Rulers

Countries Na-Ne

Contents of this page:
Namibia - Nauru - Nepal - The Netherlands - New Caledonia - New Zealand

Nagorno-Karabakh: see under Azerbaijan.

Namibia

24 Apr 1884                German South West Africa protectorate
 9 Jul 1915                occupation by South African forces
17 Dec 1920                League of Nations mandate (administered by South Africa)
27 Oct 1966                United Nations General Assembly terminates the mandate
                           and puts South West Africa under direct UN responsibility;
                           South Africa does not recognize this and continues to
                           exercise de facto authority
12 Jun 1968                South West Africa renamed Namibia by UN
21 Mar 1990                independence (Republic of Namibia)

UN commissioners
13 Jun 1967 -  1 Jan 1970  Konstantinos Stavropoulos (Greece) (b. 1905 - d. 1984)
                           (acting)
 1 Jan 1970 -  1 Jan 1974  Agha Abdul Hamid (Pakistan)        (b. 1912)
                           (acting)
 1 Jan 1974 -  1 Jan 1977  Seán MacBride (Ireland)            (b. 1904 - d. 1988)
 1 Jan 1977 -  1 Apr 1982  Martti Ahtisaari (Finland)         (b. 1937)
 1 Apr 1982 -  1 Jul 1987  Brajesh Chandra Mishra (India)     (b. 1928 - d. 2012)
 1 Jul 1987 - 21 Dec 1988  Bernt Carlsson (Sweden)            (b. 1938 - d. 1988)

Commissioners (from Nov 1893, Landeshauptleute; from 18 Apr 1898, governors) May 1885 - Aug 1890 Heinrich Ernst Göring (acting) (b. 1839 - d. 1913) Aug 1890 - Mar 1891 Louis Nels (acting) (b. 1855 - d. 1910) Mar 1891 - 15 Mar 1894 Curt von François (b. 1852 - d. 1931) 15 Mar 1894 - 19 Aug 1905 Theodor von Leutwein (b. 1849 - d. 1921) (acting to 27 Jun 1895) 19 Aug 1905 - 20 May 1907 Friedrich von Lindequist (b. 1862 - d. 1945) 20 May 1907 - 20 Jun 1910 Bruno von Schuckmann (b. 1857 - d. 1919) 28 Aug 1910 - 9 Jul 1915 Theodor Seitz (b. 1863 - d. 1949) Military governor 11 Jul 1915 - 30 Oct 1915 P.S. Beves (b. 1868 - d. 1924) Administrators 31 Oct 1915 - 1 Oct 1920 Sir Edmond Howard Lacam Gorges (b. 1872 - d. 1924) 1 Oct 1920 - 1 Apr 1926 Gysbert Reitz Hofmeyr (b. 1871 - d. 1942) 1 Apr 1926 - 1 Apr 1933 Albertus Johannes Werth (b. 1888 - d. 1948) 1 Apr 1933 - 1 Apr 1943 David Gideon Conradie (b. 1879 - d. 1966) 1 Apr 1943 - 6 Dec 1951 Petrus Imker Hoogenhout (b. 1884 - d. 1970) 6 Dec 1951 - 1 Dec 1953 Albertus Johannes Roux van Rhijn (b. 1890 - d. 1971) 1 Dec 1953 - 1 Dec 1963 Daniel Thomas du Plessis Viljoen (b. 1892 - d. 1972) 1 Dec 1963 - 1 Nov 1968 Wentzel Christoffel du Plessis (b. 1904) 1 Nov 1968 - 1 Nov 1971 Johannes Gert Hendrik van der Wath (b. 1903 - d. 1986) 1 Nov 1971 - 1 Sep 1977 Barend Johannes van der Walt (b. 1914) Administrators-general 1 Sep 1977 - 7 Aug 1979 Marthinus T. Steyn (b. 1920 - d. 1998) 7 Aug 1979 - 4 Sep 1980 Gerrit Viljoen (b. 1926 - d. 2009) 4 Sep 1980 - 1 Feb 1983 Danie Hough (b. 1937) 1 Feb 1983 - 1 Jul 1985 Willie van Niekerk (b. 1937) 1 Jul 1985 - 21 Mar 1990 Louis Pienaar (b. 1926 - d. 2012) Presidents 21 Mar 1990 - 21 Mar 2005 Sam Nujoma (b. 1929) 21 Mar 2005 - Hifikepunye Pohamba (b. 1935)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers 1 Jul 1980 - 18 Jan 1983 Dirk Mudge (b. 1928) Chief Executive Officer 19 Jan 1983 - 17 Jun 1985 Jan F. Greebe Chairmen of the Transitional Government of National Unity 17 Jun 1985 - 16 Sep 1985 Dawid Bezuidenhout (1st time) (b. 1935 - d. 1998) 17 Sep 1985 - 16 Dec 1985 Hans Diergaardt (b. 1927 - d. 1998) 17 Dec 1985 - 16 Mar 1986 Moses Katjikuru Katjiuongua (1st time) (b. 1942 - d. 2011) 17 Mar 1986 - 16 Jun 1986 Fanuel Kozonguizi (b. 1932 - d. 1995) 17 Jun 1986 - 16 Sep 1986 Andrew Matjila (1st time) (b. 1932) 17 Sep 1986 - 16 Dec 1986 Dirk Mudge (1st time) (s.a.) 17 Dec 1986 - 31 Jan 1987 Eben van Zijl (b. 1931 - d. 2009) 1 Feb 1987 - 30 Apr 1987 Andreas Shipanga (1st time) (b. 1931 - d. 2012) 1 May 1987 - 31 Jul 1987 Dawid Bezuidenhout (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Aug 1987 - 17 Jan 1988 Jan de Wet (b. 1927 - d. 2011) 18 Jan 1988 - 17 Apr 1988 Moses Katjikuru Katjiuongua (2nd time) (s.a.) 18 Apr 1988 - 17 Jul 1988 Andrew Matjila (2nd time) (s.a.) 18 Jul 1988 - 17 Oct 1988 Dirk Mudge (2nd time) (s.a.) 18 Oct 1988 - Dec 1988 Andreas Shipanga (2nd time) (s.a.) Dec 1988 - Jan 1989 Andrew Matjila (3rd time) (s.a.) Jan 1989 - 28 Feb 1989 Harry Booysen (b. 1943) Prime ministers 21 Mar 1990 - 28 Aug 2002 Hage Geingob (1st time) (b. 1941) 28 Aug 2002 - 21 Mar 2005 Theo-Ben Gurirab (b. 1939) 21 Mar 2005 - 4 Dec 2012 Nahas Angula (b. 1943) 4 Dec 2012 - Hage Geingob (2nd time) (s.a.)

Upingtonia/Lijdensrust

20 Oct 1885                "Republic Upingtonia" settler polity founded
       1886                name changed to Lijdensrust
   Jun 1887                republic dissolved

President
20 Oct 1885 -    Jun 1887  George Diederik P. Prinsloo        (b. 1820 - d. 1888)

Naples: see under Italian states.
Natal: see under South Africa.

Nauru

14 Apr 1888                part of (German) Marshall Islands
 1 Apr 1906                part of German New Guinea (see under Papua New Guinea)
 7 Sep 1914                Australian occupation
17 Dec 1920                League of Nations mandate (to Australia, New Zealand, and
                           United Kingdom; actual administration by Australia)
26 Aug 1942 - 13 Sep 1945  Japanese occupation
 1 Nov 1947                United Nations trust territory (to Australia, New Zealand,
                           and United Kingdom; actual administration by Australia)
31 Jan 1968                independence (Republic of Nauru)

Administrators
25 Dec 1914 -    Dec 1917  Charles Rufus Marshall Workman     (b. 1874 - d. 1942)
   Dec 1917 - 10 Jun 1921  Geoffrey Bingham Whistler
                           Smith-Rewse                        (b. 1878 - d. 1927)
10 Jun 1921 -    Jun 1927  Thomas Griffiths                   (b. 1865 - d. 1947)
   Jun 1927 - 16 Jan 1933  William Augustin Newman            (b. 1873 - d. 19...)
16 Jan 1933 -    Nov 1938  Rupert C. Garsia                   (b. 1887 - d. 1954)
   Nov 1938 - 26 Aug 1942  Frederick Roydon Chalmers          (b. 1881 - d. 1943)
Japanese commanders
26 Aug 1942 -    Mar 1943  Hiromi Nakayama                    (b. ... - d. 1946)
   Mar 1943 -    Jul 1943  Takenao Takenouchi
   Jul 1943 - 13 Sep 1945  Hisayuki Soeda
Administrators
13 Sep 1945 -  1 Nov 1945  Joseph Lawrence Andrew Kelly       (b. 1907 - d. 1970)
 1 Nov 1945 -    Aug 1949  Mark Ridgway                       (b. 1891 - d. 1984)
   Aug 1949 -    Nov 1949  Harold Hastings Reeve (acting)     (b. 1908)
   Nov 1949 -    Jan 1953  Robert Stanley Richards            (b. 1885 - d. 1967)
   Jan 1953 -    Dec 1953  John Keith Lawrence (acting)       (b. 1910)
   Dec 1953 -    Jul 1954  K.A. Read (acting)
   Jul 1954 -    May 1958  Reginald Sylvester Leydin
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1905)
   May 1958 -    Apr 1962  John Preston White                 (b. 1914)
   May 1962 -    Apr 1966  Reginald Sylvester Leydin
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
   May 1966 - 31 Jan 1968  Leslie Dudley King                 (b. 1909)
Presidents
31 Jan 1968 - 22 Dec 1976  Hammer DeRoburt (1st time)         (b. 1922 - d. 1992)
                           (chairman Council of State to 18 May 1968)
22 Dec 1976 - 19 Apr 1978  Bernard Dowiyogo (1st time)        (b. 1946 - d. 2003)
19 Apr 1978 - 15 May 1978  Lagumot Harris (1st time)          (b. 1938 - d. 1999)
15 May 1978 - 17 Sep 1986  Hammer DeRoburt (2nd time)         (s.a.)
17 Sep 1986 -  1 Oct 1986  Kennan Adeang (1st time)           (b. 1942 - d. 2011)
 1 Oct 1986 - 12 Dec 1986  Hammer DeRoburt (3rd time)         (s.a.)
12 Dec 1986 - 21 Dec 1986  Kennan Adeang (2nd time)           (s.a.)
21 Dec 1986 - 17 Aug 1989  Hammer DeRoburt (4th time)         (s.a.)
17 Aug 1989 - 12 Dec 1989  Kenas Aroi                         (b. 1942 - d. 1991)
12 Dec 1989 - 22 Nov 1995  Bernard Dowiyogo (2nd time)        (s.a.)
22 Nov 1995 - 11 Nov 1996  Lagumot Harris (2nd time)          (s.a.)
11 Nov 1996 - 26 Nov 1996  Bernard Dowiyogo (3rd time)        (s.a.)
26 Nov 1996 - 19 Dec 1996  Kennan Adeang (3rd time)           (s.a.)
19 Dec 1996 - 12 Feb 1997  Reuben Kun                         (b. 1942)
12 Feb 1997 - 18 Jun 1998  Kinza Clodumar                     (b. 1945)
18 Jun 1998 - 27 Apr 1999  Bernard Dowiyogo (4th time)        (s.a.)
27 Apr 1999 - 20 Apr 2000  René Harris (1st time)             (b. 1947 - d. 2008)
20 Apr 2000 - 30 Mar 2001  Bernard Dowiyogo (5th time)        (s.a.)
30 Mar 2001 -  9 Jan 2003  René Harris (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 9 Jan 2003 - 17 Jan 2003  Bernard Dowiyogo (6th time)        (s.a.)
17 Jan 2003 - 18 Jan 2003  René Harris (3rd time)             (s.a.)
18 Jan 2003 - 10 Mar 2003  Bernard Dowiyogo (7th time)        (s.a.)
10 Mar 2003 - 29 May 2003  Derog Gioura                       (b. 1932 - d. 2008)
                           (acting to 20 Mar 2003)
29 May 2003 -  8 Aug 2003  Ludwig Scotty (1st time)           (b. 1948)
 8 Aug 2003 - 22 Jun 2004  René Harris (4th time)             (s.a.)
22 Jun 2004 - 19 Dec 2007  Ludwig Scotty (2nd time)           (s.a.)
19 Dec 2007 - 10 Nov 2011  Marcus Stephen                     (b. 1969)
10 Nov 2011 - 15 Nov 2011  Frederick Pitcher                  (b. 1967)
15 Nov 2011 - 11 Jun 2013  Sprent Dabwido                     (b. 1972)
11 Jun 2013 -              Baron Waqa                         (b. 1959)

