Rulers: Namibia

Traditional polities


Note: All these polities may be more appropriately described as "tribes." They are classified here by ethnicity.

Damara

     c.1415                traditional date for emergence of chiefdom

Chiefs
     c.1790                Gaoseb
     c.1815                Hoeseb
     c.1840                Abraham Seibeb
     c.1860 -        1894  Abraham Goreseb                    (b. ... - d. 1894)
       1894 -        1910  Cornelius Goreseb                  (b. 1844 - d. 1910)
       1910 -        1953  Judas Goreseb                      (b. ... - d. 1953)
       1953 -        1977  David Goreseb                      (b. ... - d. 1977)
   Sep 1993 -              Justus GaroŽb                      (b. 1942)

Nama (Khoi)

(1) Awa-Khoi ("Red Nation")
    bf.1700                chiefdom established

Paramount chiefs
       1814 -        1824  Tsawub Gamab
       1824 -        1840  Na-khom Gamab
       1840 -        1867  Oasib Cornelis = Nakhomab
       1867 - 21 May 1878  Gorakhab Barnabas
       1878 -        1881  Gabeb Petrus
       1881 -        1905  Naresib Manasse
       1922 - 18 Jul 1936  HoŽb Oasmab                        (b. ... - d. 1936)
       1936 -  8 May 1949  Noach Tsai-Tsaib                   (b. 1868 - d. 1949)
       1949 -        1986  Matheus Kooper                     (b. ... - d. 1986)
 3 Dec 1988 -              Petrus Simon Moses Kooper

(2) Aich-Ai ("Afrikaner")
       1800                chiefdom established
10 Aug 1889                chiefdom abolished by German protectorate authority

Chiefs
- Afrikaner dynasty -
       1800 -        1823  Jager Afrikaner                    (b. 17... - d. 1823)
       1823 - 18 Aug 1861  Jonker Afrikaner
                           = Hara-mŻb = /HŰa-/aramab          (b. 1785 - d. 1861)
       1861 - 15 Jun 1863  Christian Afrikaner                (b. ... - d. 1863)
   Aug 1863 - 10 Aug 1889  Jan Jonker Afrikaner               (b. 1820 - d. 1889)
10 Sep 1996 -              Jeremiah Jagger

(3) !Gami-ánun ("Bondelswarts")

Chiefs
      *1843*               Abraham
   Mar 1869 -  3 Oct 1901  Wilhelm Christian                  (b. 18... - d. 1901)
       1902 - 25 Oct 1903  Abraham Christian                  (b. 18... - d. 1903)
       1903 -  5 Mar 1910  Johannes Christian                 (b. ... - d. 1910)
       1918 -        1919  Wilhelm Christian junior
       1919 -    Mar 1920  Hendrik Sneeuwe
   Mar 1920 -        1920  Timotheus Beukes
       1924 -        1943  Jakobus Christian                  (b. 1880 - d. 1943)
       1943 -  3 Mar 1953  Nathanel Christian                 (b. ... - d. 1953)
       1953 -        1977  Wilhelm Christian
                           + Jakobus Christian (councillors)
20 May 1977 -              Anna Katrina Christian (f)

(4) Kou Goa ("Swartboois")

Chiefs
        ... -         ...  Kanebeb
        ... -         ...  Tsauchap
        ... -        1835  Haobeb
       1835 -      c.1864  Willem Swartbooi                   (b. 1790 - d. c.1864)
     c.1864 -        1882  Abraham Swartbooi                  (b. ... - d. 1882)
       1882 -        1895  Cornelius Swartbooi
       1895 -        1898  David Swartbooi
       1986 -              DaniŽl Luipert                     (b. 1937)

(5) Oorlam

(5-1) Gei-Khauan

Chiefs
       1814 - 13 Feb 1864  Amraal Lambert                     (b. c.1774 - d. 1864)
       1865 -        1868  Lambert Lambert
       1868 -  8 Mar 1894  Andreas Lambert                    (b. c.1844 - d. 1894)
       1894 -  6 Apr 1896  Eduard Lambert                     (b. ... - d. 1896)

