Bo-Boliko Lokonga Monse Mihambo, (André) (b. Aug. 15, 1934, Lobamiti, Bandundu province), prime minister of Zaire (1979-80).
Bo Xilai (b. July 3, 1949, Dingxiang county, Shanxi, China), governor of Liaoning (2001-04); son of Bo Yibo. He was commerce minister of China in 2004-07 and Communist Party chief of Chongqing in 2007-12. Accused of corruption and moral crimes, he was expelled from the Communist Party in November 2012. In September 2013 he was found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment.
Bo Yibo (b. Feb. 17, 1908, Dingxiang county, Shanxi, China - d. Jan. 15, 2007, Beijing, China), finance minister of China (1949-53). He joined the Communist Party in 1925 and took part in the Long March, a strategic relocation of the Red Army. After the Communist victory in 1949, he rose to become chairman of the State Economic Commission in 1955 and vice-premier in 1957. He was purged during the Cultural Revolution and endured a decade of disgrace but was rehabilitated in 1978 and returned to the office of vice-premier in 1979. He was later considered one of the "Eight Immortals," the group of revolutionary veterans who included Deng Xiaoping. Bo was close to Deng and supported his economic reforms; he was also believed to be a supporter of the decision to use soldiers to crush the 1989 pro-democracy protests.
Bobutac, Valeriu (b. March 13, 1945, Hancauti, northwestern Moldavian S.S.R.), Moldovan politician. He served as economy minister (1994-96) and as ambassador to Russia (1997-2001), Hungary (2005-09), and Belarus (2009). Pres. Petru Lucinschi nominated him as prime minister in 1999 after the government was toppled in a no-confidence vote, but parliament rejected him.
Boc, Emil (Ioan) (b. Sept. 6, 1966, Rachitele, Cluj county, Romania), prime minister of Romania (2008-12). He was mayor of Cluj-Napoca in 2004-08 and was again elected to that position in 2012.
Bocharov, Andrey (Ivanovich) (b. Oct. 14, 1969, Barnaul, Altay kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Volgograd oblast (2014- ).
Bochkarev, Vasily (Kuzmich) (b. April 29, 1949), head of the administration of Penza oblast (1998- ).
Bocoum, Baréma (Kissourou) (b. Jan. 1, 1914, Mopti, Haut-Sénégal-Niger [now Mali] - d. March 3, 1973, Quizanbougou, Bamako, Mali), foreign minister (1961-64) and interior minister (1964-66) of Mali.
Bodán Shields, Harry (b. Aug. 29, 1945, Bluefields, Nicaragua), foreign minister of Nicaragua (1979).
Bodawphaya, also spelled Bodawpaya (b. March 11, 1745, Awa, Kingdom of Awa [now Myanmar] - d. June 5, 1819, Amarapura, Kingdom of Awa), king of Awa (1782-1819). A son of Alaungphaya, the founder of the Konbaung dynasty, Bodawphaya came to power after deposing and executing his grandnephew Maung Maung. In 1784 he conquered Arakan, the maritime kingdom on the eastern coast of the Bay of Bengal, captured its king, Thamada, and deported more than 20,000 people into Awa as slaves. The king's success in Arakan led him to invade Siam in 1785, but his army was defeated. Bodawphaya's rule in Arakan was so oppressive that the people revolted in 1794. When the king sent an army to crush the revolt, thousands of refugees fled to British territory, with Awa troops crossing the border in pursuit of the rebel leaders. Conditions on the border became so unsettled that in 1795 the British sent a representative to Amarapura, the Awa capital, to negotiate with Bodawphaya. The disturbances continued, however, and Bodawphaya's campaigns in Assam added to the tension. Open conflict was narrowly avoided, but the British severed diplomatic relations in 1811. Bodawphaya was a fervent Buddhist who allegedly proclaimed himself maitreya (the Buddhist messiah destined to conquer the world), but the historicity of this episode is uncertain. He persecuted heterodox sects and made drinking, smoking opium, and killing animals punishable by death. He built many pagodas, his most ambitious project being the Mingun pagoda, which, if completed, would have been 150 m high; he had the world's largest bell cast to go with the pagoda. During his reign, he made a major economic survey of the entire kingdom (1784).
Bodden, Truman (Murray) (b. April 22, 1945, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands), leader of government business of the Cayman Islands (1995-2000).
Bodman, Samuel (Wright) (b. Nov. 26, 1938, Chicago, Ill.), U.S. energy secretary (2005-09).
Boedoro, Philip (Moris Tambe Vanua) (b. May 21, 1958), acting president of Vanuatu (2014). He was minister of the comprehensive reform programme (2002-04) and became speaker of parliament in 2013.
Boel, Henri (Joseph) (b. Sept. 5, 1931, Tienen [now in Flemish Brabant province], Belgium), interior minister of Belgium (1977-79).
Boerma, Addeke Hendrik, byname Addie Boerma (b. April 3, 1912, Annerveenschekanaal, Drenthe, Netherlands - d. May 8, 1992, Vienna, Austria), director-general of the Food and Agriculture Organization (1968-75).
Boertien, Kees, byname of Cornelis Boertien (b. July 26, 1927, Enschede, Overijssel, Netherlands - d. May 30, 2002, Vlissingen, Zeeland), queen's commissioner of Zeeland (1975-92).
Boffa, Sir Paul (b. June 30, 1890, Vittoriosa, Malta - d. July 6, 1962, Paola, south of Valletta), prime minister of Malta (1947-50). He entered politics when Malta was granted self-government in 1921 and joined the Labour Party in 1923. He was returned to parliament in 1924, 1927, and 1932. He was elected leader of the Labour Party in 1927 and immediately began to instill in the workers the need of rightfully equal representation in government in order to have a say in their own affairs. He was in coalition with Lord Strickland's party in government (1927-32). In 1932 he was the only Labour Party candidate elected to the Legislative Assembly until it was dissolved in 1933. He was nominated as a member of the Executive Council from 1936 to 1939. In the 1945 elections, he was again elected in the Labour Party's interests. He reached the acme of his political career in November 1947 when he became the first Labour Prime Minister leading a majority government of 24 Labour members. In 1949, following the Labour Party's ultimatum to Britain concerning financial help, the Labour Party split up but Boffa continued as prime minister and later founded and led the Malta Workers' Party (MWP). The MWP lost the 1950 elections. Boffa was reelected in 1951 and in 1953 and joined a coalition government with the Nationalist Party led by Giorgio Borg Olivier, assuming the portfolio of minister of health and social services. The MWP did not contest the 1955 elections and in 1955 he resigned for health reasons. He retained an interest in politics and was nominated honorary president of the Christian Workers' Party (CWP). He was knighted in 1956. He was instrumental in obtaining recognition for the Maltese language in the law courts and the introduction of compulsory primary education and old-age pensions.