Nejd: see under Saudi Arabia.

Nepal

        643                Licchavi (Suryavamsa) dynasty restored; usually called Malla
                           dynasty after reign of Jayasthitirajamalladeva (1382-95)
       1484                joint rulers divide the state into three kingdoms, named
                           after their capitals Bhaktapura (Bhatgaon), Banikapura
                           (Banepa), and Kantipura (Kathmandu)
       1546                additional division creates kingdom of Lalitapura
                           (Lalitapatan)
       16..                Banikapura annexed by Bhaktapura
25 Sep 1768                the last ruler of Gorkha unifies the Kingdom of Nepal under
                           the Shah (Saha) dynasty
       1816 - 21 Dec 1923  de facto British protectorate
15 Jan 2007                State of Nepal
28 May 2008                Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal

Bhaktapura (Bhatgaon)

Kings¹
       1696 -        1722  Sri Jayabhupatindramalla
       1722 - 13 Nov 1769  Jyaranajitamalla

Kantipura (Kathmandu)

Kings¹
       1687 -        1700  Jayabhupalendramalla
                           = Jayamahipatindramalla
       1700 -        1722  Jayabhaskaramalla
                           = Jayamahendrasimhamalla
       1722 -        1734  Jayajagajjayamalla
       1735 -        1746  Jayaprakasamalla (1st time)
       1746 -        1752  Jayajyotiprakasamalla
       1752 - 25 Sep 1768  Jayaprakasamalla (2nd time)

Lalitapura (Lalitapatan)

Kings¹
       1684 -        1705  Jayayoganarendramalla
       1705 -        1706  Jayalokaprakasamalla
       1706 -        1709  Jayendramalla
       1709                Jayamahendramalla (1st time)
       1709                Jayaviranarasimhamalla
       1709 -        1714  Jayamahendramalla (2nd time)
       1715 -        1717  Jayariddhinarasimhamalla
       1717 -        1722  Jayabhaskaramalla
                           = Jayamahendrasimhamalla
       1722 -        1729  Jayayogaprakasamalla
       1729 -        1745  Sri Jayavishnumalla
       1745 -        1758  Jayarajyaprakasamalla
       1758 -        1760  Jayavisvajitmalla
       1760 -        1762  Jayaprakasamalla (1st time)
       1762 -        1763  Jayaranajitmalla
       1763                Jayaprakasamalla (2nd time)
       1764 -        1765  Dalamardana Saha
                           (usurper, Saha dynasty of Gorkha)
       1765 -    Oct 1768  Jayatejanarayanasimhamalla

Gorkha

Rajas
- Saha dynasty -
       1669 -        1716  Prithvipati Saha                   (b. ... - d. 1716)
       1716 -        1742  Narabhpati Saha                    (b. ... - d. 1742)
       1742 - 25 Sep 1768  Prithvinarayana Saha               (b. 1723 - d. 1775)

Nepal

Kings (title Maharajadhiraja)
- Shah (Saha) dynasty -
25 Sep 1768 - 11 Jan 1775  Prithivi Narayan Shah Deva         (s.a.)
11 Jan 1775 - 17 Nov 1777  Sinha Pratap Shah Deva             (b. 1751 - d. 1777)
17 Nov 1777 - 23 Mar 1799  Rana Bahadur Shah Deva             (b. 1775 - d. 1806)
17 Nov 1777 - 31 Aug 1778    Rajendra Lakshmi (f) (1st time)
                             (regent)                         (b. ... - d. 1785)
 2 Sep 1778 - 20 Jun 1779    Bahadur Shah (1st time) (regent) (b. 1757 - d. 1797)
20 Jun 1779 - 13 Jul 1785    Rajendra Lakshmi (f) (2nd time)
                             (regent)                         (s.a.)
13 Jul 1785 -  6 Jun 1794    Bahadur Shah (2nd time) (regent) (s.a.)
23 Mar 1799 - 20 Nov 1816  Girvan Yuddha Bikram Shah Deva     (b. 1797 - d. 1816)
23 Mar 1799 -    Apr 1800    Rajeshwari Devi (f) (1st time)   (b. 17... - d. 1806)
                             (regent)
   Apr 1800 -        1802    Subarna Prabha Devi (f) (regent) (b. 17... - d. 1806)
       1802 -        1804    Rajeshwari Devi (f) (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             (regent)
       1804 - 25 Apr 1806    Rana Bahadur Shah Deva (regent)  (s.a.)
25 Apr 1806 -  6 Apr 1832    Lalit Tripura Sundari (f)        (b. 1794 - d. 1832)
                             (regent)
20 Nov 1816 - 12 May 1847  Rajendra Bikram Shah Deva          (b. 1813 - d. 1881)
 5 Jan 1843 -    Nov 1846    Rajya Lakshmi Devi (f) (regent)
12 May 1847 - 17 May 1881  Surendra Bikram Shah Deva          (b. 1829 - d. 1881)
17 May 1881 - 11 Dec 1911  Prithivi Bir Bikram Shah Deva      (b. 1875 - d. 1911)
11 Dec 1911 -  7 Nov 1950  Tribhuvana Bir Bikram Shah Deva
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1906 - d. 1955)
 7 Nov 1950 -  7 Jan 1951  Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Deva
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1947)
 7 Jan 1951 - 13 Mar 1955  Tribhuvana Bir Bikram Shah Deva
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
14 Mar 1955 - 31 Jan 1972  Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Deva      (b. 1920 - d. 1972)
31 Jan 1972 -  1 Jun 2001  Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Deva      (b. 1945 - d. 2001)
 1 Jun 2001 -  4 Jun 2001  Dipendra Bir Bikram Shah Deva      (b. 1971 - d. 2001)
 4 Jun 2001 - 28 May 2008  Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Deva
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
                           (regent for Dipendra 2-4 Jun 2001;
                           suspended from 15 Jan 2007)
15 Jan 2007 - 23 Jul 2008  Girija Prasad Koirala              (b. 1924 - d. 2010)
                           (acting head of state)
President
23 Jul 2008 -              Ram Baran Yadav                    (b. 1948)

