Bosnia and Herzegovina: Henry Lee Clarke leaves office as Brcko supervisor. His deputy Gerhard Sontheim becomes acting supervisor.
Iraq: Iyad Allawi takes up the rotating presidency of the Governing Council.
Mauritius: Pravind Jugnauth becomes deputy prime minister and finance minister. President Karl Offmann leaves office and Vice President Raouf Bundhun becomes acting president. On October 7 Sir Anerood Jugnauth is elected president by parliament and is sworn in.
Mexico: Francisco Garrido Patrón takes office as governor of Querétaro.
The Netherlands: Hanja Maij-Weggen succeeds Frank Houben as queen's commissioner of Noord-Brabant.
San Marino: Giovanni Lonfernini (Christian Democrat) and Valeria Ciavatta (Popular Alliance of Democrats) take office as captains-regent.
United States: Gordon R. England is sworn in as Navy secretary, having been confirmed by the Senate on September 26.
Canada: In Ontario elections, the Liberals led by Dalton McGuinty win 72 of 103 seats (46.4% of the vote), the Progressive Conservatives of Premier Ernie Eves 24 (34.6%), and the New Democratic Party 7 (14.7%). McGuinty is sworn in as premier on October 23.
Dominica: Nicholas Liverpool takes office as president.
Guinea-Bissau: The composition of a caretaker government is announced (sworn in on October 3), including João José Monteiro as foreign minister, Abubacar Demba Dahaba as finance minister, and Brig.Gen. Manuel Nandinga as minister of internal administration; Filomena Mascarenhas Tipote retains her post as defense minister.
United States: Former labor secretary (1975-76) John T. Dunlop dies.
Australia: Richard Butler is sworn in as governor of Tasmania.
Sweden: Laila Freivalds is appointed foreign minister.
Mexico: José Natividad González Parás is sworn in as governor of Nuevo León.
Oman: The 83-seat Majlis al-Shura (advisory council) is freely elected for the first time.
United States: In an open gubernatorial primary in Louisiana, Bobby Jindal (Republican) with 33% of the vote and Kathleen Blanco (Democrat) with 18% qualify for the runoff on November 15; trailing are Democrats Richard Ieyoub (16%) and Claude Leach (14%).
United States: Former Arkansas governor (1949-53) Sidney S. McMath dies.
Argentina: In gubernatorial elections in San Juan, José Luis Gioja (Justicialist Party) wins 41.5% of the votes against Roberto Basualdo (Life and Commitment Movement) with 30.8% and incumbent Wbaldino Acosta (Bloc Party) with 19%.
Palestine: President Yasir Arafat issues a special decree installing Ahmed Qureia as prime minister of an emergency cabinet, sworn in October 7. Nabil Shaath remains foreign minister and Salam Fayyad finance minister. Nasser Yousef, the designated interior minister, refuses to join the government. Arafat names Hakam Balawi as interim interior minister on October 13.
Russia: In Russian-organized presidential elections in Chechnya, Acting President Akhmad Kadyrov is elected with 80.8% of the vote. Turnout is 87.7%. He is sworn in on October 19. On October 18 he confirms Anatoly Popov as prime minister and relieves him from his temporary post of acting president.
Russia: In the gubernatorial runoff in Saint Petersburg, Valentina Matvienko is elected with 63.2% of the vote against 24.2% for Anna Markova and 11.8% against all candidates. Turnout is 28.3%. Matvienko is sworn in as governor on October 15.
Estonia: Taavi Veskimägi takes office as finance minister.
Portugal: Foreign Minister António Martins da Cruz resigns. The next day Teresa Patrício Gouveia is named to replace him; she is sworn in on October 9.
United States: In a special election in California, Governor Gray Davis is recalled by 55.4% of the voters, 44.6% voting against the recall. To replace him, Arnold Schwarzenegger (Republican) is elected with 48.7%, followed by Cruz Bustamante (Democrat) with 31.6%, Tom McClintock (Republican) with 13.4%, and Peter Camejo (Green) with 2.8%.
United States: Bruce Botelho is elected mayor of Juneau, defeating Dick Knapp 54%-46%. He takes office October 27.
Vatican City: Giovanni Lajolo is appointed foreign minister. He is sworn in on October 21 when his predecessor Jean-Louis Tauran is made cardinal.
Congo (Kinshasa): André-Philippe Futa is sworn in as new finance minister.
Slovakia: Juraj Liska is named defense minister.
Tuvalu: Leti Pelesala becomes home affairs minister.