Bogado, Floro (Eleuterio) (b. Feb. 20, 1939, Formosa, Argentina), governor of Formosa (1983-87).
Bogaert (Román), Huberto (Carlos Conrado Godofred) (b. March 1, 1901, Santiago, Dominican Republic - d. 1962), chairman of the Civic-Military Council of the Dominican Republic (1962). He was also minister of labour (1942-45).
Boganda, Barthélemy (b. April 4, 1910, Bobangui, Oubangui-Chari, French Equatorial Africa [now in Central African Republic] - d. March 29, 1959, Boukpayanga, near Bangui), Central African Republic (formerly Oubangui-Chari) politician. On Nov. 10, 1946, he was elected to the French National Assembly, winning against an administration-backed candidate. He soon denounced the colonial administration and left the French Catholic party, Mouvement Républicain Populaire. In September 1949 he founded his own party, Mouvement pour l'Évolution Sociale de l'Afrique Noire, which he dominated completely. In the 1951 campaign a French administrator briefly arrested him for "endangering the peace." From then on Boganda's prestige was essentially unchallenged. Even the French realized it was useless to oppose him and in 1953 appointed a new governor to conciliate him. In November 1956 he was elected mayor of Bangui. In 1956 he also came to an agreement with French businessmen, who offered him financial support in return for European representation on municipal and territorial election lists. Boganda then turned his attention to French Equatorial Africa as a whole (which also included Chad, Gabon, and Middle Congo). He hoped for a federation of these states under African rather than French control, and for the eventual creation of a "United States of Latin Africa" that would also include Angola, the Belgian Congo, Ruanda-Urundi, and Cameroon. By late 1958 this dream was shattered, and he turned back to the new Central African Republic, where he became prime minister but was killed a few months later in an airplane crash.
Bogdanovic, Nenad (b. May 12, 1954, Beska, Vojvodina, Serbia - d. Sept. 27, 2007, Belgrade, Serbia), president of the Executive Council (2000-04) and (first popularly elected) mayor (2004-07) of Belgrade.
Bogdanovic, Radmilo (b. Oct. 7, 1934, Koncarevo, Serbia - d. Oct. 25, 2014, Belgrade, Serbia), interior minister of Serbia (1991).
Boghos Bedros XIII (Terzian), Western Armenian for Polos Petros XIII (T`erzyan), English Paul Peter XIII, original name Boghos Terzian (b. Sept. 12, 1853, Kiutahia, Ottoman Empire [now Kütahya, Turkey] - d. Dec. 15, 1931, Rome, Italy), patriarch of the Armenian Catholic Church (1910-31).
Bogicevic, Milan M. (b. March 6, 1840, Sabac, Serbia - d. June 22, 1929, Vienna, Austria), foreign minister of Serbia (1875, 1883-84, 1894-95). He was also justice minister (1874-75) and minister to Austria-Hungary (1884-88) and Germany (1895-1900).
Bogoev, Ksente (b. Oct. 20, 1919, Leunovo, Yugoslavia [now in Macedonia] - d. April 20, 2008, Skopje, Macedonia), chairman of the Executive Council of Macedonia (1968-74). He was also governor of the National Bank of Yugoslavia (1977-81).
Bogollagama, (Chandrasekara) Rohitha (Bandara) (b. Aug. 6, 1954, Nikaweratiya, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka]), foreign minister of Sri Lanka (2007-10). He was also minister of industries (2001-04), advanced technology and national enterprise development (2004-05), and enterprise development and investment promotion (2005-07).
Bogomaz, Aleksandr (Vasilyevich) (b. Feb. 23, 1961, Gridenki village, Bryansk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), acting governor of Bryansk oblast (2014- ).
Bogomolov, Oleg (Alekseyevich) (b. Oct. 4, 1950, Petushkovo village, Kurgan oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), head of the administration of Kurgan oblast (1996-2014).
Bogoridi, Aleksandur Stefanov, Greek Alexandros Stefanou Vogoridis (b. 1823 - d. 1910), governor-general of Eastern Rumelia (1879-84); son of Stephanos Vogoridis.
Bogra, Mohammad Ali (of)1 (b. Oct. 19, 1909, Bogra, India [now in Bangladesh] - d. Jan. 23, 1963, Dacca, East Pakistan [now Dhaka, Bangladesh]), prime minister (1953-55) and foreign minister (1954-55, 1962-63) of Pakistan. He was also finance minister of East Bengal (1946-47) and Pakistani ambassador to Burma (1948-49), high commissioner to Canada (1949-52), ambassador to the U.S. (1952-53, 1955-59) and Japan (1959-62). By what came to be known as the "Mohammad Ali formula," he settled the division of powers between West and East Pakistan.
1 Originally just known as Mohammad Ali, the addition "of Bogra" or just "Bogra" was caused by the name similarity of his immediate successor as prime minister, Chaudhry Mohammad Ali.
Bohlin, Britt (Eva Irene), née Karlsson, during second marriage called Britt Bohlin Olsson (b. Feb. 10, 1956, Dalskog, Sweden), governor of Jämtland (2008-13) and secretary-general of the Nordic Council (2014- ).
Böhmer, Wolfgang (b. Jan. 27, 1936, Dürrhennersdorf, Sachsen, Germany), minister-president of Sachsen-Anhalt (2002-11).
Böhrnsen, Jens (b. June 12, 1949, Bremen, Germany), mayor of Bremen (2005- ) and president of the Bundesrat (2009-10) and acting president (2010) of Germany.
Boileau, Guy (Robert) (b. July 25, 1925 - d. May 30, 1992), administrator-superior of Wallis and Futuna (1971-72).
Boilève, Charles (Émile) (b. Dec. 6, 1837, Le Château d'Oléron, Charente-Inférieure [now Charente-Maritime], France - d. 1899), commandant-superior of Haut-Sénégal (1880, 1883-84).
Boisdé, Raymond (Paul Victor) (b. Aug. 15, 1899, Chantonnay, Vendée, France - d. July 13, 1981, Cannes), president of the Regional Council of Centre (1974-76).
