijing, China), transportation minister (1912-13, 1914 [acting]) and interior minister (1913-16) of China.
Zhu Rongji, Wade-Giles Chu Jung-chi (b. Oct. 1, 1928, Changsha, Hunan, China), premier of China (1998-2003). He joined the Communist Party in 1949. Comments by Zhu mildly criticizing the party resulted in his being denounced as a "rightist" in 1957. He spent two periods of exile in rural northwestern China, first in 1958-62 and again in the 1970s. Earning the favour of paramount leader Deng Xiaoping, he was rehabilitated in 1979 and joined the State Planning Commission and the State Economic Commission, serving the latter as director of the Technical Transformation Bureau in 1982-83 and as vice-minister in 1983-88. He became deputy secretary of the Shanghai party committee in 1988, advancing to secretary in 1989. He was concurrently mayor of the city (1988-91) and was applauded for the progress he made in improving its economy by opening its doors to foreign investment. In the tumultuous month of June 1989, he declined to call in troops to quell student protests that disrupted transportation and other municipal functions in response to the central government's crackdown on pro-democracy demonstrators in Beijing. Having earned the sobriquet "China's Gorbachev" for his reforming zeal, he was named deputy premier in April 1991. He was elevated to the Political Bureau Standing Committee of the Communist Party in October 1992. As governor of the People's Bank of China in 1993-95, he created a program that greatly reduced inflation. As premier, he obtained Chinese membership in the World Trade Organization in 2001. He was hailed as "One-Chop Zhu" for his effectiveness in circumventing China's bureaucracy, dispatching paperwork with a single strike of his official seal, or chop. He also spoke in favour of greater democracy in China, "the sooner the better."
Zhu Rui (b. 1882, Haiyan, Zhejiang, China - d. Aug. 3, 1916, Tianjin, China), military governor (1912-16) and civil governor (1912-13) of Zhejiang. A general of Zhejiang province, he was also the commander of the 6th Division and then the 5th Army. He supported Yuan Shikai's imperial attempt and fought against the Kuomintang revolutionary forces. He fled from office and resigned after the defeat of Yuan's attempt.
Zhu Ruixi (b. 1862, Anhui province, China - d. March 1934), governor of Xinjiang (1933-34).
Zhu Shaoliang (b. 1891, Fuzhou, Fujian, China - d. Dec. 25, 1963, Taipei, Taiwan), chairman of the Provincial Council of Gansu (1934-35, 1937-40) and chairman of the government of Fujian (1949).
Zhu Shen (b. 1879, Ba county, Hebei, China - d. July 1943), justice minister (1918-20) and interior minister (1919) of China.
Zhuang Yunkuan (b. 1867, Wujin, Jiangsu, China - d. 1932), military governor of Jiangsu (1912).
Zhuk-Hryshkyevich, Vikentsiy (Antonavich) (b. Feb. 10, 1903 - d. Feb. 14, 1989), chairman of the Rada of the Belorussian People's Republic in exile (1970-82).
Zhulali, Safet (b. March 11, 1944, Peshkopi, Albania - d. April 13, 2002), defense minister of Albania (1992-97).
Zhvachkin, Sergey (Anatolyevich) (b. Jan. 20, 1957, Perm, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Tomsk oblast (2012- ).
Zhvania, Zurab (Besarionis dze) (b. Dec. 9, 1963, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R. - d. Feb. 3, 2005, Tbilisi), minister of state (2003-04) and prime minister (2004-05) of Georgia. He led the Green of Georgia party in 1988-93 and served in the parliament beginning in 1992. He was parliamentary speaker in 1995-2001 and led the moderate United Democrats opposition party, and for several years he and Mikheil Saakashvili were rivals for leadership of the opposition. Like Saakashvili, Zhvania was a one-time ally of Eduard Shevardnadze. After breaking with Shevardnadze, however, Zhvania followed a more conciliatory path than Saakashvili, and he was considered a more moderate politician who sought consensus rather than conflict. After Shevardnadze's fall, Zhvania became head of government while Saakashvili was elected president. He was killed by an apparent natural gas leak at a friend's apartment.