Prime ministers 1799 - 1804 Damodar Pande (b. 17... - d. 1804) 1804 - 25 Apr 1806 Rana Bahadur Shah Deva (s.a.) 1806 - 1837 Bhimsen Thapa (b. 1775 - d. 1839) 1837 Rana Jang Pande (1st time) (b. ... - d. 1843) 1837 - 1838 Ranganath Poudel (1st time) 1838 - 1839 Puskar Shah 1839 - 1840 Rana Jang Pande (2nd time) (s.a.) 1840 Ranganath Poudel (2nd time) 1840 - 1843 Fateh Jang Chautaria (1st time) (b. 1805 - d. 1846) 28 Nov 1843 - 17 May 1845 Madhabar Singh Thapa (b. 1798 - d. 1845) Sep 1845 - 14 Sep 1846 Fateh Jang Chautaria (2nd time) (s.a.) 15 Sep 1846 - 1 Aug 1856 Jang Bahadur Kunwar (from 5 May 1848, Jang Bahadur Rana) (1st time) (b. 1817 - d. 1877) 1 Aug 1856 - 25 May 1857 Bam Bahadur Kunwar Rana (b. 1818 - d. 1857) 25 May 1857 - 28 Jun 1857 Krishna Bahadur Kunwar Rana (b. 1823 - d. 1863) (acting) 28 Jun 1857 - 25 Feb 1877 Jang Bahadur Rana (2nd time) (s.a.) 27 Feb 1877 - 22 Nov 1885 Ranaudip Singh (b. 1825 - d. 1885) 22 Nov 1885 - 5 Mar 1901 Bir Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana (b. 1852 - d. 1901) 5 Mar 1901 - 27 Jun 1901 Deva Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana (b. 1862 - d. 1914) 27 Jun 1901 - 26 Nov 1929 Chandra Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana (b. 1863 - d. 1929) Nov 1929 - 1 Sep 1932 Bhim Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana (b. 1865 - d. 1932) 1 Sep 1932 - 29 Nov 1945 Juddha Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana (b. 1875 - d. 1952) 29 Nov 1945 - 30 Apr 1948 Padma Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana (b. 1882 - d. 1961) 30 Apr 1948 - 12 Nov 1951 Mohan Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana (b. 1885 - d. 1967) 16 Nov 1951 - 13 Aug 1952 Matrika Prasad Koirala (1st time) (b. 1912 - d. 1997) 15 Jun 1953 - 2 Mar 1955 Matrika Prasad Koirala (2nd time) (s.a.) 27 Jan 1956 - 26 Jul 1957 Tanka Prasad Acharya (b. 1912 - d. 1992) 26 Jul 1957 - 14 Nov 1957 Kunwar Indrajit Singh (b. 1906 - d. 1982) 15 May 1958 - 27 May 1959 Subarna Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana (b. 1910 - d. 1977) 27 May 1959 - 15 Dec 1960 Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala (b. 1914 - d. 1982) 26 Dec 1960 - 23 Dec 1963 Tulsi Giri (1st time) (b. 1926) (first minister to 2 Apr 1963) 23 Dec 1963 - 26 Feb 1964 Surya Bahadur Thapa (1st time) (b. 1928) 26 Feb 1964 - 26 Jan 1965 Tulsi Giri (2nd time) (s.a.) 26 Jan 1965 - 7 Apr 1969 Surya Bahadur Thapa (2nd time) (s.a.) 7 Apr 1969 - 13 Apr 1970 Kirti Nidhi Bista (1st time) (b. 1927) 13 Apr 1970 - 14 Apr 1971 Gehendra Bahadur Rajbhandari (b. 1923 - d. ...) (first minister) 14 Apr 1971 - 16 Jul 1973 Kirti Nidhi Bista (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 Jul 1973 - 1 Dec 1975 Nagendra Prasad Rijal (1st time) (b. 1927 - d. 1994) 1 Dec 1975 - 12 Sep 1977 Tulsi Giri (3rd time) (s.a.) 12 Sep 1977 - 30 May 1979 Kirti Nidhi Bista (3rd time) (s.a.) 30 May 1979 - 12 Jul 1983 Surya Bahadur Thapa (3rd time) (s.a.) 12 Jul 1983 - 21 Mar 1986 Lokendra Bahadur Chand (1st time) (b. 1940) 21 Mar 1986 - 15 Jun 1986 Nagendra Prasad Rijal (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting) 15 Jun 1986 - 6 Apr 1990 Marich Man Singh Shrestha (b. 1942 - d. 2013) 6 Apr 1990 - 19 Apr 1990 Lokendra Bahadur Chand (2nd time) (s.a.) 19 Apr 1990 - 26 May 1991 Krishna Prasad Bhattarai (1st time) (b. 1924 - d. 2011) 26 May 1991 - 30 Nov 1994 Girija Prasad Koirala (1st time) (s.a.) 30 Nov 1994 - 12 Sep 1995 Man Mohan Adhikari (b. 1920 - d. 1999) 12 Sep 1995 - 12 Mar 1997 Sher Bahadur Deuba (1st time) (b. 1946) 12 Mar 1997 - 7 Oct 1997 Lokendra Bahadur Chand (3rd time) (s.a.) 7 Oct 1997 - 15 Apr 1998 Surya Bahadur Thapa (4th time) (s.a.) 15 Apr 1998 - 31 May 1999 Girija Prasad Koirala (2nd time) (s.a.) 31 May 1999 - 22 Mar 2000 Krishna Prasad Bhattarai (2nd time) (s.a.) 22 Mar 2000 - 26 Jul 2001 Girija Prasad Koirala (3rd time) (s.a.) 26 Jul 2001 - 4 Oct 2002 Sher Bahadur Deuba (2nd time) (s.a.) 11 Oct 2002 - 5 Jun 2003 Lokendra Bahadur Chand (4th time) (s.a.) 5 Jun 2003 - 3 Jun 2004 Surya Bahadur Thapa (5th time) (s.a.) 3 Jun 2004 - 1 Feb 2005 Sher Bahadur Deuba (3rd time) (s.a.) 30 Apr 2006 - 18 Aug 2008 Girija Prasad Koirala (4th time) (s.a.) 18 Aug 2008 - 25 May 2009 Pushpa Kamal Dahal (b. 1954) 25 May 2009 - 6 Feb 2011 Madhav Kumar Nepal (b. 1953) 6 Feb 2011 - 29 Aug 2011 Jhalanath Khanal (b. 1950) 29 Aug 2011 - 14 Mar 2013 Baburam Bhattarai (b. 1954) 14 Mar 2013 - 11 Feb 2014 Khil Raj Regmi (b. 1949) 11 Feb 2014 - Sushil Koirala (b. 1939) British residents 1816 I.P. Boileau (acting) 1816 - 1829 Edward Gardner 1829 - 1831 Brian Houghton Hodgson (1st time) (b. 1800 - d. 1894) (acting) 1831 - 1833 Thomas Herbert Maddock (b. 1792 - d. 1870) 1833 - 1843 Brian Houghton Hodgson (2nd time) (s.a.) 1843 - 1845 Henry Lawrence (b. 1806 - d. 1857) 1845 - 1846 John Russell Colvin (b. 1807 - d. 1857) 1846 - 1850 Charles Thoresby 1850 - 1852 John Cadwallader Erskine (b. 1804 - d. 1882) 1852 - 1867 George Ramsay (b. 1812 - d. 1887) 1867 - 1872 Richard Charles Lawrence (b. 1817 - d. 1896) 1872 - 1888 Charles Edward Ridgway Girdlestone (b. 1839 - d. 1889) 1888 - 1891 Edward Law Durand (b. 1845 - d. 1920) 1891 - 1899 Henry Wylie (b. 1844 - d. 1918) 1899 Archibald Mungo Muir (b. 1847 - d. 1899) 1899 - 1901 William Loch (b. 1846 - d. 1901) 1901 - 1902 Thomas Caldwell Pears (b. 1851 - d. 1921) 1902 - 1905 Charles Withers Ravenshaw (b. 1851 - d. 1935) 1905 - 1916 John Manners Smith (b. 1864 - d. 1920) 1916 - 1918 Steuart Farquharson Bayley (b. 1863 - d. 1938) 1918 - 1923 Frederick O'Connor (b. 1870 - d. 1943) (from 1920 envoy)
¹Style of Licchavi rulers from c.1200: Rajadhiraja Paramesvara Paramabhattaraka Sri Sri N.N. Vijayarajye Nepala.

Mustang

 7 Oct 2008                traditional kingship abolished

Kings (title Glo rgyal-po)
       1656 -        1710  Sa-dbang                           (b. c.1639 - d. 17...)
       1711 -        1723  Tshe-dbang                         (b. ... - d. bf.1725)
       1723 -      c.1728  bKra-shis-rnam-rgyal               (b. ... - d. c.1728)
     c.1728 -      c.1750  bsTan-'dzin-dbang-rgyal            (b. c.1717 - d. c.1750)
     c.1728 -        1734    Nor-dzin bde-legs dbang-mo (f)   (b. ... - d. af.1735)
                             (regent)
     c.1750 -        1797  dBang-rgyal-rdo-rje                (b. c.1738 - d. 1797)
       1797 -        1815  bKra-shis-sñin-po
       1815 -        1837  'Jam-dpal-dgra-'ldus               (b. ... - d. 1837)
       1837 -        1857  Kun-dga'-nor-bu                    (b. ... - d. 1857)
       1857 -        1863  'Jam-dbyangs-dban-'dus             (b. ... - d. 1863)
       1863 -        1893  dNgos-grub-dpal-'bar               (b. ... - d. 1893)
       1863 -        1868    rGyal-mo Tshe-mchog sGrol-ma (f) (b. ... - d. 1871)
                             (regent)
       1893 -        1935  'Jam-dbyangs-dpal-'bar             (b. ... - d. 1935)
       1935 -        1955  A-mgon-bsTan-'dzin-dgra-'dul
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1923 - d. 1964)
       1955 -        1958  A-ngdu-sñin-po                     (b. 19... - d. 1958)
       1958 -        1964  A-mgon-bsTan-'dzin-dgra-'dul
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1964 -  7 Oct 2008  'Jigs-med-rdo-rje-dgra-'dul
                           = 'Jigs-med-dpal-'bar Bista        (b. 1930)

Netherlands, The

26 Jul 1581                the Staten-Generaal (Estates-General, usually
                           mistranslated States-General) becomes the supreme authority
                           of the United Netherlands; from c.1648 in regular
                           non-official use Republic of the United Netherlands or
                           Republic of the United Provinces
30 Jan 1648                independence recognized by Spain
22 Nov 1747                hereditability of office of stadholder in all provinces
                           enacted; style becomes General Hereditary Stadholder of the
                           United Netherlands
16 Feb 1795                office of stadholder abolished by Staten-Generaal,
                           now styled Algemene Staten (General Estates)
16 May 1795                Batavian Republic (in informal official use from 19 Jan 1795)
                           (from 17 Oct 1801 also Batavian Commonwealth)
29 Apr 1805                Batavian Commonwealth
 5 Jun 1806                Kingdom of Holland
13 Jul 1810                annexed by France
21 Nov 1813                United Netherlands
16 Mar 1815                Kingdom of the Netherlands
10 May 1940 -  5 May 1945    German occupation