Boisrond-Canal, Louis Auguste, dit Boisrond-Canal jeune (b. March 1, 1847, Les Cayes, Haiti - d. 1940, Pétionville, Haiti), member of the Public Order Commission of Haiti (1908); brother of Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal.
Boisrond-Canal, Pierre Théoma (b. June 12, 1832, Torbeck, Haiti - d. June 3, 1905, Freres, Haiti), president (1876-79) and president of the Provisional Government (1888, 1902) of Haiti.
Boissier, Jacques (Alphonse) (b. July 8, 1910, Barbezieux, Charente, France - d. [car crash] Dec. 29, 1967, Fauville, Eure, France), governor of Dahomey (1949) and prefect of Martinique (1957-60). He was also prefect of Eure département (1960-67).
Boissier, Léopold (b. July 16, 1893, Geneva, Switzerland - d. Oct. 22, 1968, Geneva), president of the International Committee of the Red Cross (1955-64).
Boisson, Pierre (François) (b. June 19, 1894, Saint-Launeuc, Côtes-du-Nord [now Côtes-d'Armor], France - d. July 20, 1948, Chatou, Yvelines, France), commissioner of French Cameroons (1937-38) and governor-general of French West Africa (1938-39, 1940-43) and French Equatorial Africa (1939-40).
Bojórquez (León), Juan de Dios (b. March 8, 1892, San Miguel de Horcasitas, Sonora, Mexico - d. July 27, 1967, Mexico City, Mexico), interior minister of Mexico (1934-35). He was also minister to Honduras (1921-22), Guatemala (1922-24), and Cuba (1926).
Bokanowski, Maurice (b. Aug. 31, 1879, Le Havre, France - d. [plane crash] Sept. 2, 1928, Toul, Meurthe-et-Moselle, France), French minister of marine (1924) and commerce and industry (1926-28).
Bokassa, Jean-Bédel, also called (Oct. 17-Dec. 4, 1976) Salah Eddine Ahmed Bokassa and (1976-79) Bokassa I (b. Feb. 22, 1921, Bobangui, Middle Congo, French Equatorial Africa [now in Central African Republic] - d. Nov. 3, 1996, Bangui, Central African Republic), president of the Central African Republic (1966-76) and emperor of the Central African Empire (1976-79); nephew of Barthélemy Boganda. He joined the French army in 1939. He finished World War II a sergeant-major after landing with Gen. Charles de Gaulle's Free French forces in France. By 1961 he had achieved the rank of captain. At the request of Pres. David Dacko, he left the French armed forces to head the army of the newly independent Central African Republic. He used this position to overthrow Dacko (Jan. 1, 1966) and declare himself president. He also held various cabinet portfolios (including defense [1966-76] and at times interior and justice) and was declared president for life in 1972. Known for his autocratic and unpredictable policies, he declared himself emperor in 1976; emulating his hero Napoléon I, he crowned himself in a lavish ceremony in 1977 that cost about $200 million. Following the substantiation of international charges that Bokassa had personally participated in a massacre of 100 schoolchildren by his Imperial Guard, French paratroops carried out a coup against him that reestablished the republic and reinstated Dacko as president (September 1979). Bokassa went into exile, first traveling to Ivory Coast but later settling in France. He was sentenced to death in absentia in 1980, but he inexplicably chose to return to the C.A.R. in 1986. He was arrested and put on trial and in 1987 was found guilty of the murders of the schoolchildren and other crimes (although he was acquitted of charges of cannibalism). His death sentence was subsequently commuted to a 20-year jail term, and he was freed in September 1993.
Bokova, Irina (Georgieva) (b. July 12, 1952, Sofia, Bulgaria), Bulgarian politician. She was senior attaché and third secretary in the department "The UN and Disarmament" at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 1977 to 1982 and third secretary in the standing delegation of Bulgaria at the UN in New York from 1982 to 1983. She was second and later first secretary in the department "The UN and Disarmament" in the foreign minister's office from 1982 to 1991. She served as deputy minister of foreign affairs in charge of relations with international organizations and the European integration from August 1995 and became first deputy minister of foreign affairs in August 1996. A member of the Bulgarian Socialist Party until February 1997, she was a vice presidential candidate in October-November 1996. She was acting foreign minister from November 1996 to February 1997, when she became advisor to the foreign minister of the new government. In 2005-09 she was ambassador to France and in 2009 she became director-general of UNESCO, the first woman and first Eastern European in the post.
Bokovikov, Aleksandr (Aleksandrovich) (b. Sept. 7, 1956, Ayan, Irkutsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Aug. 8, 2010, Baykit, Krasnoyarsk kray, Russia), head of the administration of Evenkia autonomous okrug (1997-2001).
Boland, Frederick H(enry) (b. Jan. 31, 1904, Dublin, Ireland - d. Dec. 4, 1985, Dublin), president of the UN General Assembly (1960-61). He was also ambassador to the United Kingdom (1950-56) and permanent representative to the UN (1956-63).
Bolaños (Geyer), Enrique (José) (b. May 13, 1928, Masaya, Nicaragua), vice president (1997-2001) and president (2002-07) of Nicaragua.
Bolaños (Estrada), (José) Óscar A(dán) (b. Dec. 18, 1912, Sonsonate, El Salvador), member of the Revolutionary Council of Government (1948-50) and defense minister (1950-53) of El Salvador.
Bold, Luvsanvandan(giyn) (b. Oct. 4, 1961), foreign minister of Mongolia (2012-14).
Bole, Filipe (Nagera) (b. Aug. 23, 1936), foreign minister of Fiji (1987-88, 1992-94, 1994-97). He also served as permanent representative to the United Nations and ambassador to the United States (1980-83) and as deputy prime minister (1992-94).
Bolea Foradada, Juan Antonio (b. March 30, 1930, Ayerbe, Aragón), president of the Diputación General of Aragón (1978-81).
Bolfing, Karl (b. July 4, 1925, Schwyz - d. March 22, 2001, Schwyz), Landammann of Schwyz (1976-78).
Bolger, Jim, byname of James Brendan Bolger (b. May 31, 1935, Opunake, North Island, New Zealand), prime minister of New Zealand (1990-97). He won election to parliament for the National Party from 1972, holding the King Country seat for nine elections. After standing for three years in opposition to the Labour government, he was appointed undersecretary both for agriculture and fisheries and for Maori affairs by the new National Party prime minister, Robert Muldoon, in 1975. As labour minister from 1978, he championed a bold assault on compulsory unionism. He made unsuccessful challenges for the posts of deputy leader in 1981 and leader in 1984 before replacing Jim McLay as party leader in March 1986. He failed to upset David Lange in the August 1987 elections, but the National Party won the Oct. 27, 1990, elections by a landslide. He offered his old mentor Muldoon the post of minister of state outside the cabinet, but Muldoon declined anything less than a cabinet post. Bolger started to implement far-reaching changes in economic and social policies and pursued an outward-looking foreign policy to strengthen New Zealand's relationships with other countries, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. He represented New Zealand at each of the five Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) leaders' summits since 1993. In the November 1993 election the National Party was once again returned to government. Following the 1996 elections, he entered into a coalition with the New Zealand First Party. He resigned in November 1997 and was then appointed minister of state and associate minister of foreign affairs and trade (with special responsibility for APEC). He resigned as minister and MP on April 6, 1998, and was appointed ambassador to Washington, serving until 2001.
Bolívar (y Palacios), Simón (José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad), byname The Liberator, Spanish El Libertador (b. July 24, 1783, Caracas - d. Dec. 17, 1830, near Santa Marta, Colombia), South American revolutionary leader. The Latin-American independence movement was launched in 1808, and he participated in many conspiratorial meetings. In 1810 the Spanish governor of Venezuela was expelled and a junta took over. Venezuela's independence was declared on July 5, 1811, but an armistice (July 1812) left the entire country to the mercy of Spain. In a sweeping hard-fought campaign Bolívar vanquished the Spaniards and regained control of the capital. On Aug. 6, 1813, he entered Caracas and assumed power. But the war of independence was just beginning. In 1814 he was once more defeated by the Spanish. By 1815 Spain had sent to its seditious colonies the strongest expeditionary force that had ever crossed the Atlantic. Three years of indecisive defeats and victories followed. In the spring of 1819 he conceived his master plan of attacking the Spanish viceroyalty of New Granada. The Spaniards were taken by surprise, and in the crucial Battle of Boyacá on Aug. 7, 1819, the bulk of the royalist army surrendered to him. Three days later he entered Bogotá. Indefatigably he set out to complete his task. By 1822 the territory of Gran Colombia, comprising what is now Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador, had been completely recovered from Spain. Only Peru remained in Spanish hands, but on Dec. 9, 1824, the Spanish viceroy surrendered with his entire army. Only a small section of the continent - Upper Peru - was defended by royalist forces until April 1825. The new nation chose to be called Bolivia after the name of the Liberator.
Boljkovac, Josip (b. Nov. 12, 1920, Vukova Gorica, Croatia - d. Nov. 10, 2014, Karlovac, Croatia), interior minister of Croatia (1990-91).
Bolkiah, Pengiran Muda Jefri (b. Nov. 6, 1954), Brunei politician. Sultan Sir Hassanal Bolkiah's youngest brother, he served as finance minister in 1988-97. He has been the target of scathing criticism at home and abroad, accused of bankrupting one of the sultanate's biggest firms amid reports of billions of dollars of losses. His many critics say his empire collapsed under debt and he is on the run in Europe or the United States, afraid to face the consequences of returning home where he is under investigation. Associates familiar with Prince Jefri's worldwide business holdings said his conglomerate, Amedeo, had been unfairly seized and his interests elsewhere were faring well. They said Muslim conservatives in the palace who oppose opening up one of the world's last remaining absolute monarchies to Western influence took advantage of publicity from two court cases which tarnished Prince Jefri's reputation to force the palace to move against him. Jefri was acquitted in the first case, brought by a former Miss USA beauty queen who claimed she had been kept as a sex slave in the sultan's palace. He settled the second case over a $130 million commercial dispute out of court. But the cases appeared to paint the portrait of a prodigal prince with lavish spending habits out of tune with Asia's economic downturn. His extravagant lifestyle - he reputedly owns 2,000 cars and 17 aircraft, and owns a yacht called Tits, with tenders Nipple I and Nipple II - has long been an embarrassment to the royal family. He was sacked as Brunei Investment Agency chairman in 1998. He has not been in Brunei since April 1998. In February 2000 the Brunei government sued him over alleged misuse of state funds and froze his assets at home and abroad.
Bolkiah, Pengiran Muda Mohamed (b. Aug. 27, 1947, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei), foreign minister of Brunei (1984- ); brother of Sir Hassanal Bolkiah.
Bolkiah Mu`izzadin Waddaulah, Sir Hassanal (b. July 15, 1946, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei), sultan of Brunei (1967- ). The eldest son of Sultan Sir Omar Ali Saifuddin, he was named crown prince and heir apparent by his father in 1961. In 1967 he became sultan when Sir Omar abdicated; his coronation took place Aug. 1, 1968. For the next decade, the father remained the power behind the throne as the young ruler occupied himself less with affairs of state than with polo, fast cars, and pleasure trips overseas, predilections that raised eyebrows in conservative circles. However, after the death of his influential mother in 1979, his father withdrew into the background and the sultan quickly took a dominant role in Brunei's administration. He made frequent trips into the kampongs (villages) to listen to his subjects as well as to fortify his own image as their ruler. In preparation for political independence, he initiated priority programs aimed at creating a viable bureaucracy, phasing out British expatriates in the civil service and replacing them with capable Bruneians, and cracking down on corruption. After 95 years as a British protectorate, Brunei achieved independence on Jan. 1, 1984. Though he expressed a wish for continued friendly relations with Britain, there were some bumps. He wanted to keep Britain's 900-strong Gurkha force in Brunei under his control after independence, but London was hesitant. After inconclusive talks, Brunei transferred the management of its massive investment portfolio from Britain's crown agents to the independent Brunei Investment Agency under U.S. advice. By September 1983, word was out that London would permit one battalion of Gurkhas to stay on under British control in Brunei for an unspecified period.
Bolla, Fulvio (b. Jan. 25, 1892, Olivone, Ticino, Switzerland - d. March 12, 1946, Lugano, Ticino), president of the government of Ticino (1945-46).
Bollaert, Émile (Édouard) (b. Nov. 13, 1890, Dunkerque, France - d. May 18, 1978, Paris), high commissioner of French Indochina (1947-48). He joined the Résistance in 1941 and replaced, on Sept. 1, 1943, Jean Moulin as delegate-general of the French Committee of National Liberation. Arrested in February 1944, he was sent to Buchenwald, Dora, and Bergen-Belsen where he was liberated, on April 15, 1945, by the British 2nd Army.
Bollini, Marino (b. Feb. 25, 1933, Fiorentino, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (1979, 1984-85, 1995, 1999-2000).
Bollini, Paolo (b. 1960), captain-regent of San Marino (1998-99, 2004).
Bolot, Pascal (b. Feb. 13, 1963, Castres, Tarn, France), administrator-superior of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands (2012-14).
Bolotte, Pierre (Jacques) (b. Oct. 26, 1921, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France - d. May 23, 2008), prefect of Guadeloupe (1965-67). He was also prefect of the départements of Seine-Saint-Denis (1969-74) and Seine-Maritime (1977-82).
Bolshakova, Mariya (Grigoryevna) (b. 1947), acting governor of Ulyanovsk oblast (2004-05).
Bolz, Lothar (b. Sept. 3, 1903, Gleiwitz, Germany [now Gliwice, Poland] - d. Dec. 29, 1986, East Berlin), foreign minister of East Germany (1953-65).
Bomboko Lokumba, Justin Marie (b. Sept. 22, 1928, Bolomba, Équateur province, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. April 10, 2014, Brussels, Belgium), chairman of the board of commissioners-general (1960-61) and foreign minister (1960-63, 1965-69, 1981) of Congo (Léopoldville/Kinshasa)/Zaire. In 1969-70 he was ambassador to the United States.
Bommai, S(omappa) R(ayappa) (b. June 6, 1924, Karadigi, Mysore [now Karnataka], India - d. Oct. 10, 2007, Bangalore, India), Indian politician. A Fabian socialist who believed in the humanist tradition, he participated in the independence movement against British rule. He was chief minister of the southern state of Karnataka (1988-89) and president of the Janata Dal party.
Bompar, Maximin, marquis de (b. 1698, Grasse [now in Alpes-Maritimes département], France - d. Feb. 23, 1773, Toulon, France), governor of Martinique (1752).
Bompard, (Louis) Maurice (b. May 17, 1854, Metz, Moselle, France - d. 1935, Grasse, Alpes-Maritimes, France), resident-general of Madagascar (1889-90). He was also French minister-resident to Montenegro (1892-93) and ambassador to Russia (1902-07) and the Ottoman Empire (1909-14).
Bonaparte, Charles J(oseph) (b. June 9, 1851, Baltimore, Md. - d. June 28, 1921, Baltimore), U.S. secretary of the navy (1905-06) and attorney general (1906-09); great-nephew of Napoléon I.
Bonard, Louis Adolphe (b. March 27, 1805, Cherbourg, France - d. March 31, 1867, Vanves, Hauts-de-Seine, France), commandant of the French Settlements in Oceania (1850-52) and governor of French Guiana (1854-55) and Cochinchina (1861-63).
Bonay, Eliezer (Jan) (b. Aug. 24, 1924, Serui, Netherlands East Indies [now in Papua, Indonesia] - d. March 14, 1990, Netherlands), governor of Irian Barat (1962-64).
Bond, Sir Robert (b. Feb. 26, 1857, St. John's, Newfoundland [now in Canada] - d. March 16, 1927, Whitbourne, Newfoundland), premier of Newfoundland (1900-09). He entered politics in 1882. He was first elected to the Newfoundland House of Assembly in the general election of that year as the protégé of Prime Minister Sir William Whiteway. Within two years Bond was speaker of the House of Assembly but held the position for only one year. In the 1885 general election the Liberal Party was defeated, but in 1889 it returned as the majority party. Whiteway became prime minister and Bond entered the Executive Council (cabinet) as colonial secretary. The Liberal Party lost the 1897 election. Whiteway retired from politics and Bond succeeded him as Liberal leader and became leader of the opposition. In a vote of confidence in 1900 the Conservative administration was defeated. Bond was asked to form a new administration and became premier. A general election was held on Nov. 8, 1900, and the Liberal Party was returned with 32 of the 36 seats in the House of Assembly, the largest majority ever attained up to that time. In the election of Oct. 31, 1904, Bond scored another impressive victory. The Liberals won 30 seats. The next election was held Nov. 2, 1908, and produced a constitutional crisis when Bond's Liberal Party and the People's Party both won 18 seats. Bond finally resigned on Feb. 22, 1909. In new elections on May 8, 1909, the People's Party won 26 seats and the Liberal Party 10. Bond became leader of the opposition once again. He continued in that position for the next four years. He resigned his seat on Jan. 10, 1914, and retired from public life. He had been created a Knight Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George in 1901.
Bondarenko, Mikhail Ilich (Russian), Ukrainian Mykhailo Illich Bondarenko (b. Sept. 8, 1903, Yelizavetgrad, Kherson province, Russia [now Kirovograd, Ukraine] - d. [executed] Feb. 10, 1938), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Ukrainian S.S.R. (1937).
Bondaz, Vittorino (b. April 16, 1905 - d. Dec. 17, 1997), president of Valle d'Aosta (1954-59).
Bonde af Björnö, Nils greve (b. Jan. 19, 1685, Stockholm, Sweden - d. April 24, 1760, Stockholm), governor of Södermanland (1739-50) and Halland (1750).
Bondevik, Kjell Magne (b. Sept. 3, 1947, Molde, Norway), prime minister of Norway (1997-2000, 2001-05). He served in parliament since 1973. A member of the Christian People's Party, he was foreign minister (1989-90) and became prime minister in 1997. He went on sick leave on Aug. 30, 1998, after a "depressive reaction" to overwork. The causes of Bondevik's stress included a plunge in the price of oil to 10-year lows, a surge in interest rates, and a fall in the value of the krone in late August. Squabbling among Bondevik's minority three-party coalition, which controlled 42 of parliament's 165 seats, added to his woes. Bondevik twice extended his sick leave, originally scheduled to last a week, and finally returned September 24. In his second term he presided over four years of unprecedented prosperity fueled by high oil prices, but lost the 2005 elections to an alliance led by the Labour Party which campaigned on a pledge to spend more of the vast oil wealth on welfare programs, while Bondevik advocated further tax cuts.
Bonelli Hernando, Emilio (b. Nov. 7, 1855, Zaragoza, Spain - d. Nov. 25, 1926, Madrid, Spain), royal commissioner (1885-86) and subgovernor (1886-c. 1902) of Río de Oro.
Bonelli Rubio, Juan María (b. 1904 - d. 1982), governor of Spanish Guinea (1943-49); son of Emilio Bonelli Hernando.
Bonello du Puis, George, du Puis also spelled Dupuis (b. Jan. 24, 1928, Sliema, Malta - d. Feb. 19, 2010), finance minister of Malta (1987-92). He was minister of economic services in 1992-95 and high commissioner to the U.K. in 1998-2005.
Bonesteel, Charles H(artwell) (b. April 9, 1885, Fort Sidney, Neb. - d. June 5, 1964, Washington, D.C.), commander of the Allied occupation forces in Iceland (1942-43).
Bonfils, Charles (Henri Gilbert) (b. May 6, 1908, Sète, France - d. Jan. 31, 2001), governor of Dahomey (1951-55) and French Guinea (1955-56).
Bonfoh, (El Hadj) Abass (b. 1948, Kabou, Bassar prefecture, Togo), speaker of the National Assembly (2005-13) and acting president (2005) of Togo.
Bongho-Nouarra, Stéphane Maurice (b. June 6, 1937, Ouesso, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)] - d. Oct. 7, 2007, Brussels, Belgium), prime minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (1992). He was also minister of public works (1968-69) and defense (1995-96).
Bongo, Martin (b. July 4, 1940, Lekei, Haut-Ogooué province, Gabon), foreign minister of Gabon (1976-89); nephew of Omar Bongo Ondimba.
Bongo Ondimba, Ali (Ben), original name Alain-Bernard Bongo (b. Feb. 9, 1959, Brazzaville, Congo), foreign minister (1989-91), defense minister (1999-2009), and president (2009- ) of Gabon; son of Omar Bongo Ondimba; half-brother of Pascaline Mferri Bongo Ondimba.
Bongo Ondimba, (El Hadj) Omar, original name Albert-Bernard Bongo (b. Dec. 30, 1935, Lewaï village [now Bongoville], Haut-Ogooué province, Gabon - d. June 8, 2009, Barcelona, Spain), president of Gabon (1967-2009); son-in-law of Denis Sassou-Nguesso. He is a member of the minority Bateke tribe from near the Congolese border. He entered the Foreign Ministry in 1960 and was soon transferred to Pres. Léon M'ba's private office, becoming its director in October 1962. He was vice president from March 1967 and became president in November following the death of M'ba. He was also defense minister (1967-81) and interior minister (1969-70). In 1973, he converted to Islam and changed his first name to Omar (he added the Ondimba in November 2003). In 1968, he created the Parti Démocratique Gabonais, the sole political party for 22 years. He was OAU chairman in 1977-78. His authority was rarely challenged at home in the early years. He was a staunch opponent of multi-party politics but a series of strikes and demonstrations in early 1990 led to the legalization of opposition parties. He won a hotly contested and disputed presidential election in 1993. His supporters said he did much to develop the infrastructure of Gabon. The opposition said his administration was corrupt and self-serving. They said that Gabon's oil wealth was in the hands of a few people while much of the population lived in poverty.
Bongo Ondimba, Pascaline Mferri, original surname Bongo (b. April 10, 1956, Franceville, Gabon), foreign minister of Gabon (1991-94); daughter of Omar Bongo Ondimba; wife of Paul Toungui.
Bonhoure, (Jules) Adrien (Jean) (b. Aug. 26, 1860, Shanghai, China - d. 19...), governor of French Somaliland (1900-04), Réunion (1906-07), and French India (1908-09), acting governor of New Caledonia (1909-10), and governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1910-12).
Bonhoure, Louis Alphonse (b. July 12, 1864, Nîmes, Gard, France - d. [suicide] Jan. 9, 1909, Saigon, Cochinchina [now Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam]), governor of Martinique (1904-06) and French Guiana (1906), resident-superior of Tonkin (1907), lieutenant governor of Cochinchina (1907-09), and acting governor-general of French Indochina (1908).
Boni, (Thomas) Yayi, also appearing as Boni Yayi (b. 1952, Tchaourou, central Dahomey [now Benin]), president of Benin (2006- ). In 2012-13 he was chairman of the African Union.
Bonino, Emma (b. March 9, 1948, Bra, Cuneo province, Piemonte, Italy), foreign minister of Italy (2013-14). She also was a European commissioner (1995-99) and minister for European policy and international trade (2006-08).
Bonnal, Jean Thomas Raoul (b. Feb. 27, 1847, Toulouse, France - d. ...), resident-superior of Tonkin (1886-87).
Bonnecarrère, Auguste François (Narcisse Dominique Paul) (b. Oct. 29, 1875, Tarbes, Hautes-Pyrénées, France - d. April 6, 1966, Nice, Alpes-Maritimes, France), commissioner of French Cameroons (1920-21 [acting], 1932-34) and French Togo (1922-31). He was appointed but not installed as governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (July 24, 1921) and as governor of New Caledonia (Sept. 9, 1931).
Bonnefont, Pierre (Simon Antonin), acting lieutenant governor of Oubangui-Chari (1933-34, 1936).
Bonnefous, Édouard (Henri Jean) (b. Aug. 24, 1907, Paris, France - d. Feb. 24, 2007, Paris), French minister of commerce (1952), state (1953), posts (1955-56), and public works, transports, and tourism (1957-58); son of Georges Bonnefous.
Bonnefous, Georges (b. Nov. 30, 1867, Paris, France - d. May 27, 1956, Paris), French minister of commerce and industry (1928-29).
Bonnelame, Jérémie (Émile Patrick) (b. Oct. 24, 1938, Mahe island, Seychelles), foreign minister of Seychelles (1997-2005). In 2005-07 he was permanent representative to the United Nations, ambassador to the United States, and high commissioner to Canada.
Bonnelle, François (b. May 3, 1933, Versailles, France), prefect of Mayotte (1984-86). He was also prefect of Vosges département (1990-94).
Bonnelly (Fondeur), Rafael Filiberto (b. Aug. 22, 1904, Santiago, Dominican Republic - d. Dec. 28, 1979, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic), president of the Dominican Republic (1962-63). He was also minister of the interior (1944-46, 1956), labour (1946-48, 1956-57), education (1954), and justice (1956-57), attorney general (1948), ambassador to Spain (1954-56) and Venezuela (1957-59), and vice president (1960-62).