(5-2) Hei-Khauan

Chiefs
      *1815 -      c.1850  Dirk Isaak                         (b. ... - d. c.1850)
     c.1850 - 15 Apr 1869  Paul Goliath                       (b. c.1790 - d. 1869)
       1873 - 12 Dec 1892  Jakobus Isaak                      (b. ... - d. 1892)
       1895 -      c.1900  Diederik Goliath
     c.1900 -        1925  Christian Goliath                  (b. ... - d. 1925)
       1925 -        1933  Andries Goliath                    (b. ... - d. 1933)
       1933 -        1938  Diederik Ruben Goliath             (b. 1895 - d. 1947)
       1938 -        1956  Edward Isaak, Jr.                  (b. ... - d. 1959)
                           + David Vries                      (b. ... - d. 1956)
       1956 -        1959  Edward Isaak, Jr.                  (s.a.)
       1959                Diederik Isaak
       1959 -        197.  Diederik Isaak
                           + David Christian Goliath          (b. ... - d. 1976)
       1976 -              Stephanus Goliath

(6) !Aman (Bethany)

Chiefs
       1804 -      c.1825  Kobus Boois = Kobus Frederiks      (b. ... - d. c.1825)
     c.1825 -      c.1842  Josef Frederiks I                  (b. ... - d. c.1842)
     c.1825 -        1846  Jan Boois = Jan Frederiks          (b. ... - d. 1846)
       1847 - 12 Dec 1880  David Christian Frederiks
                           = Willem Frederiks = //N‚ixab      (b. ... - d. 1880)
15 May 1881 - 20 Oct 1893  Josef Frederiks II = !Khorebe-gaib
                           = //N‚ixamab                       (b. ... - d. 1893)
 3 Dec 1893 - 21 Dec 1906  Paul Frederiks                     (b. ... - d. 1906)
       1894 -  3 Mar 1906    Cornelius Frederiks              (b. ... - d. 1907)
                             (in opposition)
       1916 -        1922  Eduard Frederiks                   (b. ... - d. 1922)
       1922 -        1938  Josef Frederiks III                (b. ... - d. 1938)
       1938 -        1977  Simon Boois = Simon Frederiks      (b. ... - d. 1977)
       1977 -        1984  Jan Samuel Herero
       1984 -              David Frederiks

(7) Witbooi
       1815                Witbooi lineage founds chiefdom in Cape Province
       1863                chiefdom moved to Namibia

Chiefs
       1815 - 31 Dec 1875  Kido Moses David Witbooi           (b. 1780 - d. 1875)
31 Dec 1875 - 22 Feb 1888  Moses Kido Witbooi                 (b. 1808 - d. 1888)
22 Feb 1888 - 29 Oct 1905  Hendrik Witbooi                    (b. 1830 - d. 1905)
       1905 - 28 Oct 1928  Isaak Witbooi                      (b. 1865 - d. 1928)
       1928 -  9 Jul 1955  David Witbooi                      (b. 1871 - d. 1955)
       1955 - 18 Jan 1978  Hendrik Samuel Witbooi             (b. 1906 - d. 1978)
   Jul 1978 - 13 Oct 2009  Hendrik Witbooi                    (b. 1934 - d. 2009)
13 Oct 2009 -              Christian Rooi (acting)