Stadholders
22 Nov 1747¹- 22 Oct 1751  Willem IV Karel Hendrik Friso      (b. 1711 - d. 1751)
22 Oct 1751 - 16 Feb 1795  Willem V Batavus                   (b. 1748 - d. 1806)
                           (in exile from 17 Jan 1795; rule interrupted in parts of the
                           Netherlands 1785-87)
22 Oct 1751 - 12 Jan 1759    Princess Anne (f) (regent)       (b. 1709 - d. 1759)
Presidents of the Revolutionary Committee
17 Jan 1795 -        1795  Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck        (b. 1761 - d. 1825)
       1795                Wijbo Fijnje                       (b. 1750 - d. 1809)
       1795 -  6 Feb 1795  Pieter Paulus                      (b. 1754 - d. 1796)
Presidents of the General Estates
30 Mar 1795 -  6 Apr 1795  Johannes Lambertus Huber
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1750 - d. 1826)
 5 May 1795 -    May 1795  Pieter Paulus (1st time)           (s.a.)
19 May 1795 -  2 Jun 1795  Jacob George Hieronymus Hahn       (b. 1761 - d. 1822)
 6 Jul 1795 -        1795  Willem Aernout de Beveren          (b. 1749 - d. 1820)
   Sep 1795 -        1795  Pieter Paulus (2nd time)           (s.a.)
       1795 - 25 Nov 1795  Gerrit David Jordens               (b. 1734 - d. 1803)
       1795 -    Dec 1795  Pieter Pijpers                     (b. 1749 - d. 1805)
   Dec 1795 -        179.  Johannes Lambertus Huber
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
Presidents of the National Assembly (often styled National Convention in
imitation of French parallel)
 1 Mar 1796 - 17 Mar 1796  Pieter Paulus                      (s.a.)
17 Mar 1796 -  2 Apr 1796  Pieter Leonard van de Kasteele
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1748 - d. 1810)
 2 Apr 1796 - 18 Apr 1796  Albert Johan de Sitter             (b. 1748 - d. 1814)
18 Apr 1796 -  2 May 1796  Jan Bernd Bicker (1st time)        (b. 1746 - d. 1812)
 2 May 1796 - 17 May 1796  Daniël Cornelis de Leeuw           (b. 1747 - d. 1834)
17 May 1796 - 30 May 1796  Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck
                           (1st time)                         (s.a.)
30 May 1796 - 13 Jun 1796  Joan Arend de Vos van Steenwijk    (b. 1746 - d. 1813)
13 Jun 1796 - 27 Jun 1796  Jacob George Hieronymus Hahn       (s.a.)
27 Jun 1796 - 11 Jul 1796  Paulus Hartog                      (b. 1735 - d. 1805)
11 Jul 1796 - 25 Jul 1796  Willem Aernout de Beveren          (s.a.)
25 Jul 1796 -  8 Aug 1796  Ludovicus Timon de Kempenaer       (b. 1752 - d. 1812)
 8 Aug 1796 - 22 Aug 1796  Jan Pieter van Wickevoort
                           Crommelin                          (b. 1763 - d. 1837)
22 Aug 1796 -  5 Sep 1796  Paulus Emmanuel Anthony de la
                           Court                              (b. 1760 - d. 1848)
 5 Sep 1796 - 19 Sep 1796  Jacob Jan Cambier                  (b. 1756 - d. 1831)
19 Sep 1796 -  3 Oct 1796  Jacobus Kantelaar                  (b. 1759 - d. 1821)
 3 Oct 1796 - 17 Oct 1796  Tammo Adriaan ten Berge            (b. 1756 - d. 1830)
17 Oct 1796 - 31 Oct 1796  Bernardus Blok                     (b. 1756 - d. 1818)
31 Oct 1796 - 14 Nov 1796  Gerrit David Jordens               (s.a.)
14 Nov 1796 - 28 Nov 1796  Abraham Gijsbertus Verster         (b. 1751 - d. 1841)
28 Nov 1796 - 12 Dec 1796  IJsbrand van Hamelsveld            (b. 1743 - d. 1812)
12 Dec 1796 - 27 Dec 1796  Cornelis van Lennep                (b. 1751 - d. 1813)
27 Dec 1796 -  9 Jan 1797  Jan Hendrik Stoffenberg            (b. 1749 - d. 1838)
 9 Jan 1797 - 23 Jan 1797  Lambert Engelbert van Eck          (b. 1754 - d. 1803)
23 Jan 1797 -  6 Feb 1797  Willem Queysen                     (b. 1754 - d. 1817)
 6 Feb 1797 - 20 Feb 1797  Carel de Vos van Steenwijk         (b. 1759 - d. 1830)
20 Feb 1797 -  6 Mar 1797  Hendrik van Castrop                (b. 1736 - d. 1806)
 6 Mar 1797 - 20 Mar 1797  Meinardus Siderius                 (b. 1754 - d. 1829)
20 Mar 1797 -  3 Apr 1797  Cornelis Wilhelmus de Rhoer        (b. 1751 - d. 1821)
 3 Apr 1797 - 18 Apr 1797  Jan Couperus                       (b. 1755 - d. 1833)
18 Apr 1797 -  1 May 1797  Jacob Abraham de Mist              (b. 1749 - d. 1823)
 1 May 1797 - 15 May 1797  Jan Bernd Bicker (2nd time)        (s.a.)
15 May 1797 - 29 May 1797  Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
29 May 1797 - 12 Jun 1797  Gerard Willem van Marle            (b. 1752 - d. 1799)
12 Jun 1797 - 26 Jun 1797  Herman Hendrik Vitringa            (b. 1757 - d. 1801)
26 Jun 1797 - 10 Jul 1797  Johan Herman de Lange
10 Jul 1797 - 24 Jul 1797  Ambrosius Justus Zubli             (b. 1751 - d. 1820)
24 Jul 1797 -  7 Aug 1797  Willem Hendrik Teding van Berkhout (b. 1745 - d. 1809)
 7 Aug 1797 - 21 Aug 1797  Scato Trip                         (b. 1742 - d. 1822)
21 Aug 1797 -  1 Sep 1797  Pieter Leonard van de Kasteele
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Sep 1797 - 18 Sep 1797  Jan David Pasteur                  (b. 1753 - d. 1804)
18 Sep 1797 -  2 Oct 1797  Adrianus Ploos van Amstel          (b. 1749 - d. 1816)
 2 Oct 1797 - 16 Oct 1797  Joachim Nuhout van der Veen        (b. 1756 - d. 1833)
16 Oct 1797 - 30 Oct 1797  Hugo Gevers                        (b. 1765 - d. 1852)
30 Oct 1797 - 13 Nov 1797  Jacob van Manen                    (b. 1752 - d. 1822)
13 Nov 1797 - 27 Nov 1797  Pieter Vreede                      (b. 1750 - d. 1837)
27 Nov 1797 - 11 Dec 1797  Stefanus Jacobus van Langen        (b. 1758 - d. 1847)
11 Dec 1797 - 27 Dec 1797  Jacobus Blaauw                     (b. 1756 - d. 1829)
27 Dec 1797 -  8 Jan 1798  Joan Bernard Auffmorth             (b. 1744 - d. 1831)
 8 Jan 1798 - 22 Jan 1798  Joannes Franciscus Rudolphus van
                           Hooff                              (b. 1755 - d. 1816)
22 Jan 1798 - 25 Jan 1798  Johannes Henricus Midderigh        (b. 1753 - d. 1800)
                           (president of the Constituent Assembly)
Chairmen of the Uitvoerend bewind (literally: Executive Authority; usually translated
as Executive Directory, in imitation of French parallel) (provisional to 20 May 1798)
25 Jan 1798 - 24 Feb 1798  Pieter Vreede                      (s.a.)
25 Feb 1798 - 24 Mar 1798  Wijbo Fijnje                       (s.a.)
25 Mar 1798 - 24 Apr 1798  Stefanus Jacobus van Langen        (s.a.)
25 Apr 1798 - 24 May 1798  Berend Wildrik                     (b. 1754 - d. 1831)
25 May 1798 - 12 Jun 1798  Johan Pieter Fokker                (b. 1755 - d. 1831)
12 Jun 1798 - 17 Aug 1798  Intermediair Bestuur (Interim Government);
                           from 14 Jun 1798, Intermediair uitvoerend bewind
                           (Interim Executive Authority)
                           - Jacobus Spoors
                           - Gerrit Jan Pijman                (b. 1750 - d. 1839)
                           - Isaäk Jan Alexander Gogel        (b. 1765 - d. 1821)
                           - Reinier Willem Tadama            (b. 1771 - d. 1812)
                           - Abraham Jacques La Pierre
17 Aug 1798 - 16 Sep 1798  Albert Willem Hoeth (1st time)     (b. 1758 - d. 1827)
17 Sep 1798 - 16 Oct 1798  Johannes Willem van Hasselt
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1752 - d. 1833)
17 Oct 1798 - 16 Nov 1798  François Ermerins (1st time)       (b. 1753 - d. 1840)
17 Nov 1798 - 16 Dec 1798  Anthony Frederik Robbert Evert
                           van Haersolte, heer van Staverden
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1756 - d. 1830)
17 Dec 1798 - 16 Jan 1799  Joannes Franciscus Rudolphus
                           van Hooff (1st time)               (s.a.)
17 Jan 1799 - 16 Feb 1799  Albert Willem Hoeth (2nd time)     (s.a.)
17 Feb 1799 - 16 Mar 1799  Johannes Willem van Hasselt
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
17 Mar 1799 - 16 Apr 1799  François Ermerins (2nd time)       (s.a.)
17 Apr 1799 - 16 May 1799  Anthony Frederik Robbert Evert
                           van Haersolte, heer van Staverden
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
17 May 1799 - 16 Jun 1799  Joannes Franciscus Rudolphus
                           van Hooff (2nd time)               (s.a.)
17 Jun 1799 - 16 Jul 1799  Albert Willem Hoeth (3rd time)     (s.a.)
17 Jul 1799 - 16 Aug 1799  Augustijn Gerhard Besier
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1758 - d. 1829)
17 Aug 1799 - 16 Sep 1799  François Ermerins (3rd time)       (s.a.)
17 Sep 1799 - 16 Oct 1799  Anthony Frederik Robbert Evert
                           van Haersolte, heer van Staverden
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
17 Oct 1799 - 16 Nov 1799  Joannes Franciscus Rudolphus
                           van Hooff (3rd time)               (s.a.)
17 Nov 1799 - 16 Dec 1799  Albert Willem Hoeth (4th time)     (s.a.)
17 Dec 1799 - 16 Jan 1800  Augustijn Gerhard Besier
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
17 Jan 1800 - 16 Feb 1800  François Ermerins (4th time)       (s.a.)
17 Feb 1800 - 16 Mar 1800  Anthony Frederik Robbert Evert
                           van Haersolte, heer van Staverden
                           (4th time)                         (s.a.)
17 Mar 1800 - 16 Apr 1800  Joannes Franciscus Rudolphus
                           van Hooff (4th time)               (s.a.)
17 Apr 1800 - 16 May 1800  Albert Willem Hoeth (5th time)     (s.a.)
17 May 1800 - 16 Jun 1800  Augustijn Gerhard Besier
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
17 Jun 1800 - 16 Jul 1800  François Ermerins (5th time)       (s.a.)
17 Jul 1800 - 16 Aug 1800  Anthony Frederik Robbert Evert
                           van Haersolte, heer van Staverden
                           (5th time)                         (s.a.)
17 Aug 1800 - 16 Sep 1800  Jan Hendrik van Swinden (1st time) (b. 1746 - d. 1823)
17 Sep 1800 - 16 Oct 1800  Albert Willem Hoeth (6th time)     (s.a.)
17 Oct 1800 - 16 Nov 1800  Augustijn Gerhard Besier
                           (4th time)                         (s.a.)
17 Nov 1800 - 16 Dec 1800  François Ermerins (6th time)       (s.a.)
17 Dec 1800 - 16 Jan 1801  Anthony Frederik Robbert Evert
                           van Haersolte, heer van Staverden
                           (6th time)                         (s.a.)
17 Jan 1801 - 16 Feb 1801  Jan Hendrik van Swinden (2nd time) (s.a.)
17 Feb 1801 - 16 Mar 1801  Albert Willem Hoeth (7th time)     (s.a.)
17 Mar 1801 - 16 Apr 1801  Augustijn Gerhard Besier
                           (5th time)                         (s.a.)
17 Apr 1801 - 16 May 1801  François Ermerins (7th time)       (s.a.)
17 May 1801 - 16 Jun 1801  Anthony Frederik Robbert Evert
                           van Haersolte, heer van Staverden
                           (7th time)                         (s.a.)
17 Jun 1801 - 16 Jul 1801  Jan Hendrik van Swinden (3rd time) (s.a.)
17 Jul 1801 - 16 Aug 1801  Gerrit Jan Pijman                  (s.a.)
17 Aug 1801 - 16 Sep 1801  Augustijn Gerhard Besier
                           (6th time)                         (s.a.)
17 Sep 1801 - 16 Oct 1801  François Ermerins (8th time)       (s.a.)
17 Oct 1801                Anthony Frederik Robbert Evert
                           van Haersolte, heer van Staverden
                           (8th time)                         (s.a.)
Chairmen of the Staatsbewind (literally: State Authority, usually translated
as State Council)
17 Oct 1801 - 31 Jan 1802  Willem Aernout de Beveren
                           (1st time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Feb 1802 - 30 Apr 1802  Egbert Sjuck Gerrold Juckema
                           van Burmania Rengers               (b. 1745 - d. 1806)
 1 May 1802 - 31 Jul 1802  Samuel van Hoogstraten             (b. 1756 - d. 1830)
 1 Aug 1802 - 31 Oct 1802  Gerrit Jan Pijman                  (s.a.)
 1 Nov 1802 - 31 Jan 1803  Johannes Baptista Verheyen         (b. 1746 - d. 1814)
 1 Feb 1803 - 30 Apr 1803  Jacobus Spoors                     (s.a.)
 1 May 1803 - 31 Jul 1803  Campegius Hermannus Gockinga       (b. 1748 - d. 1823)
 1 Aug 1803 - 31 Oct 1803  Daniël Cornelis de Leeuw           (s.a.)
 1 Nov 1803 - 31 Jan 1804  Augustijn Gerhard Besier           (s.a.)
 1 Feb 1804 - 30 Apr 1804  Anthony Frederik Robbert Evert
                           van Haersolte, heer van Staverden  (s.a.)
 1 May 1804 - 31 Jul 1804  Gerard Brantsen                    (b. 1734 - d. 1809)
 1 Aug 1804 - 31 Oct 1804  Willem Queysen                     (s.a.)
 1 Nov 1804 - 31 Jan 1805  Willem Aernout de Beveren
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Feb 1805 - 29 Apr 1805  Jan Bernd Bicker                   (s.a.)
Pensionaries of the Council (Raadpensionarissen, usually translated
Grand Pensionaries)
29 Apr 1805 -  4 Jun 1806  Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck        (s.a.)
 4 Jun 1806 -  5 Jun 1806  Carel de Vos van Steenwijk         (s.a.)
                           (acting)
Kings
- Bonaparte dynasty -
 5 Jun 1806 -  1 Jul 1810  Lodewijk I Napoleon                (b. 1778 - d. 1846)
 1 Jul 1810 - 13 Jul 1810  Napoleon Lodewijk II               (b. 1804 - d. 1831)
21 Nov 1813 -  2 Dec 1813  General Government in the name of
                           the Prince of Oranje-Nassau
                           - Gijsbert Karel van Hogendorp     (b. 1762 - d. 1834)
                           - Adam François Jules Armand van
                             der Duyn, heer van Maasdam       (b. 1771 - d. 1848)
                           - Leopold Karel, graaf van
                             Limburg Stirum                   (b. 1758 - d. 1840)
Sovereign Prince
- Oranje-Nassau dynasty -
 2 Dec 1813 - 16 Mar 1815  Willem VI Frederik                 (b. 1772 - d. 1843)
Kings/Queens²
- Oranje-Nassau dynasty -
16 Mar 1815 -  7 Oct 1840  Willem I                           (s.a.)
 7 Oct 1840 - 17 Mar 1849  Willem II                          (b. 1792 - d. 1849)
17 Mar 1849 - 23 Nov 1890  Willem III                         (b. 1817 - d. 1890)
23 Nov 1890 -  4 Sep 1948  Wilhelmina (f)                     (b. 1880 - d. 1962)
                           (13 May 1940 - 13 Mar 1945 in London exile)
 8 Dec 1890 - 31 Aug 1898    Emma (f) (regent)                (b. 1858 - d. 1934)
20 May 1940 - 29 May 1940    Alexander von Falkenhausen       (b. 1878 - d. 1966)
                             (military governor)
29 May 1940 -  5 May 1945    Arthur Seyss-Inquart             (b. 1892 - d. 1946)
                             (Reichskommissar)
14 Oct 1947 -  1 Dec 1947    Juliana (f) (1st time) (regent)  (b. 1909 - d. 2004)
14 May 1948 - 30 Aug 1948    Juliana (f) (2nd time) (regent)  (s.a.)
 4 Sep 1948 - 30 Apr 1980  Juliana (f)                        (s.a.)
30 Apr 1980 - 30 Apr 2013  Beatrix (f)                        (b. 1938)
30 Apr 2013 -              Willem-Alexander                   (b. 1967)

