Canada: David Johnston is sworn in as governor general.
South Korea: Kim Hwang Sik is approved by parliament (169-71) and sworn in as prime minister. Kim Sung Hwan is designated foreign minister; on October 8 he is confirmed by parliament and takes office.
San Marino: Giovanni Francesco Ugolini (Christian Democrat) and Andrea Zafferani (Popular Alliance) take office as captains-regent.
Latvia: In parliamentary elections, the Unity coalition wins 31.9% of the vote (33 of 100 seats), the Harmony Centre 26.6% (29), the Union of Greens and Farmers 20.1% (22), the National Alliance 7.8% (8), and For a Good Latvia 7.8% (8). Turnout is about 63%.
Russia: President Dmitry Medvedev nominates incumbent Vladimir Yakushev as governor of Tyumen oblast and incumbent Nikolay Merkushkin as head of the republic of Mordovia. Merkushkin is confirmed by the local State Assembly (42-0) on October 7 and Yakushev by the local Duma (unanimously) on October 12.
Bosnia and Herzegovina: In elections to the three-member Presidency, Bakir Izetbegovic is elected to the Muslim seat with 34.9% of the vote, while Fahrudin Radoncic wins 30.5% and incumbent Haris Silajdzic 25.1%; Nebojsa Radmanovic is reelected to the Serb seat with 48.9% against 47.3% for Mladen Ivanic; and Zeljko Komsic is reelected as Croat member with 60.6%, against 19.7% for Borjana Kristo and 10.8% for Martin Raguz. In parliamentary elections, the Social Democratic Party wins 8 of 42 seats, the Alliance of Independent Social Democrats 8, the Party of Democratic Action 7, the Serb Democratic Party 4, the Union for a Better Future 4, and the Croat Democratic Union 3. Milorad Dodik is elected president of the Republika Srpska with 50.5% of the vote against 35.9% for Ognjen Tadic.
Brazil: In presidential elections, Dilma Rousseff of the Workers' Party (PT) wins 46.9% of the vote, José Serra of the Social Democratic Party (PSDB) 32.6%, and Marina Silva of the Green Party (PV) 19.3%; turnout is 81.9%. A runoff is held on October 31 and won by Rousseff with 56.1% against 43.9% for Serra; turnout is 78.5%. In the parliamentary elections on October 3, the PT wins 88 of 513 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, the Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement (PMDB) 79, the PSDB 53, the Democrats (DEM) 43, the Republic Party (PR) 41, the Progressive Party (PP) 41, the Brazilian Socialist Party (PSB) 34, the Democratic Labour Party (PDT) 28, the Brazilian Labour Party (PTB) 21, the Christian Social Party (PSC) 17, the Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB) 15, the PV 15, the Socialist People's Party (PPS) 12, the Brazilian Republican Party (PRB) 8, the Party of National Mobilization (PMN) 4, the Socialism and Freedom Party (PSOL) 3, the Labour Party of Brazil (PTdoB) 3, the Humanist Party of Solidarity (PHS) 2, the Progressive Republican Party (PRP) 2, and the Brazilian Labour Renewal Party (PRTB) 2; in the Senate, the PMDB wins 16 seats up for election, the PT 11, the PSDB 5, the PP 4, the PR and PSB 3 each, and the PDT, PSOL, and DEM 2 each, so that the new composition of the Senate will be PMDB 20 of 81, PT 14, PSDB 11, DEM 6, PTB 6, PP 5, PDT 4, PR 4, PSB 3, PCdoB 2, PSOL 2. Results of gubernatorial elections (October 3, runoffs on October 31):
- Acre: Sebastião Afonso Viana Macedo Neves (PT) 50.5%, Sebastião Bocalom Rodrigues (PSDB) 49.2%.
- Alagoas: Gov. Teotônio Brandão Vilela Filho (PSDB) 39.6%, Ronaldo Augusto Lessa Santos (PDT) 29.2%, Fernando Collor de Mello (PTB) 28.8%. Runoff: Teotônio Vilela 52.7%, Ronaldo Lessa 47.3%.
- Amapá: Luiz Cantuária Barreto (PTB) 28.9%, Carlos Camilo Góes Capiberibe (PSB) 28.7%, Jorge Emanoel Amanajas Cardoso (PSDB) 28.2%, Gov. Pedro Paulo Dias de Carvalho (PP) 13.5%. Runoff: Camilo Capiberibe 53.8%, Barreto 46.2%.
- Amazonas: Gov. Omar José Abdel Aziz (PMN) 63.9%, Alfredo Pereira do Nascimento (PR) 25.9%, Hissa Nagib Abrahao Filho (PPS) 9.4%.