Zhylunovich, Dzmitryi Fyodaravich, pen name Tsishka Hartny (b. 1887 - d. 1937), chairman of the Provisional Revolutionary Workers-and-Peasants' Soviet Government of the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (1919).
Zia, Khaleda, née Majumder (b. Aug. 15, 1945, Noakhali, Dinajpur district, East Bengal, India [now in Bangladesh]), prime minister of Bangladesh (1991-96, 2001-06). In 1960 she married Ziaur Rahman, who served as president of Bangladesh from 1977 to his assassination in 1981. Thereafter she entered politics and was elected leader of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) in 1984. While her husband was in power, she had remained on the sidelines, and her opponent of the Awami League, Sheikh Hasina Wajed (daughter of Bangladesh's first prime minister, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, who was assassinated in 1975), had much more experience in politics. As the candidate of the centre-right BNP, Zia dominated the general election held on Feb. 27, 1991. The BNP failed to win an overall majority, but several smaller parties promised to support it in parliament. On March 20 Zia was sworn in as the first woman prime minister of Bangladesh. Zia, who also served as minister of information, energy, and establishment, pledged to restore the country's battered economy as the first task of her government. Her first months in office, however, were turbulent. A devastating cyclone struck the country on April 30, killing at least 131,000 people and causing more than $2 billion in damage. In August her proposal to change Bangladesh's form of government back to a parliamentary system was ratified, and one month later the Bangladeshi president's powers were greatly reduced by referendum. In 1996 she won another term due to an opposition boycott, but resigned after a wave of protests and lost new elections to Hasina. Zia won again in 2001, and her term was marked by rising political violence and religious militancy. In 2007 she was arrested on charges of extortion and corruption. She was released on bail in September 2008.
Zia-ul-Haq, Mohammad (b. Aug. 12, 1924, Jullundur [now Jalandhar], Punjab, India - d. Aug. 17, 1988, near Bahawalpur, Pakistan), chief martial law administrator (1977-85) and president (1978-88) of Pakistan. Graduating in 1945 from the Royal Indian Military Academy in Dehra Dun, he served under the British in Southeast Asia at the end of World War II and moved to Pakistan upon its separation from India in 1947. He fought in wars against India in 1965 and 1971 and led a Pakistani military advisory mission to Jordan in 1970. He successively commanded a regiment, brigade, division, and corps; he became a brigadier general in 1969, major general in 1972, lieutenant general in 1975, and general in 1976, when Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto named him chief of army staff, promoting him over several more senior officers. After Bhutto's Pakistan People's Party (PPP) won the elections of March 7, 1977, the opposition charged fraud, and over the next four months about 350 people were killed in riots. On July 5, Zia seized power in a bloodless coup and imposed martial law; he assumed the presidency after Fazal Elahi Chaudhry's term expired. Meanwhile, he put Bhutto on trial for conspiracy to murder a political opponent in 1974; in 1979 Bhutto was executed. A strict Muslim, he sought to unify his nation under the banner of Islamization and supported guerrillas fighting against the Soviet-backed regime in Afghanistan. The PPP won a majority in the long-postponed elections held in 1985. Zia restored a modified version of the 1973 constitution and later that year martial law was nominally lifted. But in May 1988 he dismissed the government and in July announced new nonparty elections. He died along with several top army officers and the U.S. ambassador to Pakistan when the airplane in which they were traveling exploded in midair and crashed.
Zibung, Kurt (b. Oct. 19, 1950), Landammann of Schwyz (2004-06).
Zidan, Ali, also spelled Zeidan (b. 1950), prime minister of Libya (2012-14).
Ziehm, Ernst (Bruno Viktor) (b. May 1, 1867, Damerau, Prussia [now Dabrowa Chelminska, Poland] - d. July 7, 1962, Timmendorfer Strand, West Germany), president of the Senate of Danzig (1931-33).
Zieleniec, Josef (b. April 28, 1946, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), foreign minister of the Czech Republic (1992-97).
Zigic, Izet (b. April 13, 1956, Bistarac, near Lukavac [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), chairman of the House of Peoples of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1999-2000).