Ovambo

(1) Ondonga

Chiefs (title Ohamba)
     c.1750 -      c.1820  Nembungu lyAmutundu                (b. ... - d. c.1820)
     c.1820 - 31 Jul 1857  Nangolo dAmutenya                  (b. 1790 - d. 1857)
       1857 -        1859  Shipanga shAmukwiita               (b. ... - d. 1862)
       1859 -        1874  Shikongo sha Kalulu                (b. ... - d. 1874)
       1874 -        1883  Kambonde I kaNankwaya              (b. ... - d. 1883)
       1883 - 26 Sep 1884  Iitana yaNekwiyu                   (b. ... - d. 1884)
27 Sep 1884 - 22 Jun 1909  Kambonde II kaMpingana             (b. c.1865 - d. 1909)
                           (in western Ondonga)
       1884 -    Apr 1908  Nehale lya Mpingana                (b. ... - d. 1908)
                           (in eastern Ondonga)
       1909 -        1912  Kambonde III kaNgula               (b. ... - d. 1912)
       1912 -    Aug 1942  Martin Nambala yaKadhikwa          (b. ... - d. 1942)
       1942 - 23 Sep 1960  Kambonde IV kaNamene               (b. ... - d. 1960)
       1960 -        1967  Martin Ashikoto
       1967 -  6 Oct 1970  Paulus Elifas                      (b. 1920 - d. 1970)
       1972 - 16 Aug 1975  Filemon Elifas                     (b. 1932 - d. 1975)
       1975 -              Immanuel Kauluma Elifas

(2) Ongandjera

Kings/Queens
       1858 -        1862  Amunyela gwa Tshaningwa            (b. ... - d. 1862)
       1862                Ekandjo lya Kadhila
       1862                Nakashwa (f)
       1862 -        1878  Tsheya tshUutshona                 (b. ... - d. 1878)
       1878 -        1887  Iiyambo yIileka                    (b. ... - d. 1887)
       1887 -        1930  Tshaanika Tsha Natshilongo         (b. ... - d. 1930)
       1930 -        1936  Sheya shaAmukwa
       1936 -        1948  Tshaanika shIipinge
       1971 -              Japhet Malenga Munkundi

(3) Uukwaluudhi

Kings
        ... -      c.1850  Uushona uEndjila
     c.1850 -        1902  Shikongo shIipinge                 (b. ... - d. 1902)
       1902 -        1908  Niilenga yAmukwa                   (b. ... - d. 1908)
       1908 -        1909  Iita ya Nalitoke                   (b. ... - d. 1909)
       1909 -        1959  Mwaala gwa Nashilongo              (b. ... - d. 1959)
       1959 -              Hosea Shikongo Taapopi Shitaatala

(4) Uukwambi

Kings
        ... -        1860  Tshikesho
       1860                Tshikongo
       1860 -        1862  Nuyoma wIipumbu
       1862 -        1863  Iipumbu ya Nangaku
       1863                Tshikesho tshEelu                  (b. ... - d. 1863)
       1863 -        1875  Nuyoma
       1875 -        1907  Negumbo lya Kandenge               (b. ... - d. 1907)
       1907 -        1932  Iipumbu ya Tshilongo               (b. ... - d. 1959)
       1991 -              Herman Iipumbu

(5) Uukwangali

Kings/Queens (title hompa)
       1785 -        1800  Simbara (f)                        (b. ... - d. 1800)
       1800 -        1818  Mate II (f)                        (b. ... - d. 1818)
       1818 -        1822  Siremo                             (b. ... - d. 1822)
       1822 -        1833  Mpepo                              (b. ... - d. 1833)
       1833 -        1870  Sikongo                            (b. ... - d. 1870)
       1870 -        1880  Mpasi                              (b. ... - d. 1880)
       1880 -        1886  Mpande (f)                         (b. ... - d. 1886)
       1886 -        1910  Himarua                            (b. ... - d. 1910)
       1910 -        1924  Kandjimi Hawanga                   (b. ... - d. 1924)
       1924 -        1926  Mbuna                              (b. ... - d. 1926)
       1926 -        1941  Kanuni (f) (1st time)              (b. ... - d. 1971)
       1941 -        1958  Sivute                             (b. ... - d. 1958)
       1958 -        1971  Kanuni (f) (2nd time)              (s.a.)
       1971 - 12 Apr 1977  Mbandu                             (b. ... - d. 1977)
       1977 -              Daniel Sitendu Mpasi