Prime ministers (until 1945 formers of the cabinet/chairmen of the Council of Ministers) 3 Nov 1877 - 19 Aug 1879 Jan Kappeyne van de Coppello lib (b. 1822 - d. 1895) 19 Aug 1879 - 22 Apr 1883 Theo graaf van Lynden van Sandenburg c-p (b. 1826 - d. 1885) 22 Apr 1883 - 20 Apr 1888 Jan Heemskerk Abrahamzoon con (b. 1818 - d. 1897) 20 Apr 1888 - 21 Aug 1891 Æneas baron Mackay ARP (b. 1838 - d. 1909) 21 Aug 1891 - 8 May 1894 Gijsbert van Tienhoven lib (b. 1841 - d. 1914) 8 May 1894 - 26 Jul 1897 Joan Röell ofl (b. 1844 - d. 1914) 26 Jul 1897 - 31 Jul 1901 Nicolaas Gerard Pierson LU (b. 1839 - d. 1909) 31 Jul 1901 - 16 Aug 1905 Abraham Kuyper ARP (b. 1837 - d. 1920) 16 Aug 1905 - 11 Feb 1908 Theodoor Herman de Meester LU (b. 1851 - d. 1919) 11 Feb 1908 - 29 Aug 1913 Theo Heemskerk ARP (b. 1852 - d. 1932) 29 Aug 1913 - 9 Sep 1918 Pieter Willem Adriaan Cort van der Linden lib (b. 1846 - d. 1935) 9 Sep 1918 - 3 Aug 1925 Charles Ruijs de Beerenbrouck (1st time) AB (b. 1873 - d. 1936) 4 Aug 1925 - 8 Mar 1926 Hendrikus Colijn (1st time) ARP (b. 1869 - d. 1944) 8 Mar 1926 - 10 Aug 1929 Dirk Jan de Geer (1st time) CHU (b. 1870 - d. 1960) 10 Aug 1929 - 26 May 1933 Charles Ruijs de Beerenbrouck (2nd time) RKSP (s.a.) 26 May 1933 - 10 Aug 1939 Hendrikus Colijn (2nd time) ARP (s.a.) 10 Aug 1939 - 3 Sep 1940 Dirk Jan de Geer (2nd time) CHU (s.a.) (from 13 May 1940 in London exile) 3 Sep 1940 - 24 Jun 1945 Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy ARP (b. 1885 - d. 1961) (to 23 May 1945 in London exile) 24 Jun 1945 - 3 Jul 1946 Willem Schermerhorn VDB; 9 Feb 1946: PvdA (b. 1894 - d. 1977) 3 Jul 1946 - 7 Aug 1948 Louis Beel (1st time) KVP (b. 1902 - d. 1977) 7 Aug 1948 - 22 Dec 1958 Willem Drees PvdA (b. 1886 - d. 1988) 22 Dec 1958 - 19 May 1959 Louis Beel (2nd time) KVP (s.a.) 19 May 1959 - 24 Jul 1963 Jan Eduard de Quay KVP (b. 1901 - d. 1985) 24 Jul 1963 - 14 Apr 1965 Victor Marijnen KVP (b. 1917 - d. 1975) 14 Apr 1965 - 22 Nov 1966 Jo Cals KVP (b. 1914 - d. 1971) 22 Nov 1966 - 5 Apr 1967 Jelle Zijlstra ARP (b. 1918 - d. 2001) 5 Apr 1967 - 6 Jul 1971 Piet de Jong KVP (b. 1915) 6 Jul 1971 - 11 May 1973 Barend Biesheuvel ARP (b. 1920 - d. 2001) 11 May 1973 - 19 Dec 1977 Joop den Uyl PvdA (b. 1919 - d. 1987) 19 Dec 1977 - 4 Nov 1982 Andreas van Agt KVP; 11 Oct 1980: CDA (b. 1931) 4 Nov 1982 - 22 Aug 1994 Ruud Lubbers CDA (b. 1939) 22 Aug 1994 - 22 Jul 2002 Wim Kok PvdA (b. 1938) 22 Jul 2002 - 14 Oct 2010 Jan Peter Balkenende CDA (b. 1956) 14 Oct 2010 - Mark Rutte VVD (b. 1967)
Party abbreviations (lowercase indicates political currents without formal party organization): AB=General Federation of Roman Catholic Voting Unions, ARP=Anti-Revolutionary Party, CDA=Christian Democratic Appeal, CHU=Christian Historical Union, con=conservative, c-p=conservative-Protestant, KVP=Catholic People's Party, lib=liberal, LU=Liberal Union, ofl=old or free liberals, PvdA=Labour Party, RKSP=Roman Catholic State Party, VDB=Liberal-Democratic Federation, VVD=People's Party for Freedom and Democracy
¹Willem became stadholder as Willem II in Friesland 1 Sep 1711, in Groningen 1718; as Willem III in Gelderland 2 Nov 1722, in Drenthe May 1747; as Willem IV in Holland en Westfriesland, in Zeeland, and in Overijssel 10 May 1747, in Utrecht 18 May 1747.
²The royal style is Bij de Gratie Gods, Koning/Koningin der Nederlanden, Prins/Prinses van Oranje-Nassau, enz., enz., enz.
Netherlands Antilles: see under Curaçao.
Netherlands East Indies: see Indonesia.
Netherlands New Guinea: see under Indonesia.
Nevis: see under Saint Kitts and Nevis.

New Caledonia

24 Sep 1853                French territory (subordinated to French Settlements in
                           Oceania [see French Polynesia] to 14 Jan 1860)
 1 Jul 1860                separate colony
27 Oct 1946                overseas territory
20 Jul 1998                collectivité sui generis

Commandants
24 Sep 1853 -  1 Jan 1854  Auguste Febvrier-Despointes        (b. 1796 - d. 1855)
 1 Jan 1854 - 31 Oct 1854  Louis Tardy de Montravel           (b. 1811 - d. 1864)
18 Jan 1855 - 28 Oct 1856  Joseph Fidèle Eugène du Bouzet     (b. 1805 - d. 1867)
18 Jan 1855 - 21 Dec 1856  Jules Marcelin Albert Testard      (b. 1814 - d. 1861)
                           (acting [for Bouzet to 28 Oct 1856])
25 May 1856 -  5 May 1857  Le Bris
                           (acting [for Testard to 21 Dec 1856])
21 Dec 1858 - 20 Mar 1859  Roussel
20 Mar 1859 -  1 Jul 1860  Jean Pierre Thomas Durand          (b. 1810 - d. ...)
22 May 1859 -  2 Apr 1860    Jean-Marie Saisset               (b. 1810 - d. 1879)
                             (acting for Durand)
Governors (from 22 Mar 1907 also high commissioners in the Pacific Ocean¹)
 2 Jun 1862 - 13 Mar 1870  Charles Guillain                   (b. 1808 - d. 1875)
13 Mar 1870 - 26 Aug 1870  Jacques Eugène Barnabé Ruillier    (b. 1819 - d. ...)
26 Aug 1870 - 25 Sep 1874  Eugène Gaultier de la Richerie     (b. 1820 - d. 1886)
25 Sep 1874 - 27 Feb 1875  Louis Eugène Alleyron              (b. 1825 - d. 1891)
27 Feb 1875 - 11 Apr 1878  Léopold de Pritzbuer               (b. 1824 - d. 1889)
11 Apr 1878 -  8 Aug 1880  Jean Baptiste Léon Olry            (b. 1832 - d. 1890)
 8 Aug 1880 - 29 Sep 1882  Amédée Courbet                     (b. 1827 - d. 1885)
29 Sep 1882 - 22 Jul 1884  Léopold Augustin Charles Pallu
                           de La Barrière                     (b. 1828 - d. 1891)
22 Jul 1884 - 13 May 1886  Adolphe Le Boucher                 (b. 1837 - d. 1896)
13 May 1886 -  5 Jun 1886  Orius
 5 Jun 1886 - 30 Jul 1888  Louis Hippolyte Marie Nouet        (b. 1844 - d. 1933)
30 Jul 1888 - 20 Dec 1888  Delphino Moracchini                (b. 1846 - d. 1903)
20 Dec 1888 - 12 Jan 1889  Pons
12 Jan 1889 - 14 Apr 1891  Noël Pardon
14 Apr 1891 - 16 Dec 1892  Émile Gustave Laffon
16 Dec 1892 - 21 Feb 1894  Albert Picquié                     (b. 1853 - d. 1917)
21 Feb 1894 - 10 Jun 1894  Gauharou (interim)
10 Jun 1894 - 18 Oct 1902  Paul Feillet                       (b. 1857 - d. 1903)
                             Acting for Feillet:
 5 Jun 1896 -  2 Jun 1897    Aristide Le Fol                  (b. 1838 - d. 1923)
10 Feb 1900 - 12 Dec 1900    Colardeau
13 Dec 1900 -  2 May 1901    Édouard Telle (1st time)         (b. 1859 - d. 19...)
22 Oct 1902 - 14 Nov 1902  Édouard Telle (2nd time)           (s.a.)
14 Nov 1902 - 21 Mar 1905  Édouard Picanon                    (b. 1854 - d. 1939)
17 May 1905 - 17 Sep 1905  Charles Amédée Rognon              (b. 1861 - d. 1911)
17 Sep 1905 - 18 Mar 1908  Victor Liotard                     (b. 1858 - d. 1916)
18 Mar 1908 - 24 May 1908  Brun
24 May 1908 -  6 Jun 1913  Richard
16 Sep 1909 -  6 Jul 1910    Adrien Bonhoure                  (b. 1860 - d. 19...)
                             (acting for Richard)
 6 Jun 1913 - 27 Jul 1914  Auguste Brunet                     (b. 1878 - d. 1957)
27 Jul 1914 - 15 Aug 1923  Jules Repiquet                     (b. 1874 - d. 1960)
23 May 1919 -  6 Jan 1921    Joseph Marie Eugène Joulia
                             (acting for Repiquet)
12 Sep 1923 - 14 Mar 1925  Henri Joseph Marie d'Arboussier    (b. 1875 - d. 1930)
16 Mar 1925 -  2 Jul 1932  Joseph Guyon                       (b. 1870 - d. 1942)
29 May 1929 - 22 May 1930    Henri Joseph Marie d'Arboussier  (s.a.)
                             (acting for Guyon)
23 May 1930 - 20 Dec 1930    Gabriel Henri Joseph Thaly
                             (acting for Guyon)
20 Jul 1932 -  6 Apr 1933  Léonce Jore (1st time) (acting)    (b. 1882 - d. 1975)
 3 May 1933 -  3 Dec 1936  Bernard Jacques Victorin Siadous
 6 Dec 1936 -    Jul 1938  Jean Marchessou                    (b. 1879 - d. 1964)
   Jul 1938 -  7 Aug 1939  Léonce Jore (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 7 Aug 1939 - 20 Sep 1939  René Victor Marie Barthès
20 Oct 1939 -  4 Sep 1940  Marie Marc Georges Pelicier        (b. 1893 - d. 1970)
 4 Sep 1940 - 19 Sep 1940  Denis
19 Sep 1940 -  6 May 1942  Henri Sautot                       (b. 1885 - d. 1963)
29 Jul 1942 - 23 Jun 1943  Henri Montchamp                    (b. 1888 - d. 1963)
15 Sep 1943 - 13 Feb 1944  Christian Laigret                  (b. 1903 - d. 1977)
14 Feb 1944 - 28 Jan 1947  Jacques Tallec                     (b. 1902 - d. ...)
29 Jan 1947 - 10 May 1948  Georges Parisot                    (b. 1887 - d. 1969)
10 May 1948 -  5 Jul 1951  Pierre Charles Cournarie           (b. 1895 - d. 1968)
 5 Jul 1951 - 21 Oct 1951  Paul Bordarier                     (b. 1904 - d. 1990)
21 Oct 1951 - 24 Jul 1954  Raoul Angammarre                   (b. 1898 - d. ...)
30 Sep 1954 -  3 Feb 1956  René Hoffherr                      (b. 1893 - d. 1982)
 2 Mar 1956 -  1 Dec 1958  Aimé Grimald                       (b. 1903 - d. 2000)
 1 Dec 1958 -  9 Jan 1963  Laurent Péchoux                    (b. 1904 - d. 2000)
18 Mar 1961 - 20 Jul 1961    Georges Poulet                   (b. 1914 - d. 2008)
                             (acting for Péchoux)
 9 Jan 1963 - 14 Feb 1965  Marc Casimir Biros                 (b. 1905 - d. 1995)
14 Feb 1965 - 16 Oct 1969  Jean Risterucci                    (b. 1911 - d. 1982)
20 Oct 1969 -  1 Dec 1973  Louis Verger                       (b. 1921)
 9 Jan 1974 - 16 Dec 1978  Gabriel Ériau                      (b. 1914 - d. 2008)
16 Dec 1978 - 11 Dec 1981  Claude Charbonniaud                (b. 1925)
High commissioners
19 Dec 1981 - 22 Oct 1982  Christian Nucci                    (b. 1939)
24 Oct 1982 -  4 Dec 1984  Jacques Roynette                   (b. 1936)
 4 Dec 1984 - 22 May 1985  Edgard Pisani                      (b. 1918)
31 May 1985 -  1 Aug 1986  Fernand Wibaux                     (b. 1921 - d. 2013)
 1 Aug 1986 - 12 Aug 1986  Bernard Lemaire (acting)           (b. 1946 - d. 2009)
12 Aug 1986 - 28 Nov 1987  Jean Montpezat                     (b. 1937)
 1 Dec 1987 - 15 Jul 1988  Clément Bouhin                     (b. 1926 - d. 2010)
15 Jul 1988 - 11 Jan 1991  Bernard Grasset                    (b. 1933)
15 Jan 1991 - 29 Jul 1994  Alain Christnacht                  (b. 1946)
29 Jul 1994 - 12 Aug 1994  Thierry Lataste (1st time)         (b. 1954)
                           (acting)
12 Aug 1994 - 16 Aug 1995  Didier Cultiaux                    (b. 1943)
16 Aug 1995 - 18 Aug 1995  Laurent Cayrel (acting)            (b. 1950)
18 Aug 1995 - 15 Jul 1999  Dominique Bur                      (b. 1947)
15 Jul 1999 - 19 Jul 1999  Bernard Bouloc (acting)            (b. 1948)
19 Jul 1999 - 29 Jul 2002  Thierry Lataste (2nd time)         (s.a.)
29 Jul 2002 - 31 Jul 2002  Alain Triolle (acting)             (b. 1961)
31 Jul 2002 -  6 Sep 2005  Daniel Constantin                  (b. 1940)
 6 Sep 2005 -  9 Sep 2005  Louis Le Franc (acting)            (b. 1960)
 9 Sep 2005 -  9 Nov 2007  Michel Mathieu                     (b. 1944 - d. 2010)
 9 Nov 2007 - 21 Oct 2010  Yves Dassonville                   (b. 1948)
21 Oct 2010 -  2 Nov 2010  Thierry Suquet (1st time) (acting) (b. 1960)
 2 Nov 2010 -  2 Feb 2013  Albert Dupuy                       (b. 1947)
 2 Feb 2013 - 27 Feb 2013  Thierry Suquet (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.)
27 Feb 2013 - 23 Jul 2014  Jean-Jacques Brot                  (b. 1956)
23 Jul 2014 - 18 Aug 2014  Pascal Gauci (acting)              (b. 1970)
18 Aug 2014 -              Vincent Bouvier                    (b. 1952)

Vice presidents of the Government Council 22 Oct 1957 - 18 Jun 1959 Maurice Lenormand (1st time) (b. 1913 - d. 2006) 18 Jun 1959 - 29 Apr 1962 Michel Kauma (b. 1913 - d. 1998) 29 Apr 1962 - 21 Dec 1963 Roch Pidjot (b. 1907 - d. 1990) 5 Oct 1977 - 13 Oct 1978 André Caillard (b. 1923) 21 Nov 1978 - 24 May 1979 Maurice Lenormand (2nd time) (s.a.) (suspended from 20 Mar 1979) 6 Jul 1979 - 16 Jun 1982 Dick Ukeiwé (b. 1928 - d. 2013) 18 Jun 1982 - 18 Nov 1984 Jean-Marie Tjibaou (b. 1936 - d. 1989) President of the Government 23 Nov 1984 - 29 Aug 1985 Dick Ukeiwé (s.a.) President of the Executive Council 7 Oct 1985 - 9 Nov 1988 Dick Ukeiwé (s.a.) Presidents of the Government 28 May 1999 - 5 Apr 2001 Jean Lèques (b. 1931) 5 Apr 2001 - 10 Jun 2004 Pierre Frogier (b. 1950) 10 Jun 2004 - 7 Aug 2007 Marie-Noëlle Thémereau (f) (b. 1950) 7 Aug 2007 - 5 Jun 2009 Harold Martin (1st time) (b. 1954) 5 Jun 2009 - 3 Mar 2011 Philippe Gomès (b. 1958) 3 Mar 2011 - 5 Jun 2014 Harold Martin (2nd time) (s.a.) 5 Jun 2014 - Cynthia Ligeard (f) (b. 1962)
¹Except 9 Jul 1941 - Jul 1943 when Charles de Gaulle named Georges Thierry d'Argenlieu (b. 1889 - d. 1964) as high commissioner, while in Dec 1941 the Vichy government named Jean Decoux (b. 1884 - d. 1963) to the post (who in fact was only responsible for Wallis and Futuna which was the only Pacific territory not to have rallied to the Free French at that time). The function of high commissioner in the Pacific Ocean was used to coordinate the governors of New Caledonia and of the French Settlements in Oceania and the governors-general of French Indochina. Moreover the resident commissioners of the New Hebrides and the residents of Wallis and Futuna were subordinated to him.
New Granada: see Colombia.
New Hebrides: see Vanuatu.

New Zealand

30 Jan 1840                part of New South Wales (see Australian states)
 3 May 1841                separate British colony
26 Sep 1907                Dominion of New Zealand
11 Dec 1931                Statute of Westminster (ratified by New Zealand 25 Nov 1947)
                           grants full sovereignty to the British dominions
 7 Jan 1946                official use of the term "Dominion" begins to be abandoned

Governors
 3 May 1841 - 10 Sep 1842  William Hobson                     (b. 1793 - d. 1842)
10 Sep 1842 - 26 Dec 1843  Willoughby J. Shortland (acting)   (b. 1804 - d. 1869)
26 Dec 1843 - 18 Nov 1845  Robert FitzRoy                     (b. 1805 - d. 1865)
18 Nov 1845 - 31 Dec 1853  George Grey (1st time)             (b. 1812 - d. 1898)
                           (governor-in-chief Jan 1848 - Mar 1853)
 3 Jan 1854 -  6 Sep 1855  Robert Henry Wynyard (1st time)    (b. 1802 - d. 1864)
                           (acting)
 6 Sep 1855 -  3 Oct 1861  Thomas Gore Browne                 (b. 1807 - d. 1887)
 3 Oct 1861 -    Dec 1861  Robert Henry Wynyard (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                           (acting)
   Dec 1861 -  5 Feb 1868  Sir George Grey (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 5 Feb 1868 - 19 Mar 1873  Sir George Ferguson Bowen          (b. 1821 - d. 1899)
21 Mar 1873 - 14 Jun 1873  Sir George Alfred Arney (acting)   (b. 1810 - d. 1883)
14 Jun 1873 -  3 Dec 1874  Sir James Fergusson                (b. 1832 - d. 1907)
 3 Dec 1874 - 21 Feb 1879  George Augustus Constantine
                           Phipps, Marquess of Normanby       (b. 1819 - d. 1890)
21 Feb 1879 - 27 Mar 1879  James Prendergast (1st time)       (b. 1826 - d. 1921)
                           (acting)
27 Mar 1879 -  9 Sep 1880  Sir Hercules Robinson              (b. 1824 - d. 1897)
                           (acting to 17 Apr 1879)
 9 Sep 1880 - 29 Nov 1880  James Prendergast (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                           (acting)
29 Nov 1880 - 24 Jun 1882  Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon         (b. 1829 - d. 1912)
24 Jun 1882 - 20 Jan 1883  James Prendergast (3rd time)       (s.a.)
                           (acting)
20 Jan 1883 - 23 Mar 1889  Sir William Jervois                (b. 1821 - d. 1897)
23 Mar 1889 -  2 May 1889  James Prendergast (4th time)       (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 2 May 1889 - 25 Feb 1892  William Hillier, Earl of Onslow    (b. 1853 - d. 1911)
25 Feb 1892 -  6 Jun 1892  James Prendergast (5th time)       (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 7 Jun 1892 -  8 Feb 1897  David Boyle, Earl of Glasgow       (b. 1833 - d. 1915)
 8 Feb 1897 -  9 Aug 1897  James Prendergast (6th time)       (s.a.)
                           (acting)
10 Aug 1897 - 20 Jun 1904  Uchter John Mark Knox, Earl of
                           Ranfurly                           (b. 1856 - d. 1933)
20 Jun 1904 -  8 Jun 1910  William Lee Plunket, Baron
                           Plunket                            (b. 1864 - d. 1920)
 8 Jun 1910 - 22 Jun 1910  Sir Robert Stout (1st time)        (b. 1844 - d. 1930)
                           (acting)
22 Jun 1910 -  3 Dec 1912  John Poynder Dickson-Poynder,
                           Baron Islington                    (b. 1866 - d. 1936)
 3 Dec 1912 - 19 Dec 1912  Sir Robert Stout (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                           (acting)
19 Dec 1912 - 28 Jun 1917  Arthur William de Brito Savile
                           Foljambe, Earl of Liverpool        (b. 1870 - d. 1941)
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
28 Jun 1917 -  8 Jul 1920  Arthur William de Brito Savile
                           Foljambe, Earl of Liverpool        (s.a.)
 8 Jul 1920 - 27 Sep 1920  Sir Robert Stout (acting)          (s.a.)
27 Sep 1920 - 13 Dec 1924  John Rushworth, Viscount Jellicoe
                           of Scapa                           (b. 1859 - d. 1935)
13 Dec 1924 -  8 Feb 1930  Sir Charles Fergusson              (b. 1865 - d. 1951)
 8 Feb 1930 - 19 Mar 1930  Sir Michael Myers (1st time)       (b. 1873 - d. 1950)
                           (acting)
19 Mar 1930 - 15 Mar 1935  Charles Bathurst, Baron Bledisloe
                           of Lydney                          (b. 1867 - d. 1958)
15 Mar 1935 - 12 Apr 1935  Sir Michael Myers (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                           (acting)
12 Apr 1935 -  3 Feb 1941  George Monckton-Arundell,
                           Viscount Galway                    (b. 1882 - d. 1943)
 3 Feb 1941 - 22 Feb 1941  Sir Michael Myers (3rd time)       (s.a.)
                           (acting)
22 Feb 1941 - 19 Apr 1946  Sir Cyril Newall                   (b. 1886 - d. 1963)
19 Apr 1946 - 17 Jun 1946  Sir Michael Myers (4th time)       (s.a.)
                           (acting)
17 Jun 1946 - 15 Aug 1952  Sir Bernard Cyril Freyberg (from
                           19 Oct 1951, Bernard Cyril
                           Freyberg, Baron Freyberg)          (b. 1889 - d. 1963)
15 Aug 1952 -  2 Dec 1952  Sir Humphrey Francis O'Leary       (b. 1886 - d. 1953)
                           (acting)
 2 Dec 1952 - 25 Jul 1957  Sir Willoughby Norrie              (b. 1893 - d. 1977)
25 Jul 1957 -  5 Sep 1957  Sir Harold Eric Barrowclough
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1894 - d. 1972)
 5 Sep 1957 - 13 Sep 1962  Charles John Lyttelton,
                           Viscount Cobham                    (b. 1909 - d. 1977)
13 Sep 1962 -  9 Nov 1962  Sir Harold Eric Barrowclough
                           (2nd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
 9 Nov 1962 - 20 Oct 1967  Sir Bernard Fergusson              (b. 1911 - d. 1980)
20 Oct 1967 -  1 Dec 1967  Sir Richard Wild (1st time)        (b. 1912 - d. 1978)
                           (acting)
 1 Dec 1967 -  7 Sep 1972  Sir Arthur Porritt                 (b. 1900 - d. 1994)
 7 Sep 1972 - 27 Sep 1972  Sir Richard Wild (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                           (acting)
27 Sep 1972 -  5 Oct 1977  Sir Denis Blundell                 (b. 1907 - d. 1984)
 5 Oct 1977 - 26 Oct 1977  Sir Richard Wild (3rd time)        (s.a.)
                           (acting)
26 Oct 1977 - 25 Oct 1980  Sir Keith Jacka Holyoake           (b. 1904 - d. 1983)
25 Oct 1980 -  6 Nov 1980  Sir Ronald Davidson (acting)
 6 Nov 1980 - 22 Nov 1985  Sir David Stuart Beattie           (b. 1924 - d. 2001)
22 Nov 1985 - 20 Nov 1990  Sir Paul Reeves                    (b. 1932 - d. 2011)
20 Nov 1990 - 21 Mar 1996  Dame Catherine Tizard (f)          (b. 1931)
21 Mar 1996 - 21 Mar 2001  Sir Michael Hardie Boys            (b. 1931)
22 Mar 2001 -  4 Apr 2001  Dame Sian Elias (f) (1st time)     (b. 1949)
                           (acting)
 4 Apr 2001 -  4 Aug 2006  Dame Silvia Cartwright (f)         (b. 1943)
 4 Aug 2006 - 23 Aug 2006  Dame Sian Elias (f) (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                           (acting)
23 Aug 2006 - 23 Aug 2011  Anand Satyanand (from 27 Mar 2009,
                           Sir Anand Satyanand)               (b. 1944)
23 Aug 2011 - 31 Aug 2011  Dame Sian Elias (f) (3rd time)     (s.a.)
                           (acting)
31 Aug 2011 -              Sir Jerry Mateparae                (b. 1954)

Prime ministers¹ 7 May 1856 - 20 May 1856 Henry Sewell (b. 1807 - d. 1879) 20 May 1856 - 2 Jun 1856 William Fox (1st time) (b. 1812 - d. 1893) 2 Jun 1856 - 12 Jul 1861 Edward William Stafford (1st time) (b. 1819 - d. 1901) 12 Jul 1861 - 6 Aug 1862 William Fox (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Aug 1862 - 30 Oct 1863 Alfred Domett (b. 1811 - d. 1887) 30 Oct 1863 - 24 Nov 1864 Frederick Whitaker (1st time) (b. 1812 - d. 1891) 24 Nov 1864 - 16 Oct 1865 Frederick Aloysius Weld (b. 1823 - d. 1891) 16 Oct 1865 - 28 Jun 1869 Edward William Stafford (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Jun 1869 - 10 Sep 1872 William Fox (3rd time) (s.a.) 10 Sep 1872 - 11 Oct 1872 Edward William Stafford (3rd time) (s.a.) 11 Oct 1872 - 3 Mar 1873 George Marsden Waterhouse (b. 1824 - d. 1906) 3 Mar 1873 - 8 Apr 1873 William Fox (4th time) (s.a.) 8 Apr 1873 - 6 Jul 1875 Julius Vogel (from 1875, Sir Julius Vogel) (1st time) (b. 1835 - d. 1899) 6 Jul 1875 - 15 Feb 1876 Daniel Pollen (b. 1813 - d. 1896) 15 Feb 1876 - 1 Sep 1876 Sir Julius Vogel (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Sep 1876 - 13 Oct 1877 Harry Atkinson (1st time) (b. 1831 - d. 1892) 13 Oct 1877 - 8 Oct 1879 Sir George Grey (s.a.) 8 Oct 1879 - 21 Apr 1882 John Hall (b. 1824 - d. 1907) 21 Apr 1882 - 25 Sep 1883 Frederick Whitaker (2nd time) (s.a.) 25 Sep 1883 - 16 Aug 1884 Harry Atkinson (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 Aug 1884 - 28 Aug 1884 Robert Stout (1st time) (s.a.) 28 Aug 1884 - 3 Sep 1884 Harry Atkinson (3rd time) (s.a.) 3 Sep 1884 - 8 Oct 1887 Robert Stout (from 1886, Sir Robert Stout) (2nd time) (s.a.) 8 Oct 1887 - 24 Jan 1891 Harry Atkinson (from 1888, Sir Harry Atkinson) (4th time) (s.a.) 24 Jan 1891 - 27 Apr 1893 John Ballance Lib (b. 1839 - d. 1893) 1 May 1893 - 10 Jun 1906 Richard John Seddon Lib (b. 1845 - d. 1906) 21 Jun 1906 - 6 Aug 1906 William Hall-Jones (acting) Lib (b. 1851 - d. 1936) 6 Aug 1906 - 28 Mar 1912 Joseph Ward (from 1911, Sir Joseph Ward) (1st time) Lib (b. 1856 - d. 1930) 28 Mar 1912 - 10 Jul 1912 Thomas Mackenzie Lib (b. 1854 - d. 1930) 10 Jul 1912 - 10 May 1925 William Ferguson Massey Ref (b. 1856 - d. 1925) 14 May 1925 - 30 May 1925 Sir Francis Henry Dillon Bell Ref (b. 1851 - d. 1936) 30 May 1925 - 10 Dec 1928 Joseph Gordon Coates Ref (b. 1878 - d. 1943) 10 Dec 1928 - 28 May 1930 Sir Joseph Ward (2nd time) Uni (s.a.) 28 May 1930 - 5 Dec 1935 George William Forbes Uni (b. 1869 - d. 1947) 5 Dec 1935 - 27 Mar 1940 Michael Joseph Savage Lab (b. 1872 - d. 1940) 27 Mar 1940 - 13 Dec 1949 Peter Fraser Lab (b. 1884 - d. 1950) (acting to 1 Apr 1940) 13 Dec 1949 - 20 Sep 1957 Sidney Holland Nat (b. 1893 - d. 1961) 20 Sep 1957 - 12 Dec 1957 Keith Jacka Holyoake (1st time) Nat (s.a.) 12 Dec 1957 - 12 Dec 1960 Walter Nash Lab (b. 1882 - d. 1968) 12 Dec 1960 - 7 Feb 1972 Keith Jacka Holyoake (from 1970, Sir Keith Jacka Holyoake) (2nd time) Nat (s.a.) 7 Feb 1972 - 8 Dec 1972 John Ross Marshall Nat (b. 1912 - d. 1988) 8 Dec 1972 - 31 Aug 1974 Norman Eric Kirk Lab (b. 1923 - d. 1974) 1 Sep 1974 - 6 Sep 1974 Hugh Watt (acting) Lab (b. 1912 - d. 1980) 6 Sep 1974 - 12 Dec 1975 Wallace Edward Rowling Lab (b. 1927 - d. 1995) 12 Dec 1975 - 26 Jul 1984 Robert David Muldoon (from 1984, Sir Robert David Muldoon) Nat (b. 1921 - d. 1992) 26 Jul 1984 - 8 Aug 1989 David Lange Lab (b. 1942 - d. 2005) 8 Aug 1989 - 4 Sep 1990 Geoffrey Palmer Lab (b. 1942) 4 Sep 1990 - 2 Nov 1990 Mike Moore Lab (b. 1949) 2 Nov 1990 - 8 Dec 1997 Jim Bolger Nat (b. 1935) 8 Dec 1997 - 10 Dec 1999 Jenny Shipley (f) Nat (b. 1952) 10 Dec 1999 - 19 Nov 2008 Helen Clark (f) Lab (b. 1950) 19 Nov 2008 - John Key Nat (b. 1961)
Party abbreviations: Lib=Liberal, Ref=Reform, Uni=United, Lab=Labour, Nat=National
¹The titles premier and first minister were variously applied to each of the principal ministers until 1869, when premier became customary. Although the title prime minister was first used formally in the Schedule of the Civil List Act of 1873, no one used the title officially until Richard John Seddon, beginning in 1893.

Maori community

Note: The first two kings were leaders of the revolt against the colony; after the second king's surrender he and his successors maintained a symbolic and prestigious community leadership to this day.
 2 May 1859                kingship established
12 Aug 1881                surrender to New Zealand government

Kings/Queens
- Te Wherowhero lineage -
 2 May 1859 - 25 Jun 1860  Potatau I Te Wherowhero            (b. 1800 - d. 1860)
27 Jun 1860 - 26 Aug 1894  Tukaroto Matutaera Te Pukepuke Te
                           Paue Te Karato Te-a-Potatau II Te
                           Wherowhero (from Aug 1864, Tawhiao
                           Potatau Te Wherowhero "Te A")      (b. 1825 - d. 1894)
14 Sep 1894 -  9 Nov 1912  Mahuta Tawhiao Potatau Te
                           Wherowhero                         (b. c.1855 - d. 1912)
24 Nov 1912 -  1 Oct 1933  Te Rata Mahuta Tawhiao Potatau Te
                           Wherowhero                         (b. 1880 - d. 1933)
 8 Oct 1933 - 18 May 1966  Koroki Te Rata Mahuta Tawhiao
                           Potatau Te Wherowhero              (b. 1909 - d. 1966)
23 May 1966 - 15 Aug 2006  Te Ata-i Rangi-Kahu Koroki Te
                           Rata Mahuta Tawhiao Potatau Te
                           Wherowhero (f)                     (b. 1931 - d. 2006)
21 Aug 2006 -              Tuheitia                           (b. 1955)

Ngati Tuwharetoa

Note: This is probably the most important Maori traditional polity that remained unaffiliated with the "King Movement."
     c.1750                chiefdom established

Paramount chiefs (title Ariki Nui)
       17.. -         ...  Te Rangituamatotoru
        ... -         ...  Te Wakaiti
        ... -      c.1820  Herea Te Rangimaheuheu (later
                           Herea Te Heuheu Tukino I)          (b. c.1750 - d. c.1820)
     c.1820 -  7 May 1846  Mananui Te Heuheu Tukino II        (b. 1780 - d. 1846)
       1850 -    Oct 1862  Iwikau Te Heuheu Tukino III        (b. c.1790 - d. 1862)
       1862 - 30 Jul 1888  Horonuku Te Heuheu Tukino IV       (b. 1821 - d. 1888)
       1888 -  1 Jun 1921  Tureiti Te Heuheu Tukino V         (b. 1865 - d. 1921)
       1921 - 27 Apr 1944  Hoani Te Heuheu Tukino VI          (b. 1897 - d. 1944)
       1944 - 31 Jul 1997  Hepi Te Heuheu Tukino VII          (b. 1919 - d. 1997)
 5 Aug 1997 -              Tumu Te Heuheu Tukino VIII         (b. 1942?)

Newfoundland and Labrador: see under Canadian provinces A-N.