- Bahia: Gov. Jaques Wagner (PT) 63.8%, Paulo Ganem Souto (DEM) 16.1%, Geddel Quadros Vieira Lima (PMDB) 15.6%.
- Ceará: Gov. Cid Ferreira Gomes (PSB) 61.3%, Marcos César Cals de Oliveira (PSDB) 19.5%, Lúcio Gonçalo de Alcântara (PR) 16.4%.
- Distrito Federal: Agnelo Santos Queiroz Filho (PT) 48.4%, Weslian do Perpetuo Socorro Peles Roriz (PSC) 31.5%, Antonio Carlos de Andrade (PSOL) 14.2%, Eduardo Dutra Brandão Cavalcanti (PV) 5.6%. Runoff: Agnelo 66.1%, Roriz 33.9%.
- Espírito Santo: José Renato Casagrande (PSB) 82.3%, Luiz Paulo Vellozo Lucas (PSDB) 15.5%.
- Goiás: Marconi Ferreira Perillo Júnior (PSDB) 46.3%, Iris Rezende Machado (PMDB) 36.4%, Vanderlan Vieira Cardoso (PR) 16.6%. Runoff: Marconi Perillo 53%, Iris Rezende 47%.
- Maranhão: Gov. Roseana Macieira Sarney Murad (PMDB) 50.1%, Flávio Dino de Castro e Costa (PCdoB) 29.5%, Jackson Kepler Lago (PDT) 19.5%.
- Mato Grosso: Gov. Silval da Cunha Barbosa (PMDB) 51.2%, Mauro Mendes Ferreira (PSB) 31.8%, Wilson Pereira dos Santos (PSDB) 16.5%.
- Mato Grosso do Sul: Gov. André Puccinelli (PMDB) 56%, José Orcirio Miranda dos Santos (PT) 42.5%.
- Minas Gerais: Gov. Antônio Augusto Junho Anastasia (PSDB) 62.7%, Hélio Calixto da Costa (PMDB) 34.2%.
- Pará: Simão Robison Oliveira Jatene (PSDB) 48.9%, Gov. Ana Júlia de Vasconcelos Carepa (PT) 36%, Domingos Juvenil Nunes de Sousa (PMDB) 10.8%. Runoff: Simão Jatene 55.7%, Ana Júlia 44.3%.
- Paraíba: Ricardo Vieira Coutinho (PSB) 49.7%, Gov. José Targino Maranhão (PMDB) 49.3%. Runoff: Ricardo Coutinho 53.7%, Maranhão 46.3%.
- Paraná: Carlos Alberto Richa (PSDB) 52.4%, Osmar Fernandes Dias (PDT) 45.6%.
- Pernambuco: Gov. Eduardo Henrique Accioly Campos (PSB) 82.8%, Jarbas de Andrade Vasconcelos (PMDB) 14.1%.
- Piauí: Gov. Wilson Nunes Martins (PSB) 46.4%, Silvio Mendes de Oliveira Filho (PSDB) 30.1%, João Vicente de Macêdo Claudino (PTB) 21.5%. Runoff: Wilson Martins 58.9%, Silvio Mendes 41.1%.
- Rio de Janeiro: Gov. Sérgio de Oliveira Cabral Santos Filho (PMDB) 66.1%, Fernando Paulo Nagle Gabeira (PV) 20.7%, Fernando Otávio de Freitas Peregrino (PR) 10.8%.
- Rio Grande do Norte: Rosalba Ciarlini Rosado (DEM) 52.5%, Gov. Iberê Paiva Ferreira de Souza (PSB) 36.2%, Carlos Eduardo Nunes Alves (PDT) 10.4%.
- Rio Grande do Sul: Tarso Fernando Herz Genro (PT) 54.4%, José Alberto Fogaça de Medeiros (PMDB) 24.7%, Gov. Yeda Rorato Crusius (PSDB) 18.4%.
- Rondônia: Confúcio Aires Moura (PMDB) 44%, Gov. João Aparecido Cahulla (PPS) 37.1%, Eduardo Valverde Araújo Alves (PT) 18.2%. Runoff: Confúcio Moura 58.7%, João Cahulla 41.3%.
- Roraima: Neudo Ribeiro Campos (PP) 47.6%, Gov. José de Anchieta Júnior (PSDB) 45%, Petrônio Pereira de Araújo (PHS) 6.4%. Runoff: Anchieta 50.4%, Neudo Campos 49.6%.
- Santa Catarina: João Raimundo Colombo (DEM) 52.7%, Angela Regina Heinzen Amin Helou (PP) 24.9%, Ideli Salvatti (PT) 21.9%.