Ziguélé, Martin (b. Feb. 12, 1957, Paoua, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic]), prime minister of the Central African Republic (2001-03). After François Bozizé's coup in March 2003, he sought refuge at the French embassy in Bangui, and in June he was allowed to leave for France. He returned on Feb. 27, 2005, for his presidential campaign; he lost to Bozizé in the runoff. In 2011 he was again a presidential candidate but only came third.
Zijl, Eben(ezer) van (b. March 9, 1931, Keetmanshoop, southern South West Africa [now Namibia] - d. Jan. 13, 2009, Swakopmund, Namibia), chairman of the Transitional Government of National Unity of Namibia (1986-87).
Zijlstra, Jelle (b. Aug. 27, 1918, Oosterbierum, Netherlands - d. Dec. 23, 2001, Wassenaar, Netherlands), prime minister of the Netherlands (1966-67). He was also minister of economic affairs (1952-59) and finance (1958-63, 1966-67).
Zilhão, João José Soares (b. Sept. 28, 1887 - d. Feb. 25, 1979), governor of Portuguese Guinea (1931-32).
Zilk, Helmut (b. June 9, 1927, Vienna, Austria - d. Oct. 24, 2008, Vienna), Austrian politician. He was Social Democrat mayor of Vienna from 1984 to 1994, following a brief stint as education minister in 1983. With a background as a popular TV talk show presenter in the 1970s, Zilk dazzled in the political arena with his talents as entertainer, mastering the media with irrepressible charm. In December 1993, a letter bomb blast ripped off most of the mayor's left hand. The bomb was one of a series that terrorized Austria for four years, targeting minority groups and people involved in supporting the integration of immigrants. Since the blast, the silk scarf Zilk wore around his mutilated hand became his trademark. In 1998 Zilk vehemently denied allegations he was a spy for the Czechoslovak Communist secret police StB in the 1960s. Zilk had been due to be honoured with the "Order of the White Lion" in Prague. Czech Pres. Václav Havel withdrew the order after the Czech Office for the Documentation and Investigation of Crimes of Communism (UDV) claimed Zilk had worked for the StB in the second half of the 1960s.
Zilliacus, Konni (b. Sept. 13, 1894, Kobe, Japan - d. July 6, 1967, London, England), British politician. His father, Konrad Viktor ("Konni") Zilliacus (1855-1924), was prominent in the movement for Finnish independence and was living in exile in Japan when his son was born. The younger Konni was naturalized as a British subject in 1918 and joined the Labour Party in 1919. Elected to Parliament for Gateshead in 1945, he was expelled from the Labour Party in 1949 because of his criticism of the government's foreign policy; he favoured a more conciliatory approach towards the Soviet Union. He was beaten as an Independent in the 1950 election. The party readmitted him in 1952, and he was reelected to Parliament for Manchester Gorton in 1955. He became an active member of the Victory for Socialism group and the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. In 1961 he was again suspended from membership of the Labour Party after he wrote an article for an East German magazine criticizing the Labour leadership, but he remained a Labour MP until his death.
Zimba, Lyonpo Yeshey (b. Oct. 10, 1952, Haa, Bhutan), prime minister of Bhutan (2000-01, 2004-05). He was conferred the title of Dasho in 1991 and that of Lyonpo in 1998.
Zimin, Viktor (Mikhailovich) (b. Aug. 23, 1962, Krasnoturansk rayon, Krasnoyarsk kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the government of Khakassia (2009- ).
Zimola, Jirí (b. March 28, 1971, Trebíc, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), governor of Jihoceský kraj (2008- ).
Zinni, Anthony (Charles) (b. Sept. 17, 1943, Conshohocken, Pa.), commander-in-chief of U.S. Central Command (1997-2000).
Zinsou, Émile (Derlin Henri) (b. March 23, 1918), foreign minister (1962-63, 1965-67) and president (1968-69) of Dahomey.
Zivkovic, Zoran (b. Dec. 22, 1960, Nis, Serbia), interior minister of Yugoslavia (2000-03) and prime minister of Serbia (2003-04).
Zizic, Zoran (b. March 4, 1951, Titograd [now Podgorica], Montenegro - d. Jan. 4, 2013, Podgorica), prime minister of Yugoslavia (2000-01).
Zlenko, Anatoliy (Maksymovych) (b. June 2, 1938, Stavysche, Kiev oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Ukraine (1990-94, 2000-03). He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1994-97) and ambassador to France (1997-2000) and Portugal (1998-2000).
Zobaran, Rui (b. Feb. 16, 1888, São Gabriel, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. Oct. 1, 1954, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Santa Catarina (1932-33).
Zoellick, Robert B(ruce) (b. July 25, 1953, Evergreen Park, Ill.), U.S. trade representative (2001-05) and president of the World Bank (2007-12).
Zog I, original name Amet Bey Zogu (b. Oct. 8, 1895, Castle Burgajet, Albania - d. April 9, 1961, Suresnes, France), president (1925-28) and king (1928-39) of Albania. He was head of the Zogolli, one of the four ruling families of the Mati district. He first distinguished himself as a supporter of Wilhelm zu Wied in 1914. During World War I he fought with the Austrians, thereafter becoming a leader of the reformist Popular Party. As interior minister (1920, 1921-22) he organized resistance to the Yugoslav incursions during the autumn of 1920 and suppressed a serious insurrectionary movement in March 1922. Becoming prime minister in December 1922, he pursued a sound anti-irredentist and constructive policy. Toward the end of 1923 he was accused by the Democratic Party of obstructing various progressive reforms. After an attempt on his life, he resigned in February 1924, but his influence remained. A revolt against him and his colleagues took place in June, and he sought refuge in Yugoslavia. He returned to Albania in December and ousted his successor, Fan Noli. His election as president in 1925 ushered in a period of internal tranquility. He was proclaimed king in 1928. He developed close ties to Italy, which by 1939 controlled Albania's finances and army. From 1932 Zog tried to break that hold without success. Finally, in April 1939, Albania was made a protectorate under the Italian king, and Zog went into exile in Greece, later going to France and in 1940 to Britain. From London he encouraged a national underground movement in Albania, but his hopes of returning were dashed by the establishment of a people's republic by Enver Hoxha in January 1946. He left London for Cairo in February 1946 and next moved to New York and later to Cannes, France. In 1938 he had married Geraldine Apponyi (b. Aug. 6, 1915, Budapest, Hungary - d. Oct. 22, 2002, Tiranë, Albania); they had a son, Leka.
Zölch-Balmer, Elisabeth (b. April 24, 1951, Mühlethurnen, Bern, Switzerland), president of the government of Bern (1997-98, 2002-03).
Zolotarev, Boris (Nikolayevich) (b. March 13, 1953), head of the administration of Evenkia autonomous okrug (2001-06).
Zolotas, Xenophon (Efthymiou) (b. March 26, 1904, Athens, Greece - d. June 10, 2004, Athens), prime minister of Greece (1989-90). He was a noted economist, president of the Bank of Greece (1955-67, 1974-81), and manager on behalf of Greece in the International Monetary Fund. In the 1950s he delivered some speeches in international forums using almost exclusively Greek-derived words ("It is Zeus' anathema on our epoch for the dynamism of our economies and the heresy of our economic methods and policies that we should agonize between the Scylla of numismatic plethora and the Charybdis of economic anaemia"). He served as acting minister of coordination in 1952, and as minister of coordination in the government of national unity of July-November 1974. In 1968, he resigned his Athens University chair in protest at the military dictatorship imposed in April 1967. The November 1989 elections did not produce a parliamentary majority and consequently a new coalition government was needed. After protracted negotiations, the three major parties agreed to participate in an "ecoumeniki," an all-party government, under Zolotas. The main task of this "grand coalition" was to stabilize the economy which was at the brink of bankruptcy. Indeed, the Zolotas cabinet tried to promote a consensual approach to economic and other problems, but the task proved very difficult as it was often impossible for the three partners to agree on major issues.
Zongo, Tertius (b. May 18, 1957, Koudougou, Upper Volta [now Burkina Faso]), prime minister of Burkina Faso (2007-11). He was finance minister (1997-2000) and ambassador to the United States (2002-07).
Zoric, Milorad (b. Feb. 18, 1913, Zabljak, Montenegro), justice minister of Yugoslavia (1965-67).
Zoric, Vinko (b. May 6, 1961, Sovici, near Grude [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), governor of West Herzegovina (2000-02).
Zorig, Sanjaasürengiyn (b. April 20, 1962 - d. Oct. 2, 1998, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia), Mongolian politician. He was a populist leader who led protests that toppled the Soviet-backed communist system in 1990. The government minister was axed and stabbed to death in his home by two masked assailants who tied up his wife. Tens of thousands of Mongolians turned out for the funeral of the man affectionately known as the "Golden Magpie of Democracy."
Zorn von Bulach, Hugo (Anton Marie Ernst Anna) Freiherr (b. Feb. 2, 1851, Strasbourg, France - d. April 20, 1921, Schloss Osthausen, Alsace, France), secretary of state of Alsace-Lorraine (1908-14).
Zoromé, Malick (b. 1935, Yatenga province, Upper Volta [now Burkina Faso] - d. March 30, 2012), foreign minister of Upper Volta (1967-71). He was also justice minister (1971-74).
Zorrilla Martínez, Pedro G(regorio) (b. July 30, 1933, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico), governor of Nayarit (1973-79).
Zotin, Vladislav (Maksimovich) (b. May 22, 1942), chairman of the Supreme Council (1991) and president (1991-97) of Mari El.
Zotov, Igor (Aleksandrovich) (b. Aug. 28, 1970, Klaipeda, Lithuanian S.S.R.), prime minister of Kalmykia (2012- ).
Zou Lu (b. 1885, Dapu, Guangdong, China - d. Feb. 13, 1954, Taipei, Taiwan), Chinese politician. He helped Sun Yat-sen establish the republic in 1912. In 1926 he became a member of the Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintang, serving until 1950. In 1948 he was named senior adviser to Pres. Chiang Kai-shek.
Zouari, Abderrahim, Arabic `Abd al-Rahim al-Zuwari (b. April 18, 1944, Dahmani village, western Tunisia), foreign minister of Tunisia (1997-99). He has also served as minister of justice (1991-92), youth and childhood (1993-97), education (1999), youth, childhood and sports (2001-02), sports (2002-04), tourism and craft industry (2004), and transport (2004-11) and as ambassador to Morocco (1992-93).
Zrno, Branko (b. Oct. 22, 1948, Duvno [now Tomislavgrad, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), governor of West Bosnia (2001).
Zuabi, Mahmoud, Arabic Mahmud al-Zu´bi (b. 1938, Khirbet Ghazaleh, Syria - d. May 21, 2000, Damascus, Syria), Syrian politician. After serving as speaker of parliament from 1981, he was prime minister from 1987 until he resigned in March 2000 following accusations his government had failed to implement economic and administrative reforms ordered by Pres. Hafez al-Assad in a 1999 speech marking the start of his seventh presidential term. He was sacked from the ruling Ba`th party's national command in early May 2000 after an initial party investigation found that he had violated the law during his work as prime minister. He was accused of corruption and of causing serious harm to the national economy and was sent to the judiciary for trial. Political sources said his sons, taking advantage of their father's position, had also managed to amass considerable wealth. He committed suicide a week after his properties and assets were frozen pending the outcome of his trial. He shot himself in the head at his home in Dommar district on the outskirts of Damascus and was rushed to al-Mowasat hospital in Damascus for treatment but died of his wounds.
Zubak, Kresimir (b. Nov. 29, 1947, Doboj, Bosnia and Herzegovina), Bosnian politician. He was wounded in 1992 while serving as a soldier in the Croat militia in Doboj. Separatist Serb forces burned his family home in the town that same year. He was president of Bosnia's Muslim-Croat federation (1994-97) and in 1996 won the Croat seat on the new collective Presidency. He was regarded as a relative moderate within the Croat nationalist HDZ party but a man without much of a political base outside the party. He got Western support when he left the Bosnian HDZ together with several high-ranking party officials to form New Croatian Initiative (NHI), a pro-Dayton party which had a more balanced view of Zagreb's role in Bosnia. Zubak retained his seat on the presidency when he defected from the party but he was not reelected in 1998.
Zubakin, Semyon (Ivanovich) (b. May 4, 1952), head of the republic of Altay (1998-2002).
Zubaydi, Muhammad Hamza al- (b. 1938, Babylon, Iraq - d. Dec. 2, 2005, Iraq), prime minister of Iraq (1991-93). After the U.S.-led invasion brought on the collapse of the Saddam Hussein regime he was captured on April 21, 2003, by the Iraqi opposition and turned over to the U.S. authorities for trial on war-crimes charges. He was known as the "Shi`ite Thug" for his role in the bloody suppression of the Shi`ite Muslim uprising of 1991 (tens of thousands died in the revolt) and also accused of the assassination of a top Shi`ite cleric in 1999. Zubaydi died at a U.S. military hospital.
Zubiría (Urtiague), Alberto Fermín (b. Oct. 9, 1901, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. Oct. 4, 1971, Montevideo), interior minister (1948-50) and president of the National Council of Government (1956-57) of Uruguay.
Zubkov, Viktor (Alekseyevich) (b. Sept. 15, 1941, Arbat village, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister (2007-08), first deputy prime minister (2008-12), and acting prime minister (2012) of Russia.
Zubov, Valery (Mikhailovich) (b. May 9, 1953), head of the administration of Krasnoyarsk kray (1993-98).
Zuckert, Eugene M(artin) (b. Nov. 9, 1911, New York City - d. June 5, 2000, Washington, D.C.), U.S. secretary of the Air Force (1961-65). His career in government service stretched back to 1937 when he started a three-year stint as an attorney for the Securities and Exchange Commission. After serving in the Navy during World War II, he became a special assistant to the secretary of war for air in 1946, and then an assistant secretary of the Air Force from 1947 to 1952. He spent the next two years as a member of the Atomic Energy Commission. During his tenure as Air Force secretary, the nation was involved in the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban missile crisis and saw its involvement in the war in Vietnam escalate. In addition to his government posts, Zuckert helped found Project HOPE in 1958 and served as the medical training and relief organization's board chairman from 1967 to 1981.
Zulfugarov, Tofik, Tofik also spelled Tofig, Azeri in full Tofiq Nadir oglu Zülfüqarov (b. Nov. 1, 1959, Rostov-na-Donu, Russian S.F.S.R.), foreign minister of Azerbaijan (1998-99). He has been ambassador to Latvia (2005- ) and Estonia (2007- ).
Zulu, Alexander Grey (b. Sept. 3, 1924, Chipata, Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia]), Zambian politician. He was home affairs minister (1968-70), defense minister (1970-73), and secretary-general of the ruling United National Independence Party (1973-78, 1985-91).
Zuma, Jacob (Gedleyihlekisa) (b. April 12, 1942, Inkandla, Natal [now in KwaZulu-Natal], South Africa), deputy president (1999-2005) and president (2009- ) of South Africa. Zuma, who joined the African National Congress (ANC) in 1959, spent time in prison on Robben Island under apartheid and on his release went into exile where he rose to head the ANC's intelligence department. Minister for economic affairs and tourism in KwaZulu-Natal (1994-96) and deputy president of the ANC (1997-2007), Zuma, an ethnic Zulu, played a key role in brokering peace between the ANC and the Inkatha Freedom Party in strife-torn KwaZulu-Natal and was a key ally of Pres. Thabo Mbeki. As provincial minister his friendship with businessman Schabir Shaik intensified and he allegedly became involved in furthering Shaik's business empire. When a possible conflict of interest between Shaik's successful bid in a 6-billion-rand corvette subcontract and his brother, Chippy Shaik, the chief weapons acquisition officer of the state, became the subject of an investigation by the Directorate of Special Operations (the Scorpions), Zuma's alleged involvement in helping to safeguard Shaik and his business partners in return for a bribe surfaced almost accidentally. After Shaik was convicted of fraud and corruption and sentenced to 15 years imprisonment in June 2005, Mbeki dismissed Zuma as deputy president. He was charged with rape in December 2005 but was acquitted in May 2006. In September 2006 he was also cleared of corruption charges. In December 2007 he challenged Mbeki and was elected ANC chairman; he rallied those who thought Mbeki was moving too slowly to lift millions out of poverty and was too aloof from the grass roots. Later that month Zuma was charged again with corruption, racketeering, fraud, and money laundering; the charges were thrown out in September 2008, taken up again in January 2009, and dropped again in April - just before he was elected president.
Zuquilanda (Duque), Patricio (b. Guayaquil, Ecuador), foreign minister of Ecuador (2003-05).
Zurabishvili(-Kashia), Salome (Levanis asuli), French spelling Salomé Zourabichvili(-Kachia) (b. March 18, 1952, Paris, France), foreign minister of Georgia (2004-05). She was a descendant of 19th-century Georgian writer Niko Nikoladze. The family emigrated to France early in the 20th century. She became a French diplomat of international standing, working in the United States, the European Union, and NATO and heading the international department of France's national security general secretariat until becoming ambassador to Georgia in 2003. In 2004 Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili picked her to be his foreign minister, saying he had cleared the appointment with French Pres. Jacques Chirac. Calling the appointment "unprecedented in the history of diplomacy," Saakashvili said he would grant her Georgian citizenship in addition to her French passport. In 2005 she was dismissed. She had come under increasing criticism from parliament, where many lawmakers criticized her work as inefficient. Some of her subordinates, including ambassadors to the United Nations, Russia, and Ukraine, said she was difficult to work with.
Zuylen van Nijevelt, Jan Adriaan baron van (b. Aug. 25, 1776, Rotterdam, Netherlands - d. March 29, 1840, Leeuwarden, Netherlands), governor of Friesland (1826-40).
Zuzul, Miomir (b. June 19, 1955, Split, Croatia), foreign minister of Croatia (2003-05). He was ambassador to Washington in 1996-2000. He survived a no-confidence vote in parliament in November 2004 following media allegations that he took €19,000 ($25,000) in bribes through his wife's company in a privatization case. He denied any wrongdoing but nevertheless resigned in January 2005, acknowledging that he could become a "burden for the government."
Zvizdic, Denis (b. June 9, 1964, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), premier of Sarajevo canton (2003-06).
Zvyahilsky, Yukhym (Leonidovych) (b. Feb. 20, 1933, Donetsk, Ukrainian S.S.R.), acting prime minister of Ukraine (1993-94).
Zyazikov, Murat (Magometovich) (b. Sept. 10, 1957, Osh, Kirgiz S.S.R.), president of Ingushetia (2002-08).
Zyuganov, Gennady (Andreyevich) (b. June 26, 1944, Mymrino, Oryol oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), Russian politician. He joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) in 1966 and held positions in Oryol oblast as head of the Komsomol and as chief for ideology and propaganda. He moved from regional propaganda work on to Moscow in 1989 as deputy head of the Central Committee's Ideology Department. He joined party conservatives in 1990 to oppose Mikhail Gorbachev's reforms, and dabbled in nationalism, sitting on the board of the ultranationalist newspaper Dyen. He became a member of the Politburo in the Russian branch of the Soviet Communist Party in 1990. The Communist Party was banned in 1991, but he revived and revamped it in 1993 as Communist Party of the Russian Federation, and it finished first in December's parliamentary elections. He emerged as a serious challenger to Pres. Boris Yeltsin as the promises of a capitalist society never materialized for many people while economic power was concentrated in the hands of a few and violent crime increased. He won 32% of the vote in the first round of the 1996 presidential election and 40% in the runoff. Yeltsin won after a campaign in which national media threw almost all their influence behind the Kremlin leader. In 2000 Zyuganov ran against Vladimir Putin and placed second again, with 29%. Zyuganov is scarcely charismatic, but his apparent honesty and criticism of corruption guaranteed him a chunk of popularity. Although the party still had the largest number of seats in parliament, it was not able to wield its power effectively. In 2004 a splinter group held its own party congress and deposed Zyuganov, but the Justice Ministry ruled that it was illegitimate. He was again a candidate in the 2008 presidential election, taking 18% of the vote, and in 2012, with 17%.
Zywno, Maciej (Zenon) (b. 1976), governor of Podlaskie województwo (2007- ).