(6) Uukwanyama
     c.1550                traditional date for emergence of chiefdom

Chiefs (title Ohamba)
       1807 -        1811  Hamangulu yaNahambo                (b. ... - d. 1811)
     c.1811 -        1858  Haimbili yaHaufiku                 (b. ... - d. 1858)
       1858 -        1859  Haikukutu yaShinangola             (b. ... - d. 1859)
       1859 -        1862  Sefeni shaMukuyu                   (b. ... - d. 1862)
       1862 -        1882  Mweshipandeka sha Shaningika       (b. ... - d. 1882)
       1882 -        1884  Namadi ya Mweihanyeka              (b. ... - d. 1884)
       1884 -        1904  Ueyulu ya Hedimbi                  (b. ... - d. 1904)
       1904 -        1911  Nande                              (b. ... - d. 1911)
       1911 -  6 Feb 1917  Mandume ya Ndemufayo               (b. c.1894 - d. 1917)
       1917 -        1998  vacant
 6 Feb 1998 -  2 Nov 2005  Cornelius Mwetupunga Shelungu      (b. 1916? - d. 2005)
12 Nov 2005 -              Martha Mwadinomho ya Nelumbu (f)   (b. 1928?)

Herero

    bf.1700                Ovaherero chiefdom established; styled Ehirovaherero
       1915                tribe partly exterminated, partly exiled by German
                           protectorate authority
 1 Jun 1925                paramount chief reinstalled

Paramount chiefs (title Okahandja Herero)
     c.1750 -         ...  Mutjise ua Mbunga
       17.. -        17..  Tjirue ua Mutjise
       17.. -         ...  Mukuejuva
        ... -        18..  Mbondo
       18.. -        18..  Peraa
       18.. -        18..  Ndomo
       1842 -    Dec 1861  Tjamuaha ua Tjirue                 (b. c.1790 - d. 1861)
   Dec 1861 -  5 Oct 1890  Maharero ua Tjamuaha               (b. 1820 - d. 1890)
       1891 -        1915  Samuel Maharero                    (b. 1856 - d. 1923)
                           (continues in exile to 14 Mar 1923)
       1923 - 11 Sep 1952  Frederick Maharero                 (b. 1875 - d. 1952)
                           (in exile in Bechuanaland Dec 1924 - 1952)
 1 Jun 1925 - 18 Jul 1970  Petrus Hosea Kutako                (b. 1870 - d. 1970)
                           (recognizes Frederick Maharero as paramount chief)
20 Jul 1970 - 27 Mar 1978  Clemens Mutuurunge Kapuuo          (b. 1923 - d. 1978)
 7 Jun 1978 -  2 Jun 2014  Kuaima Isaac Riruako               (b. 1935 - d. 2014)

Baster (Rehoboth)

Captains
       1868 -        1905  Hermanus van Wyk                   (b. 1835 - d. 1905)
       1905 - 25 Apr 1924  Cornelius van Wyk                  (b. ... - d. 1924)
       1924 -        1925  Albert Mouton
       1979 - 12 Feb 1998  Hans Diergaardt                    (b. 1927 - d. 1998)
12 Feb 1998 -    Jan 1999  Dap Izaaks (acting)                (b. 1933 - d. 2005)
   Jan 1999 -              John McNab                         (b. 1938)

Fwe (Caprivi Strip)

Chiefs
       1863 -        1914  Simata Kabende Mamili              (b. 18... - d. 1914)
       1914 -        1931  Lifasi Simata Mamili
       1931 -        1944  Simata Lifasi Mamili               (b. ... - d. 1944)
       1944 -        1971  Simasiku Simata Mamili             (b. ... - d. 1971)
       1971 -        1987  Richard Muhinda Mamili             (b. 1932 - d. 1987)
       1987 -        1999  Boniface Bebi Mamili               (b. 1947?)
       1999 -              George Simasiku Mamili