- São Paulo: Geraldo Alckmin Filho (PSDB) 50.6%, Aloizio Mercadante Oliva (PT) 35.2%, Celso Ubirajara Russomanno (PP) 5.4%.
- Sergipe: Gov. Marcelo Déda Chagas (PT) 52.1%, João Alves Filho (DEM) 45.2%.
- Tocantins: José Wilson Siqueira Campos (PSDB) 50.5%, Gov. Carlos Henrique Gaguim (PMDB) 49.5%.
Angola: Sebastião José António Martins is appointed interior minister. He is sworn in on October 6.
Ethiopia: Parliament reelects Meles Zenawi as prime minister. On October 5, he announces his new cabinet including Hailemariam Desalegn as foreign minister, while Siraj Fegesa remains as defense minister and Sufian Ahmed as finance minister. On the same day the parliament endorses the cabinet and its members are sworn in.
Mexico: César Duarte Jáquez takes office as governor of Chihuahua.
Sweden: Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt announces his new cabinet with no change in key portfolios.
French Southern and Antarctic Lands: Christian Gaudin is named administrator-superior.
Nepal: In the tenth round of voting, parliament fails to elect a prime minister when Ram Chandra Poudel receives 109 votes in favour, 1 against, and 46 abstentions. The 11th round, on October 7, is also inconclusive (104-1-40), as is the 12th on October 10 (89-1-29), the 13th on October 26 (98-2-44), and the 14th on October 29 (96-2-40).
New Caledonia: Albert Dupuy is named high commissioner.
Croatia: Former secretary of the Central Committee of the League of Communists (1971-82) Milka Planinc (also premier of Yugoslavia 1982-86) dies.
Macedonia: Former acting president (2004) Ljupco Jordanovski dies.
The Netherlands: Queen Beatrix asks Mark Rutte to form a government. On October 14 he unveils his cabinet, including Uri Rosenthal as foreign minister, Hans Hillen as defense minister, Piet Hein Donner as interior minister, and incumbent Jan Kees de Jager as finance minister, and the government is sworn in the same day.
Spain: Former president of the government of Canarias (2003-07) Adán Martín Menis dies.
Austria: In parliamentary elections in Wien, the Social Democratic Party wins 44.3% of the vote (49 of 100 seats), the Freedom Party 25.8% (27), the Austrian People's Party 14% (13), and the Greens 12.6% (11). Turnout is 67.6%.
Kyrgyzstan: In parliamentary elections, Ata-Zhurt wins 15.4% of the vote (28 of 120 seats), the Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan 7.8% (26), Ar-Namys 7.6% (25), Respublika 6.9% (23), and Ata-Meken 5.5% (18).
Netherlands Antilles: The federation is dissolved. Taking its place are the autonomous countries of Curaçao (Frits Goedgedrag, governor; Gerrit Schotte, prime minister; George Jamaloodin, finance minister) and Sint Maarten (Eugene Holiday, governor; Sarah Wescot-Williams, prime minister; Hiro Shigemoto, finance minister) and the special municipalities (continuing under their existing administrators) of Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius.
United States: Peter Carlisle is sworn in as mayor of Honolulu.
Canada: David Alward is sworn in as premier of New Brunswick.
Pakistan: Former chief minister of Sindh (1988, 1988) Akhtar Ali Kazi dies.
Somalia: Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed is appointed prime minister. On October 31 he is approved by parliament (297-92).
Nigeria: A Court of Appeal nullifies the election (in 2007, with a partial re-run in 2009) of Olusegun Oni as governor of Ekiti and declares Kayode Fayemi as the duly elected governor; he is sworn in the next day.
Russia: President Dmitry Medvedev nominates Sergey Sobyanin as mayor of Moscow. On October 21 the city council confirms him (32-2) and he takes office.
Falkland Islands: Nigel Haywood is sworn in as governor.
Canada: In mayoral elections in Calgary, Naheed Nenshi is elected with 39.6% of the votes, defeating Ric McIver (31.7%) and Barb Higgins (25.8%); turnout is 53.2%. In Edmonton, Stephen Mandel is reelected with 55.1% of the votes, defeating David Dorward (29.8%) and Daryl Bonar (10.5%); turnout is 34.3%. Nenshi is sworn in on October 25.
Kosovo: The ministers of the Democratic League of Kosovo, including Foreign Minister Skënder Hyseni, resign. The deputy foreign minister, Vlora Çitaku, takes charge of the portfolio.
Russia: President Dmitry Medvedev nominates incumbent Oleg Chirkunov as governor of Perm kray (confirmed by the local Assembly, 47-8, on October 27) and incumbent Mikhail Men as governor of Ivanovo oblast (confirmed by the local parliament, 41-5, on October 22).
Pakistan: Former foreign minister (1993) and president (1993-97) Farooq Ahmed Leghari dies.
Saint Lucia: Sir George Mallet, former foreign minister (1992-96) and governor-general (1996-97), dies.
Spain: Trinidad Jiménez is named foreign minister in a cabinet reshuffle; she takes office on October 21.
Canada: Former lieutenant governor of Alberta (1985-91) Helen Hunley dies.
Morocco: The minister-delegate responsible for defense, Abderrahmane Sbaï, dies.
Bahrain: In the first round of parliamentary elections, the Islamic National Accord Association (Al Wefaq) wins 18 of 40 seats; turnout is 67.7%. A second round is held in 9 constituencies on October 30, and the overall result includes 3 seats for Al Asala, 2 for Al Menbar, and 17 independents. On October 31 the prime minister, Sheikh Khalifa ibn Salman Al Khalifa, resigns with his cabinet but is reappointed and asked to form a new cabinet the same day.
Barbados: Prime Minister David Thompson dies. His deputy Freundel Stuart is sworn in as new prime minister. Adriel Brathwaite is sworn in to replace Stuart as minister of home affairs.
France: The president of the Regional Council of Languedoc-Roussillon, Georges Frêche, dies. On October 25 Josiane Collerais is named acting president.
Russia: Aleksey Orlov is sworn in as head of the republic of Kalmykia.
Austria: Former Landeshauptmann of Niederösterreich (1966-81) Andreas Maurer dies.
Canada: In mayoral elections in Toronto, Rob Ford is elected with 47.1% of the votes, defeating George Smitherman (35.6%) and Joe Pantalone (11.7%). In Ottawa, Jim Watson is elected with 48.7% of the votes, defeating Larry O'Brien (24.1%) and Clive Doucet (14.9%). Ford and Watson will take office on December 1.
Brazil: Former governor of Acre (1966-71) Jorge Kalume dies.
Guernsey: Peter Walker is named as the next lieutenant governor, to take office in April 2011.
Italy: Former president of Sicilia (1967, 1972-74) Vincenzo Giummarra dies.
Japan: Former governor of Tokushima (1981-93) Shinzo Miki dies.
Jersey: Sir John McColl is named as the next lieutenant governor, to take office in September 2011.
Argentina: Former president (2003-07) Néstor Kirchner dies.
Canada: In mayoral elections in Winnipeg, Sam Katz is reelected with 54.9% of the votes, defeating Judy Wasylycia-Leis (42.9%).
Kenya: Foreign Minister Moses Wetangula "steps aside" to allow investigations into corruption allegations. On October 28 Interior Minister George Saitoti is appointed acting foreign minister.
Romania: Prime Minister Emil Boc's government survives a no-confidence motion in parliament, which receives 219 votes, short of the 236 needed.
United Arab Emirates: The ruler of Ras al-Khaimah, Sheikh Saqr ibn Muhammad al-Qasimi, dies and is succeeded by Sheikh Saud ibn Saqr al-Qasimi.
Croatia: The government of Prime Minister Jadranka Kosor survives a no-confidence vote in parliament (62 in favour of the motion, 79 against).
Greenland: Former prime minister (1979-91, 1997-2002) Jonathan Motzfeldt dies.
Bermuda: Premier Ewart Brown resigns and Paula Cox is sworn in as new premier.
Japan: The governor of Ehime, Moriyuki Kato, resigns.
Singapore: Kasiviswanathan Shanmugam replaces Wong Kan Seng as home affairs minister.
Côte d'Ivoire: In presidential elections, incumbent Laurent Gbagbo wins 38.3% of the vote, Alassane Ouattara 32.1%, and Henri Konan Bédié 25.2%. Turnout is about 85%.
Japan: In gubernatorial elections in Fukushima, incumbent Yuhei Sato wins 88.5% of the vote and Katsuro Sato 11.5%. Turnout is 42.4%.
Tanzania: In presidential elections, incumbent Jakaya Kikwete (Chama Cha Mapinduzi) wins 61.2% of the vote, while Wilbrod Slaa (Chadema) wins 26.3% and Ibrahim Lipumba (Civic United Front) 8.1%. Turnout is about 42%. In presidential elections in Zanzibar, Ali Mohamed Shein (Chama Cha Mapinduzi) wins 50.1% of the vote and Seif Sharif Hamad (Civic United Front) 49.1%.