Bonner, Neville (Thomas) (b. March 28, 1922, Ukerebagh Island, Tweed Heads, N.S.W. - d. Feb. 5, 1999, Ipswich, Queensland), Australian politician. He was the first Aborigine elected to Australia's federal parliament, where he served in the Senate from 1971 to 1983. He became a consistent advocate of Aboriginal land rights and critic of assimilationist policies, positions that often put him at odds with his own colleagues. Bonner lost his seat after being relegated to an unwinnable position on the Liberals' 1983 Senate ticket, prompting him to say: "I feel rejected by the tribe I chose." He held numerous low-key public service positions during the 1980s and '90s.
Bonner, Robert C(leve) (b. Jan. 29, 1942, Wichita, Kan.), director of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (1990-93).
Bonnet, Yves (b. Nov. 20, 1935, Chartres, France), prefect of Mayotte (1982) and Guadeloupe (1986-87). He was also prefect of the départements of Finistère (1985-86) and Marne (1987-91).
Bonnevaux, Peter (b. c. 1752 - d. [curricle accident] July 12, 1797, Colombo, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka]), military governor of Ceylon (1797).
Bonnevie, Niels Cornelius (b. March 8, 1827, Kristiania [now Oslo], Norway - d. Aug. 10, 1899, Kristiania), governor of Aust-Agder (1868-95).
Bonomi, Ivanoe (b. Oct. 18, 1873, Mantua, Italy - d. April 20, 1951, Rome, Italy), prime minister of Italy (1921-22, 1944-45). Elected to parliament in 1909 as Socialist deputy for Mantua, he was expelled from the Socialist Party in 1912 with the reform leader Leonida Bissolati for his moderate, democratic views, joining the Reformist Socialist group. He advocated that Italy should enter World War I on the side of the Allies. He was appointed minister of public works (1916-17); war minister (1920), negotiating the Treaty of Rapallo between Italy and Yugoslavia; and treasury minister (1921). Made prime minister in July 1921, with a coalition government, he was unable to control Fascist disorders and resigned in February 1922. He withdrew from politics after Mussolini's accession to power. In 1940 he joined the anti-Fascist movement, becoming its leader in 1942. After Mussolini's fall on July 25, 1943, he headed the national committee of anti-Fascist groups and, after the liberation of Rome (June 9, 1944), was designated prime minister by the National Committee of Liberation. The committee, however, soon began to press for a more vigorous policy, and Bonomi resigned on Nov. 26, 1944, but was reinstated through the intervention of the British government. Bonomi laid the foundations of Italy's economic and administrative reconstruction and began the reorganization of the army. He resigned on June 12, 1945, but, as chairman of the Constituent Assembly's committee for treaties, took part in the council of foreign ministers at Paris in 1946. He was president of the Senate from 1948 until his death.
Bonsu II, Nana Osei (b. Dec. 31, 1939), regent of Asanteman (1999).
Bontemps, (Napoléon Joseph) Louis (b. Aug. 24, 1813, Paris - d. 1872), governor of Guadeloupe (1859-60) and French India (1863-71).
Bonvin, Louis (Alexis Étienne) (b. Nov. 6, 1886, Montluçon, France - d. Feb. 23, 1946, Montluçon), lieutenant governor (1931-34), administrator-superior (1934-36), and governor-delegate (1936-37) of Gabon and governor of French India (1938-45).
Booh Booh, Jacques Roger (b. Feb. 5, 1938, Makak, Cameroon), foreign minister of Cameroon (1988-92). He was also ambassador to the U.S.S.R. (1981-83) and France (1983-88).
Boolell, Arvin (b. May 26, 1953), foreign minister of Mauritius (2008-14); son of Sir Satcam Boolell.
Boolell, Sir Satcam (b. Sept. 11, 1920, New Grove, Grand Port district, Mauritius - d. March 23, 2006, Curepipe, Plaines Wilhems district, central Mauritius), foreign minister of Mauritius (1986-90); knighted 1977.
Boos, Georgy (Valentinovich) (b. Jan. 22, 1963, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Kaliningrad oblast (2005-10). In 1998-99 he was Russian minister of taxes and in 2000-05 deputy chairman of the State Duma.
Booth, Samuel (b. bf. 1824, England - d. Oct. 19, 1894, Brooklyn, N.Y.), mayor of Brooklyn (1866-67).
Boothby, Robert John Graham Boothby, Baron (b. Feb. 12, 1900, Edinburgh, Scotland - d. July 16, 1986, London, England), British politician. He was elected Unionist member of Parliament for East Aberdeenshire in 1924, holding the seat until created life peer in 1958. He was parliamentary private secretary (1926-29) to Winston Churchill, who was then chancellor of the exchequer. During the decade preceding World War II, Boothby, like Churchill, was in the political wilderness; he shared Churchill's alarm over the growth of Hitler's power and urged rearmament. After Churchill became prime minister in 1940, Boothby was appointed parliamentary secretary to the Ministry of Food. Although he maintained he was innocent, he resigned the post in January 1941 after a parliamentary select committee found him guilty of offering political services in return for financial gain. A strong supporter of the Western European alliance, he became a delegate to the Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe (1949-57).
Booysen, Harry (Daniel) (b. Nov. 8, 1943, Kimberley, South Africa), chairman of the Transitional Government of National Unity of Namibia (1989).
Boquet, Anne (b. March 19, 1952, Bellac, Haute-Vienne, France), high commissioner of French Polynesia (2005-08).
Boradzov, Alan (Georgiyevich) (b. 1957 - d. April 7, 2007), prime minister of North Ossetia-Alania (2004-05).
Boras, Srecko (b. Aug. 23, 1957), premier of Herzegovina-Neretva (2007-11).
Borba, Manoel Antônio Pereira (b. March 19, 1864, Paquivira farm, near Timbaúba, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. Aug. 11, 1928, Recife, Brazil), governor of Pernambuco (1915-19).