South Korea: Prime Minister Goh Kun and the cabinet offer to resign, but this is rejected by President Roh Moo Hyun.
Paraguay: Orlando Fiorotto is named interior minister following the resignation of Roberto González.
Liberia: Gyude Bryant takes office as chairman of the National Transitional Government. On October 15 Thomas Nimely is named to become foreign minister and Luseni Kamara finance minister; on October 16 Horatio Dan Morias is named interior minister and Daniel Chea to stay as defense minister.
United States: Former Kentucky governor (1963-67) Edward T. Breathitt dies.
Azerbaijan: In presidential elections, Prime Minister Ilham Aliyev is elected with 76.8% of the vote, compared to 14% for Isa Gambarov. Turnout is 71.2%. Aliyev is inaugurated October 31.
Mauritania: Former prime minister (1957-61) and president (1961-78) Moktar Ould Daddah dies.
Albania: Interior Minister Luan Rama is sacked. On October 23 Prime Minister Fatos Nano's nominees for foreign minister, Namik Dokle, and for interior minister, Fatmir Xhafaj, are rejected by parliament. On October 25 Nano picks Igli Toska to be acting interior minister.
Bolivia: President Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada resigns. Vice President Carlos Mesa is sworn in as president. He installs his new cabinet on October 19; it includes Juan Ignacio Siles as foreign minister, Gonzalo Arredondo as defense minister, Javier Gonzalo Cuevas as finance minister, and Alfonso Ferrufino as interior minister.
Maldives: President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom is confirmed in a referendum, winning 90.3% of the vote. Turnout is 77%.
Swaziland: Parliamentary elections are held. Political parties are outlawed and only one of the elected MPs has a political affiliation (former prime minister Obed Dlamini, a member of the Ngwane National Liberation Congress).
United States: Former Texas governor (1969-73) Preston Smith dies.
Bosnia and Herzegovina: Former chairman of the presidency (1990-98, 2000) Alija Izetbegovic dies.
Malaysia: Former chief minister of Selangor (1964-76) Datuk Seri Harun Idris dies.
Switzerland: In parliamentary elections, the Swiss People's Party wins 26.6% of the votes (55 of 200 seats), the Social Democratic Party 23.3% (52), the Liberal-Democratic Party 17.3% (36), the Christian Democratic People's Party 14.4% (28), and the Greens 7.4% (13). Turnout is 45.2%.
Cape Verde: Carlos Augusto Duarte Burgo is dismissed as finance minister and Prime Minister José Maria Neves takes over the portfolio.
Jordan: Prime Minister Ali Abu al-Ragheb resigns. On October 22 King Abdullah II asks Faisal al-Fayez to form a new government. In the new cabinet sworn in on October 25 Fayez also becomes defense minister, while Mohammad Abu Hammour becomes finance minister; Samir Habashneh remains interior minister and Marwan Muasher foreign minister.
Canada: In elections in Newfoundland and Labrador, the Progressive Conservative Party led by Danny Williams wins 34 of 48 seats (58.7% of the vote), the Liberal Party of Premier Roger Grimes 12 seats (33.2%), and the New Democratic Party 2 seats (6.9%).
Puerto Rico: Former governor (1969-73) Luis Alberto Ferré dies.
Indonesia: Rusli Zainal is elected governor of Riau, defeating incumbent Saleh Djasit.
Venezuela: Former foreign minister (1994-99) Miguel Ángel Burelli Rivas dies.
Spain: Elections in the autonomous community of Madrid give the Popular Party 57 of 111 seats (48.5% of the vote), the Socialists 45 (39%), and the United Left 9 (8.5%). Turnout is 64%.
India: The lieutenant governor of Pondicherry K.R. Malkani and the former chief minister of Meghalaya (1979-81, 1983, 1990-91, 1998-2000) Brington Buhai Lyngdoh die. On October 31 Tamil Nadu Governor P.S. Ramamohan Rao is appointed as administrator of Pondicherry.
Niger: Ali Lamine Zène is named as new finance minister.
United States: Former Washington, D.C., mayor (1967-79) Walter Washington dies.
Argentina: José Alperovich takes office as governor of Tucumán.
Western Sahara: Abdelkader Taleb Omar is named to replace Bouchraya Beyoun as prime minister. In the new cabinet formed on October 31, Mohamed Lemine Dedi becomes interior minister while Mohamed Salem Ould Salek remains foreign minister and Mohamed Lemine Bouhali defense minister.
Malaysia: Prime Minister Dato' Seri Mahathir bin Mohamad steps down, handing over the post to his deputy, Datuk Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi.