Index Ng-Nz

Ngafuan, Augustine (Kpehe) (b. April 7, 1970, Monrovia, Liberia), finance minister (2008-12) and foreign minister (2012-15) of Liberia.

Ngakinar, Mamari Djime (b. March 19, 1934, Sarh, Chad), interior and security minister (1975-76) and defense minister (1978-79) of Chad.

Ngalula (Mpandajila), Joseph (b. 1928, Lusambo, Congo-Kasaď [now in Kasaď Oriental], Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)]), prime minister (1960-61) and president (1962-65) of Sud-Kasaď. He was also education minister of Congo (Léopoldville) (1961-62).

N'Gangbet Kosnaye, Michel (b. March 22, 1938, Béboto [now in Logone Oriental region], Chad), finance minister of Chad (1981-82). He was also minister of education, culture, youth, and sport (1975-76) and economy (1979-82).

Ngangtar, (Laoukoura) Maurice (b. 1932, Bénoye [now in Logone Occidental region], Chad - d. Oct. 12, 2001), foreign minister of Chad (1963-64). He was also minister of waters, forestry, and tourism (1960-62), civil service (1962), stockbreeding (1962-63), and agriculture (1964-66).

Nganongo, Calixte (b. 1952?), finance minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (2016- ).

Ngantung, Henk, byname of Hendrik Joel Hermanus Ngantung (b. March 1, 1921, Bogor, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Barat, Indonesia] - d. Dec. 12, 1991, Jakarta, Indonesia), governor of Jakarta (1964-65). He was also noted as a painter.

Ngardoum, Djidingar Dono, until about 1973 Michel Djidingar (b. 1928, Dono Manga, Chad - d. Feb. 19, 2000), prime minister of Chad (1982). He was also minister of finance (1961-65), posts and telecommunications (1961-71), economy (1962-64), public works (1966-71), agriculture and rural development (1971-73, 1982-86), and agriculture and stockbreeding (1973-75) and minister of state without portfolio (1986-90).

Ngarukiyintwali, François (b. Dec. 5, 1940, Janja, Rwanda), foreign minister of Rwanda (1979-89). He was also chargé d'affaires in Congo (Kinshasa) (1966-68) and ambassador to West Germany, Austria, and Switzerland (1976-78).

Ngbanda Nzambo Ko Atumba, Honoré (b. May 5, 1946, Lisala, Équateur, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. March 21, 2021, Agadir, Morocco), defense minister of Zaire (1991-92); nephew of Mobutu Sese Seko. He was also ambassador to Israel (1983-85).

Ngbundu Malengo, Crispin (b. Dec. 20, 1973, Yalosemba, Équateur [now in Mongala], Zaire [now Congo (Kinshasa)]), governor of Mongala (2019-21, 2021).

Ngedup, Lyonpo Sangay (b. July 1, 1953), prime minister of Bhutan (1999-2000, 2005-06). He is the brother of the four consorts of Jigme Singye Wangchuk. He was also minister of health and education (1998-2003) and agriculture (2003-07).

Ngele, Victor (Samuel) (b. 1953), police and national security minister of Solomon Islands (1996). He was also minister of tourism and aviation (1989-93), agriculture and fisheries (1994-95, 1996), and economic reform and structural adjustment (2001), high commissioner to Australia (2006-10) and Malaysia (2013-19), and ambassador to Taiwan (2010-11).

Ngendahayo, Jean-Marie (b. 1956), foreign minister (1993-95) and interior minister (2005) of Burundi.

Ngendandumwe, Pierre (b. 1930 - d. [assassinated] Jan. 15, 1965, Bujumbura, Burundi), prime minister of Burundi (1963-64, 1965).

Nghidinwa, Rosalia (Annette Ndilinasho) (b. Oct. 26, 1952, Nkurenkuru, Kavango region, South West Africa [now Namibia] - d. Jan. 15, 2018, Windhoek, Namibia), home affairs minister of Namibia (2005-12). She was also minister of gender equality and child welfare (2012-15).

Nghimtina, Erkki (b. Sept. 16, 1948, Eembidi, Ohangwena region, South West Africa [now Namibia]), defense minister of Namibia (1997-2005). He was also minister of mines and energy (2005-10), works and transport (2010-15), and labour, industrial relations, and employment creation (2015-20).

Ngige, Chris (Nwabueze) (b. Aug. 8, 1952, Alor [now in Anambra state], Nigeria), governor of Anambra (2003-06). He has also been Nigerian minister of labour and employment (2015- ).

Ngileruma, Alhaji Muhammad (b. 1908, Yerwa, Northern Nigeria [now Maiduguri, Nigeria] - d. Feb. 17, 1968), Nigerian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1960-62) and ambassador to the United Arab Republic (1962-68).

Nginn Thappana, also appearing as Thappana Nginn, interior minister (1971-72) and defense minister (1972-73, 1973-74) of Cambodia. He was also minister of public works and transport (1973) and a deputy prime minister (1973-74).

Ngiraked, John O(lbedabel) (b. April 25, 1932, Ngiwal, Palau - d. Aug. 13, 2003), minister of state of Palau (1985-88). He was a presidential candidate in 1980 and 1988. Along with his wife Emerita Kerradel, he was arrested in 1992 and sentenced to life imprisonment in 1993 for masterminding the assassination of Pres. Haruo Remeliik in 1985.

Ngirente, Edouard (b. Feb. 22, 1973, Rwanda), prime minister of Rwanda (2017- ).

Ngjela, Kiço (b. Dec. 25, 1917, Shepër, near Gjirokastër, Albania - d. June 16, 2002), finance minister of Albania (1948). He was also minister of trade (1948-53, 1954-75).

Ngjela, Spartak (b. July 11, 1948, Tiranë, Albania), justice minister of Albania (1997); son of Kiço Ngjela.

Ngo Dinh Diem
Ngo Dinh Diem, (Jean-Baptiste) (b. Jan. 3, 1901, Quang Binh province, northern Vietnam - d. Nov. 2, 1963, Cho Lon, South Vietnam [now part of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam]), president of South Vietnam (1955-63). In 1933 he was named the emperor Bao Dai's minister of the interior, but found himself in conflict with the French colonial authorities and resigned the same year. In 1945 Communist leader Ho Chi Minh invited him to join his independent government in the North, but he rejected the proposal. After living abroad for several years, he returned in 1954 at Bao Dai's request to serve as prime minister of non-Communist South Vietnam. He effectively ousted Bao Dai as chief of state in April 1955 and was confirmed in a government-controlled referendum in October, becoming president of the newly declared Republic of Vietnam. He refused to act on the Geneva Accords providing for consultations with the Communist government to be followed by free elections throughout Vietnam in 1956 to establish a national government. With U.S. military and economic aid, he established an autocratic regime staffed at the highest levels by family members, in particular his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu. Hundreds of thousands of refugees from North Vietnam were resettled in the south and economic progress made, but he failed to fulfill his promise of land reforms, and Communist influence grew as the National Liberation Front, or Viet Cong, launched an increasingly intense guerrilla war against his government. His use of heavy-handed military tactics against the insurgency only served to deepen his unpopularity. As a Roman Catholic he also was accused of oppressing the Buddhist majority. The United States finally withdrew its support from him, and he was assassinated during a military coup.

Ngo Hou (b. 1907/08, Battambang, Cambodia - d. ...), defense minister of Cambodia (1954-55). He was also minister of public health (1954-55, 1958, and in exile government 1970-74).

Ngobila Mbaka, Gentiny (b. Sept. 20, 1963, Léopoldville [now Kinshasa], Congo), special commissioner (2015-16) and governor (2016-19) of Mai-Ndombe and governor of Kinshasa (2019- ).

Ngollo, Raymond Damase (b. March 25, 1936, Ngabé, French Equatorial Africa [now in Congo (Brazzaville)] - d. Aug. 9, 2017, Villeneuve-Saint-Georges, Val-de-Marne, France), member of the Military Committee of the Congolese Labour Party (1977) and defense minister of Congo (1980-84, 1991-95). He was also minister of administration and local government (1984-88), transport and civil aviation (1988-89), and forestry (1989-91).

Ngom, Ousmane (Alioune) (b. May 18, 1955, Saint-Louis, Senegal), interior minister of Senegal (2004-08, 2010-12). He was also minister of labour and professional training (1991-92), health and social action (1995-98), commerce (2004), and mines, industry, and small and medium-sized enterprises (2008-10).

Ngom Jua
Ngom Jua, Augustine (b. 1929, Wum, British Cameroons [now in Cameroon] - d. [said to be poisoned on Pres. Ahmadou Ahidjo's orders] 1977), prime minister of West Cameroon (1965-68).

Ngomo Mbengono, Francisco Javier (b. Aug. 2, 1951), justice minister of Equatorial Guinea (1993-95, 2012-15). He was also minister of labour and social security (1996) and deputy prime minister and minister of civil service and administrative reform (1996-98).

N'Goran, (Emmanuel) Niamien (b. 1949, Bongouanou, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire]), economy and finance minister of Côte d'Ivoire (1993-99); nephew-in-law of Henri Konan Bédié.

Ngothe, (Pierre) Gali Gatta (b. June 2, 1949, Kyabé, Chad), economy and finance minister of Chad (1991). He was also minister of higher education (1990-91, 1993), national education, culture, youth, and sports (1993-94), and public works, housing, and transport (1995-97).

Ngoua, Joseph (b. May 12, 1923, Libreville, Gabon - d. August 1999), defense minister (1963) and foreign minister (1963-64) of Gabon. He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1960-61) and ambassador to the United States (1961) and Taiwan (1968-71).

Ngouabi, Marien (b. Dec. 31, 1938, Ombele, Owando district, Cuvette region, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)] - d. [assassinated] March 18, 1977, Brazzaville), president of Congo (Brazzaville) (1969-77). He helped to form a paratroop corps in Brazzaville and had risen to the rank of captain when he led a mutiny in 1966 against the plans of Alphonse Massamba-Débat's government to incorporate the army into the national militia. Ngouabi was demoted, but the government's plan was scrapped. He was subsequently posted to the general staff headquarters. In July 1968 he was arrested, but he was immediately freed by his supporters in the military. Massamba-Débat was forced to name him as chief of staff. Ngouabi also was named president of a National Council of the Revolution. Massamba-Débat was forced from office on Sept. 4, 1968, and Capt. Alfred Raoul was named leader of the provisional government. Ngouabi remained leader of the Council and replaced Raoul as head of state on Jan. 1, 1969. He formed the Congolese Workers' Party in December 1969. His government survived a right-wing coup attempt in March 1970. Ngouabi was also challenged by an abortive coup attempt from the left in February 1972. He established the Congo as a people's republic and maintained close relations with the Soviet Union and Cuba. He retained power until he was shot and killed in his living quarters at his general staff headquarters in Brazzaville in 1977, during an unsuccessful coup attempt led by Capt. Barthélemy Kikadidi that reportedly involved Massamba-Débat.

Ngoubeyou, François Xavier (b. May 10, 1937, Nkongsamba, French Cameroons [now in Cameroon]), foreign minister of Cameroon (2001-04). He was also minister of youth and sports (1971-72) and ambassador to Switzerland (1985-2001).

Ngoubou, Benjamin (b. July 23, 1925, Lambaréné, Gabon - d. March 15, 2008, Lille, France), foreign minister of Gabon (1967-68).


Ngoupandé, Jean-Paul (b. Dec. 6, 1948, Ngoro, Kemo-Gribingui, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic] - d. May 4, 2014, Paris region, France), prime minister (1996-97) and foreign minister (2005-06) of the Central African Republic. He was also minister of education (1985-87), ambassador to Côte d'Ivoire (1989-94) and France (1994-96), and a presidential candidate (2005).

Ngoy Kitangala, Richard (b. Dec. 1, 1958, Kongolo, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)]), special commissioner (2015-16) and governor (2016- ) of Tanganyika.

Ngoy Mukena, Aimé (b. 1961? - d. May 22, 2022, Lubumbashi, Congo [Kinshasa]), governor of Katanga (2001-04) and defense minister of Congo (Kinshasa) (2014-15, 2019-21). He was also minister of hydrocarbons (2015-19).

Ngoyi Kasanji, Alphonse (b. Feb. 12, 1963, Ngandajika, Congo [Léopoldville] [now Congo (Kinshasa)]), governor (2007-15, 2016-19) and special commissioner (2015-16) of Kasaď Oriental.

Ngrébada, Firmin (b. May 24, 1968, Bangui, Central African Republic), prime minister of the Central African Republic (2019-21).


Ngubane, Ben, byname of Baldwin Sipho Ngubane (b. Oct. 22, 1941, Inchanga mission, Camperdown, Natal [now in KwaZulu-Natal], South Africa - d. July 12, 2021, Richards Bay, KwaZulu-Natal), premier of KwaZulu-Natal (1997-99). He was also South African minister of arts, culture, science, and technology (1994-96, 1999-2004) and ambassador to Japan (2004-08).

Nguema Esono Nchama, Bonifacio (b. April 24, 1936, Mongomo, Spanish Guinea [now Equatorial Guinea] - d. April 28, 2015, Malabo, Equatorial Guinea), foreign minister (1971-79) and vice president (1978-79) of Equatorial Guinea; cousin of Francisco Macías Nguema.

Nguema Onguene, Clemente Engonga, interior minister of Equatorial Guinea (2001- ); brother of Marcelino Nguema Onguene.

Nguema Onguene, Marcelino (b. April 14, 1946, Eyamoyong, Mongomo district, Spanish Guinea [now Equatorial Guinea] - d. Sept. 22, 2020, Spain), foreign minister of Equatorial Guinea (1982-89). He was also minister of economy and commerce (1990-92, 1999-2001) and health and social welfare (2001-03), president of the National Assembly (1996-99), and ombudsman (2015-20).

Nguendet, Alexandre Ferdinand (b. May 23, 1972, Bossangoa, Central African Republic), acting transitional head of state of the Central African Republic (2014). He was a minor presidential candidate in 2020.

N'Guessan, (Pascal) Affi (b. 1953, Bouadikro, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire]), prime minister of Côte d'Ivoire (2000-03). He was also minister of industry and tourism (2000) and a presidential candidate (2015, 2020).

Ngulinzira, Boniface (b. 1950 - d. [assassinated] April 11, 1994, Kicukiro, Rwanda), foreign minister of Rwanda (1992-93).

Ngum, Alieu (Momodou) (b. Aug. 12, 1950, Gambia), finance minister of The Gambia (2005). He was also ambassador to Saudi Arabia (1999-2000), Belgium (2000-02), and the United States (2010-13) and minister of trade, industry, and employment (2005-06).

Ngungwa Mwayuma, Julie (b. Sept. 29, 1973, Likasi, Shaba, Zaire [now in Haut-Katanga, Congo (Kinshasa)]), governor of Tanganyika (2022- ).

Nguyen Ba Can (b. 1930 - d. May 20, 2009, San Jose, Calif.), prime minister of South Vietnam (1975). He was also speaker of the House of Representatives (1971-75).

Nguyen Cao Ky
Nguyen Cao Ky (b. Sept. 8, 1930, Son Tay province [now in Ha Tay province], northern Vietnam - d. July 23, 2011, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), prime minister (1965-67) and vice president (1967-71) of South Vietnam. He took aviation courses in France and the U.S. and served in the French colonial forces that opposed the Vietnamese liberation movement. After the nation was partitioned in 1954, he joined the South Vietnamese air force, attracting much attention because of his vehement anti-Communism as well as his bravado. He was highly favoured by U.S. advisers in Vietnam, but under Pres. Ngo Dinh Diem his flashy ways incurred disapproval and he was assigned to insignificant commands. After that government was overthrown in 1963, he rose quickly in responsibility and soon was named commander of the air force; he assumed the rank of air vice marshal. In January 1965, as one of four military leaders invited to join the government, he was named minister of youth and sports, but he balked at accepting the post. In June 1965, together with Maj.Gen. Nguyen Van Thieu and Gen. Duong Van Minh, he led a military coup that unseated the government of Prime Minister Phan Huy Quat. As prime minister, he provoked widespread opposition to his authoritarian policies, especially among Buddhists. In 1967 he announced he would run for the presidency, but then reached an agreement with the other top military leaders by which Thieu ran for president and he for vice president. The ticket won with about 35% of the vote. Unhappy with his new position, he became an outspoken critic of Thieu. In 1971 he attempted to oppose Thieu for the presidency but withdrew because of what he called Thieu's designs to rig the election. Upon the fall of South Vietnam in April 1975, he fled to the United States; he became a U.S. citizen in 2003. He returned to Vietnam for the first time in January 2004.

Nguyen Co Thach
Nguyen Co Thach (b. May 15, 1921, Vu Ban, Nam Dinh province, Vietnam - d. April 10, 1998, Hanoi, Vietnam), foreign minister of Vietnam (1980-91). He joined the Viet Minh - Communist-led guerrillas - in 1937 to fight French colonial rule. His activities landed him in jail in the early 1940s. After release, he steadily rose through the Viet Minh ranks. He was a lieutenant colonel at the siege of Dien Bien Phu in 1954 that crushed French forces and effectively ended French rule in Indochina. A career diplomat, he gained prominence as a member of Vietnam's negotiating team during the Paris peace talks, which led to a U.S. agreement to pull troops out of South Vietnam in 1973. He was an aide to Le Duc Tho, the chief negotiator at the protracted talks. The war ended with a North Vietnamese victory in 1975. But he failed in his mission of establishing diplomatic relations with the United States. As early as 1978, three years after the end of the Vietnam War, he met with U.S. officials in New York to discuss normalization of ties, hoping to reduce dependence on the Soviet Union. U.S. mortification over its defeat and Hanoi's demands for war reparations got in the way of early postwar talks about establishing ties. He was foreign minister at a time when Vietnam was trying to break free from international isolation that followed the country's occupation of Cambodia. He traveled to New York in 1990 to meet Secretary of State James Baker, the highest-level bilateral contact since 1973. But the United States still withheld diplomatic relations. His star began to fade after he failed to warn fellow leaders of the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe and to prepare Vietnam for an abrupt cut in Soviet aid. He was pushed from office at a Communist Party congress in 1991.

Nguyen Duy Trinh
Nguyen Duy Trinh (b. July 15, 1910, Nghi Loc, Nghe An province, Vietnam - d. April 20, 1985), foreign minister of North Vietnam (1965-76) and of Vietnam (1976-80). He was also chairman of the State Planning Commission (1958-63) and of the National Scientific Research Commission (1963-65).

Nguyen Dy Nien
Nguyen Dy Nien (b. Dec. 9, 1935, Thanh Hoa province, Vietnam), foreign minister of Vietnam (2000-06). He served in the foreign ministry for decades, becoming deputy foreign minister in 1987.

Nguyen Huu Tho (b. July 10, 1910, Cho Lon [now part of Ho Chi Minh City], southern Vietnam - d. Dec. 24, 1996, Ho Chi Minh City), Vietnamese politician. He became politically active in 1949 and took a leading part in protests against the French and against the patrolling of the southern Vietnamese coast by U.S. warships. Imprisoned in 1950-52, he won popular acclaim for his prolonged hunger strike in protest of the war. After Vietnam was divided into a Communist north and a pro-U.S. south in 1954, he cooperated with the southern regime of Ngo Dinh Diem until he was arrested for advocating nationwide elections on reunification. Except for a short interval in 1958, he remained in prison from 1954 until some of his followers helped him escape in 1961. These had formed the National Liberation Front (NLF) in 1960, and made him provisional and in 1962 full-time chairman. His guerrilla forces began to register massive gains against the U.S.-backed South Vietnamese government. In June 1969 the NLF established a Provisional Revolutionary Government (PRG) with Huynh Tan Phat as president and Nguyen as chairman of its consultative council. The PRG became the government of South Vietnam in April 1975, when the Saigon government's troops surrendered to the North Vietnamese and PRG forces. Following reunification, he was made one of the country's two vice presidents in 1976, a post he held until 1980, when he became acting president. In 1981 he was made vice president of the Council of State (a position he held until 1992), as well as chairman of the National Assembly (until 1987). He was also the first mayor of Ho Chi Minh City after reunification. In 1988-94 he was chairman of the Vietnam Fatherland Front, which oversees all mass organizations in the country.

Nguyen Khanh
Nguyen Khanh (b. Nov. 8, 1927, Tra Vinh, southern Vietnam - d. Jan. 11, 2013, San Jose, Calif.), president and prime minister of South Vietnam (1964). He served in the French colonial army and took advanced military training both in France and in the United States. In independent South Vietnam he at first served loyally under Pres. Ngo Dinh Diem and became chief of staff to Gen. Duong Van Minh in 1955. He became a general in 1960. His units had great success against Viet Cong guerrillas in the Mekong delta, although he was occasionally criticized for sudden, driving military operations that were not cleared in advance with area commanders. He helped foil a coup against Ngo in 1960, but when Ngo sent the army to quell dissident religious sects, Nguyen joined Duong and other high military officials in assassinating Ngo on Nov. 1, 1963, and then led a counter-coup against Duong in January 1964. In a very unstable period marked by several coup attempts, he held the presidency until February and again briefly in August and was prime minister in February-August and September-November. Thereafter he remained commander of the armed forces. In January 1965 he was involved in another coup, overthrowing Prime Minister Tran Van Huong, and then wielded actual power, without taking a political post. In February, however, he lost the backing of other military leaders and was replaced as armed forces commander and sent abroad as roving ambassador. In August he was recalled, but he remained in exile, settling in Paris in 1968, then moving to the United States in 1977. In 2005 he was elected as president of an exile "Government of Free Vietnam."

Nguyen Luong Bang (b. April 2, 1904 - d. July 20, 1979), vice president of North Vietnam (1969-76) and a vice president of Vietnam (1976-79). He was also ambassador to the Soviet Union (1952-56).

Nguyen Manh Cam (b. June 15, 1929, Hung Dung commune, Hung Nguyen district, Nghe An province, Vietnam), foreign minister of Vietnam (1991-2000). He was also ambassador to Hungary (1973-76), West Germany (1977-81), and the Soviet Union (1987-91).

N. Minh Triet
Nguyen Minh Triet (b. Oct. 8, 1942, Ben Cat district, Song Be province, South Vietnam [now in Binh Duong province, Vietnam]), president of Vietnam (2006-11). He participated in revolutionary activities in South Vietnam between 1960 and 1970 and held the posts of secretary of the Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth Union in 1975-87 and deputy secretary and then secretary of the Communist Party committee of southern Song Be province in 1988-96. He became deputy secretary of the party committee of Ho Chi Minh City in 1997, and secretary of the committee in 2000. He has been a member of the Political Bureau since 1998. In 1998-99, he acted as chairman of the party's Commission for Mass Mobilization.

Nguyen Ngoc Tho (b. May 26, 1908, My Phuoc, Long Xuyen province, Vietnam - d. 1976, Saigon [now Ho Chi Minh City], Vietnam), vice president (1956-63) and prime minister (1963-64) of South Vietnam.

Nguyen Phu Duc (b. Nov. 13, 1924, Son Tay, Vietnam), acting foreign minister of South Vietnam (1973). He was also ambassador to Belgium (1974-75).

N. Phu Trong
Nguyen Phu Trong (b. April 14, 1944, Hanoi, Vietnam), general secretary of the Communist Party (2011- ) and president (2018-21) of Vietnam. He was chairman of the National Assembly in 2006-11.

Nguyen Phuoc Buu Loc, (from March 8, 1949) Prince (b. Aug. 22, 1914, Hue, Vietnam - d. Feb. 27, 1990, Paris, France), prime minister and interior minister of South Vietnam (1954); great-grandson of Prince Nguyen Phuoc Mien Trinh, Tuy-Ly Vuong; cousin of Bao Dai. He was also ambassador to France (1952-53).

N. Tan Dung
Nguyen Tan Dung (b. Nov. 17, 1949, Ca Mau province, South Vietnam [now in Vietnam]), prime minister of Vietnam (2006-16). He became deputy prime minister in 1997, and governor of the State Bank of Vietnam in 1998. He has been a member of the Communist Party's Political Bureau since 1996.

Nguyen Thanh Chau (b. Sept. 17, 1945, Phu Tho, Vietnam), Vietnamese diplomat. He was ambassador to Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, and Fiji (1992-96) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2000-04).

Nguyen Thi Binh, original name Nguyen Chau Sa (b. May 26, 1927, Quang Nam province, Vietnam), foreign minister of South Vietnam (1975-76). She was also education minister (1976-87) and vice president (1992-2002) of Vietnam.

Nguyen Thi Phuong Nga (b. Aug. 27, 1963, Hanoi, North Vietnam), Vietnamese diplomat. She was permanent representative to the United Nations (2014-18).

Nguyen Tuong Tam, byname Nhat Linh (b. Feb. 1, 1905, Binh Phien, Hai Duong province, Vietnam - d. [suicide by poison] July 7, 1963, Cho Lon, South Vietnam [now part of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam]), foreign minister of North Vietnam (1946). He was also known as a writer.

N. Van Linh
Nguyen Van Linh, original name Nguyen Van Cuc (b. July 1, 1915, Giai Pham commune, My Van district, Hung Yen province, northern Vietnam - d. April 27, 1998, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam), Vietnamese politician. He joined the fight against French colonial rule in 1929 and was sentenced to life imprisonment for subversion in 1930. He was freed in an amnesty in 1936, joined the Indochinese Communist Party and resumed his anti-French efforts, but was incarcerated again in 1941-45, again being held on the notorious prison island of Poulo Condore (Con Son). After Vietnam's proclamation of independence in 1945 Linh moved up through the ranks of the Communist party and after the division of the country following the French withdrawal (1954), he became an underground leader in South Vietnam. By 1960 he was selected to serve on the party central committee as secretary of the region that covered South Vietnam. He was known by so many aliases that it was not until the mid-1970s that the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency realized that four important cadres were one and the same. With the defeat of the U.S.-backed regime in the south, he became party chief in Saigon. At the 4th National Party Congress in December 1976, he joined the Politburo; in 1982 he was inexplicably dropped, but he made a triumphant comeback in 1985 and consolidated his position in the months before and after General Secretary Le Duan's death in July 1986. On Dec. 18, 1986, he was installed as general secretary by the sixth congress of the Communist Party. He immediately took pragmatic measures to reform Vietnam's fossilized economy. His relationship with top party peers was sometimes uneasy as his views clashed with those that wanted accelerated reform. By the end of his five-year tenure as party chief he had fallen from favour and he was replaced at a party congress in 1991.

Nguyen Van Loc (b. Aug. 24, 1922, Bien Hoa province, southern Vietnam), prime minister of South Vietnam (1967-68).

N. Van Thieu
Nguyen Van Thieu (b. November 19241, Tri Thuy, Ninh Thuan province, Vietnam - d. Sept. 29, 2001, Boston, Mass.), president of South Vietnam (1967-75). He joined the Viet Minh in 1945 but left it in 1946 because of its Communist orientation and later fought for the French colonial regime against the Viet Minh. In 1954-58 he was head of the Vietnamese National Military Academy. By 1960 he had risen in rank to colonel. He played an important part in the coup against Pres. Ngo Dinh Diem in 1963. In 1965 he became chief of state in a military government headed by Prime Minister Nguyen Cao Ky. In 1967 he was elected president under a new constitution, and he was reelected without opposition in 1971. He ruled during the period of major U.S. intervention in the war against the Viet Cong insurgents and North Vietnam. But even with the assistance of 500,000 U.S. troops and massive amounts of military aid, he was never able to turn the tide against the Communists. He was a reluctant participant in the peace agreements of 1973 which provided for the withdrawal of U.S. troops from South Vietnam and led to increased military pressure from the Communist forces. In March 1975 he recalled troops from northern and central provinces of South Vietnam to defend the capital, Saigon, but the retreat turned into a rout. The capital was soon surrounded. After resisting for several days, he resigned on April 21 in favour of his vice president, Tran Van Huong, in a last-ditch attempt to reach a negotiated settlement of the war; he denounced the U.S. for breaking a promise to help Saigon if the Communists violated the 1973 accords. A few days later he left the country, going first to Taiwan, a few months later to England, and in 1989 to the U.S.
1 In accordance with a frequently used Vietnamese custom, he took another date - April 5, 1923 - as his official birthday, on grounds that it was better luck.

Nguyen Van Thinh (b. 1888 - d. Nov. 10, 1946, Saigon, Cochinchina [now Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam]), president of the Provisional Government of Cochinchina (1946). He entered politics in 1926 as a member of the Constitutionalist Party and in 1937 founded the Democrat Party. A French citizen, he became the first head of an allegedly autonomous Cochinchina created by the French in 1946. Because forming this government violated a previous agreement to hold a referendum on the future of Cochinchina, many Vietnamese considered him a traitor. Leaders of neighbouring independent Vietnam (formed of Annam and Tonkin) urged his countrymen to throw off Western control and issued threats against him. He was shocked when his French friends seemed to turn their backs on him, having dealt directly with Vietnam without Cochinchina representation, causing his government to lose face. "I am being compelled to play a farce," he said. Shortly afterward he committed suicide; his private secretary found him hanging from a rafter with a copper wire around his neck.

Nguyen Van Xuan (b. April 3, 1892, Truong Tho, Cau Ngang district, Vietnam - d. 1989), president of the Provisional Government of Cochinchina (1946) and South Vietnam (1947-48) and president of the Central Government of Vietnam (1948-49).

N. Xuan Oanh
Nguyen Xuan Oanh (b. July 14, 1921, Ha Bac, Vietnam - d. Aug. 30, 2003, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam), deputy prime minister (1964-72) and acting prime minister (1964, 1965) of South Vietnam.

N. Xuan Phuc
Nguyen Xuan Phuc (b. July 20, 1954, Que Phu commune, Que Son district, Quang Nam province, South Vietnam [now in Vietnam]), prime minister (2016-21) and president (2021- ) of Vietnam. He was a deputy prime minister in 2011-16.

Nguza Karl-I-Bond, (Jean-de-Dieu) (b. Aug. 4, 1938, Musumba, Katanga province, Belgian Congo [now in Lualaba, Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. July 27, 2003, Kinshasa), foreign minister (1972-74, 1976-77, 1979-80, 1988-90) and prime minister (1980-81, 1991-92) of Zaire; nephew of Moise Tshombe. In September 1977 he was sentenced to death for treason in connection with the March invasion of Shaba region, but Pres. Mobutu Sese Seko commuted the sentence to life imprisonment; he was released in 1978 and rejoined the government in 1979. He resigned in 1981 to join the exile opposition to Mobutu in Belgium, but returned to Zaire in June 1985 under another presidential amnesty and was ambassador to the United States in 1986-88.

Ngwabidje Kasi, Théo (b. March 27, 1971, Goma, Kivu [nord in Nord-Kivu], Congo [Kinshasa]), governor of Sud-Kivu (2019-21, 2022- ).

Ngwiri, John (Ralph) (b. 1930, Nyasaland [now Malawi] - d. 1992), Malawian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1965-66).

Nhamadjo, Manuel Serifo (b. March 25, 1958 - d. March 17, 2020, Lisbon, Portugal), transitional president of Guinea-Bissau (2012-14). He was acting president of the National People's Assembly in 2009 and 2012 and a presidential candidate in 2012.

Nhassé, Alamara (Ntchia) (b. June 2, 1957), prime minister of Guinea-Bissau (2001-02). He was also minister of agriculture (2000-01) and interior (2001).

Nhek Bun Chhay (b. Feb. 7, 1956), acting head of state of Cambodia (2004). He was second vice president of the Senate (1999-2004), a deputy prime minister (2004-13), and co-defense minister (2004-06).

Nhiek Tioulong, Samdech (Chakrey Decho Thippadey) (b. Aug. 23, 1908, Phnom Penh, Cambodia - d. June 9, 1996, Hong Kong), foreign minister (1954 [acting], 1961-62) and acting prime minister (1962) of Cambodia. He was also minister of national education (1945, 1959-60), finance (1945-46, 1951), information (1951, 1958, 1959), defense (1954), interior (1958, 1959), and justice (1959), minister and ambassador to Japan (1955-57) and to the Soviet Union, Poland, and Czechoslovakia (1957-58), and president of the FUNCINPEC party (1989-92). He was given the Samdech title in 1969.

Nhouy Abhay (b. Jan. 9, 1909, Khong, Champasak [now in Laos] - d. Oct. 1, 1963, Vientiane, Laos), foreign minister (1951-54) and interior minister (1956-57) of Laos; brother of Kou Abhay. He was also minister of public health (1949-50), information (1951-54), education (1951-55, 1957-58, 1960-62), and social welfare (1956-57) and deputy prime minister (1960-62).

Ni Sichong (b. 1868, Fuyang, Anhui, China - d. July 12, 1924), civil governor of Henan (1911-12) and military governor (1913-16, 1917-20) and civil governor (1913-14, 1916-17) of Anhui. He was civil governor of Heilongjiang and Henan provinces during the last days of the Qing dynasty. He maintained his post in Henan after the revolution. In 1913, Pres. Yuan Shikai ordered him to lead his army to Anhui province. He was made governor after defeating the Kuomintang forces led by Bai Wenwei. He supported Yuan Shikai's imperial claim and was honoured as "first duke." After Yuan's death, he supported Duan Qirui and was made inspector of the armies along the Yangtze River. He stepped down upon the fall of the Anhui Military Group in the civil war in 1920.

Niang, Cheikh (b. 1957, Thičs, Senegal), Senegalese diplomat. He has been ambassador to South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe (2010-12), the United States, Costa Rica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, and Uruguay (2012-14), and Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Singapore (2014-18) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2018- ).

Madické Niang
Niang, Madické (b. Sept. 25, 1953, Saint-Louis, Senegal), justice minister (2008-09) and foreign minister (2009-12) of Senegal. He was also minister of housing (2002-03), energy and mines (2003-07), mines, industry, and energy (2007), and mines and industry (2007-08). He was a minor presidential candidate in 2019.

Niang, Mamadou (b. 1938, Podor, Senegal), interior minister of Senegal (2000-03). He was also ambassador to Guinea-Bissau (1999-2000), Brazil (2003-04), and the United Kingdom (2004-07).

Niare, Seydou (b. Dec. 22, 1933, Bamako, French Sudan [now Mali]), Malian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1984-87) and ambassador to Yugoslavia, Albania, Romania, and Turkey (1988-90).

Niasse, Moustapha (b. Nov. 4, 1939, Keur Madiabel, Senegal), foreign minister (1978-84, 1993-98) and prime minister (1983, 2000-01) of Senegal. He has also been minister of town planning, housing, and environment (1978), a presidential candidate (2000, 2007, 2012), and president of the National Assembly (2012- ).

Niazi, Amir Abdullah Khan, byname Tiger Niazi (b. 1915, Balo-Khel village, near Mianwali, Punjab, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Feb. 1, 2004, Lahore, Pakistan), martial law administrator of East Pakistan (1971). He served as a junior officer during World War II, and later held various command positions in Pakistan's army after the country won independence from Britain in 1947. As the chief of Pakistan army's command in 1971 in what was then called East Pakistan, Niazi and his forces fought against Bangladeshi separatists and Indian forces in a bloody war and later surrendered. The defeat is still considered by many Pakistanis to be a national humiliation. General Niazi was blamed for the defeat and was removed from the army in 1975.

S.A.Q.K. Niazi
Niazi, Sardar Abdul Qayyum Khan (b. Dec. 12, 1959, Darra Sher Khan, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan), prime minister of Azad Kashmir (2021-22).

Nibigira, Ezéchiel, foreign minister of Burundi (2018-20). He was also ambassador to Kenya (2012-14).

Nica, Dan (b. July 2, 1960, Panciu, Vrancea county, Romania), interior minister of Romania (2009 [acting], 2009). He was also minister of communications and information technologies (2000-04), a deputy prime minister (2008-09), and minister of communications and information society (2012-14).

Nicácio, Astolfo Dutra (b. Dec. 17, 1864, Meia Pataca district, Leopoldina municipality, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. May 23, 1920, Cataguases, Minas Gerais), Brazilian politician. He was president of the Chamber of Deputies (1914-17, 1919-20).

Nicholas (I), Russian Nikolay, secular name Pyotr (Stepanovich) Adoratsky (b. Sept. 27 [Sept. 15, O.S.], 1849, Kazan, Russia - d. Nov. 10 [Oct. 29, O.S.], 1896, Kazan), bishop of the Aleutian Islands and Alaska (1891). Due to illness he did not go to America. He was also bishop of Novomirgorod (1890-91), Balta (1891-95), and Orenburg (1895-96).

Nicholas (II), Russian Nikolay, secular name Mikhail (Zakharovich) Ziorov (b. June 2 [May 21, O.S.], 1851, Novomirgorod, Kherson province, Russia [now in Kirovohrad oblast, Ukraine] - d. Jan. 2, 1916 [Dec. 20, 1915, O.S.], Petrograd [now St. Petersburg], Russia), bishop of the Aleutian Islands and Alaska (1891-98). He was also bishop of Tavrida (1898-1905) and archbishop of Tver (1905) and Warsaw (1908-16).

Nicholas, Wilson C(ary) (b. Jan. 31, 1761, Williamsburg, Virginia - d. Oct. 10, 1820, "Tufton," near Charlottesville, Va.), governor of Virginia (1814-16); great-grandson of Robert Carter.

Nicholls, Sir Douglas (Ralph), byname Sir Doug Nicholls (b. Dec. 9, 1906, Cummeragunja, N.S.W. - d. June 4, 1988, Mooroopna, Vic.), governor of South Australia (1976-77). He was the first Aboriginal Australian to be knighted (1972).

Nicholls, Sir Herbert (b. Aug. 11, 1868, Ballarat, Victoria - d. Nov. 11, 1940, Hobart, Tas.), acting governor of Tasmania (1917, 1920, 1922-24, 1930-33); knighted 1916. He was attorney-general (1903-04), leader of the opposition (1906-09), and chief justice (1914-37) of Tasmania.

A.J. Nicholson

Rob Nicholson
Nicholson, A(rnold) J(oseph) (b. Feb. 28, 1942, Rock River, Clarendon, Jamaica), foreign minister of Jamaica (2012-16). He was attorney general in 1995-2012 and justice minister in 2001-12.

Nicholson, David (Campbell), administrator of Tokelau (2017). He was also New Zealand high commissioner to Samoa (2017-19).

Nicholson, Reginald Popham, original name Reginald Popham Lobb (b. 1874 - d. March 15, 1950, Abinger Hammer, Surrey, England), administrator of Saint Vincent (1915-22).

Nicholson, Rob(ert Douglas) (b. April 29, 1952, Niagara Falls, Ont.), justice minister (2007-13), defence minister (2013-15), and foreign minister (2015) of Canada.


Nickels, Greg (b. Aug. 7, 1955, Chicago, Ill.), mayor of Seattle (2002-10).

Niclasen, Jřrgen (b. Jan. 17, 1969, Sřrvági, Faeroe Islands), foreign minister (2008-11) and finance minister (2011-15, 2019- ) of the Faeroe Islands.

Nicol, Davidson (Sylvester Hector Willoughby), pen name Abioseh Nicol (b. Sept. 14, 1924, Freetown, Sierra Leone - d. Sept. 20, 1994, Cambridge, England), Sierra Leonean diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1969-71) and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1971-72). He was also noted as a writer.

Nicol, Yves (Marie) (b. Feb. 13, 1887, La Lucerne-d'Outremer, Manche, France - d. Sept. 13, 1954, Redon, Ille-et-Vilaine, France), governor of Martinique (1941-43).

Nicolaas, Euladio D(amaso), byname Elio Nicolaas (b. 1941), acting administrator of Aruba (1982-83).

Nicolae, Ion (M.) (b. Oct. 28, 1923, Amarasti, Dolj county, Romania), a deputy prime minister of Romania (1982-86). He was also ambassador to the Soviet Union (1986-87) and minister of chemical and petrochemical industry (1987-89).

Nicolaď, Ange Eugčne (b. July 28, 1845, Vescovato, Corse [now in Haute-Corse], France - d. May 21, 1908, Cette [now Sčte], Hérault, France), lieutenant governor of Cochinchina (1897-98).

Nicolas, Henri Pierre (b. Oct. 13, 1896, Paris, France - d. 1986, Paris), governor of French Cameroons (1944-46).

Nicolescu, Constantin (D.) (b. Nov. 5, 1887, Bucharest, Romania - d. July 6, 1972, Bucharest), war minister of Romania (1940).

Nicolini, Marco (b. Sept. 15, 1970, Piove di Sacco, Veneto, Italy), captain-regent of San Marino (2021).

Nicolis di Robilant, Conte Carlo Felice (b. Aug. 8, 1826, Turin, Kingdom of Sardinia [now in Italy] - d. Oct. 17, 1888, London, England), foreign minister of Italy (1885-87). He was also minister (1871-76) and ambassador (1876-85) to Austria-Hungary and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1888).

Nicolosi, Rosario (Antonino), byname Rino Nicolosi (b. July 28, 1942, Acireale, Sicilia, Italy - d. Nov. 30, 1998), president of Sicilia (1985-91).

Nicotera, Giovanni (b. Sept. 9, 1828, Sambiase, Two Sicilies [now part of Lamezia Terme, Catanzaro province, Calabria, Italy] - d. June 13, 1894, Vico Equense [now in Napoli metropolitan city], Italy), interior minister of Italy (1876-77, 1891-92).

Niculescu, Alexandru (A.) (b. Jan. 1, 1941, Bucharest, Romania), Romanian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2001-03).

Niculescu-Mizil, Paul (b. Dec. 10, 1923, Bucharest, Romania - d. Dec. 5, 2008, Bucharest), finance minister of Romania (1978-81). He was also a deputy premier (1972-81) and education minister (1972-76).

Nidhi, Bimalendra (b. Sept. 25, 1956, Nagarain, Dhanusha district, Nepal), a deputy prime minister and home affairs minister of Nepal (2016-17); son of Mahendra Narayan Nidhi. He was also minister of general administration (1995-97, 1998), industry, commerce, and supplies (2004), education and sports (2004), and physical infrastructure and transport (2014-15) and general secretary of the Nepali Congress Party (2007-10).

Nidhi, Mahendra Narayan (b. Feb. 25, 1922 - d. May 4, 1999, Janakpur, Nepal), Nepalese politician. He was minister of water resources and local government (1990-91) and general secretary of the Nepali Congress Party (1991-96).

Nie Xianfan (b. 1880, Hefei, Anhui, China - d. November 1933), civil governor of Anhui (1919-21).

Nieckarz, Stanislaw (b. June 10, 1941, Anówka, Poland [now Nahirne, Ukraine] - d. Oct. 27, 2014, Warsaw, Poland), finance minister of Poland (1982-86).

Niederberger(-Zumbühl), Paul (Zumbühl is wife's name) (b. May 11, 1925, Dallenwil, Nidwalden, Switzerland - d. March 18, 2015), Landammann of Nidwalden (1978-79, 1980-81, 1982-83, 1984-85).

(1948- )
Niederberger, Paul (b. Dec. 5, 1948, Büren, Nidwalden, Switzerland), Landammann of Nidwalden (2001-02).

Niederhauser(-Freivogel), Rudolf (Peter) (Freivogel is wife's name) (b. March 15, 1881, Cannstatt, Württemberg [now Bad Cannstatt, part of Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg], Germany - d. Aug. 14, 1966, Basel, Switzerland), president of the government of Basel-Stadt (1923-24, 1930-31).

Niéger, (Marie) Joseph (Émile) (b. May 25, 1874, Trie-le-Château, Oise, France - d. Feb. 9, 1951, Eclaron village, Haute-Marne, France), governor of the Alawite Territory (1920-21).


B. Nielsen
Niehaus Quesada, Bernd H. (b. April 14, 1941, San José, Costa Rica), foreign minister of Costa Rica (1980-82, 1990-94). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1998-2002) and ambassador to Germany (2002-10).

Niel, Adolphe (b. Oct. 4, 1802, Muret, Haute-Garonne, France - d. Aug. 13, 1869, Paris, France), war minister of France (1867-69).

Nielsen, Bárdur á Steig (b. April 16, 1972, Vestmanna, Faeroe Islands), prime minister of the Faeroe Islands (2019- ).

Nielsen, Erik (Hersholt) (b. Feb. 24, 1924, Regina, Sask. - d. Sept. 4, 2008, Kelowna, B.C.), defence minister of Canada (1985-86). He was also minister of public works (1979-80) and fisheries and oceans (acting, 1985), president of the Privy Council (1984-85), and deputy prime minister (1984-86).

H.K. Nielsen
Nielsen, Holger K(irkholm) (b. April 23, 1950, Ribe, Denmark), foreign minister of Denmark (2013-14). He was leader of the Socialist People's Party (1991-2005) and minister of taxation (2012-13).

Nielsen, Kirstjen (Michele) (b. May 14, 1972, Colorado Springs, Colo.), U.S. secretary of homeland security (2017-19).

Nielsen, Sivert A(ndreas) (b. Nov. 24, 1916, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. March 17, 2004, Oslo, Norway), Norwegian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1958-66).

Niemeyer, Conrado Jacob de (b. April 21, 1831, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Feb. 14, 1905, Rio de Janeiro), president of Amazonas (1887-88).

Niemojowski, Waclaw (Józef), h. Wierusz (b. Aug. 26, 1864, Breslau, Prussia [now Wroclaw, Poland] - d. Dec. 14, 1939, Marchwacz, Poland), chairman of the Provisional Council of State of Poland (1917).

Nieroth, (Baltzar August) Carl friherre, originally Carl von Nieroth (b. Dec. 27, 1767, Hjärtum socken, Göteborg och Bohus [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden - d. Oct. 14, 1842, Fĺgelĺs socken, Skaraborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden), governor of Västernorrland (1807-17) and Östergötland (1817-26). He was made friherre (baron) in 1818.

Nieroth, Carl greve (b. c.1650, Finland - d. Jan. 25, 1712, Pernĺ [now part of Loviisa], Finland), governor-general of Estonia (1709-10). He was made greve (count) in 1706.

Niers, Jan, byname of Johannes Leonardus Maria Niers (b. July 15, 1925, Hengelo, Overijssel, Netherlands - d. Oct. 29, 2005, Denekamp, Overijssel), queen's commissioner of Overijssel (1972-88).


Niessl, Hans (b. June 12, 1951, Zurndorf, Burgenland, Austria), Landeshauptmann of Burgenland (2000-19).

Nieto (Montesinos), Jorge (b. Oct. 29, 1951, Arequipa, Peru), defense minister of Peru (2016-18). He was also minister of culture (2016).

Nigg, Josef (b. April 18, 1940), Landammann of Obwalden (1997-98, 1999-2000, 2001-02).

Nigmadzhanov, Gilman (Vildanovich) (b. March 22 [March 9, O.S.], 1911, Tukmala, Ufa province [now in Bashkortostan republic], Russia - d. June 18, 1989, Ufa, Bashkir A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Bashkir A.S.S.R. (1946-50). He was also chairman of the State Planning Commission (19...-42, 1952-58) and deputy premier (1942-46, 1958-...).

Nigmatulin, Nurlan (Zayrullayevich) (b. Aug. 31, 1962, Karaganda, Kazakh S.S.R.), head of Karaganda oblast (2006-09). He was also chairman of the Mazhilis of Kazakhstan (2012-14, 2016-22) and head of the administration of the president (2014-16).

Nii, Sekinari (b. March 20, 1943), governor of Yamaguchi (1996- ).

Niinistö, Jussi (Lauri Juhani) (b. Oct. 27, 1970, Helsinki, Finland), defense minister of Finland (2015-19).

S. Niinistö
Niinistö, Sauli (Väinämö) (b. Aug. 24, 1948, Salo, Finland), justice minister (1995-96), finance minister (1996-2003), and president (2012- ) of Finland. He rose from near obscurity to become leader of the Conservatives in 1994. He cut a businesslike, demanding, and hard-working figure, but some saw him as humourless, unfeeling, and vague. During the 1999 election campaign Niinistö appeared statesmanlike, standing above the jibes traded by Prime Minister Paavo Lipponen and Centre Party leader Esko Aho. He was as determined as Lipponen to anchor Finland in the European mainstream, but lacked the prime minister's passion for playing European politics. He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 2006. In 2007-11 he was speaker of parliament.

Niinistö, Ville (Matti) (b. July 30, 1976, Turku, Finland), Finnish politician; nephew of Sauli Niinistö. He was leader of the Greens party (2011-17) and environment minister (2011-14).

Nijpels, Ed(uardus Hermannus Theresia Maria) (b. April 1, 1950, Den Helder, Noord-Holland, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Friesland (1999-2008). He was also Dutch minister of housing, regional planning, and environment (1986-89) and mayor of Breda (1990-95).

Nikanor, secular name Nikolay (Stepanovich) Klementyevsky (b. Dec. 7 [Nov. 26, O.S.], 1787, Sergiyev Posad, Russia - d. Sept. 29 [Sept. 17, O.S.], 1856, St. Petersburg, Russia), metropolitan of St. Petersburg (1848-56). He was also bishop of Revel (1826-31), Kaluga (1831-34), and Minsk (1834-35) and archbishop of Minsk (1835-40) and Volyn (1840-42).

Nikanorov, Vasily (Ivanovich) (b. Dec. 22 [Dec. 9, O.S.], 1904, Pereslavl-Zalessky, Yaroslavl province, Russia - d. June 19, 1982, Simferopol, Crimea oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.), chairman of the Executive Committee of Crimea oblast (1949).

Nikezic, Marko (b. June 13, 1921, Belgrade, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia] - d. Jan. 6, 1991, Belgrade), foreign minister of Yugoslavia (1965-68) and chairman of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Serbia (1968-72). He was also Yugoslav ambassador to Egypt (1953-56), Czechoslovakia (1956-58), and the United States (1958-62).

Nikiforov, Nikifor (Petrov) (b. April 12, 1858, Lofça, Ottoman Empire [now Lovech, Bulgaria] - d. Aug. 12, 1935, Sofia, Bulgaria), war minister of Bulgaria (1911-13). He was also diplomatic agent (1904-09) and minister (1909-10) to Germany.

Nikiforov, Pyotr (Mikhailovich) (b. Oct. 12 [Sept. 30, O.S.], 1882, Oyok [now in Irkutsk oblast], Russia - d. Jan. 6, 1974, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Far-Eastern Republic (1921). He was also Soviet ambassador to Mongolia (1925-27).

Nikisch, Roy (Abelardo) (b. Jan. 26, 1951, Tres Isletas, Chaco, Argentina), governor of Chaco (2003-07).

Nikitin, Aleksandr (Nikitich) (b. Aug. 25 [Aug. 13, O.S.], 1892, Tuvsi, Kazan province [now in Chuvashia republic], Russia - d. March 4, 1942, Tsivilsk prison, Chuvash A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Chuvash A.S.S.R. (1929-37). He was also people's commissar of education (1925-27).

Nikitin, Aleksandr (Pavlovich) (b. Jan. 5, 1825 [Dec. 24, 1824, O.S.] - d. Dec. 3 [Nov. 21, O.S.], 1891), acting governor-general of Vilna, Kovno, and Grodno (1882-84).

A. (V.) Nikitin
Nikitin, Aleksandr (Valeryevich) (b. April 26, 1976, Michurinsk, Tambov oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Tambov oblast (2015-21).

Nikitin, Aleksey (Maksimovich) (b. Feb. 24 [Feb. 12, O.S.], 1876, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia - d. [executed] April 14, 1939, Leninsky district, Moscow oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), interior minister of Russia (1917). He was also minister of posts and telegraphs (1917).

Andrey Nikitin

G. Nikitin
Nikitin, Andrey (Sergeyevich) (b. Nov. 26, 1979, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Novgorod oblast (2017- ).

Nikitin, Gleb (Sergeyevich) (b. Aug. 24, 1977, Leningrad, Russian S.F.S.R. [now St. Petersburg, Russia]), governor of Nizhny Novgorod oblast (2017- ).

Nikitin, Pavel (Nikolayevich) (b. July 7 [June 24, O.S.], 1907, Vukogurt, Vyatka province [now in Udmurtia republic], Russia - d. 1972), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Udmurt A.S.S.R. (1948-52).

Nikitin, Vladilen (Valentinovich) (b. Oct. 30, 1936, Omsk, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. May 27?, 2021), Soviet politician. He was chairman of the executive committee of Tyumen oblast (1976-85), agriculture minister of the Russian S.F.S.R. (1985), and a first deputy premier and chairman of the State Commission for Food and Procurement (1989-90).

Nikitin, Vladimir (Dmitriyevich) (b. June 19, 1907, Yaroslavl, Russia - d. April 1959, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Tatar A.S.S.R. (1943-44). He was also first secretary of the party committees of Voronezh (1937-41) and Kuybyshev (1942-43) oblasti.

Nikodim, secular surname S(k)rebnitsky (b. in present Ukraine - d. June 23 [June 12, O.S.], 1751, Pereyaslavl, Russia [now Pereyaslav-Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine]), metropolitan of St. Petersburg (1742-45). He was also bishop of Chernigov (1738-40) and Pereyaslavl (1745-51) and metropolitan of Siberia (1740-41).

Nikodim, secular name Nikolay (Vasilyevich) Krotkov (b. Dec. 11 [Nov. 29, O.S.], 1868, Pogreshino village, Kostroma province, Russia - d. [in prison] Aug. 21, 1938, Yaroslavl, Russia), Locum Tenens of Kiev (1918). He was bishop of Akkerman (1907-11), Chigirin (1911-21), and Tavrida (1921-22) and archbishop of Tavrida (1922-24) and Kostroma (1932-37).

Nikodim, secular name Nikolay (Stepanovich) Rusnak, Ukrainian Mykola (Stepanovych) Rusnak (b. April 18, 1921, Davidovtsy, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now in Chernivtsi oblast, Ukraine] - d. Sept. 15, 2011, Kharkiv, Ukraine), Locum Tenens of Kiev (1992). He was bishop of Kostroma (1961-64) and South America (1964-68), archbishop of South America (1968-70), Kharkov (1970-84, from 1983 Locum Tenens), and Lvov (1983-85), and metropolitan of Lvov (1985-89) and Kharkov/Kharkiv (1989-2011).

Nikoi, Amon (b. Jan. 19, 1930, Labadi, Accra, Ghana - d. Sept. 5, 2002), finance minister of Ghana (1979-80). He was also governor of the Bank of Ghana (1973-77).

Nikolaev, Nikolay (Petrov) (b. Jan. 28, 1887, Shumen, Bulgaria - d. July 21, 1960, Stockholm, Sweden), interior minister of Bulgaria (1938). He was also education minister (1936-38) and ambassador to Sweden (1944). Remaining in Sweden after the 1944 government change in Bulgaria, in 1945 he was sentenced to death in absentia and received a telegram asking him to return to Bulgaria for his execution. He was instead granted asylum in Sweden.

Nikolai II, secular name Boris (Dorofeyevich) Yarushevich (b. Jan. 13, 1892, Kovno, Russia [now Kaunas, Lithuania] - d. Dec. 13, 1961), metropolitan of Kiev (1941-44). He was also bishop (1922-35) and archbishop (1935-40) of Petergof, archbishop of Volyn and Lutsk (1940-41), metropolitan of Krutitsy (from 1947 Krutitsy and Kolomna) (1944-60), and chairman of the External Church Relations Department of the Moscow Patriarchate (1946-60).

Nikolaidis, Rois, English Rois Nicolaides (b. 1932 - d. June 2005), interior minister of Cyprus (1985). He was also minister of communications and public works (1985-88).

Nikolay, secular name Nikolay (Aleksandrovich) Nalimov (b. July 1 [June 19, O.S.], 1852, Novaya Ladoga [now in Leningrad oblast], Russia - d. July 26 [July 13, O.S.], 1914, St. Petersburg, Russia), exarch of Georgia (1905-06). He was also bishop of Ladoga (1890-92), Gdov (1892-93), and Saratov (1893-99) and archbishop of Vyborg (1899-1905), Tver (1905), and Vladimir (1906-14).

Nikolay, Veliky Knyaz (Grand Duke), in full Nikolay Nikolayevich mladshy ("the Younger") (b. Nov. 18 [Nov. 6, O.S.], 1856, St. Petersburg, Russia - d. Jan. 5, 1929, Antibes, France), viceroy of the Caucasus (1915-17); nephew of Aleksandr II; grandson of Nikolay I. He was also supreme commander of the Russian army in 1914-15.

Nikolay I (English Nicholas I), in full Nikolay Pavlovich (b. July 6 [June 25, O.S.], 1796, Tsarskoye Selo [now Pushkin], near St. Petersburg, Russia - d. March 2 [Feb. 18, O.S.], 1855, St. Petersburg), emperor of Russia (1825-55); son of Pavel I; brother of Aleksandr I and Veliky Knyaz Konstantin (1779-1831); nephew of Friedrich I and Aleksandr Fridrikh Karl Vyurtembergsky.

Nikolay II
Nikolay II (English Nicholas II), in full Nikolay Aleksandrovich (b. May 18 [May 6, O.S.], 1868, Tsarskoye Selo [now Pushkin], near St. Petersburg, Russia - d. July 16/17, 1918, Yekaterinburg, Russia), emperor of Russia (1894-1917). He was the eldest son of Aleksandr Aleksandrovich (emperor as Aleksandr III from 1881) and his consort Maria Fyodorovna (Dagmar of Denmark). Succeeding his father on Nov. 1, 1894, he was crowned in Moscow on May 26, 1896. His wife, Aleksandra (Alix of Hesse-Darmstadt), whom he had married on Nov. 26, 1894, possessed the firmness of character he lacked. Her mystical outlook made her turn to spiritualists and faith healers, notably Grigory Rasputin, who acquired great power over the imperial couple. Nikolay attempted to strengthen Russian influence in Korea, refusing to believe that Japan would go to war in order to preserve its sphere of influence. The defeat in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) not only frustrated his grandiose dreams of making Russia the dominant Eurasian power, but also contributed to discontent at home, which grew into the revolutionary movement of 1905. Reluctantly, he agreed to create a national representative assembly, or Duma, and by the manifesto of Oct. 30, 1905, promised a constitutional regime. But he dissolved the first two Dumas as "insubordinate" and then imposed a new electoral law which resulted in a compliant Third Duma. The outbreak of World War I (1914) strengthened the monarchy only temporarily. In 1915 he assumed supreme command himself and left domestic affairs in effect to the empress and Rasputin. After riots broke out in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) in March 1917, his government collapsed and he renounced his throne. He was imprisoned and, during the civil war, he and his wife and children were executed by the Bolsheviks to prevent a rescue by "White" forces. In 2000 he and his family were elevated to sainthood by the Russian Orthodox Church.

Nikolay, Baron Aleksandr (Pavlovich) (b. Aug. 30, 1821 - d. July 3, 1899), Russian politician; son of Baron Pavel Nikolay. He was minister of public instruction (1881-82).

Nikolay, Baron Pavel (Andreyevich) (b. 1777 - d. April 16, 1866), Russian diplomat. He was minister to Denmark (1816-47).

A. Nikolayev
Nikolayev, Aysen (Sergeyevich) (b. Jan. 22, 1972, Leningrad, Russian S.F.S.R. [now St. Petersburg, Russia]), head of the republic of Sakha (2018- ). He was also mayor of Yakutsk (2012-18).

Nikolayev, Mikhail (Yefimovich) (b. Nov. 13, 1937, Oktemtsy, Yakut A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1989-90), chairman of the Supreme Council (1990-91), president (1991-2002), and prime minister (1992-93) of the Yakut A.S.S.R./Sakha.

O. Nikolayev
Nikolayev, Oleg (Alekseyevich) (b. Dec. 10, 1969, Cherbay, Chuvash A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), head of the republic (2020- ) and prime minister (2020- ) of Chuvashia.

Nikolayev, Stepan (Gerasimovich) (b. Nov. 4 [Oct. 22, O.S.], 1902, Zemlyanka, Samara province, Russia - d. April 1, 1964, Saransk, Mordovian A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Mordovian A.S.S.R. (1954-63).

Nikolic, Andra (b. Sept. 22, 1853, Cacak, Serbia - d. Sept. 18, 1918, Paris, France), foreign minister of Serbia (1893, 1903-04). He was also minister of education and religious affairs (1890-92, 1896-97, 1904-05, 1906-09) and minister to France (1901-03).

Nikolic, Radomir (b. Feb. 2, 1976, Kragujevac, Serbia), mayor of Kragujevac (2014- ); son of Tomislav Nikolic.

T. Nikolic
Nikolic, Tomislav (b. Feb. 15, 1952, Kragujevac, Serbia), president of Serbia (2012-17). He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 2003 and 2008.

Nikolov, Raiko (Marinov) (b. Aug. 5, 1925, Suvorovo, Varna district, Bulgaria - d. March 22, 2021), Bulgarian diplomat. He was ambassador to Kuwait (1968-73), Yemen (Aden) (1970-73), Yugoslavia (1978-82), and Italy (1984-90).

Nikoloz (b. Jan. 4, 1847 [Dec. 23, 1846, O.S.], Tiflis, Russia [now Tbilisi, Georgia] - d. Feb. 6 [Jan. 24, O.S.], 1903, St. Petersburg, Russia), prince of Mingrelia (1853-67).

Nikolsky, Mikhail (Nikolayevich) (b. 1902, Olonets province, Russia - d. [executed] May 18, 1938), acting first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Karelian A.S.S.R. (1937).

Nikon, secular name Nikolay (Andreyevich) Sofiysky (b. March 26 [March 14, O.S.], 1861, Ozarnikovo, Kostroma province, Russia - d. [assassinated] June 10 [May 28, O.S.], 1908, Tiflis, Russia [now Tbilisi, Georgia]), exarch of Georgia (1906-08). He was also bishop of Volsk (1898-99), Narva (1899-1901), and Vyatka (1901-04) and bishop (1904-06) and archbishop (1906) of Vladimir.

Nikonov, Viktor (Petrovich) (b. Feb. 28, 1929, Belogorka, Severo-Kavkazsky kray, Russian S.F.S.R. [now in Rostov oblast, Russia] - d. Sept. 17, 1993, Moscow, Russia), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Mari A.S.S.R. (1967-79). He was also agriculture minister of the Russian S.F.S.R. (1983-85).

Niksic, Ante (b. June 8, 1892, Gospic, Austria-Hungary [now in Croatia] - d. Jan. 28, 1962, Pilar, Buenos Aires province, Argentina), interior minister of Croatia (1942-43). He was also ambassador to Italy (1943).

N. Niksic
Niksic, Nermin (b. Dec. 27, 1960, Konjic [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), prime minister of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2011-15).

Nikulin, Vladimir (Illarionovich) (b. Nov. 11, 1928, Sandata, Rostov oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Kalmyk A.S.S.R. (1978-85). He was also minister of land improvement and water management (1966-72).

Nilangekar, Shivajirao Patil (b. Feb. 9, 1931, Nilanga [now in Maharashtra], India - d. Aug. 5, 2020, Pune, Maharashtra), chief minister of Maharashtra (1985-86).

Nilson, Erik (Agabus) (b. Feb. 13, 1862, Sköllersta, Örebro, Sweden - d. Sept. 17, 1925, Stockholm, Sweden), war minister of Sweden (1917-20).

Nilsson, Björn O(lof) (b. Jan. 11, 1956, Sollentuna, Stockholm county, Sweden), governor of Norrbotten (2018-21).

Nilsson, (Marie) Elisabeth (b. Sept. 30, 1953, Töre [now part of Kalix municipality], Norrbotten, Sweden), governor of Östergötland (2010-18).

Nilsson, Gustaf (Valdemar) (b. Sept. 23, 1900, Kristinehamn, Värmland, Sweden - d. Dec. 18, 1977), governor of Värmland (1957-67). He was also speaker of the Second Chamber of the Riksdag (1953-57).

Nilsson, (Ernst) Hjalmar (b. April 7, 1904, Gudmundrĺ, Västernorrland, Sweden - d. March 21, 1974), governor of Västernorrland (1965-71).

Nilsson, Janne (b. May 17, 1882, Hörby, Malmöhus [now in Skĺne], Sweden - d. Dec. 9, 1938, Stockholm, Sweden), defense minister of Sweden (1936-38).

Nilsson, Johan (b. Aug. 21, 1873, Färlöv socken [now part of Kristianstad municipality], Kristianstad [now in Skĺne], Sweden - d. March 15, 1963, Kristianstad, Kristianstad [now in Skĺne]), governor of Kristianstad (1923-38). He was also speaker of the First Chamber of the Riksdag (1937-55).

Nilsson, (Harald) Torsten (Leonard) (b. April 1, 1905, Nevishög, Malmöhus [now in Skĺne], Sweden - d. Dec. 14, 1997, Stockholm, Sweden), foreign minister of Sweden (1962-71). He was also minister of communications (1945-51), defense (1951-57), and social affairs (1957-62).

Nimah, Hassan (Ali Hussein) al- (b. 1940), Qatari diplomat. He was ambassador to India (1976-89) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1990-96).

Nimeiry, Gaafar (Mohamed el-), Nimeiry also spelled Nimeiri, Arabic Ja`far Muhammad al-Numayri (b. Jan. 1, 1930, Wad Nubawi, Omdurman, Sudan - d. May 30, 2009), president of The Sudan (1971-85). He graduated from the Sudan Military College at Khartoum as a lieutenant in 1952, then acted as commander of the Khartoum garrison and led campaigns against rebels in southern Sudan. On May 25, 1969, he overthrew the civilian regime of Ismail al-Azhari. He was promoted to major general and became prime minister and chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council. He put down a right-wing revolt led by Sadiq al-Mahdi in March 1970. At first his regime was oriented to the Soviet bloc, but his policies changed after an abortive Communist coup in July 1971. He then entered into a close alliance with Egypt and the U.S. and resumed the traditional ties with Britain. In September 1971 he was elected president in a plebiscite with 98.6% of the vote and he had his mandate renewed in 1977 and 1983. In 1972 he established the Sudanese Socialist Union, of which he became president. He was credited with bringing about negotiations that led to a settlement of a 10-year conflict in the southern Sudan, which he granted autonomy as a united region in 1972. As president of the Organization of African Unity in 1978-79, he reasserted his position that Africa should keep free from entanglements of "alignment" with external powers. He became increasingly drawn to Muslim fundamentalism and in 1983 declared Sudan to be an Islamic republic; parts of the (predominantly Christian) south were again in revolt. In 1985, while he was abroad, a group of army officers staged a bloodless coup. Returning from his Egyptian exile in 1999, he formed the People's Working Forces Alliance and was its presidential candidate in 2000.

Nimely (Yaya), Thomas (b. Nov. 5, 1956, Pleebo, Maryland county, Liberia), foreign minister of Liberia (2003-06).

Nimitz, Chester W(illiam) (b. Feb. 24, 1885, Fredericksburg, Texas - d. Feb. 20, 1966, near San Francisco, Calif.), U.S. chief of naval operations (1945-47).

Nimrod, Elvin (G.) (b. Aug. 27, 1943), foreign minister of Grenada (2000-08, 2016-18). He entered the political arena when he became a member of the Senate in 1997. In January 1999 he was elected to parliament for the constituency of Carriacou and Petite Martinique on a New National Party ticket. He was first appointed as minister of legal affairs, labour, local government, and Carriacou and Petite Martinique affairs and, while keeping some of those portfolios, was given the additional ones of foreign affairs in August 2000 and of international trade in 2001.

Nimubona, Lorgio (d. [killed accidentally] 1963), foreign minister of Burundi (1962-63).

Nimvitsky, Boris (Nikolayevich) (b. Dec. 8 [Nov. 26, O.S.], 1885, Vyazemberg, Russia [now in Estonia] - d. May 28, 1969, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Bashkir A.S.S.R. (1922-23). He was also chairman of the Revolutionary Committee (1919) and executive secretary of the party committee (1920-21) of Ufa province.

Nin Novoa, Rodolfo (Gustavo) (b. Jan. 25, 1948, Montevideo, Uruguay), foreign minister of Uruguay (2015-20). He was also vice president (2005-10; as such president of the Senate).

Nincic, Momcilo (b. June 10 [May 29, O.S.], 1876, Jagodina, Serbia - d. Dec. 23, 1949, Lausanne, Switzerland), foreign minister of Yugoslavia (1922-24, 1924-26, 1941-43). He was also minister of finance (1915-17, 1918-19), justice (1920), and trade and industry (1920-21).

Ninn-Hansen, Erik (b. April 12, 1922, Skřrping, Denmark - d. Sept. 20, 2014), defense minister (1968-71), finance minister (1971), and justice minister (1982-89) of Denmark. He was also speaker of the Folketing (1989).

Nir(-Rafalkes), Nahum (Yaakov) (b. March 17, 1884, Warsaw, Poland - d. July 10, 1968, Tel Aviv, Israel), Israeli politician. He was speaker of the Knesset (1959).

Nirpot, Charles (Louis) (b. May 24, 1883, Merviller, Meurthe-et-Moselle, France - d. Feb. 6, 1963, Paris, France), interim governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1927-28).

Nisaka, Yoshinobu (b. Oct. 2, 1950), governor of Wakayama (2006- ).


Nisbett, Patrice (b. Sept. 5, 1971, St. James parish, Nevis), foreign minister (and minister of justice, legal affairs, homeland security, and labour) of Saint Kitts and Nevis (2013-15). In 2010-13 he was attorney general and minister of justice and legal affairs.

Nishani, Bujar (Faik), before 1991 also using the name Bujar Mehmeti (b. Sept. 29, 1966, Durrës, Albania - d. May 28, 2022, Germany), interior minister (2007-09, 2011-12), justice minister (2009-11), and president (2012-17) of Albania.

Nishank, Ramesh Pokhriyal (Nishank is a pen name) (b. Aug. 15, 1958, Pinani village, Uttar Pradesh [now in Uttarakhand], India), chief minister of Uttarakhand (2009-11). He was also Indian minister of human resource development (2019-20) and education (2020-21).

Nishanov, Rafik (Nishanovich) (b. 1926), foreign minister (1985-86), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1986-88), and first secretary of the Communist Party (1988-89) of the Uzbek S.S.R. He was also mayor of Tashkent (1962-63), Soviet ambassador to Sri Lanka and Maldives (1970-78) and Jordan (1978-85), and chairman of the Soviet of Nationalities (1989-91).

Nishi, Tokujiro, in full (from 1896) Danshaku (Baron) Tokujiro Nishi (b. Sept. 4, 1847, in present Kagoshima prefecture, Japan - d. March 13, 1912), foreign minister of Japan (1897-98). He was also minister to Russia (1886-96) and China (1899-1900).

Nishibori, Masahiro (b. Nov. 14, 1918 - d. July 2006), Japanese diplomat. He was ambassador to Belgium (1976-79) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1979-83).

Nishida, Tsuneo (b. April 1, 1947), Japanese diplomat. He was ambassador to Canada (2007-10) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2010-13).

Nishikawa, Issei (b. Jan. 2, 1945), governor of Fukui (2003-19).

Nishime, Junji (b. 1921, Yonaguni island, Okinawa prefecture, Japan - d. Nov. 10, 2001), governor of Okinawa (1978-90).

Nishiwaki, Takatoshi (b. July 16, 1955), governor of Kyoto (2018- ).

Nishtar (Khan), Sardar Abdur Rab (b. June 13, 1899, Peshawar, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Feb. 14, 1958, Karachi, Pakistan), governor of Punjab (Pakistan) (1949-51). He was also Pakistani minister of communications (1947-49).

Nisot, Joseph (H.M.G.) (b. July 11, 1894, Charleroi, Belgium - d. 1974), Belgian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1957-59).

Nispen tot Pannerden, Otto Frans Antoine Hubert van (b. April 14, 1907, Pannerden, Gelderland, Netherlands - d. June 10, 1992, Heemstede, Noord-Holland, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Overijssel (1964-72).

Nissage-Saget, (Jean Nicolas) (b. Sept. 20, 1810, Saint-Marc, Haiti - d. April 7, 1880, Saint-Marc), president of the Provisional Government of Haiti (1867), provisional president of the Republic of the North (1868-69), and president of Haiti (1869-74).

Nissim, Moshe (b. April 10, 1935, Jerusalem, Palestine), finance minister of Israel (1986-88). He was also minister without portfolio (1978-80, 1988-90), minister of justice (1980-86) and industry and trade (1990-92), and a deputy prime minister (1990-92).

Niterói, Francisco de Paula de Negreiros Saiăo Lobato, visconde de (b. May 25, 1815, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. July 14, 1884, Rio de Janeiro), interior minister (1861) and justice minister (1861-62, 1871-72) of Brazil. He was made viscount in 1872.

Nitti, Francesco Saverio (b. July 19, 1868, Melfi, Potenza province, Italy - d. Feb. 20, 1953, Rome, Italy), treasury minister (1917-19) and prime minister and interior minister (1919-20) of Italy. He was also minister of agriculture, industry, and commerce (1911-14).

Nitze, Paul H(enry) (b. Jan. 16, 1907, Amherst, Mass. - d. Oct. 19, 2004, Washington, D.C.), U.S. secretary of the Navy (1963-67). He took his first government post in 1940 in the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration. As director of the State Department's policy planning staff in 1950 he helped frame the strategy of building up U.S. forces to keep the Soviets contained in Eastern Europe. As secretary of the Navy and later deputy secretary of defense in the Lyndon B. Johnson administration, he organized the defense of the Pentagon against Vietnam War protesters and participated in bombing strategy in Vietnam. Along with a few other prominent conservative Democrats, organized as the Committee on the Present Danger, he opposed Pres. Jimmy Carter's 1979 Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, contending that it could not be verified and would enable the Soviets to strengthen their nuclear arsenal. The hardline Democrats swung to support Ronald Reagan. For President Reagan, Nitze took charge of negotiating reductions in intermediate range missiles with the Soviet Union in 1981. The negotiations were marked by a July 1982 "walk in the woods" near Geneva, Switzerland, with the Soviet negotiator, Yuly Kvitsinsky, that produced a compromise breakthrough, but it touched off a fierce protest by conservatives leading to its rejection by Reagan, even as Moscow also rejected it. At the Reykjavík, Iceland, summit of 1986, Nitze was paired with Marshal Sergey Akhromeyev, chief of staff of the Soviet armed forces, in an all-night bargaining session which paved the way for the first substantial arms reduction agreements of the Cold War. His long career, which included government service under eight presidents, was capped in April 2004 in Bath, Maine, as he witnessed the christening of a warship bearing his name.

Niukkanen, Juho, byname of Juhana Niukkanen (b. July 27, 1888, Kirvus [now Kirvu], Finland - d. May 17, 1954, Helsinki, Finland), finance minister (1927-28, 1936-37, 1953) and defense minister (1929-30, 1937-40) of Finland. He was also minister of transport and public works (1925-26, 1931-32).

Niwattumrong Boonsongpaisan (b. Jan. 25, 1948), acting prime minister of Thailand (2014). He was minister in the prime minister's office (2012-13) and deputy prime minister and minister of commerce, agriculture, and cooperatives (2013-14).

Nixon, Jay, byname of Jeremiah Willson Nixon (b. Feb. 13, 1956, De Soto, Mo.), governor of Missouri (2009-17).

R.M. Nixon
Nixon, Richard M(ilhous) (b. Jan. 9, 1913, Yorba Linda, Calif. - d. April 22, 1994, New York City), president of the United States (1969-74). The conservative Republican was twice elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1946, 1948), and in 1950 he was elected to the Senate. His reputation as an anti-Communist made him a desirable running mate for Dwight D. Eisenhower in the 1952 campaign. Nixon served two terms as vice president under Eisenhower. In 1960 he became the Republican presidential candidate but narrowly lost to Democrat John F. Kennedy. Two years later he lost a bid to unseat Democrat Edmund G. Brown as governor of California. With the Vietnam War raging, he made capital of his foreign affairs expertise and was proclaimed the 1968 Republican presidential candidate; he narrowly defeated Democratic challenger Hubert H. Humphrey. In foreign policy, his most significant action may have been the reopening of direct communications with the People's Republic of China. In February 1972 he paid a state visit to China. This rapprochement in East Asia gave Nixon a stronger position during his visit to Moscow in May - the first by a U.S. president. Renominated in 1972, he defeated his Democratic opponent, Sen. George S. McGovern, in one of the largest landslide victories in U.S. presidential history. His second term began with the effective ending of U.S. participation in the Vietnam War in January 1973. In the Watergate scandal, his administration was criminally involved in an incident of burglary and wiretapping at the Democratic Party's national headquarters in the Watergate complex in Washington, D.C. Faced with almost certain impeachment and removal from office, he became the first U.S. president to resign (Aug. 9, 1974). He was granted a blanket pardon by his successor, Gerald Ford.

Niyazbekov, Sabir (Bilyalovich) (b. Dec. 15 [Dec. 2, O.S.], 1912, Utkolbay, Russia [now in Akmola oblast, Kazakhstan] - d. Aug. 26, 1989, Alma-Ata, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Almaty, Kazakhstan]), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh S.S.R. (1965-78). He was also first secretary of the party committees of Zapadno-Kazakhstan (1956-60), Tselinograd (1961-63), Yuzhno-Kazakhstan (1963-64), and Alma-Ata (1964-65) oblasti.

Niyazov, Amin (Irmatovich) (b. 1903, Ak-Tepe, Russia [now in Uzbekistan] - d. 1973), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1947-50) and first secretary of the Communist Party (1950-55) of the Uzbek S.S.R. He was also people's commissar of finance (1941-46) and minister of public utilities (1956-57).

S. Niyazov
Niyazov, Saparmurat (Atayevich) (Turkmen Saparmyrat Nyýazow), byname Turkmenbashi (Türkmenbasy) (b. Feb. 19, 1940, Kipchak village, near Ashkhabad, Turkmen S.S.R. - d. Dec. 21, 2006), president of Turkmenistan (1990-2006). He was head of the Ashkhabad city Communist Party committee (1980-84) and chairman of the Council of Ministers (1985) and first secretary of the Communist Party (1985-91) of the Turkmen S.S.R. Little of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's glasnost or perestroika appeared to have rubbed off on the apparatchik who became chairman of the republic's Supreme Soviet in January 1990 and was unopposed in presidential elections in October, winning 98.3% of the vote. After independence, he was reelected in 1992 with 99.5% of the vote. In 1993 he adopted the name Turkmenbashi ("leader of the Turkmens"). A referendum in 1994 extended his term in office to 2002, this time with 99.9% of the vote, and in 1999 he was declared president for life. A growing personality cult made sure Turkmens did not forget who their leader was. The exhortation "May my tongue shrivel up and my bones turn to ashes if I betray my country or my president" was broadcast throughout the day on state television. His chubby face graced everything from yoghurt pots to bottles of perfume. The Neutrality Arch (completed in late 1998), a 75-m syringe-like structure on three legs under which traffic passes, towered over the capital. Above it stood a 12-m revolving statue of Niyazov, arms outstretched as if to embrace his subjects from the lofty perch. He rotated once every 24 hours, tracking the path of the sun from dawn to dusk. Behind him was a huge gold flag blowing in the wind. Its cape-like appearance won the multimillion-dollar construction the nickname "Batman's Tower." Niyazov established a national ideology based on his book Rukhnama, published in 2001.

Niyetullayev, Sagyndyk (Davletiyarovich) (b. 1948), chairman of the Council of Ministers (1988-89) and first secretary of the Communist Party committee (1989-91) of the Karakalpak A.S.S.R.

Niyonzima, Herménégilde (b. Oct. 17, 1961, Burundi), Burundian diplomat. He was ambassador to Uganda (1993-96), Tanzania (1996-98), and Libya (2009-11) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2011-14).

Niyungeko, Jonathas (b. Dec. 22, 1946, Gakonko, Burundi), Burundian diplomat. He was ambassador to Uganda (1981-85), China (1985-87), and Belgium (1999-2003) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1987-89).

Nizamov, Salyakh (Nizamovich) (b. 1905, Shatki, Kazan province, Russia - d. 1975), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Tatar A.S.S.R. (1952-59).

Njie, Alieu Badara (b. 1904, Bathurst [now Banjul], Gambia - d. [helicopter crash] April 21, 1982), foreign minister of The Gambia (1965-67, 1974-77). He was also minister of communications (1960-61, 1963-65), works (1962-65), information (1970-71), and agriculture (1972-74) and vice president (1977-78).

M. Njie
Njie, Mambury (b. June 27, 1962), finance minister (2011-12, 2018- ) and foreign minister (2012) of The Gambia. He was also ambassador to Taiwan and the Philippines (1997-2001) and the United Arab Emirates (2007-09) and minister of economic planning and industrial development (2010-11).

Njie, Omar (Yusupha) (b. 19..., Bathurst [now Banjul], Gambia - d. Sept. 13, 2002), foreign minister of The Gambia (1997-98).

N'Jie, Pierre Sarr (b. July 17, 1909 - d. Dec. 11, 1993), chief minister of The Gambia (1961-62).

Njie-Saidy, Isatou (b. March 5, 1952, Kuntaya, Gambia), vice-president of The Gambia (1997-2017). She was also minister of women's affairs (1996-2017) and health and social welfare (1996-2001).

Njine (Ngangley), Michel (b. Jan. 1, 1918, Haut-Nkam, Bafang district, Cameroon), Cameroonian politician. He was minister of public works, transportation, and mines (1957-58), deputy prime minister in charge of national education, youth, and sports (1958-59), ambassador to Ivory Coast (1962-65) and West Germany (1965-67), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1967-74).

Njonjo, Charles (Mugane) (b. Jan. 23, 1920, Kabete, Kenya - d. Jan. 2, 2022, Nairobi, Kenya), home affairs minister of Kenya (1980-82). He was also attorney general (1963-80) and minister of constitutional affairs (1980-83).

Nkala, Enos (Mzombi) (b. Aug. 23, 1932, Filabusi, Southern Rhodesia [now Zimbabwe] - d. Aug. 21, 2013, Harare, Zimbabwe), finance minister (1980-82), home affairs minister (1985-88), and defense minister (1988-89) of Zimbabwe. He was also minister of national supplies (1982-85).

Nkama, Moto (b. 1937, Mufulira, Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia] - d. late 1978), minister of state for foreign affairs of Zambia (1969-70). He was also minister of Central province (1969, 1971) and ambassador to West Germany (1970-74).

Nkanga, Idongesit (Okon) (b. Jan. 27, 1952), governor of Akwa Ibom (1990-92).

Nkema Liloo, (Roger) (b. Oct. 12, 1944), Zairian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1984) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1991-92).

Nko Ivasa, Andrés (b. 1930), finance minister of Equatorial Guinea (1971-76, 1981-86).

Nkoana-Mashabane, Maite (Emily) (b. Sept. 30, 1963, Ga-Makanye village [now in Limpopo province], South Africa), international relations minister of South Africa (2009-18); widow of Norman Mashabane. She was also high commissioner to Malaysia (1995-99; also accredited to the Philippines and Brunei) and India (1999-2005; also accredited to Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Maldives, and Nepal), minister of rural development and land reform (2018-19), and minister in the presidency for women, youth, and persons with disabilities (2019- ).

Nkoghe Bekale, Julien (b. Jan. 9, 1962, Ntoum, Gabon), prime minister of Gabon (2019-20). He was also minister of mines, oil, and hydrocarbons (2009-11), transport (2011-12), and agriculture, livestock, fisheries, and rural development (2012-14).

Nkomo, John (Landa) (b. Aug. 22, 1934, Nyamandlovu, Southern Rhodesia [now Zimbabwe] - d. Jan. 17, 2013, Harare, Zimbabwe), home affairs minister (2000-02), speaker of parliament (2005-08), and second vice president (2009-13) of Zimbabwe. He was also minister of labour, manpower planning, and social welfare (1988-95), local government and rural development (1995-97), and local government and national housing (1997-2000).

Joshua Nkomo
Nkomo, Joshua (Mqabuko Nyongolo) (b. June 19, 1917, Semokwe Reserve, Matabeleland, Southern Rhodesia [now Zimbabwe] - d. July 1, 1999, Harare, Zimbabwe), Zimbabwean politician. In 1957 he was elected president of the African National Congress (ANC), the leading black nationalist organization in Rhodesia. In 1959 the ANC was banned and he went to England. In 1960 he returned and became president of the National Democratic Party (NDP); in 1961, when the NDP was banned in turn, he founded the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU), which was banned in 1962. He was held in detention from 1964 to 1974. Thereafter he attempted to negotiate black freedoms with Prime Minister Ian Smith but then left Rhodesia to seek international support for his cause. He helped lead the guerrilla war against white rule in Rhodesia, but he was essentially a diplomat and preferred negotiation to fighting. His forces played a relatively minor role compared with those of Robert Mugabe, who headed the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU). After the end of white rule and the establishment of black-ruled Zimbabwe (1980), Nkomo's ZAPU, whose base of support was the minority Ndebele people, was increasingly eclipsed by Mugabe's ZANU, based on the Shona majority. ZANU resoundingly defeated ZAPU in the first parliamentary elections, but Nkomo was named home affairs minister in a coalition government. Strain quickly arose between ZANU and ZAPU, and overt ethnic strife broke out between the Shona and Ndebele after Mugabe dismissed Nkomo in 1982 for allegedly plotting a coup; Nkomo denied direct links with the rebels. Finally, in 1987, the two leaders agreed to merge their respective parties in order to try to achieve ethnic unity in the country. In 1990 Nkomo became a vice president, a post with limited power which he held until his death.

Nkoua, Pierre-Félicien (b. May 19, 1936, Anguieme, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)]), finance minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (1969). He was also ambassador to France (1975-77).

Nkrumah, Kwame, original name (until 1945) Francis Nwia Kofi Ngonloma (b. Sept. 21, 1909, Nkroful, Gold Coast [now Ghana] - d. April 27, 1972, Bucharest, Romania), prime minister (1957-60) and president (1960-66) of Ghana. He became general secretary of the United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC) in December 1947, but a split developed and in June 1949 he formed the more radical Convention People's Party (CPP). After initiating a campaign of protests, strikes, and noncooperation with the British colonial authorities in January 1950, he was arrested and sentenced to one year's imprisonment. But when the CPP won the Gold Coast's first general election (Feb. 8, 1951) he was released from prison to become leader of government business and, in 1952, prime minister of the Gold Coast. When the Gold Coast and British Togoland became independent Ghana in 1957, he became the new nation's first prime minister. In 1960 Ghana was made a republic and he became president, with wide legislative and executive powers. His style of government was authoritarian; opponents were jailed without trial. Much of his attention was devoted to campaigning for pan-African unity. After surviving an assassination attempt in August 1962 (the first of several) he increasingly burrowed himself in Flagstaff House, his official residence, which he converted into a fortress, while simultaneously his personality cult mushroomed; he used the title Osagyefo ("redeemer" or "victorious leader"). In 1964 Ghana was designated a one-party state with him as life president of both nation and party. Meanwhile, the economy was in crisis and a huge foreign debt was run up. In 1966, while he was visiting China, the army and police in Ghana seized power. Returning to West Africa, he found asylum in Guinea.

Nkundabagenzi, Fidčle (b. Jan. 1, 1932, Rubayi, Rwanda), Rwandan diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations and ambassador to the United States and Canada (1969-74).

Nkuriyingoma, Egide (b. July 18, 1946), foreign minister of Burundi (1986-87). He was also ambassador to the Soviet Union (1979-81), West Germany (1981-85), and Belgium (1985-86).

Nkurunziza, Pierre, in Kirundi also called Petero Nkurunziza (b. Dec. 18, 1964, Mwumba, Ngozi province, Burundi - d. June 8, 2020, Karuzi, Burundi), president of Burundi (2005-20). His father, an ex-provincial governor and member of parliament, was killed in Burundi's 1972 ethnic slaughter. He himself narrowly escaped death in 1995 when Tutsi soldiers attacking Hutus at the University of Bujumbura shot at his car and burned it after he fled. Soon after, he joined the Hutu rebel group Forces for the Defense of Democracy (FDD) as a soldier and worked his way up the ranks to become its leader in 2001. The FDD joined a transitional government in 2003 after fighting in Burundi's civil war, which pitted insurgents from the Hutu majority against the Tutsi minority which essentially controlled Burundi since 1962 independence from Belgium. Nkurunziza, who was the minister of state under the transitional government, began espousing inclusion and unity for all Burundians regardless of ethnicity. It was on that pledge that the FDD dominated a series of democratic polls in 2005. He was elected president by the legislature, and reelected by popular vote in 2010, in an election boycotted by most of the opposition which claimed massive fraud in earlier communal elections. In 2015 he refused to recognize the constitutional two-term limit, arguing that it applied only to popular elections, and, following months of serious unrest and a failed coup attempt, was reelected to a third term in a poll again boycotted by several opposition candidates. Mass violence and repression continued. After elections in May 2020, he was due to be replaced in August by political ally Evariste Ndayishimiye, but died in the interim.

Nnamani, Chimaroke (Ogbonnaya) (b. May 30, 1960, Agbani [now in Enugu state], Nigeria), governor of Enugu (1999-2007).

Noailles, Adrien Maurice, duc de (b. Sept. 29, 1678, Paris, France - d. June 24, 1766, Paris), president of the Finances Council (1715-18) and foreign minister (1744) of France. He was also governor of Roussillon (1698-1766) and Berry (1698-1715) and ambassador to Spain (1746). He succeeded as duc de Noailles in 1708.

A.N. Nobbs
Nobbs, Andre Neville, chief minister of Norfolk Island (2007-10).

Nobbs, Fletcher Christian (b. Sept. 1, 1833, Pitcairn Island - d. March 3, 1912, Norfolk Island), chief magistrate of Norfolk Island (1874-75); brother of Francis Mason Nobbs.

Nobbs, Francis Mason (b. Sept. 7, 1835, Pitcairn Island - d. June 15, 1909, Norfolk Island), chief magistrate of Norfolk Island (1876-80, 1883-84, 1894); brother of Fletcher Christian Nobbs.

R.C. Nobbs
Nobbs, Ronald Coane (b. June 10, 1938, Norfolk Island), chief minister of Norfolk Island (2000-01). He served in the Norfolk Island Advisory Council from 1964 to 1966 and in the Legislative Assembly from 1997 to 2007.

Nobilo, Mario (b. June 15, 1952, Lumbarda, Korcula island, Croatia), Croatian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1992-97) and ambassador to Slovenia (2004-08).

Noble, Ronald K(enneth) (b. Sept. 24, 1956, Fort Dix, N.J.), secretary-general of Interpol (2000-14).

Noboa (Pontón), Álvaro (Fernando) (b. Nov. 21, 1950, Guayaquil, Ecuador), Ecuadorian presidential candidate (1998, 2002, 2006, 2009, 2013). In 1998 he was Ecuador's richest man, but campaigned as the candidate of the poor and had the support of the Roldosista party of deposed president Abdalá Bucaram; he lost to Jamil Mahuad in the runoff. In 2002 and 2006 he also qualified for the runoff, but then lost to Lucio Gutiérrez and Rafael Correa, respectively; in 2009 he only came third and in 2013 fifth.

G. Noboa
Noboa (Bejarano), Gustavo (José Joaquín) (b. Aug. 21, 1937, Guayaquil, Ecuador - d. Feb. 16, 2021, Miami, Fla.), president of Ecuador (2000-03). His first public post was as governor of Ecuador's resource-rich Guayas province in 1983-84. He became vice president in 1998. It was as a prominent member of the Ecuadorian negotiating team in peace talks with Peru that Noboa gained a lasting place in the public arena. The talks led to a peace deal in October 1998 that ended decades of border skirmishes. Buckling under the strain of the worst economic and social crisis in five decades, thousands of Ecuadorian Indians converged on the high mountain capital of Quito in 2000 and forced the ouster of Pres. Jamil Mahuad. Noboa then assumed the presidency with the blessing of the armed forces and police followed by the backing of Mahuad himself and then Congress, which granted him the mandate to serve the remainder of Mahuad's term, which ended in 2003. He implemented Mahuad's plans to revive the economy by adopting the U.S. dollar as the main currency. Mahuad had claimed this would slash inflation and kick-start the economy with renewed foreign investment. Noboa also vowed to fight corruption, decentralize the government, and push through measures to boost the economy. The task before him was no less than awesome: 60% of Ecuador's 12.4 million people lived in poverty and inflation was the highest in Latin America at 60.7%. He had to rebuild the financial infrastructure of the first country ever to partially default on its Brady bond obligations. After his presidency Noboa came under investigation for allegedly mishandling his country's foreign debt negotiations and costing the country $9 billion. The Dominican Republic granted asylum to Noboa in August 2003. He was cleared of the charges on March 31, 2005, and returned from his exile on April 3.

Noboa (y Benavides), (Pedro) Ignacio (b. Dec. 4, 1811, Arequipa, Peru - d. Oct. 21, 1875, Valparaíso, Chile), finance minister of Peru (1863-64). He was also minister to Chile (1869-74).

Noboa (Bejarano), Ricardo (Juan Bosco María Auxiliadora José Buenaventura Ramón Ignacio de la Concepción) (b. July 14, 1952, Guayaquil, Ecuador), Ecuadorian politician; brother of Gustavo Noboa. He was minister of industry, trade, and integration (1987-88) and a minor presidential candidate (1996).

Nóbrega, Maílson (Ferreira) da (b. May 14, 1942, Cruz do Espírito Santo, Paraíba, Brazil), finance minister of Brazil (1987-90).

Nobs, Ernst (b. July 14, 1886, Seedorf, Bern, Switzerland - d. March 13, 1957, Meilen, Zürich, Switzerland), president of Switzerland (1949). He was also president of the government of Zürich (1940-41), mayor of Zürich (1942-43), and minister of finance and customs (1944-51).

Noda, Yoshihiko (b. May 20, 1957, Funabashi, Chiba prefecture, Japan), finance minister (2010-11) and prime minister (2011-12) of Japan.

Noé Pino, Hugo (b. Jan. 11, 1955, Tegucigalpa, Honduras), finance minister of Honduras (2006). He was also president of the central bank (1994-98), permanent representative to the United Nations (1998-99), and ambassador to the United States (1999-2002).

Noel, Denis (b. Dec. 13, 1937, Carlton, St. Andrew's, Grenada - d. February 2020), foreign minister of Grenada (1992, 1995).

Noel, John, defense minister of Papua New Guinea (1978). He was also minister of housing and urban development (1979-80).

Noël, Léon (Philippe Jules Arthur) (b. March 28, 1888, Paris, France - d. Aug. 6, 1987, Toucy, Yonne, France), French official. He was prefect of Haut-Rhin département (1930-31), minister to Czechoslovakia (1932-35), ambassador to Poland (1935-40), and president of the Constitutional Council (1959-65).

Noel-Baker, Philip (John) Noel-Baker, Baron, original surname Baker (b. Nov. 1, 1889, London, England - d. Oct. 8, 1982, London), British politician. He was secretary of state for air (1946-47) and Commonwealth relations (1947-50) and minister of fuel and power (1950-51). He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1959 for his advocacy of disarmament. He also won a silver medal in the men's 1,500 metres at the 1920 Olympic Games; he is the only person to have won both an Olympic medal and a Nobel Prize. On his marriage to Irene Noel in 1915 he adopted the additional surname Noel; he began to hyphenate his surname in the early 1940s. He was made a life peer in 1977.

Noël du Payrat, Henri (Marie Jean) (b. Oct. 21, 1894, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Seine-et-Oise [now in Yvelines], France - d. 1982), French city commandant of Wien (1945-46).

Noer, (Raden Panji) Mohammad (b. Jan. 13, 1918, Beler hamlet, Rong Tengah village, Sampang regency, Madura island, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Timur, Indonesia] - d. April 16, 2010, Surabaya, Jawa Timur, Indonesia), governor of Jawa Timur (1967-76). He was Indonesian ambassador to France in 1976-80.

Noerdin, Alex (b. Sept. 9, 1950, Palembang, Sumatera Selatan, Indonesia), governor of Sumatera Selatan (2008-18).

Noev, Boiko (Nikolov) (b. July 13, 1954, Zlatitsa, Bulgaria), defense minister of Bulgaria (1994-95, 1999-2001). He was also ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg (1996-99).

Nogaideli, Zurab (Temuris dze), also spelled Noghaideli (b. Oct. 22, 1964), finance minister (2000-02, 2003-05) and prime minister (2005-07) of Georgia.

Nogales Ortiz, Edmundo (b. Jan. 1, 1912, Italaque, La Paz department, Bolivia - d. Dec. 5, 1972, La Paz, Bolivia), interior, justice, and immigration minister of Bolivia (1944-46). He was also minister of agriculture, livestock, and colonization (1944).

Nogayev, Nurlan (Askarovich) (b. July 30, 1967, Oktyabrsk, Aktyubinsk [now Aktobe] oblast, Kazakh S.S.R.), head of Zapadno-Kazakhstan oblast (2012-16), Atyrau oblast (2016-19), and Mangistau oblast (2021- ). In 2019-21 he was energy minister of Kazakhstan.

Noghčs, Gilles (Alexandre) (b. March 26, 1947, Monaco), Monegasque diplomat. He was ambassador to Switzerland and Liechtenstein (2003-04) and the United States (2006-13) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2004-09).

Nogoybayev, Bolotbek (Berdibekovich) (b. Nov. 10, 1955, Telman, Frunze oblast, Kirgiz S.S.R. [now in Chuy oblast, Kyrgyzstan] - d. Dec. 24, 2016, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan), interior minister of Kyrgyzstan (2007-08).

Nogueda Otero, Israel (b. Jan. 16, 1935, Atoyac de Álvarez, Guerrero, Mexico - d. June 14, 2012, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Guerrero (1971-75). He was also mayor of Acapulco (1969-71).

Nogueira, Alberto (Marciano Gorjăo) Franco (b. Sept. 17, 1918, Vila Franca de Xira, Portugal - d. March 14, 1993, Lisbon, Portugal), foreign minister of Portugal (1961-69). He was also chargé d'affaires in Japan (1946-47). He resigned as minister after a disagreement with Prime Minister Marcelo Caetano over policy in Portugal's African colonies. Imprisoned for a short time after the revolution of 1974, he went into exile in London, but later returned.

Nogueira, Antonio Barbosa Gomes (b. April 26, 1823, Sabará, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. Oct. 11, 1885, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Paraná (1861-63).

Nogueira, Arlindo Francisco (b. Dec. 2, 1853, Valença, Piauí, Brazil - d. Oct. 19, 1917, Teresina, Piauí), governor of Piauí (1900-04).

Noguera Laborde, Rodrigo (b. Oct. 22, 1919, Santa Marta, Colombia - d. June 28, 2004, Bogotá, Colombia), justice minister of Colombia (1958). He was also minister of mines and petroleum (1952-53) and procurador general (1953).

Noguera Pietri, Justo (José) (b. March 15, 1961, Píritu, Portuguesa, Venezuela), governor of Bolívar (2017-21).

Noguera Zamora, Guillermo (b. Nov. 8, 1922, Jinotega, Nicaragua - d. Nov. 7, 1985, Miami, Fla.), defense minister of Nicaragua (1977-79).

Nogués, Alberto (b. May 23, 1912, Asunción, Paraguay - d. Dec. 8, 2001), foreign minister of Paraguay (1976-83). He was also ambassador to Chile (1961-66) and Spain (1966-68).

Nogučs, (Auguste Paul) Charles (Albert) (b. Aug. 13, 1876, Monléon-Magnoac, Hautes-Pyrénées, France - d. April 20, 1971, Paris, France), French resident-general of Morocco (1936-43).

Noirot-Cosson, Paul (Marie Christophe Jean-Baptiste) (b. June 22, 1924, Paris, France - d. April 11, 1997, Antonne, Dordogne, France), prefect of Martinique (1975-78) and high commissioner of French Polynesia (1981-83). He was also prefect of Pyrénées-Atlantiques département (1978-81).

Noka, Flamur (Dalip) (b. March 3, 1971, Kukës, Albania), interior minister of Albania (2012-13).

Nolcken, Arvid friherre von (b. Nov. 20, 1771, Kviinge socken, Kristianstad [now in Skĺne], Sweden - d. Oct. 11, 1807, Karlstad, Värmland, Sweden), governor of Värmland (1802-07); brother of Erik friherre von Nolcken; grandson of Erik Mattias friherre von Nolcken.

Nolcken, Erik (Reinhold) friherre von (b. July 3, 1763, Kviinge socken, Kristianstad [now in Skĺne], Sweden - d. May 13, 1834, Källstorp socken [now in Trelleborg municipality], Malmöhus [now in Skĺne], Sweden), governor of Kristianstad (1803-11); grandson of Erik Mattias friherre von Nolcken.

Nolcken, Erik Mattias friherre von (b. May 24, 1694, Riga, Sweden [now in Latvia] - d. Oct. 18, 1755, Stockholm, Sweden), Swedish diplomat. He was minister to Russia (1738-40). He was made friherre (baron) in 1747.

Nolcken, (Gerhard) Gustaf Adam friherre von (b. Sept. 18, 1733, Stralsund, Sweden [now in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany] - d. Dec. 16, 1812, Richmond, England), Swedish diplomat; son of Erik Mattias friherre von Nolcken. He was minister to Great Britain (1763-92).

Nolcken, Johan Fredrik friherre von (b. Dec. 31, 1737, Stralsund, Sweden [now in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany] - d. Feb. 22, 1809, Stockholm, Sweden), Swedish diplomat; son of Erik Mattias friherre von Nolcken; brother of Gustaf Adam friherre von Nolcken. He was minister to Russia (1773-88) and Austria (1791-94).

Noli, Fan, byname of Theofan Stilian Noli (b. Jan. 6, 1882, Ibriktepe, Ottoman Empire [now in Turkey] - d. March 13, 1965, Fort Lauderdale, Fla.), prime minister of Albania (1924). In 1908 he was the first ordained priest of the Albanian Orthodox Church. After his premiership he emigrated to America and founded the first Albanian Orthodox community in the United States in Boston where he served as bishop until his death.

Nolivos, Pierre-Gédéon, comte de (b. Nov. 23, 1714, Léogane, Saint-Domingue [now Haiti] - d. 17...), governor of Guadeloupe (1765-68) and Saint-Domingue (1769-72).

Nomura, Kichisaburo (b. December 1877, Wakayama prefecture, Japan - d. May 8, 1964, Tokyo, Japan), foreign minister of Japan (1939-40). He was also ambassador to the United States (1940-41).

Nong Duc Manh (b. Sept. 11, 1940, Cuong Loi village, Na Ri district, Bac Can province, Vietnam), Vietnamese politician. He was born into a family of the Tay ethnic minority. Rumours have long circulated that he was an illegitimate son of revolutionary leader Ho Chi Minh. Once asked the question by an Australian ambassador, Nong gave a noncommittal answer. He became a member of the Communist Party on July 5, 1963, and a member of the party executive committee for Bac Thai province in July 1977. In September 1980 he became deputy chairman of the Bac Thai Provincial People's Committee. In October 1983 he was appointed its chairman and kept that post for three years; during that time he was also deputy secretary of the provincial party committee. He was elected to secretary of the Bac Thai party committee in late 1986 and then alternate member to the Central Committee of the Communist Party. He became a full member of the Central Committee in March 1989. Between October 1989 and 1991 he was director of its Nationalities Commission. He was elected member of the Political Bureau at the seventh party congress in 1991 and reelected at the eighth congress in 1996. He was elected chairman of the National Assembly in 1992 and reelected in 1997. In 2001 the Communist Party voted to oust General Secretary Le Kha Phieu because of uninspired leadership and replace him with the moderate Nong, the first member of an ethnic minority group to hold the top Communist Party position. He had a reputation for being clean and untainted, and was seen as a relatively weak leader who operates on the basis of consensus decision-making. His selection indicated support for economic reforms in a country that in recent years had been mired in corruption and bureaucracy. However, he acknowledged that these problems still persisted when he retired in 2011.

Nong Kimny (b. Jan. 25, 1912, Phnom Penh, Cambodia - d. Sept. 23, 2002, Paris, France), foreign minister of Cambodia (1956). He was also governor of Kompong Speu (1940-41), minister (1951-52) and ambassador (1952-54, 1956-63) to the United States, permanent representative to the United Nations (1956-63), and ambassador to India (1964-73).

Noon, Malik Firoz Khan (b. May 7, 1893, Hamoka, Punjab, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Dec. 9, 1970, Lahore, Pakistan), governor of East Bengal (1950-53), chief minister of Punjab (1953-55), and foreign minister (1956-58) and prime minister and defense minister (1957-58) of Pakistan. Knighted in 1933 (then known as Sir Firoz Khan Noon), he was also Indian high commissioner in the United Kingdom (1936-41) and member of the Indian Executive Council for labour (1941-42) and defense (1942-45).

Noonan, Michael (b. May 22, 1943, Foynes, County Limerick, Ireland), finance minister of Ireland (2011-17). He was also minister of justice (1982-86), industry and commerce (1986-87), energy (1987), and health (1994-97) and leader of Fine Gael (2001-02).

Noonan, Michael J(ohn) (b. Sept. 4, 1935, Bruff, County Limerick, Ireland - d. Sept. 17, 2013, Castletroy, County Limerick), defence minister of Ireland (1987-89).

Noor, Rusli (b. May 1, 1927, Bandung, Netherlands East Indies [now Indonesia]), secretary-general of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (1989-93). He was also Indonesian ambassador to Denmark and Norway (1974-78) and Belgium (1983-86).

Noor Qamar (binti Haji) Sulaiman, (Hajah), Bruneian diplomat. She has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2019- ).

Noorani, Zain(ul Abedin Abdul Qadir) (b. 19... - d. 1992, Karachi, Pakistan), foreign minister of Pakistan (1987-88).

Noot, Hendrik (Karel Nicolaas) van der, French Henri (Charles Nicolas) van der Noot (de Vreckem de Kelfs) (b. Jan. 7, 1731, Brussels, Austrian Netherlands [now Belgium] - d. Jan. 12, 1827, Strombeek, Netherlands [now in Belgium]), Belgian political activist. In protest against the sweeping religious and political reforms of the Austrian Habsburg Holy Roman emperor Joseph II, he began in 1787 to threaten the Austrian government with appeal to Article 59 of the Joyeuse Entrée, which released the Brabançons from allegiance to a prince who violated the constitution. This won him the support of the common people and of the clergy and influenced the guilds of Brabant to raise a militia. The government insisted on the disbanding of the militia, but the estates of Brabant recognized him as their defender. When his arrest was ordered, he fled (Aug. 8, 1788) to Breda in the United Provinces (Dutch Republic). He visited London and The Hague, offering sovereignty over Belgium to the Dutch House of Orange and obtaining verbal assurances of support from Prussia. In 1789 he joined forces with Jan Frans Vonck and his army, led by Jan Andries Vander Mersch. After the rebels' victory over the Austrians, he entered Brussels in triumph on Dec. 18, 1789. In January 1790 the United Belgian States were proclaimed and he became prime minister. His "Statist party," seeking a return to oligarchic rule, forced Vonck's democratic faction out of the government; Vander Mersch was arrested. The Prussian general N.H. von Schönfeldt, replacing the latter, was defeated by the Austrians, who recovered Brussels in December 1790. Van der Noot went into exile until 1792. After Belgium was annexed by France, he was imprisoned in 1796 and remained in obscurity until 1814, when he emerged to argue for the return of Belgium to Austrian rule.

Noppadon Pattama (b. April 23, 1961, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand), foreign minister of Thailand (2008).

Nor Hisham
Nor Hisham (bin) Ahmad Dahlan, Datuk Seri (b. May 23, 1956), mayor of Kuala Lumpur (2018-20). He was awarded the titles Datuk in 2012 and Datuk Seri in 2021.

Norachit Sinhaseni (b. Nov. 7, 1954, Bangkok, Thailand), Thai diplomat. He was ambassador to New Zealand, Samoa, and Tonga (2003-07) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2009-15).

Norbye, Gunnar Bjřrn (Reichenwald) (b. Jan. 28, 1897, Fredrikshald, Smaalenenes amt [now Halden, Viken fylke], Norway - d. May 6, 1940, Tromsř, Norway), governor of Troms (1938-40).

Nordal, Ólöf (b. Dec. 3, 1966, Reykjavík, Iceland - d. Feb. 8, 2017), interior minister of Iceland (2014-17).

Nordanger, Knut Monsen (b. Dec. 10, 1883, Manger [now in Radřy municipality], Sřndre Bergenhus amt [now in Vestland fylke], Norway - d. May 31, 1965), governor of Hedmark (1935-53).

Nordberg, (Stig) Ivar (b. Dec. 18, 1933, Njurunda, Västernorrland, Sweden - d. June 17, 2014, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Södermanland (1990-96). He was also Swedish minister of industry (1988-90).

Nordenanckar, Gustaf Peter (b. Sept. 7, 1771 - d. March 3, 1839), governor of Kalmar (1822-39).

Nordenfalk, Carl (Olof Christian Johan) (b. Feb. 15, 1833, Törnsfall, Kalmar, Sweden - d. June 12, 1909, Törnsfall), governor of Halland (1883-1902); son of Johan friherre Nordenfalk.

Nordenfalk, Johan friherre (b. Sept. 9, 1796, Gĺlsjö, Västernorrland, Sweden - d. March 9, 1846, Stockholm, Sweden), prime minister for justice of Sweden (1844-46). He was made friherre (baron) in 1838.

Nordenfelt, Enar Wilhelm (b. Dec. 6, 1798, Björneborg, Värmland, Sweden - d. Nov. 17, 1868, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Blekinge (1856-67).

Nordenskiöld, Anders Johan, original surname Nordenberg (b. Dec. 21, 1696, Sibbo [now Sipoo], Finland - d. June 26, 1763, Helsingfors [now Helsinki], Finland), governor of Savolax och Kymmenegĺrd (1753-56) and Nyland och Tavastehus (1756-61). He was ennobled under the name Nordenskiöld in 1751.

Nordenstam, (Berndt) Allan (b. Dec. 26, 1904, Jönköping, Sweden - d. March 2, 1982, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Jönköping (1957-63), Stockholm city (1963-67), and Stockholm county (1968-71).

Nordenstam, Carl Fredrik, original surname Swart (baptized Feb. 25, 1720, Göteborg, Sweden - d. Feb. 23, 1768, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Stockholm (1762-68). He was ennobled under the name Nordenstam in 1751.

Nordenstam, Johan Mauritz, Russian Ivan (Ivanovich) Nordenstam (b. Sept. 21, 1802, Stockholm, Sweden - d. June 8, 1882, Helsingfors [now Helsinki], Finland), chief minister (1858-82) and acting governor-general (1864, 1868, 1870, 1872-73) of Finland; grandson of Carl Fredrik Nordenstam. He was also governor of Nyland (1847-58).

Nordgren, Kurt (Henry) (b. July 13, 1916, Nederkalix, Norrbotten, Sweden - d. Dec. 8, 1974, Härnösand, Västernorrland, Sweden), governor of Västernorrland (1971-74).

Nordheim-Larsen, Kari (b. June 23, 1948, Nome, Telemark [now in Vestfold og Telemark], Norway), governor of Telemark (2006-18). She was also Norwegian minister of development cooperation (1992-97) and children and family affairs (1993-94, acting for Grete Berget).

Nordin, Carl Johan friherre af (b. Aug. 6, 1785, Valbo socken, Gävleborg, Sweden - d. June 8, 1850, Valbo socken), acting governor of Stockholm city (1828-30); son of Johan Magnus friherre af Nordin. He became friherre (baron) in 1800.

Nordin, Johan Magnus friherre af (b. June 16, 1746, Stockholm, Sweden - d. March 15, 1823, Forsbacka, Gävleborg, Sweden), governor of Kopparberg (1790-1812). He was made friherre (baron) in 1800.

Nordin, Sten (Roland) (b. Feb. 18, 1956, Nyköping, Södermanland, Sweden), governor of Blekinge (2017-21). He was also mayor of Stockholm (2008-14).


Nordli, Odvar (b. Nov. 3, 1927, Stange, Hedmark [now in Innlandet], Norway - d. Jan. 9, 2018), prime minister of Norway (1976-81) and governor of Hedmark (1981-93). He was also minister of labour and municipal affairs (1971-72).

Nordlie, Arthur (Henry Eugen) (b. Feb. 2, 1883, Kristiania [now Oslo], Norway - d. Jan. 7, 1965, Oslo), Norwegian politician. He was chairman of the Conservative Party in 1945-50.

Nordlund, Roger (b. Nov. 19, 1957), lantrĺd of the Ĺland Islands (1999-2007).

Nordmeyer, Sir Arnold Henry, original name Heinrich Arnold Nordmeyer (b. Feb. 7, 1901, Dunedin, N.Z. - d. Feb. 2, 1989, Wellington, N.Z.), New Zealand politician. He entered parliament for the Labour Party in 1935. He helped draft the Social Security Act 1938, which formed the basis for the nation's modern welfare system, and then headed several ministries, including health (1941-47) and industries and commerce (1947-49). He lost his Oamaru seat in the 1949 election, but was returned for Brooklyn in 1951 and became finance minister in 1957. Seeing a threat to New Zealand trade after the creation of the European Economic Community, he sharply increased taxes on beer, tobacco, petrol, and cars and increased income tax in his 1958 budget. Economists regarded the increases as statesmanlike, but the voters saw the "black budget" as a reversal of the Labour Party's election pledges, and the party was defeated in the 1960 general election. Nordmeyer became party leader in 1963, but was unable to rebuild public support, still being identified with higher taxes for the working man. He was ousted as leader of the opposition in 1965 and retired from politics in 1969. He was knighted (K.C.M.G.) in 1975 and appointed to the Order of New Zealand in February 1987 as a foundation member.

Nordset, Oddbjřrn Karmhus (b. March 25, 1946), acting governor of Nord-Trřndelag (1991-93, 2008-09).

Nordström, Anders (Enar) (b. March 9, 1960, Stockholm, Sweden), acting director-general of the World Health Organization (2006-07).

Nordström, (Carl Fredrik) Theodor (b. Aug. 31, 1843, Helsingfors [now Helsinki], Finland - d. June 30, 1920, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Örebro (1904-11).

Noreika, Liudas (b. Aug. 19, 1884, Pasruoje, Russia [now in Lithuania] - d. May 30, 1928, Kaunas, Lithuania), justice minister of Lithuania (1919-20).

Norem, John (b. Nov. 11, 1888, Stavanger, Stavanger amt [now Rogaland fylke], Norway - d. May 12, 1976), governor of Rogaland (1932-58).

Nori, Andrew (b. 1953, West Are Are, Malaita province, Solomon Islands - d. July 9, 2013, Honiara, Solomon Islands), home affairs minister (1985-89) and finance minister (1993-94) of the Solomon Islands.

Norick, James H(enry), byname Jim Norick (b. Jan. 23, 1920, Oklahoma City, Okla. - d. March 4, 2015), mayor of Oklahoma City (1959-63, 1967-71).

Norick, Ronald J(ames) (b. Aug. 5, 1941, Oklahoma City, Okla.), mayor of Oklahoma City (1987-98); son of James H. Norick.

Noriega (Gómez), Carlos Augusto, byname El Tigrillo (b. April 2, 1920, Barichara, Santander, Colombia - d. Oct. 11, 2003, Bogotá, Colombia), interior minister of Colombia (1968-69). He was also minister of labour (1966-68) and ambassador to Spain (1970-74).

M. Noriega
Noriega (Moreno), Manuel (Antonio) (b. Feb. 11, 1936, Panama City, Panama - d. May 29, 2017, Panama City), Panamanian military leader. In the 1960s he was commissioned a sublieutenant in the National Guard and stationed in Colón, where he became acquainted with Capt. Omar Torrijos; he also established ties with U.S. intelligence agencies and attended the notorious School of the Americas. He was instrumental in the military coup of 1968 that brought Torrijos to power, and in 1970 helped crush a coup attempt against Torrijos. For his loyalty, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel and named chief of military intelligence. When in 1981 Torrijos died in a plane crash, military and civilian leaders struggled to gain the upper hand. In 1983 Noriega succeeded to the command of the National Guard, unified the armed forces into the Panamanian Defense Forces, promoted himself to the rank of general, and became the real power behind the civilian presidents. Allegations of drug trafficking and intimidation of dissidents piled up, and he declared a "state of urgency" that suspended political and civil rights. Though he was still on the U.S. payroll in the mid-1980s, in 1988 the U.S. turned against him, and when in 1989 an attempted military coup against him failed, the U.S. invaded Panama, chiefly for the purpose of capturing Noriega (which it succeeded in doing on Jan. 3, 1990) and bringing him to trial in the U.S.; in 1992, in a federal court in Miami, he was convicted of cocaine trafficking, racketeering, and money laundering, and sentenced to 40 years in jail. He won a reduction of his term in 1999 after arguing that he deserved credit for helping the U.S. pursue its interests in Latin America while he was in power. He was scheduled to be released in September 2007, but France suddenly announced it wanted to try him for allegedly laundering $3 million in drug proceeds through French banks, and he remained in prison pending a final decision on his extradition. In April 2010 he was extradited and in July a French court sentenced him to seven years in jail. In December 2011 he was extradited from France to Panama, where he faced a 20-year prison term for the murders of opponents during his rule.

Noriega Agüero, Zenón (b. July 12, 1900, Villa Jesús, near Cajamarca, Peru - d. May 7, 1957, Lima, Peru), first vice president (1948-50), minister of war (1948-54), junta chairman (1950), and prime minister (1950-54) of Peru.

Noriega Pizano, Arturo (b. April 10, 1915, Colima, Colima, Mexico - d. July 1994), governor of Colima (1974-79). He was also mayor of Colima (1971-73).

Norling, (Sven) Ĺke (b. March 5, 1924, Stockholm, Sweden - d. April 7, 2001), governor of Göteborg och Bohus (1980-89).

Norling, Bengt (Olof) (b. Jan. 12, 1925, Malmö, Sweden - d. June 2, 2002), governor of Värmland (1977-90). He was also Swedish minister of communications (1969-76).

Norman, Sir Henry Wylie (b. Dec. 2, 1826, London, England - d. Oct. 26, 1904, London), governor of Jamaica (1883-89) and Queensland (1889-95); knighted 1873.

Norman, Sam(uel) Hinga (b. Jan. 1, 1940, Ngolala village, Bo district, Sierra Leone - d. Feb. 22, 2007, Dakar, Senegal), interior minister of Sierra Leone (2002-04). The leader of the local civil defense militia that helped defeat the rebel Revolutionary United Front during the 1991-2001 civil war, he was indicted in 2003 by the UN-backed Special Court for Sierra Leone for war crimes and crimes against humanity. Maintaining his innocence throughout his trial, he died while still in detention at the court.

Normanby, Constantine Henry Phipps, (1st) Marquess of (b. May 15, 1797, Whitby, Yorkshire, England - d. July 28, 1863, London, England), governor of Jamaica (1832-34), lord lieutenant of Ireland (1835-39), and British home secretary (1839-41); son of Henry Phipps, Earl of Mulgrave. He was also lord privy seal (1834), secretary of state for war and the colonies (1839), ambassador to France (1846-52), and minister to Tuscany, Modena, and Parma (1854-58). He succeeded as (2nd) Earl of Mulgrave in 1831 and was created marquess in 1838.

Normanby, George Augustus Constantine Phipps, (2nd) Marquess of (b. July 23, 1819, London, England - d. April 3, 1890, Brighton, England), governor of Nova Scotia (1858-63), Queensland (1871-74), New Zealand (1874-79), and Victoria (1879-84); son of Constantine Henry Phipps, Marquess of Normanby. He was styled Viscount Normanby in 1831-38, then Earl of Mulgrave until he succeeded as marquess in 1863.

Noro, Akihiko (b. Aug. 28, 1946), governor of Mie (2003-11).

Norodom (b. February 1834, Angkor Borey, Cambodia - d. April 24, 1904, Phnom Penh, Cambodia), king of Cambodia (1860-1904).

Norodom Buppha Devi, Princess, also spelled Norodom Bophadevi (b. Jan. 8, 1943, Phnom Penh, Cambodia - d. Nov. 18, 2019, Bangkok, Thailand), Cambodian politician; daughter of Norodom Sihanouk. Earlier known as a ballerina, she was minister of culture and fine arts (1998-2004).

Norodom Kantol, Prince (b. Sept. 15, 1920, Phnom Penh, Cambodia - d. [killed] 1976), prime minister (1962-66), foreign minister (1962-64, 1965-66), and interior minister (1965-66) of Cambodia; brother of Prince Norodom Virija; great-grandson of Norodom.

Norodom Montana, Prince (b. March 18, 1902, Phnom Penh, Cambodia - d. 1975?), Cambodian politician. He was minister of economy (1945), agriculture (1945), public training, sports, and youth (1953-54), religion, social action, and labour (1954), public health, social action, and labour (1954), and education (1955) and president of the Council of the Kingdom (1963-67).

Norodom Norindeth, Prince (b. 1906 - d. 1975?), Cambodian diplomat; grandson of Norodom and Sisowath; son-in-law of Neal Phleng. He was ambassador to Yugoslavia (1961-63), Burma (1964-65), and Australia (1965-66).

Norodom Phurissara, Prince (b. Oct. 13, 1919, Phnom Penh, Cambodia - d. [killed] April? 1976, Phnom Penh), foreign minister of Cambodia (1966-70); grandson of Norodom. He was also minister of justice in the Sihanoukist government (1973-75). He was posthumously given the title Samdech on June 7, 1994.

Norodom R.
Norodom Ranariddh, Prince (b. Jan. 2, 1944, Phnom Penh, Cambodia - d. Nov. 28, 2021, Paris, France), co-prime minister (1993) and first prime minister (1993-97) of Cambodia; son of Norodom Sihanouk. He was also president of the National Assembly (1998-2006). From 1993 to 2006 he was leader of the royalist FUNCINPEC party. In November 2006 he became president of the Khmer Front Party.

Norodom Sihamoni
Norodom Sihamoni (b. May 14, 1953, Phnom Penh, Cambodia), king of Cambodia (2004- ). He is a son of King Norodom Sihanouk and his wife Monineath. In 1992, he was chosen unanimously by the members of the Supreme National Council of Cambodia to be permanent representative of Cambodia to the United Nations. On Aug. 30, 1993, he was appointed ambassador of the Kingdom of Cambodia to UNESCO. On Feb. 1, 1994, he was elevated by the king to the rank of Samdech Krom Khun (Great Prince). Following Sihanouk's abdication on Oct. 6, 2004, he was chosen king on October 14 and crowned on October 29.

Norodom Sihanouk
Norodom Sihanouk (b. Oct. 31, 1922, Phnom Penh, Cambodia - d. Oct. 15, 2012, Beijing, China), king of Cambodia (1941-55, 1993-2004). He was, on his mother's side, the grandson of King Monivong, whom he succeeded on the throne at age 18 because the French colonial authorities thought he was more pliable than other claimants. Late in World War II the young king was encouraged by the Japanese to declare Cambodia's independence from France, but as the French moved back into the region he waited until France finally retreated from Indochina in 1954. He founded the Sangkum Reastr Niyum ("People's Socialist Community") in January 1955 and in March abdicated in favour of his father, Norodom Suramarit, and became prime minister, foreign minister, and in 1956 permanent representative to the United Nations. After the death of his father in 1960, he accepted the role of "head of state." In 1970, while on a foreign tour, he was ousted in a U.S.-supported coup led by Gen. Lon Nol. Sihanouk then created a government in exile in Beijing and made allies of the North Vietnamese and the rebel Khmer Rouge army in an effort to regain power. When the Khmer Rouge took over the government in 1975, he returned to Cambodia as nominal head of state, only to be put under house arrest one year later. In 1979 the Khmer Rouge regime fell to Vietnamese military forces. He again went into exile in China, becoming president of a Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea in 1982. The Vietnamese withdrew in 1989, and in 1991 he was elected president of Cambodia's Supreme National Council, an interim administrative body. Following UN-sponsored elections in May 1993, he was named head of state even though his party finished in third place. In September the National Assembly voted to restore the monarchy, and he once again became king. He abdicated in 2004 because of poor health and his dissatisfaction with the political situation.

Norodom Sirivudh

Norodom Suramarit
Norodom Sirivudh, Prince (b. June 8, 1951, Phnom Penh, Cambodia), foreign minister of Cambodia (1993-94); son of Norodom Suramarit; half-brother of Norodom Sihanouk. He was also a deputy prime minister (2004-06) and co-interior minister (2004-06).

Norodom Suramarit (b. March 6, 1896, Phnom Penh, Cambodia - d. April 3, 1960, Phnom Penh), king of Cambodia (1955-60); grandson of Norodom; son-in-law of Sisowath Monivong. He was also minister of marine (1929-41).

Norodom Virija, Prince (b. 1926), foreign minister of Cambodia (1966).

Noronha, Fernando António (Soares) de, governor of Maranhăo (1792-98) and Angola (1802-06).

Norov, Vladimir (Imamovich) (b. Aug. 31, 1955, Bukhara, Uzbek S.S.R.), foreign minister of Uzbekistan (2006-10 and [acting] 2022- ) and secretary-general of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (2019-21). He was also ambassador to Germany (1998-2003), Switzerland and Poland (2002-03), and Belgium (2005-06, 2013-17).

Norrback, (Johan) Ole (b. March 18, 1941, Övermark [now part of Närpes], Finland), defense minister of Finland (1987-90). He was also minister of education (1990-91), transport and communications (1991-95), and European affairs (1995-99) and ambassador to Norway (1999-2003) and Greece (2003-07).

Norrfalk, Maria (Heléne) (b. March 25, 1952, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Dalarna (2007-15).

Norrie (of Wellington, New Zealand, and of Upton, Gloucestershire), (Charles) Willoughby (Moke) Norrie, (1st) Baron (b. Sept. 26, 1893 - d. May 25, 1977), governor of South Australia (1944-52) and governor-general of New Zealand (1952-57). He was knighted in 1944 and created a baron in August 1957.

D.L. Norris
Norris, Daniel L(eonard) (b. Aug. 30, 1935, 35 km southwest of Inuvik, N.W.T. - d. Aug. 5, 2008, Edmonton, Alta.), commissioner of the Northwest Territories (1989-94).

Norris, Isaac (b. July 26, 1671, Southwark, London, England - d. June 4, 1735, Germantown, Pennsylvania), mayor of Philadelphia (1724-25).

Northam, Ralph (Shearer) (b. Sept. 13, 1959, Nassawadox, Va.), governor of Virginia (2018-22).

Northbrook, Francis (Thornhill) Baring, (1st) Baron (b. April 20, 1796, Calcutta [now Kolkata], India - d. Sept. 6, 1866, Stratton Park, Hampshire, England), British politician. He was chancellor of the exchequer (1839-41) and first lord of the Admiralty (1849-52). He succeeded as (3rd) Baronet in 1848 and was created Baron Northbrook in January 1866.

Northbrook, Thomas George Baring, (1st) Earl of (b. Jan. 22, 1826, London, England - d. Nov. 15, 1904, Stratton Park, Hampshire, England), viceroy of India (1872-76); son of Francis Baring, Baron Northbrook. He was also first lord of the Admiralty (1880-85). He succeeded as (2nd) Baron Northbrook in 1866 and was created Viscount Baring and Earl of Northbrook in 1876.

Northcote, Sir Geoffry (Alexander Stafford) (b. Feb. 9, 1881, London, England - d. July 10, 1948, Sanderstead, Surrey, England), acting governor of the Gold Coast (1932, 1934) and governor of British Guiana (1935-36) and Hong Kong (1937-41); knighted 1935; grandson of Stafford Henry Northcote, Earl of Iddesleigh.

Northcote (of Exeter), Henry Stafford Northcote, (1st) Baron (b. Nov. 18, 1846, London, England - d. Sept. 29, 1911, Ashford, Kent, England), governor-general of Australia (1904-08). He entered the British Foreign Office as a clerk in 1868 and, as an aide, went to Washington, D.C., with his father, Sir Stafford Henry Northcote (later Earl of Iddesleigh), who was a member of the commission to settle the Alabama claims (1871-73). In 1876 he went to Constantinople as private secretary to Lord Salisbury. After his return he became private secretary to his father, who was chancellor of the exchequer in 1877-80. He represented Exeter in the House of Commons from 1880 to 1899 and served as financial secretary to the War Office (1885-86) in Salisbury's first government and surveyor-general of ordnance (1886-87) in his second. In 1887, he was created a baronet. He was appointed governor of Bombay in 1899 and, before leaving England (January 1900), was created a baron. The Bombay Presidency was suffering from famine, plague, and an empty exchequer. He tried to improve conditions, sometimes drawing on his own resources when public funds were insufficient. In August 1903 he was appointed governor-general of Australia, and he was sworn in at Sydney in January 1904. In Australia, as in India, he travelled widely. Averaging over 10,000 miles a year by land and sea, he travelled through the greater part of every state and not least through the Northern Territory. His wealth enabled him to entertain generously; he won personal popularity and gave prestige to the office. After his return to England in 1908, he took his seat in the House of Lords and in 1911 bore the standard of Australia at the coronation of George V. He died without issue, and the peerage became extinct.

Northington, Robert Henley, (1st) Earl of (b. 1708? - d. Jan. 14, 1772, The Grange, Hampshire, England), British lord keeper (1757-61), lord chancellor (1761-66), and lord president of the council (1766-67). He was knighted in 1756 and created Baron Henley in 1760 and Earl of Northington in 1764.

Northington, Robert Henley, (2nd) Earl of (b. Jan. 3, 1747, London, England - d. July 5, 1786, Paris, France), lord lieutenant of Ireland (1783-84); son of Robert Henley, (1st) Earl of Northington. He succeeded as earl in 1772.

Northmore, Sir John Alfred (b. Sept. 14, 1865, Adelaide, South Australia - d. May 15, 1958), acting governor of Western Australia (1931-33); knighted 1932. He was chief justice (1931-45) and lieutenant governor (1932-33).

Northumberland, Algernon Percy, (4th) Duke of (b. Dec. 15, 1792, Isleworth, Middlesex [now part of London], England - d. Feb. 12, 1865, Alnwick, Northumberland, England), British first lord of the Admiralty (1852); brother of Hugh Percy, (3rd) Duke of Northumberland; grandson of Hugh Percy, (1st) Duke of Northumberland. He succeeded as duke in 1847.

Northumberland, Hugh Percy, (1st) Duke of, original surname Smithson (baptized Dec. 10, 1712, Kirby Wiske, near Northallerton, Yorkshire, England - d. June 6, 1786, Isleworth, Middlesex [now part of London], England), lord lieutenant of Ireland (1763-65). He succeeded as (2nd) Earl of Northumberland (and changed his surname) in 1750 and was created Earl Percy and Duke of Northumberland in 1766 and Baron Lovaine in 1784.

Northumberland, Hugh Percy, (3rd) Duke of (b. April 20, 1785 - d. Feb. 12, 1847, Alnwick, Northumberland, England), lord lieutenant of Ireland (1829-30); grandson of Hugh Percy, (1st) Duke of Northumberland. He succeeded as duke in 1817.

G. Norton
Norton, Gale (Ann) (b. March 11, 1954, Wichita, Kan.), U.S. secretary of the interior (2001-06).

Norton de Matos, José (Maria) Mendes Ribeiro (b. March 23, 1867, Ponte de Lima, Viana do Castelo district, Portugal - d. Jan. 2, 1955, Ponte de Lima), governor-general (1912-15) and high commissioner (1921-24) of Angola. He was also Portuguese minister of colonies (1915) and war (1915-17) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1924-26).

Norvell, George E(ldon) (b. July 20, 1907, Tulsa, Okla. - d. Oct. 5, 1990, Tulsa), mayor of Tulsa (1956-58).

Norvik, Erling (b. April 9, 1928, Vadsř, Finnmark [now in Troms og Finnmark], Norway - d. Dec. 31, 1998, Oslo, Norway), governor of Řstfold (1986-98). He was also chairman of the Conservative Party of Norway (1974-80, 1984-86).

Norwich, Alfred Duff Cooper, (1st) Viscount (b. Feb. 22, 1890, London, England - d. Jan. 1, 1954, aboard the Colombie off Vigo, Spain), British secretary of state for war (1935-37). He was also first lord of the Admiralty (1937-38), minister of information (1940-41), chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (1941-43), and ambassador to France (1944-47). Also known as an author, he was knighted in 1948 and created viscount in 1952.

Norwood, William Robert (b. May 29, 1909, Seattle, Wash. - d. Sept. 22, 1981), high commissioner of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (1966-69).

Nosatîi, Anatolie (b. Sept. 12, 1972), defense minister of Moldova (2021- ).

Nosek, Jirí (b. Aug. 29, 1911, Cercany, Austria [now in Czech Republic] - d. Oct. 18, 2003, Prague, Czech Republic), Czechoslovak diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1950-55) and ambassador to India (1956-59) and Ceylon (1957-59).

Nosov, Aleksandr (Fyodorovich) (b. 1899 - d. Jan. 4, 1937, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Mountain A.S.S.R. (1921-22).

Nosov, Ivan (Petrovich) (b. May 1888, Kasitikha, Nizhny Novgorod province, Russia - d. [executed] Nov. 27, 1937), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of Crimea (1924-25). He was also executive secretary of the party committees of Voronezh (1921), Perm (1921), and Tver (1925-29) provinces and Feodosiya (1921-22), Sevastopol (1922-24), and Moscow (1929-30) okruga and first secretary of the industrial party committee (1932-36) and party committee (1936-37) of Ivanovo oblast.

S. Nosov
Nosov, Sergey (Konstantinovich) (b. Feb. 17, 1961, Magnitogorsk, Chelyabinsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Magadan oblast (2018- ). He was also mayor of Nizhny Tagil (2012-18).

Nosworthy, Sir William (b. Oct. 18, 1867, St. Albans, Christchurch, New Zealand - d. Sept. 26, 1946, Ashburton, New Zealand), finance minister (1925-26) and foreign minister (1926-28) of New Zealand; knighted 1929. He was also minister of agriculture (1919-25) and immigration (1920-25) and postmaster-general (1926-28).


C.-F. Nothomb
Note, Kessai H(esa) (b. Aug. 7, 1950, Airok, Ailinglaplap Atoll, Marshall Islands), president (2000-08) and foreign minister (2016) of the Marshall Islands. He has also been minister of resources and development (1979-85), internal affairs (1985-86), transportation and communications (1986-88), and justice (2020- ) and speaker of the Nitijela (1988-2000).

Noterdaeme, Paul (Marie Jozef Antonius Cornelius) (b. Oct. 14, 1929, Bruges, Belgium - d. July 21, 1995), Belgian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1988-94).

Nothin, Torsten (Karl Viktor) (b. Feb. 16, 1884, Voxtorp, Jönköping, Sweden - d. March 1, 1972, Jönköping, Sweden), governor of Stockholm city (1933-49); son-in-law of Assar Ĺkerman. He was also Swedish justice minister (1924-26).

Nothomb, Charles-Ferdinand (Nicolas Marie Pierre) (b. May 3, 1936, Habay-la-Neuve, Belgium), foreign minister (1980-81) and interior minister (1981-86) of Belgium. He was also chairman of the Chamber of Representatives (1979-80, 1988-95).

Nothomb, Jean Baptiste, baron (from 1853) (b. July 3, 1805, Messancy, France [now in Belgium] - d. Sept. 16, 1881, Berlin, Germany), cabinet chief of Belgium (1841-45). He was also minister of public works (1837-40), justice (acting, 1839 and 1841-43), and interior (1841-45) and minister to the German Confederation (1840-41), Prussia (1845-71), and Germany (1871-81).

Notley, Rachel (Anne) (b. April 17, 1964, Edmonton, Alta.), premier of Alberta (2015-19).

Notowidigdo, Mukarto (b. Nov. 1, 1911, Blora, Netherlands East Indies [now Indonesia] - d. June 25, 1984, Jakarta, Indonesia), foreign minister of Indonesia (1952-53). He was also ambassador to the United States (1953-61), India (1961-64), and Canada (1964-66).

Nott, Sir John (William Frederic) (b. Feb. 1, 1932), British defence secretary (1981-83); knighted 1983. He was also president of the Board of Trade (1979-81).

Nott, Roger Bede (b. Oct. 20, 1908, Gulgong, N.S.W. - d. Sept. 28, 2000, Dunedoo, N.S.W.), Australian politician. In 1941 he stood for election in the blue-ribbon conservative New South Wales Legislative Assembly seat of Liverpool Plains, which had been held by the Country Party for 25 years, and won the seat for Labor by a margin of 155 votes. He held it for 20 years. He was a minister under the John Cahill and Robert Heffron state governments. First he took up a cabinet post as minister without portfolio when Labor rebel Clive Evatt was forced to resign as a minister in 1954. In 1956 he became lands and mines minister, to which he added the agriculture brief a year later benefitting from his practical experience in primary production. In 1961 he took up the Robert Menzies government's appointment to become Northern Territory administrator. He said he was attracted to the job by the challenge and because he could see the potential importance of the territory in mining, agriculture, and tourism. He became an instant hit with locals when at a civic reception for him he took off his jacket and invited all men to do the same. Reportedly, only his predecessor, James Clarence Archer, who had never been seen in public without his coat, declined to follow suit. Long trousers and a shirt with long sleeves became known as "Territory rig." His work helped the Northern Territory cattle industry, leading to the establishment of export abattoirs and the construction of a network of beef routes. In 1964, two years ahead of the end of his term in Darwin, he suddenly became administrator of Norfolk Island, where he stayed for two years. In 1968 he returned to active politics, standing for federal parliament, but was unsuccessful and retired for good in 1970. He was made C.B.E. for his services to the state and commonwealth in 1977.

Nottage, Bernard J(onathan) (b. Oct. 23, 1945, Nassau, Bahamas - d. June 28, 2017, Weston, Fla.), national security minister of The Bahamas (2012-17). He was also minister of consumer affairs (1989-90), education (1990-92), and health and national insurance (2006-07).

Notter, Markus (b. Nov. 21, 1960, Dietikon, Zürich, Switzerland), president of the government of Zürich (2001-02, 2008-09).

Nouailhetas, (Pierre Marie Elie) Louis (b. Dec. 17, 1894, Cercoux, Charente-Inférieure [now Charente-Maritime], France - d. 1985), governor of French Somaliland (1940-42).

Nouet, Louis Hippolyte Marie (b. Sept. 5, 1844, Quimper, Finistčre, France - d. Feb. 12, 1933, Vannes, Morbihan, France), governor of New Caledonia (1886-88), French India (1889-91), and Guadeloupe (1891-94).

Noufflard, Charles Henri Adrien (b. Sept. 7, 1872, Louviers, Eure, France - d. June 16, 1952), acting governor of French Congo (1903), acting lieutenant governor of Gabon (1906-07), French resident commissioner of the New Hebrides (1908-09), and governor of Dahomey (1912-17).

Nouhak Phoumsavan (b. April 9, 1914, Phalouka, Moukdahane district, Savannakhet province, Laos - d. Sept. 9, 2008, Vientiane, Laos), president of Laos (1992-98). He was an early member of the Laotian nationalist movement. In 1950 he served as foreign minister in the Free Lao Front resistance government and became a member of the Hanoi-based Indochinese Communist Party. He represented the Pathet Lao resistance movement at the Geneva conference in 1954 which ended the First Indochina War. In 1955 he was a founding member of the clandestine Lao People's Party (later Lao People's Revolutionary Party) and was elected to its Central Committee. Nouhak was elected to the Laotian National Assembly in 1957. He was arrested in 1959, but escaped from prison after ten months. In 1972 he was elected to the party's Politburo. Following the Communist takeover Nouhak, considered an ally of the Vietnamese, served as a vice premier (1975-90) and finance minister (1975-82). He was chairman of the Supreme People's Assembly in 1989-92. After the death of Kaysone Phomvihane, he became the highest-ranking member of the Politburo and was elected president. Under his presidency Laos remained a one-party state but in April 1994 he did end Laos's complete isolation by opening, with the Thai king, a bridge across the Mekong.

Nouira, Hédi (Amira), Arabic in full Muhammad al-Hadi bin Amira bin Muhammad Nuwira (b. April 6, 1911, Monastir, Tunisia - d. Jan. 25, 1993, La Marsa, Tunisia), prime minister of Tunisia (1970-80). He began his political career with Habib Bourguiba, helping found the nationalist Neo-Destour Party (later renamed the Destourien Socialist Party) in 1934. He became secretary of the Confederation of Tunisian Workers in 1938, but was arrested for subversion by the French colonial authorities and held in detention in France until he was released by the German occupation forces in 1940. As the Neo-Destour Party campaigned for independence, he was its representative at talks in Paris in the 1950s. He was the party's secretary-general in 1942-54 and 1969-80. He joined the Tunisian government before independence (which came in 1956), serving as minister of commerce (1954-55) and finance (1955-58), then becoming governor of the newly formed central bank (1958-70) and minister of state in charge of economy (June-November 1970). He was considered the architect of Tunisia's economic revival in the 1960s. As prime minister from November 1970, he increasingly took control of the day-to-day running of the country as President Bourguiba's health and alertness deteriorated. In 1974 he stepped in to quash a proposed union between Tunisia and Libya. He was faulted by many workers and dissidents in the late 1970s for the government's tough labour policy and refusal to allow a multiparty system. He was the designated successor of Bourguiba until a stroke in February 1980 effectively ended his political career.

Noulens, Joseph (b. March 29, 1864, Bordeaux, Gironde, France - d. Sept. 9, 1944, Sosbets, Gers, France), war minister (1913-14) and finance minister (1914) of France. He was also ambassador to Russia (1917-18) and minister of agriculture and supply (1919-20).

Noumazalaye, Ambroise (Édouard) (b. Sept. 23, 1933, Brazzaville, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)] - d. Nov. 17, 2007, Paris, France), prime minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (1966-68). He was also minister of planning (1966-68), industry and crafts (1984-88), fisheries (1985-88), and forestry (1988-89). He was president of the Senate from Aug. 10, 2002, to his death.

Nouri, Mahamat (b. 1947, Largeau [now Faya-Largeau], Chad), interior minister (1978-79, 1995) and defense minister (2001-04) of Chad. He was also minister of public works, transport, and communications (1979), public health (1993), territorial administration (1995-96), and livestock (1996-2001) and ambassador to Saudi Arabia (2004-06).

Noutary, Jean (b. Nov. 4, 1896, Pau, Basses-Pyrénées [now Pyrénées-Atlantiques], France - d. Sept. 15, 1962, Pau), commissioner of French Togo (1944-48).


Novaes, José Hosken de (b. Feb. 7, 1917, Carangola, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. Jan. 31, 2006, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil), acting governor of Paraná (1982-83). He was also mayor of Londrina (1963-69).

Novák, Katalin (Éva Veresné) (b. Sept. 6, 1977, Szeged, Hungary), president of Hungary (2022- ). She was also minister without portfolio for family affairs (2020-21).

Novakovic, Stojan (b. Nov. 1, 1842, Sabac, Serbia - d. Feb. 18, 1915, Nis, Serbia), prime minister (1895-96, 1909) and foreign minister (1895-96) of Serbia. He was also minister of education (1873, 1874-75, 1880-83) and interior (1884-85), minister to the Ottoman Empire (1886-91, 1897-1900), France (1900), and Russia (1900-04), and president of the State Council (1892-95).

Novakovic, Zoran (b. Sept. 20, 1950, Cetinje, Montenegro - d. Dec. 13, 2006), acting foreign minister of Yugoslavia (2000).

Novalic, Fadil (b. Sept. 25, 1959, Gradacac [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), prime minister of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2015- ).

Novar, Ronald Craufurd Munro-Ferguson, (1st) Viscount (b. March 6, 1860, Raith, Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland - d. March 30, 1934, Raith), governor-general of Australia (1914-20). He was also British secretary for Scotland (1922-24). He was knighted in 1914 and created viscount in 1920.

A. Novikov
Novikov, Artem (Eduardovich) (b. Jan. 13, 1987, Frunze, Kirgiz S.S.R. [now Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan]), first deputy prime minister (2020-21) and acting prime minister (2020-21) of Kyrgyzstan. He was also economy minister (2017-18).

Novikov, Fyodor (Afanasyevich) (b. Jan. 1, 1935, Kosilovo, Bryansk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. 2002), first secretary of the party committee (1990-91) and head (1992-93) of Mangistau oblast. He was also mayor of Kokchetav (1973-79), minister of meat and dairy industry of the Kazakh S.S.R. (1984-85), and chairman of the executive committee of Guryev oblast (1987-90).

Novikov, Ignaty (Trofimovich) (b. Jan. 2, 1907 [Dec. 20, 1906, O.S.], Kamenskoye, Russia [now Kamyanske, Ukraine] - d. Dec. 25, 1993, Moscow, Russia), Soviet politician. He was minister of construction of power plants (1958-62) and energy and electrification (1962) and a deputy premier and chairman of the State Committee for Construction (1962-83).

Novikov, Vladimir (Nikolayevich) (b. Dec. 6 [Nov. 23, O.S.], 1907, Novgorod region, Russia - d. July 21, 2000), chairman of the State Planning Committee of the Soviet Union (1960-62). He was also deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers (1960-62, 1965-80) and chairman of the Supreme Council of National Economy (1965).

Novitsky, Vasily (Vasilyevich) (b. 18... - d. April 21 [April 8, O.S.], 1911, Shabalino, Chernigov province, Russia [now in Ukraine]), governor of Tavrida (1906-11).

Novoselov, Arkady (Mikhailovich) (b. 1905, Nizhnyaya Kurya, Perm province [now in Perm kray], Russia - d. Oct. 27, 1940), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Tatar A.S.S.R. (1937). He was also deputy premier (1937-38).

A. Novotný
Novotný, Antonín (b. Dec. 10, 1904, Letnany, near Prague, Austria-Hungary [now in Czech Republic] - d. Jan. 28, 1975, Prague, Czechoslovakia), president of Czechoslovakia (1957-68). He joined the Czechoslovak Communist Party in 1921, soon after it was founded, and held various offices in the party organization in Prague. After the German occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1939, he was held in Mauthausen concentration camp from 1941 to 1945. Immediately after the war he resumed his party work and received the appointment as top secretary of the party's regional committee in Prague (1945-51). In 1946 he was also elected to the party's Central Committee, and in February 1948 he took a leading role in the Communist takeover of the Czechoslovak government. He was elected to the Presidium of the Central Committee in 1951 and became first secretary in 1953. After the death of Antonín Zápotocký in 1957, he assumed the presidency of the republic; in 1964 he was reelected to a five-year term. In 1960 he declared that socialism had been achieved in Czechoslovakia and this should also be reflected in the name of the country, which became the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. He continued close cooperation with Moscow, but increasingly had to face criticism from younger party members, who were more nationalistic and less dogmatic; he also had to cope with a continual decline in economic performance. In January 1968 he was forced to resign the party leadership to Alexander Dubcek, then in March Gen. Ludvík Svoboda replaced him as president, and in May his party membership was suspended. It was an indication of his unpopularity that even after the Soviet armed intervention he did not return to any leading position, although his party membership was restored in 1971.

J. Novotný
Novotný, Josef (b. Dec. 14, 1952), governor of Karlovarský kraj (2008-15).

Novruzov, Neymat (Guseynovich) (b. 1908, Nakhichevan, Erivan province, Russia [now in Azerbaijan] - d. ...), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Nakhichevan A.S.S.R. (1953-55). He was also minister of state farms of the Azerbaijan S.S.R. (1955-57).

Nowak, Julian Ignacy (b. March 10, 1865, Okocim, Austria [now in Poland] - d. Nov. 7, 1946, Kraków, Poland), prime minister of Poland (1922). A noted microbiologist, he was also rector of Kraków University (1921-22) and minister of religious affairs and education (1922).

Nowak, Zenon (b. Jan. 27, 1905, Pabianice, Poland - d. Aug. 21, 1980, Warsaw, Poland), a deputy premier of Poland (1952-68). He was also chairman of the Supreme Control Chamber (1969-71) and ambassador to the Soviet Union (1971-77).

Nowlan, George (Clyde) (b. Aug. 14, 1898, Havelock, N.S. - d. May 31, 1965, Ottawa, Ont.), finance minister of Canada (1962-63). He was also minister of national revenue (1957-62).

Nowodworski, Stanislaw (b. 1873 - d. Sept. 22, 1931), justice minister of Poland (1920-21, 1923). He was also mayor of Warsaw (1921-22).

Noworyta, Eugeniusz (b. Dec. 25, 1935, Kraków, Poland), Polish diplomat. He was ambassador to Chile (1971-73), Spain (1977-81), and Argentina (1996-2001) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1985-89).

Noyes, Edward F(ollansbee) (b. Oct. 3, 1832, Haverhill, Mass. - d. Sept. 4, 1890, Cincinnati, Ohio), governor of Ohio (1872-74). He was also U.S. minister to France (1877-81).

Nozdryakov, Mikhail (Gennadiyevich) (b. Oct. 26, 1970, Cheboksary, Chuvash A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), acting prime minister of Chuvashia (2011).

Nozhikov, Yury (Abramovich) (b. Feb. 17, 1934, Leningrad, Russian S.F.S.R. [now St. Petersburg, Russia] - d. June 15, 2010, Irkutsk, Russia), chairman of the Executive Committee (1988-91), head of the administration (1991-94), and governor (1994-97) of Irkutsk oblast.

Nozičres, Vital Auguste, marquis de Grégoire, comte de (b. Dec. 15, 1715 - d. ...), governor of Martinique (1772-76).

Nqakula, Charles (b. Sept. 13, 1942, Cradock, Cape province [now in Eastern Cape], South Africa), defense minister of South Africa (2008-09). He was also general secretary of the South African Communist Party (1993-98), minister of safety and security (2002-08), and high commissioner to Mozambique (2012-15).

A. Nsanze

Nsanze, Augustin (b. 1953, Kibumbu, Mbuye, Burundi), foreign minister of Burundi (2009-11). In 2008-09 he was permanent representative to the United Nations.

Nsanze, Térence (b. Feb. 2, 1937, Burundi), Burundian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations and ambassador to the United States (1966-73).

Nsanzimana, Sylvestre (b. Jan. 5, 1936, Kirago [now in Southern province], Rwanda - d. July? 1999), foreign minister (1969-71) and prime minister (1991-92) of Rwanda. He was also minister of commerce, mines, and industry (1967-69) and justice (1991).

Nsekalije, Aloys (b. July 16, 1937, Rambura, Rwanda - d. Oct. 12, 2009, Brussels, Belgium), foreign minister of Rwanda (1973-79).

Nsengimana, Joseph (b. May 11, 1950), Rwandan politician. He was minister of higher education, scientific research, and culture (1994-97), civil service and labour (1997-99), and lands, human resettlement, and environmental protection (1999-2000), special adviser to the president (2000-06), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2006-09).

Nsibambi, Apolo (Robin) (b. Nov. 27, 1938 [by other sources, Oct. 25, 1940] - d. May 28, 2019, Kampala, Uganda), prime minister of Uganda (1999-2011). He was also minister of public service (1996-98) and education and sports (1998-99).

Nsibandze, Ben(jamin Mshamndane) (b. June 17, 1931 - d. Jan. 13, 2021), acting prime minister of Swaziland (1979). He was deputy prime minister (1979-83), minister of labour and public services (1987-91), and regional administrator of Hhohho (1990s-2014).

N'singa Udjuu Ongwankebi Untube, (Joseph) (b. Oct. 29, 1934, Nsontin, near Banningville [now Bandundu], Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. Feb. 24, 2021), justice minister (1966-69, 1986-90, 1996-97), interior minister (1969-70), and prime minister (1981-82) of Congo (Kinshasa)/Zaire. He was also planning minister (1997).

Nsobeya Efuman (Nchama), Santiago (b. 1950? - d. July 8?, 2020, Equatorial Guinea), foreign minister of Equatorial Guinea (1999-2003). He was also chargé d'affaires (1993) and ambassador (1994-99) to Spain and minister of information, tourism, and culture and government spokesman (2006-08).

Nsue Angüe Osá, José (b. Feb. 2, 1928, Biyabiyan, Spanish Guinea [now Equatorial Guinea] - d. [killed] late 1976, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia), Equatorial Guinean politician. He was minister of education (1968-72) and ambassador to Ethiopia (1973-76).

Nsue Nguema (Nsuga), Mariano (b. Dec. 12, 1937), justice minister of Equatorial Guinea (1992-93). He was also minister in charge of relations with parliament (1993-96) and president of the Supreme Court (1995-2000).

Ntaba, Hetherwick (Maurice) (b. Oct. 28, 1943, Lilongwe, Nyasaland [now Malawi]), foreign minister of Malawi (1993-94). He was also health minister (1990-93, 2004-06) and minister of energy and mining (2004).

Ntafu, (Andrew) George (Nga), also spelled Mtafu (b. 1942, Likoma island, Nyasaland [now Malawi] - d. [road accident] Oct. 20, 2015, Blantyre, Malawi), foreign minister of Malawi (1996-97). He was also minister of health and environmental affairs (1994-95), transport and civil aviation (1995-96), tourism, national parks, and wildlife (1999-2000), and education, science, and technology (2000-04).

Ntahomvukiye, Séverin (b. Aug. 14, 1944, Gitega, Burundi), foreign minister of Burundi (1998-2001). He was also ambassador to the United States (1995-98).

Ntahuga, Sébastien, justice minister of Burundi (1991-93). He was also ambassador to (West) Germany and the Vatican (1988-91).

Ntakibirora, Tharcisse, Burundian diplomat. He was ambassador to China (1990-93) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1995-97).

Ntakirutimana, Joseph, Burundian politician. He was minister of good governance, general state inspection, and local administration (2005-06) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2006-08).

Ntang, Gilbert (Mayimbene) (b. 1938, Essendé, French Cameroons [now in Cameroon] - d. May 21, 2009, Paris, France), finance minister of Cameroon (1979-83).


Ntare V, personal name Charles Ndizeye (b. Dec. 2, 1947, Gitega, Burundi - d. April 29, 1972, Gitega), king of Burundi (1966). Deposed while on a visit to Congo (Kinshasa), he went into exile in Munich, West Germany, but returned on March 30, 1972. He was immediately placed under house arrest in his former palace of Bwoga, in Gitega. He was killed on April 29, officially during an attempt to escape.

Ntaryamira, Cyprien (b. March 6, 1955, Gitwe, Mubimbi commune, Bujumbura Rural province, Burundi - d. [plane crash] April 6, 1994, near Kigali, Rwanda), president of Burundi (1994). He was also minister of agriculture and livestock (1993-94).

Ntawurishira, Lazare (b. Oct. 10, 1931, Bukeye, Burundi - d. May 17, 2015, Bujumbura, Burundi), foreign minister of Burundi (1967-69). He was also minister of education and culture (1966-67).

Nteturuye, Marc (b. 1954, Gishubi, Burundi), Burundian diplomat. He was ambassador to Kenya and Somalia (1987-91), Namibia (1990-91), and Rwanda (1991-93) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1999-2006).

N'Thepe, (Aimé) Raymond (b. May 19, 1914, Douala, Cameroon - d. Nov. 23, 1984), foreign minister of Cameroon (1970-71). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1961-62) and ambassador to the United States (1961-62), West Germany (1962-65), the Soviet Union (1965-70), the Benelux countries (1970), and Gabon (1973-76).

Ntibantunganya, Sylvestre (b. May 8, 1956, Nyamutobo, Gishubi commune, Gitega province, Burundi), foreign minister (1993), president of the National Assembly (1993-94), and president (1994-96) of Burundi. He was ousted in a military coup that brought Pierre Buyoya to power. Ntibantunganya spent 11 months in hiding in the U.S. ambassador's residence and then played a prominent political role as an executive committee member of his party, the pro-Hutu Front for Democracy in Burundi (Frodebu). Frodebu entered a partnership with Buyoya's government in June 1998 that gave the party some cabinet seats for the first time since the coup. Ntibantunganya also represented the party at peace talks aimed at ending Burundi's bitter ethnic civil war. He was expelled from Frodebu in March 1999 after rival leaders accused him of factionalism.

Ntombela, Sefora (Hixsonia), byname Sisi Ntombela (b. 1956?), premier of Free State (2018- ).

Ntoutoume E.
Ntoutoume Emane, Jean-François (b. Oct. 6, 1939, Libreville, Gabon), prime minister of Gabon (1999-2006). He was also minister of civil and commercial aviation (1977-84), commerce and consumer affairs (1984-87), commerce, technology transfer, and rationalization (1987-89), habitat, lands, urban planning, and welfare (1994-97), and lands, habitat, housing, urban and regional planning (1997-99) and mayor of Libreville (2008-14).

Ntoutoume Obame, Lubin Martial (b. June 5, 1931, Angonenzock, Libreville district, Gabon - d. 1988, Paris, France), finance minister of Gabon (1963-64). He was also minister of public works, transport, and posts and telecommunications (1965-67), mayor of Libreville (1967-68, 1976-83), permanent representative to the United Nations (1968-69), and ambassador to Japan (1969-71), Italy (1971-72), and Canada (1972-74).

Ntsama, Étienne (b. Aug. 1, 1942, Mfoumenselek, French Cameroons [now in Cameroon] - d. March 28, 2006, Yaoundé, Cameroon), finance minister of Cameroon (1983-85).

Ntsay, (Louis) Christian (b. March 27, 1961, Antsiranana, Madagascar), prime minister of Madagascar (2018- ). He was also tourism minister (2002-03).

Ntshangase, Abednego (Mandla) (b. May 1, 1954), foreign minister of Swaziland (2001-03). He was also minister of education (1998-2001) and public service and information (2003), ambassador to the United States (2010-17), and high commissioner to Mozambique (2017-21).

Ntsiba, Florent (b. Aug. 17, 1949, Lékana, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)]), member of the Military Committee of the Congolese Labour Party (1977). He was minister of information, posts, and telecommunications (1979-83), public works, construction, housing, and urban affairs (1988-89), equipment and environment (1989-91), equipment and public works (1997-2009), construction and urban affairs (2001-02), and labour and social security (2009-16).

Ntsimi Menye, Antoine Louis (b. March 31, 1955), finance minister of Cameroon (1992-94).

Ntwaagae, Charles Thembani (b. 1953, Tutume, Bechuanaland [now Botswana]), Botswanan diplomat. He was ambassador to Austria and Greece (2001-05) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2008-18).

Nu1 (b. May 25, 1907, Wakema, Burma [now Myanmar] - d. Feb. 14, 1995, Yangon, Myanmar), prime minister (1948-56, 1957-58, 1960-62) and defense minister (1948-49, 1960-62) of Burma. He gained prominence in a student strike in 1936. Joining the We-Burmans Association in 1937, he played an important part in the struggle for independence. He was jailed by the British in 1940 for sedition and was released only after Japan invaded Burma (1942). In 1943 he joined Ba Maw's pro-Japanese government as foreign minister but soon became disillusioned with the Japanese. Following the assassination in 1947 of Aung San, the principal nationalist leader, Nu became head of government and leader of the main political party, the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL), and oversaw the transition to independence. He became the first prime minister of independent Burma in 1948, and his party won elections in 1952 and 1956. Nu, a highly respected statesman, was also one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement in the 1950s. Facing Communist and ethnic insurrections and economic stagnation, he failed to exert vigorous governmental authority. In 1958 he resigned in favour of a temporary "caretaker" government headed by Gen. Ne Win. In 1960 parliamentary government was restored, and Nu again became prime minister after an election victory. In 1962, however, Ne Win staged a coup and established a military government. Nu was imprisoned until 1966. In 1969 he left Burma and began organizing a resistance movement, but its operations were unsuccessful. He returned to Burma in 1980 at the invitation of Ne Win. After pro-democracy demonstrations toppled Ne Win in 1988, Nu declared himself head of an alternative provisional government, which did not gain power. He was held under house arrest from December 1989 to April 1992.
1 He was known as Thakin ("master") Nu until March 1952, when he dropped that title and became U ("Mr.") Nu.

Nubar Pasha, (Boghos), Arabic (Bughus) Nubar Basha, original name Nubar Nubarian (b. July 4, 1824, Smyrna, Ottoman Empire [now Izmir, Turkey] - d. Jan. 14, 1899, Paris, France), prime minister of Egypt (1878-79, 1884-88, 1894-95). Of Armenian descent, he went to Egypt in 1842. He became director of railways in 1858 and took a leading part in the arrangements for the construction of the Suez Canal. The khedive (viceroy) Isma`il Pasha wanted to speed construction of the canal, and Nubar went to Paris in 1863-64 to negotiate with the French government and the canal company a revision of the original contract. In 1865 he was minister of public works and from 1866 foreign minister. His negotiating ability was shown in his eight years of bargaining with the Powers and the Porte which ended in 1876 in the reform of the consular courts and the institution of mixed tribunals to try cases involving Egyptians and Europeans. Under pressure from Britain and France, Isma`il appointed a mixed Egyptian and European ministry in 1878, led by Nubar, who also retained the portfolios of foreign affairs and justice. Isma`il, who saw his authority challenged, dismissed Nubar in 1879, but within months was himself deposed. After the British occupation of Egypt (1882), khedival authority was curtailed while that of the prime minister was increased. Recalled to this post in 1884, Nubar successfully asserted Egyptian control of the ministries of justice and interior, thus helping to establish a dividing line between British and Egyptian authority in Egypt. But when he tried to assert his authority over the provincial police in 1888, Britain secured his dismissal. In 1894 he became prime minister a third time, but ill health and impatience with British tutelage caused his resignation the following year, and he retired to Paris.

Nucci, Christian (Léon Colombo) (b. Oct. 31, 1939, Turenne [now Sabra] village, Tlemcen wilaya, western Algeria), high commissioner of New Caledonia (1981-82).

Nucete Sardi, José (Vicente) (b. Aug. 4, 1897, Mérida, Venezuela - d. Nov. 12, 1972, Caracas, Venezuela), governor of Mérida (1964-65). He was also Venezuelan ambassador to Cuba (1947-49, 1959-61), Argentina (1958), Belgium and Luxembourg (1966-67), and Brazil (1967-68).

Nucker, Delmas Henry (b. April 12, 1907, Terre Haute, Ind. - d. March 26, 1985, Silver Spring, Md.), high commissioner of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (1954-61).

Nuder, Pär (Anders) (b. Feb. 27, 1963, Täby, Stockholm county, Sweden), acting defense minister (2002) and finance minister (2004-06) of Sweden. He was also minister of policy coordination (2002-04).

S. Nujoma
Nujoma, Sam(uel Daniel Shafiishuna) (b. May 12, 1929, Etunda village, Ongandjera district, Ovamboland, South West Africa [now Namibia]), president of Namibia (1990-2005). When the South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) was formed on April 19, 1960, he was elected its president. After years of fruitlessly petitioning the UN to compel South Africa to comply with the conditions of its trusteeship over the former German colony, SWAPO embarked on an armed struggle in 1966. Its guerrilla force, the People's Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN), failed to liberate any territory but succeeded in focusing international attention on Namibia. In 1973 the UN General Assembly recognized SWAPO as the sole legitimate representative of the Namibian people, and in 1978 the Security Council adopted Resolution 435, which set out terms for the attainment of Namibian independence under UN supervision. After years of diplomatic jockeying, the resolution was finally accepted by South Africa in December 1988. Nujoma returned to Namibia in September 1989 after nearly 30 years in exile and led SWAPO to victory in the UN-supervised November elections. He was elected president of Namibia by the Constituent Assembly on Feb. 16, 1990, and was sworn in on the day of independence, March 21. He showed a rare ability to command men and maintain control, sometimes by methods that drew criticism from human rights groups. A shrewd politician, he was remarkably free of bitterness and racial prejudice. Although often accused of being a Communist, he was in fact not an ideologue but was more drawn to the pragmatism of Scandinavian democratic socialism. He was reelected in 1994 and 1999, both times with more than 76% of the vote, but did not seek a fourth term. After leaving office in 2005, he remained president of SWAPO.

U. Nujoma
Nujoma, Utoni (Daniel) (b. Sept. 9, 1952, Windhoek, South West Africa [now Namibia]), foreign minister of Namibia (2010-12); son of Sam Nujoma. He has also been minister of justice (2012-15), land reform (2015-20), and labour, industrial relations, and employment creation (2020- ).

Nukaga, Fukushiro (b. Jan. 11, 1944), Japanese politician. Having earlier been elected to the Ibaraki prefectural assembly, his national political debut came in 1983, when he won election to the lower house. He served as a deputy trade minister and apparently helped pave the way for U.S. acceptance of Japan's massive 16 trillion yen economic package in the spring of 1998 through a visit to the U.S. in January. He became defense minister later that year in the government of Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi, but resigned in November following a scandal surrounding companies overcharging on defense contracts. Defense Agency officials admitted to receiving, in exchange for reducing the amount of money those companies owed the agency, millions of yen in bribes and promises of cushy jobs in the companies once they retired. The scandal also forced the resignation of then NEC Corp. chairman Tadahiro Sekimoto. In December 2000 he became state minister for economic and fiscal policy, where he was in charge of the development of Japan's Internet technology infrastructure and increasing the role of elected officials in the formation of the country's budget, a process then largely handled by state bureaucrats. He resigned Jan. 23, 2001, after admitting that he received about $172,000 from KSD, a government-supported, scandal-ridden accident insurance company, while he was a chief deputy cabinet secretary in 1999 and 2000. Nukaga contended, improbably, that the money had been given to his secretary, who squirreled it away in a desk. He said he returned the cash as soon as he found out about it. In 2005-06 he again was defense minister and in 2007-08 finance minister.

Nukrashi Pasha, Mahmoud al- (b. 1888, Alexandria, Egypt - d. [assassinated] Dec. 28, 1948, Cairo, Egypt), interior minister (1938-39, 1940, 1945-46, 1946-48), foreign minister (1944-45, 1946-47), and prime minister (1945-46, 1946-48) of Egypt.

Numan, Ahmad Muhammad, Arabic Ahmad Muhammad Nu`man (b. April 21, 1909, Dhubhan village, northwest Yemen - d. Oct. 4, 1996, Geneva, Switzerland), prime minister (1965, 1971) and foreign minister (1971) of Yemen (Sana). He became disenchanted with the rule of Imam Yahya and, along with the poet Zubayri and others, fled to Aden where they set up the Free Yemeni Party and began publishing the journal Sawt al-Yaman, which called for democratic reform. He led various successor organizations to the Free Yemeni Party and published a variety of political reviews from Cairo and Aden during the 1940s and '50s. When imprisoned in Hajja with other young republicans after the assassination of the imam in 1948, he turned the jail into a school. He advocated nonviolent reform of Yemeni governance, holding the strong conviction that the key to democracy was an educated citizenry. His political views and activities got him into trouble not only with the Yemeni imams but also with the British in Aden and with Pres. Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, who, after the declaration of the Yemen Arab Republic in 1962, intervened in the ensuing civil war on the republican side. Knowing Numan's scholarly and artistic abilities, an exasperated Nasser is said to have asked Numan at a tense moment in this period: "Well, don't you have a poem?" And at another time: "You are not going to convince me by poems or prose!" Numan served as prime minister of the republic twice but after his beloved eldest son and political heir, Muhammad Ahmad Numan, was assassinated in Beirut in 1974, he retired from politics and lived the rest of his years between Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Switzerland.

Numan, Aziz Salih (Hassan) al-, Arabic `Aziz Salih al-Hasan al-Nu`man (b. 1941 or 1945, Nasiriyah, southern Iraq), Iraqi governor of Kuwait (1990-91). A Shi`ite himself, he had a reputation for cruel treatment of Shi`ite rebels. He reportedly ordered the destruction of Shi`a holy sites while he served as governor of Karbala (1977-83) and Najaf (1983-86) and was accused of arresting, torturing, and killing Shi`ite clerics. He was agriculture minister in 1986-87. After the August 1990 invasion of Kuwait, he was appointed as governor for administrative affairs (with a rank of minister), along with Pres. Saddam Hussein's half-brother Ibrahim Sabawai (governor for security affairs) and Saddam's cousin Ali Hassan al-Majid (governor for military affairs). He replaced al-Majid in November 1990. He was prominent in the quelling of the Shi`ite uprising in the south in March 1991 in the immediate aftermath of the U.S.-led attack that ousted the Iraqi army from Kuwait. After the fall of the Saddam regime, he was captured by U.S. troops near Baghdad on May 21, 2003.

Numan, Ismail Said (b. Aug. 16, 1941, Aden [now in Yemen]), Yemen (Aden) diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1968-70).

Numan, Muhammad Ahmad, Arabic Muhammad Ahmad Nu`man (b. c. 1929 - d. [assassinated] June 28, 1974, Beirut, Lebanon), foreign minister of Yemen (Sana) (1972-73); son of Ahmad Muhammad Numan.

Numan, Yasin Said (b. 1947), prime minister of Yemen (Aden) (1986-90). He was also minister of fisheries (1982-86) and a deputy premier (1985-86) of Yemen (Aden) and speaker of the House of Representatives of Yemen (1990-93).

Numberi, (Laksamana Muda) Freddy (b. Oct. 15, 1947, Serui, Netherlands East Indies [now in Papua, Indonesia]), governor of Irian Jaya (1998-2000). He was also Indonesian ambassador to Italy and Malta (2001-04) and minister of maritime affairs and fisheries (2004-09) and transportation (2009-11).

Numers, Fredrik Magnus von (b. April 8, 1726, Hälsingland landskap [traditional province], Sweden - d. Jan. 1, 1796, Vasa [Vaasa], Finland), acting governor of Vasa (1774).

Nunes, Janary Gentil (b. June 1, 1912, Alenquer, Pará, Brazil - d. Oct. 15, 1984, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Amapá (1944-56). He was also president of Petrobras (1956-58).

Nunes, Jeronymo Joaquim (b. 1769 - d. 18...), acting president of Mato Grosso (1828-30).

Nunes, Karlito (b. 1974), Timor-Leste diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2021- ).

Nunes, Lucídio Portella (b. April 8, 1922, Valença do Piauí, Piauí, Brazil - d. Oct. 30, 2015, Teresina, Piauí), governor of Piauí (1979-83); cousin of Flávio Portela Marcílio and Djalma Martins Veloso.

Nunes, Luiz Antonio da Silva (b. June 2, 1830, Rio Grande do Sul province [now state], Brazil - d. 1911, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Paraíba (1860-61) and Bahia (1875-77).

Nunes, Manoel Machado (b. 1799, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. April 11, 1876, Rio de Janeiro), president of Săo Paulo (1839-40) and Minas Gerais (1841).

Nunes, Pauxy Gentil (b. Feb. 27, 1918, Alenquer, Pará, Brazil - d. July 1980), governor of Amapá (1958-61); brother of Janary Gentil Nunes.

Nunes, Petrônio Portella (b. Oct. 12, 1925, Valença do Piauí, Piauí, Brazil - d. Jan. 6, 1980, Brasília, Brazil), governor of Piauí (1963-66); brother of Lucídio Portella Nunes; son-in-law of Pedro de Almendra Freitas; cousin of Flávio Portela Marcílio, Tibério Barbosa Nunes, and Helvídio Nunes de Barros. He also was mayor of Teresina (1959-63) and president of the Senate (1971-73, 1977-79) and justice minister (1979-80) of Brazil.

Nunes, Sebastiăo Machado (b. 1813, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. May 26, 1866, Rio de Janeiro), president of Espírito Santo (1854-55).

Nunes, Tibério Barbosa (b. Sept. 18, 1922, Oeiras, Piauí, Brazil - d. [automobile accident] July 19, 1974, between Teresina and Floriano, Piauí), acting governor of Piauí (1962-63); cousin of Lucídio Portella Nunes.

Núńez, Manuel (b. 1927 - d. May 10, 2015), interior minister of Uruguay (1979-81).

R. Núńez
Núńez (Moledo), Rafael (Wenceslao) (b. Sept. 28, 1825, Cartagena, New Granada [now in Colombia] - d. Sept. 18, 1894, Cartagena, Colombia), president of Colombia (1880-82, 1884-86, 1887-92, 1892-94). Entering Congress as a Liberal in 1851, he served in the cabinets of several presidents during the long period of Liberal control of Colombia, including as secretary of the treasury (1855-57, 1861-62). In 1863 he was elected to the Convention of Rionegro and helped draft a new, federalist constitution. The same year he left Colombia for Europe, where he held consular posts in Le Havre and Liverpool. As he studied other forms of government and came into contact with political thinkers, he abandoned many of his radical ideas. Returning to Colombia in 1875, he ran for the presidency but lost to Aquileo Parra because the radicals refused to support him. He was president of Bolívar state (1876-77, 1879-80) and in 1879, with the support of moderates from both the Liberal and Conservative parties, won his first two-year term as president of Colombia. Early in his second term, a rebellion of Liberals - who stood for decentralization and anticlericalism - forced him further into an alliance with the Conservatives. After putting down civil war in 1884-85, he became the leader of the National Party, a coalition of moderate Liberals and Conservatives. The constitution of 1886, which embodied the principle of centralized government, solidified his regime and inaugurated 50 years of Conservative dominance. As part of a series of reforms called the Regeneration, he restored the power of the Roman Catholic church. His stringent measures against the press and banishment of many opposition leaders caused much discontent. During his third and fourth term his regime was generally administered by deputies in Bogotá while he ruled from his plantation at Cartagena.

F. Núńez
Núńez Fábrega, Fernando (b. Dec. 23, 1942), foreign minister of Panama (2013-14); son of Emilio Núńez Portuondo. He was governor of Coclé province in 2011-13.

Núńez Jiménez, Arturo (b. Jan. 23, 1948, Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico), governor of Tabasco (2013-18). He was also president of the Mexican Chamber of Deputies (1997-98, 1998).

Núńez Mosquera, Pedro (Juan) (b. 1951, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba), Cuban diplomat. He has been ambassador to Zimbabwe, Botswana, and Mauritius (1994-95), Brazil (2004-09), and Mexico (2017- ) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2009-13).

Núńez Portuondo, Emilio (b. Sept. 13, 1898, Philadelphia, Pa. - d. Aug. 19, 1978, Panama), premier of Cuba (1958); brother of Ricardo Núńez Portuondo. He was also minister to Panama (1938-50) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1952-58).

Núńez Portuondo, Ricardo (b. Sept. 27, 1893, Philadelphia, Pa. - d. Nov. 15, 1973, Havana, Cuba), Cuban presidential candidate (1948).

Núńez Soto, Manuel Ángel (b. Jan. 30, 1951, Actopan, Hidalgo, Mexico), governor of Hidalgo (1999-2005).

Núńez Vargas, Benjamín (Plácido) (b. Jan. 24, 1915, Pacayas, Costa Rica - d. Sept. 19, 1994, San José, Costa Rica), Costa Rican politician. He was minister of labour and social security (1948-49), permanent representative to the United Nations (1954-56), and ambassador to Israel (1970-72, 1977-78) and Romania (1971-72).

Nunn, Louie B(roady) (b. March 8, 1924, Park City, Ky. - d. Jan. 29, 2004, Versailles, Ky.), governor of Kentucky (1967-71). He launched a long political career in 1954, winning election at age 29 as a county judge. He successfully managed Republican state campaigns for Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1956 and for U.S. senators John Sherman Cooper and Thruston B. Morton. After losing to Edward T. Breathitt in 1963, he was elected governor in 1967, defeating Democrat Henry Ward. His four-year administration saw Kentucky take strides in its care of the mentally retarded, the mentally ill, and juvenile delinquents. On his watch, a network of 22 mental health centres was completed and, for the first time in Kentucky history, all four state psychiatric hospitals were fully accredited. Nunn later called the revamping of the state's mental-health treatment system his proudest accomplishment. The state's university system also was expanded during his term and discrimination in housing was outlawed. He was a defining figure in Kentucky politics, a fierce competitor who asked no quarter on the campaign trail and gave none. He never played defense; an opponent who attacked him could be assured of a blistering counterattack. Shortly after taking office, his staff fired thousands of state employees who were covered by the merit system. All were Democrats and most were in departments that were traditional strongholds of patronage, such as the highway department. A lawsuit ensued and courts declared the firings illegal. They eventually cost the state $2 million in settlements. He was the GOP nominee for U.S. Senate in 1972 but lost to Democrat Walter "Dee" Huddleston. He lost another gubernatorial bid to John Y. Brown, Jr., in 1979.

Nuon Chea, original name Lau Ben Kon, also known as Long Bunruot (b. 1927, Battambang province, western Cambodia - d. Aug. 4, 2019, Cambodia), Cambodian politician. He joined the Indochinese Communist Party in 1949. After independence from France in 1954 he helped set up Cambodia's own Communist party. He was vice president of the Khmer Rouge's military command and chief of its political wing as it fought to power against a U.S.-backed republican government between 1970 and 1975. A man known to Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot by the affectionate nickname "prahok" for his liking of traditional Cambodian fish paste, he was president of parliament between 1976 and 1979 and acted as premier in September-October 1976 when Pol Pot temporarily stood aside for health reasons. Highly secretive, he always chose to remain in the shadows, though he was officially "Brother Number Two" and was regarded by historians as the ideological guru who inspired many brutal purges. He was arrested in September 2007 as part of a UN-backed genocide investigation. He went on trial in June 2011 and was sentenced to life imprisonment in August 2014.

Nuorteva, Santeri, Russian Aleksandr (Fyodorovich) Nuorteva, original name Alexander Nyberg (b. June 29 [June 17, O.S.], 1881, Vyborg, Russia - d. Jan. 31, 1929, Leningrad, Russian S.F.S.R. [now St. Petersburg, Russia]), chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Karelian A.S.S.R. (1924-28). He was also commissar of education of the Karelian workers' commune (1922-23).

Nur, Aden Abdullahi, Somali Aaden Cabdillahi Nuur, byname Gabyow (d. June 3, 2003, Nairobi, Kenya), co-chairman of the National Salvation Council of Somalia formed in 1997 and of the Somali Reconciliation and Restoration Council formed in 2001. He was also defense minister (1987-89) and tourism minister (1989).

Nur, Ahmad (b. 1937, Kandahar province, Afghanistan), interior minister of Afghanistan (1978). He was also ambassador to the United States (1978) and Poland (1988-89) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1989-91).

Nur, Mohamud Abdi, byname Jujo (b. 1923, Upper Juba region, Somalia), interior minister of Somalia (1962-64). He was also minister of general affairs (1956-59), public works and communications (1959-60), agriculture (1966-67), and public works (1967-69).

R. Nurdin

Nurdin, (Tengku) Rizal (b. Feb. 21, 1948, Bukittinggi, Netherlands East Indies [now in Sumatera Barat, Indonesia] - d. [plane crash] Sept. 5, 2005, Medan, Sumatera Utara, Indonesia), governor of Sumatera Utara (1998-2005).

Nurdin, Zulkifli (b. July 12, 1948, Muara Sabak, Netherlands East Indies [now in Tanjung Jabung Timur regency, Jambi, Indonesia] - d. Nov. 28, 2018, Jakarta, Indonesia), governor of Jambi (1999-2005, 2005-10).

Nurgaliyev, Rashid (Gumarovich) (b. Oct. 8, 1956, Zhetigara, Kustanay oblast, Kazakh S.S.R.), interior minister of Russia (2003-12).

Nurgisayev, Serikbay (Urikbayevich) (b. May 27, 1956, Zhana-Arna, Alma-Ata [now Almaty] oblast, Kazakh S.S.R.), head of Kyzylorda oblast (1999-2004).

Nuri al-Said
Nuri Pasha al-Said, Arabic Nuri Basha al-Sa`id (b. 1888, Baghdad, Ottoman Empire [now in Iraq] - d. July 15, 1958, Baghdad, Iraq), prime minister of Iraq (1930-32, 1938-40, 1941-44, 1946-47, 1949, 1950-52, 1954-57, 1958); brother-in-law of Jaafar al-Askari. He was commissioned in the Turkish army in 1909, when Iraq was part of the Ottoman Empire. In 1913 he helped to found the Arab secret society El-Ahd (The Covenant). During World War I he participated in Ottoman military operations against the British, but was soon captured by the British, who in 1916 helped him to join the Sharifian Arab army led by Faysal ibn Hussein in its revolt against Ottoman rule in the Hejaz. A devoted supporter throughout Faysal's rule in Syria (1920), he followed him to his throne in Iraq in 1921. Nuri was minister of defense in six cabinets, six times foreign minister, and in 1930 first became prime minister - a post which he held eight times. He stood for a cordial relationship with Britain, not least during World War II, when he was opposed by influential army officers who in 1941 supported a coup under the leadership of Rashid Ali. Nuri fled into exile, but the British defeated Rashid Ali's government in open warfare and Nuri returned. In 1955, he led Iraq into the U.S.-sponsored Baghdad Pact, a mutual security agreement of Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, and Great Britain, which lost him popularity. After he sponsored an Arab union with Jordan in February 1958 (Jordan was also closely allied with the West), Iraqi army units, under the leadership of Abdul Karim Kassem, overthrew the monarchy on July 14. Nuri took refuge in the home of a friend, but was recognized the following day; he was killed and his body was dismembered by the populace.

Nuriana, R. (b. April 17, 1939, Sumedang, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Barat, Indonesia]), governor of Jawa Barat (1993-2003).

Nuriyev, Ziya (Nuriyevich) (b. March 23, 1915, Verkhne-Lachentau, Ufa province [now in Bashkortostan republic], Russia - d. Oct. 19, 2012, Moscow, Russia), Soviet politician. He was first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Bashkir A.S.S.R. (1957-69), chairman of the state committee (1969) and minister (1969-73) of food reserves (1969-73), and a deputy premier (1973-85).

Nurkadilov, Zamanbek (Kalabayevich) (b. Jan. 15, 1944, Alma-Ata [now Almaty] oblast, Kazakh S.S.R. - d. Nov. 12, 2005, Almaty, Kazakhstan), head of Almaty oblast (1997-2001). He was also mayor (1985-92) and head (1992-94) of Alma-Ata/Almaty city. Nurkadilov, who had become an outspoken critic of President Nursultan Nazarbayev, was found shot dead at his home; the death was ruled a suicide.

Nurmagambetov, Sagadat (Kozhakhmetovich) (b. May 25, 1924, Kosym, Akmolinsk province, Kirgiz A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. [now in Akmola oblast, Kazakhstan] - d. Sept. 24, 2013, Almaty, Kazakhstan), defense minister of Kazakhstan (1992-95). During World War II he was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union; his battalion participated in the storming of the Reich Chancellery in Berlin in 1945.

Nurmukhamedov, Koptleu (b. 1903, Sorkol volost, Syrdarya oblast, Russia [now in Kazakhstan] - d. [executed] Oct. 13, 1938), chairman of the (Central) Executive Committee of the Karakalpak A.S.S.R. (1929-33).

Nurmuratov, Mamarizo (Berdimuratovich), Uzbek Mamarizo (Berdimurodovich) Nurmurodov (b. 1960, Samarkand oblast, Uzbek S.S.R.), finance minister of Uzbekistan (2000-04). He has also been hokim of Samarkand region (2004-06) and chairman of the Central Bank (2017- ).

Nurpeisov, Kairat (Aytmukhambetovich) (b. Sept. 21, 1957, Galkino, Pavlodar oblast, Kazakh S.S.R.), head of Pavlodar oblast (2003-08). He was also mayor of Pavlodar (2003) and ambassador to Kyrgyzstan (2019-21).

Nurul Islam, A.K.M. (b. 1923?, Khajilpur, Bengal, India [now in Bangladesh] - d. Nov. 14, 2015), vice president of Bangladesh (1986-89). He was also minister of law and justice (1985-89).

Nurzhigitov, Nurzhan (Moldiyarovich) (b. March 31, 1967), head of Zhambyl oblast (2022- ).

Nushi, Gogo (b. Dec. 15, 1913, Vuno, Vlorë district, Albania - d. April 9, 1970), Albanian politician. He was minister of trade (1947-48, 1953-54) and industry (1948-49), a deputy premier (1951-53, 1956-58), and chairman of the People's Assembly (1954-56).

Nuss, Izzat al- (b. 1912, Damascus, Ottoman Empire [now in Syria]), prime minister and foreign and defense minister (1961) and acting president (1961) of Syria. He was also minister of education and national guidance (1961).

Nusseibeh, Anwar (Zaki) (b. Jan. 20, 1913, Jerusalem, Ottoman Empire [now in Israel/Palestine] - d. Nov. 22, 1986, Jerusalem), Jordanian politician. He was minister of reconstruction and development (1952-53) and defense and education (1954-55), governor of Jerusalem (1961-63), and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1965-67).

Nusseibeh, Hazem (Zaki), also spelled Nuseibeh, Arabic Hazim Zaki Nusayba (b. May 6, 1922, Jerusalem, Palestine - d. April 10, 2022), foreign minister of Jordan (1962-63, 1965-66); brother of Anwar Nusseibeh. He was also minister of construction (1967-68), ambassador to Egypt (1969-71), Turkey (1971-73), and Italy, Switzerland, and Austria (1973-75), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1976-83).

Nusseibeh, Lana (Zaki), United Arab Emirates diplomat; granddaughter of Anwar Nusseibeh. She has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2013- ).

Nve Ngu, Antonio Fernando (b. May 21, 1947, Akonibe, Spanish Guinea [now Equatorial Guinea]), economy and finance minister of Equatorial Guinea (1988-93). He was also minister of state for transport, information, and communications (1993-96) and planning and economic development (1996-99), minister of parliamentary relations and juridical affairs (1999-2001) and education and science (2001-04), and government spokesman (1993-2004).

Nvono Ncá (Manene), Carmelo (b. Jan. 1, 1938, Ebebiyin, Spanish Guinea [now Equatorial Guinea] - d. December 2016), Equatorial Guinean diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in Spain (1973-74), ambassador to Gabon (1975-77) and China (1977-79), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1980-82). His son Carmelo Nvono Ncá became ambassador to Belgium in 2011.

Nwachukwu, Ike (Omar Sanda) (b. Sept. 1, 1940, Port Harcourt, Nigeria), governor of Imo (1984-85) and foreign minister of Nigeria (1987-89, 1990-93). He was also minister of employment, labour, and productivity (1986-87).

Nwako, Moutlakgola P(algrave) K(ediretswe) (b. Aug. 6, 1922, Serowe, Bechuanaland [now Botswana] - d. Aug. 1, 2002), foreign minister of Botswana (1966-69). He was also minister of agriculture (1965-69), health (1969-77), labour and home affairs (1969-74), and commerce and industry (1977-89) and speaker of the National Assembly (1989-99).

Nwobodo, Jim (Ifeanyichukwu) (b. May 9, 1940, Lafia [now in Nasarawa state], Nigeria), governor of Anambra (1979-83). He was also Nigerian minister of youth and sports (1995-97).

Nwodo, Okwesilieze (Emmanuel Kenneth), byname Okwy Nwodo (b. July 28, 1950, Nsukka [now in Enugu state], Nigeria), governor of Enugu (1992-93).

Nwosu, (Chinyere) Ike (b. Nov. 21, 1946, Uga [now in Anambra state], Nigeria), administrator of Abia (1993-94) and Oyo (1994-96).

Nxumalo, Sishayi (Simon) (b. 1936 - d. [car crash] Feb. 25, 2000, near Siteki, Swaziland), finance minister (1983-84), deputy prime minister (1993-98), and acting prime minister (1996) of Swaziland.

Nyabenda, Pascal (b. April 12, 1966, Mpanda, Burundi), Burundian politician. He was speaker of parliament (2015-20).

Nyachae, Simeon (b. Feb. 6, 1932, Nyaribari, Nyanza province, Kenya - d. Feb. 1, 2021, Nairobi, Kenya), finance minister of Kenya (1998-99). Having earlier served as minister of agriculture (1993-97) and land reclamation, regional and water development (1997-98), he steadily won the respect of the financial markets and the international donor community, as well as ordinary Kenyans, after his appointment as finance minister in early 1998. He was also leading a bid to restore a suspended International Monetary Fund loan. But his effort to get a grip on the government's chaotic finances and stamp out rampant official corruption finally cost him his job. Pres. Daniel arap Moi demoted him in 1999, but the widely-respected minister hit back and said the move was designed to block his drive against corruption. Nyachae said his drive to reform Kenya's tax collection agency and his decision to publish a list of powerful figures who owed large sums to the country's banks made him "many enemies in influential places in the public and private sectors." He said, "Doing what was necessary in the interests of the country was a bitter pill to many people who benefit from corruption and financial indiscipline in the public sector." He resigned from the government, refusing to take up the post of industrial development minister that was offered him in the cabinet reshuffle. He was a presidential candidate in 2002 (winning 5.9% of the vote) and later was minister of energy (2004-05) and roads and public works (2005-08).

Nyako, Murtala (Hammanyero) (b. Aug. 27, 1943, Mayo-Belwa [now in Adamawa state], Nigeria), governor of Niger (1976-77) and Adamawa (2007-08, 2008-12, 2012-14). He was also Nigerian chief of naval staff (1989-92).

Nyakyi, Anthony Balthazar (b. June 8, 1936, Moshi, Tanganyika [now in Tanzania]), Tanzanian diplomat. He was ambassador to the Netherlands (1968-70) and West Germany and the Vatican (1971-72), high commissioner to Zimbabwe (1980-81) and the United Kingdom (1982-89), permanent representative to the United Nations (1989-94), and UN special representative for Liberia (1994-97).

Nyamdoo, Gendengiyin (b. April 1, 1934), Mongolian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1984-88) and ambassador to the United States (1989-91) and the United Kingdom (1995-97).

Nyame, Jolly (Tanko) (b. Dec. 25, 1955), governor of Taraba (1992-93, 1999-2007).

Nyamitwe, Alain Aimé (b. 1971, Ngagara, Burundi), foreign minister of Burundi (2015-18). He was also ambassador to Nigeria (2011-13), Equatorial Guinea (2012-13), and Ethiopia (2013-15).

Nyamugabo Bazibuhe, Claude (b. Feb. 2, 1972, Nyantende, Kivu, Zaire [now in Sud-Kivu, Congo (Kinshasa)]), governor of Sud-Kivu (2017-19).

Nyamoya, Albin (b. July 27, 1924, Ibuye, Mwumba commune, Ngozi province, Burundi - d. Jan. 31, 2001, Bujumbura, Burundi), interior minister (1963-64, 1972-73) and prime minister (1964-65, 1972-73) of Burundi. He was also minister of agriculture and livestock (1971-72).

Nyamweya, James (b. Dec. 28, 1927, Kisii, Kenya - d. 1995), foreign minister of Kenya (1967-68). He was also minister of power and communications (1968-69), works (1969-74), and labour (1974-79).

Nyan Win (b. Jan. 22, 1953), foreign minister of Myanmar (2004-11). In 2011-16 he was chief minister of Bago region.

Nyangoma, Gervais (b. Nov. 17, 1937, Bururi province, Burundi - d. [executed] Oct. 28, 1965), Burundian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1963-65).

Nyankiye, André, Burundian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1965-66).

Nye, Sir Archibald Edward (b. April 23, 1895, Dublin, Ireland - d. Nov. 13, 1967, London, England), governor of Madras (1946-48); knighted 1944. He was also British high commissioner to India (1948-52) and Canada (1952-56).

Nyerere, Julius (Kambarage) (b. April 13, 1922, Butiama village, Musoma district, Tanganyika [now in Tanzania] - d. Oct. 14, 1999, London, England), president of Tanganyika (1962-64) and Tanzania (1964-85). Born Kambarage Nyerere, he converted to Roman Catholicism in 1943 and adopted Julius as his baptismal name. He joined the Tanganyika African Association, a moribund organization of African civil servants, became its president in 1953, and on July 7, 1954, converted it into the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), a lively political organization which espoused peaceful change, social equality, and racial harmony and rejected tribalism. When Tanganyika gained responsible self-government in 1960, he became chief minister. He became prime minister in May 1961, and in December 1961 Tanganyika gained complete independence. He resigned in January 1962, declaring that he wished to devote himself to strengthening TANU, but in November he was elected the country's first president. He chose to be known by the honorific title of Mwalimu, a Swahili word meaning teacher. In 1964 Tanganyika united with Zanzibar and he became president of the United Republic of Tanzania. He was reelected (as the only candidate) in 1965, 1970, 1975, and 1980 before he voluntarily stepped down in 1985, one of few African leaders to do so. He remained head of the country's only political party, Chama Cha Mapinduzi (formed by the 1977 merger of TANU and the Afro-Shirazi Party of Zanzibar), until 1990. He was also one of the founders in 1963 of the Organization of African Unity (and its chairman in 1984-85). In his last years he continued to play an important role in Tanzanian affairs and regional politics; his last mission was to mediate peace talks aimed at ending civil war in Burundi.

Nyers, Rezsö (b. March 21, 1923, Budapest, Hungary - d. June 22, 2018), finance minister of Hungary (1960-62) and president of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party (1989) and the Hungarian Socialist Party (1989-90). He was also minister of the food industry (1956).

Nygaardsvold, Johan (b. Sept. 6, 1879, Hommelvik, Norway - d. March 13, 1952, Trondheim, Norway), prime minister of Norway (1935-45). He was also minister of agriculture (1928) and president of the Storting (1934-35).

Nylander, (Oscar) Erik (b. Jan. 30, 1885, Linköping, Östergötland, Sweden - d. Dec. 11, 1958, Nykvarn, Stockholm county, Sweden), governor of Gotland (1941-51).

Nyström, Per (Ingvar) (b. Nov. 21, 1903, Västerlanda, Älvsborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden - d. Oct. 3, 1993), governor of Göteborg och Bohus (1950-71).


Nyusi, Filipe (Jacinto), also spelled Nyussi or Nhussi (b. Feb. 9, 1959, Namua, Cabo Delgado province, Mozambique), defense minister (2008-14) and president (2015- ) of Mozambique.

Nzalakanda, Dominique (b. July 14, 1914, Ntonkama, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)]), interior minister (1962-63) and justice minister (1962-63) of Congo (Brazzaville).

Nzambimana, Édouard (b. Dec. 20, 1945, Matana, Burundi - d. September 2015), prime minister (1976-78) and foreign minister (1978-82) of Burundi. He was also minister of public works, transport, and equipment (1974-76).

Nzanzu Kasivita, Carly (b. Nov. 15, 1975), governor of Nord-Kivu (2019-21).

Nzapayéké, André (b. Aug. 20, 1951, Bangassou, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic]), prime minister of the Central African Republic (2014). He became ambassador to South Africa in 2014.

Nze (Mba), Pierre (b. 1939, Sangha region, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)]), foreign minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (1979-84). He was also minister of information, education, and culture (1969, 1970) and justice (1997-99).

Nzege Koloke, Izato (b. July 1, 1984, Kinshasa, Zaire [now Congo (Kinshasa)]), governor of Nord-Ubangi (2019-22).

Nzeyimana, Laurent (b. July 15, 1936, Kabonobono, Burundi - d. March 31, 2009, Nairobi, Kenya), foreign minister of Burundi (1982-86). He was also ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg (1969-76), the United Kingdom (1969-76), the Netherlands (1970-76), and the United States, Canada, and Mexico (1976-78) and justice minister (1978-82).

Nzimande, Blade, byname of Bonginkosi Emmanuel Nzimande (b. April 14, 1958, Pietermaritzburg, Natal [now KwaZulu-Natal], South Africa), acting home affairs minister of South Africa (2018). He has also been general secretary of the South African Communist Party (1998- ) and minister of higher education and training (2009-17), transport (2018-19), and higher education, science, and technology (2019- ).

Nzo, Alfred (Baphethuxolo) (b. June 19, 1925, Benoni, Transvaal [now in Gauteng], South Africa - d. Jan. 13, 2000, Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa), foreign minister of South Africa (1994-99). He was a member of the generation that became politically involved in the 1940s and began the active struggle against apartheid. Like Nelson Mandela and others, he was repeatedly arrested and detained. Nzo went into exile in 1964, and went on to serve as African National Congress (ANC) representative in Egypt, India, and Tanzania. Nzo was ANC secretary-general from 1969 to 1991, which gave him day-to-day responsibility for the movement's operations. Following Mandela's release from prison in 1990, Nzo served on an ANC delegation that undertook talks with the National Party government. Nzo joined President Mandela's cabinet after the 1994 all-race elections that ended white minority rule, becoming the country's first black foreign minister. He kept a low profile during his tenure as foreign minister, and was seen by critics as less influential than Thabo Mbeki, who as vice president was said to be the driving force in foreign policy. He was replaced after Mbeki was elected president in 1999, and retired from an active role in politics.

Nzongola-Ntalaja, Georges, Congo (Kinshasa) diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2022- ).

Nzoungou, Alphonse (b. 1939?, Boko, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)] - d. Sept. 7, 2012, Paris, France), interior minister of Congo (1992). He was also minister of justice (1989-92) and labour and employment (1992).

Nzuzi wa Mbombo (Tshianga Kumuedi Musungu), Catherine (Marthe) (b. Dec. 19, 1944, Tshumbe, Lusambo province [now in Kasaď Occidental], Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)]), commissioner of Bas-Zaďre (1972-75) and governor of Kinshasa (1986-87). She was also minister of solidarity and humanitarian affairs (2003-07). She was a presidential candidate in 2006, winning 0.4% of the vote.