Borbidge, Rob(ert Edward) (b. Aug. 12, 1954, Ararat, Victoria), premier of Queensland (1996-98). He joined the National Party in Victoria and when he was 22 stood in the strong Liberal seat of Ripon but lost to the Liberal Party incumbent Tom Austin. He eventually moved to Queensland, and on Nov. 29, 1980, at the age of 26, he was elected to the Queensland parliament from the electorate of Surfers Paradise, defeating Liberal incumbent Bruce Bishop. He was appointed Minister for Industry, Small Business, Communications and Technology on Dec. 9, 1987, by Premier Mike Ahern. He was appointed Minister for Industry, Small Business, Communications and Tourism in January 1989. He also served as Minister for Police, Emergency Services and Corrective Services from Aug. 31, 1989, and under Premier Russell Cooper (Sept. 25-Dec. 7, 1989) he was Minister for Tourism, Environment, Conservation and Forestry. After a Labor government under Wayne Goss came to power in December 1989, Borbidge was elected Deputy Leader of the Opposition. He became leader of the opposition on Dec. 10, 1991, and was elected leader of the National/Liberal "Queensland Coalition" on Nov. 2, 1992. He personally played a major role in bringing the two conservative parties back into a coalition after a lapse of 12 years. He fought two elections, in 1992 and 1995, failing only by a narrow 16-vote margin in July 1995 to gain office. In February 1996 Goss resigned, having lost his parliamentary majority, and a National/Liberal coalition government led by Borbidge was sworn in.
Borbora, Golap (b. 1926, Golaghat, Assam, India - d. March 19, 2006, Guwahati, Assam), chief minister of Assam (1978-79).
Bord, André (b. Nov. 30, 1922, Strasbourg, France - d. May 12/13, 2013), French minister of veterans (1972-74), president of the Regional Council of Alsace (1973-77), and general secretary of the Union of Democrats for the Republic (1975-76).
Bordaberry (Arocena), Juan María (b. June 17, 1928, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. July 17, 2011, Montevideo), president of Uruguay (1972-76). He entered political life in the 1950s during the upheaval caused by declining world prices of beef and wool. The economic crisis led to the ouster of the liberal Colorado Party in 1958 and brought to power the conservative National (Blanco) Party, with which Bordaberry was affiliated. He served on several agricultural boards (1959-62) and in the Senate (1962-65). In 1964 he headed the Federal League for Rural Action, representing landowners who successfully campaigned to replace the nine-man executive council with a presidential system. In 1969 he switched to the Colorado Party and was named minister of agriculture and livestock by Pres. Jorge Pacheco Areco. Bordaberry's 1971 election was so close that there was a 79-day recount and accusations of fraud. From the start he had to face a growing, well-organized uprising by the Tupamaro urban guerrillas. He suspended the constitution and individual liberties, allowing the military free rein in stamping out the Tupamaros. In 1973 the military staged a coup, but instead of unseating him, they designed what was called civil-military administration. Thereafter the president compromised with the military leaders who took over his major powers. He abolished the Congress, banned all political parties, and acquiesced in press censorship and political repression. Economic conditions continued to worsen. On June 12, 1976, he was ousted by the military because of "irreconcilable differences." Reportedly he wanted to set up a corporate state structure with the participation of the armed forces written into law, but the military preferred the status quo, with a gradual return to traditional politics. On May 22, 2005, charges of aggravated homicide were filed against Bordaberry and his foreign minister, Juan Carlos Blanco, for several killings in May 1976. He was arrested in November 2006 and sentenced to 30 years in prison in February 2010.
Bordallo, Ricardo J(erome), also called Ricky Bordallo (b. Dec. 11, 1927, Agana [now Hagåtña], Guam - d. Jan. 31, 1990, Hagåtña), governor of Guam (1975-79, 1983-87). A powerful force in politics who many described as politically invulnerable, he was indicted by the U.S. Attorney's Office on 10 counts of corruption just three days before the 1986 primary election. He refused to appear before a grand jury and blasted the proceedings as "colonialism bordering on racism." U.S. District Judge Cristobal Duenas presided over the proceedings, which heard talk of bribes, including the passing of an envelope filled with $10,000 by a local businessman, with what he said in court as having no strings attached. FBI recordings were played with Bordallo admitting to accepting large amounts of cash from businesspeople though he denied ever exchanging government contracts in return. Testimony also included word of kickbacks. Top Bordallo aide Herman Sablan testified that some of the kickbacks were returned to a Bordallo campaign war-chest though such activity was all based on rumour. And a Korean business owner testified on Ylow, a $60,000 bribe linked to a $200,000 payment toward the lease of land in Cabras for a scrap metal yard. After days of emotional testimony and scathing criticisms of the media's coverage of the trial, on Feb. 13, 1987, Bordallo was convicted on all 10 counts of corruption. Though he was eventually acquitted on 7 counts, Judge Duenas sentenced him to 9 years in prison and he was ordered to pay over $114,000 in fines. After failed appeals he was ordered to report to a federal penitentiary in Boron, Calif., but never made the trip. Instead he chained himself to the statue of Chief Quipuha in the capital village of Hagåtña, drew a .38-calibre pistol, and shot himself once in the head, taking his own life.
Bordarier, Paul (Louis) (b. July 6, 1904 - d. Nov. 14, 1990), governor of New Caledonia (1951).
Borden, Sir Robert Laird (b. June 26, 1854, Grand Pré, Nova Scotia [Canada] - d. June 10, 1937, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada), prime minister of Canada (1911-20). His early political affiliations were with the Liberal Party, but he eventually became Conservative candidate for Halifax in 1896. His election coincided with the victory of the Liberal Party under the leadership of Sir Wilfrid Laurier. Though he remained an obscure backbench opposition member during his first term, he was chosen leader of the Conservative Party on Feb. 6, 1901. Early in 1910, discouraged by the quarrels and intrigues among his followers, he threatened to resign, but in 1911 when the Laurier government fell, he became prime minister. His major interest was Anglo-Canadian relations. He had long argued for the establishment of a Canadian voice in imperial policy, but it was not until the British prime minister David Lloyd George created the Imperial War Cabinet in 1917 that Borden was given a chance to express Canada's point of view. He was one of the chief framers of the memorandum of 1918 which resulted in the dominions being accorded representation at the peace conference. Borden's administration confronted unprecedented administrative, financial, and political challenges during the years of World War I, and when conscription was required to maintain the Canadian forces at full strength, he initiated the formation of a coalition government. The success of the Unionist forces in the election of 1917 ensured a continuation of Borden's policies of total commitment to the war effort and an international role for Canada. He resigned in July 1920. In 1921 he was Canada's delegate to the Washington naval disarmament conference. He was knighted (G.C.M.G.) in 1914.
Bordenave (Franco), Enrique (b. Oct. 30, 1889, Barrero Grande [now Eusebio Ayala], Paraguay - d. Jan. 23, 1940, Asunción, Paraguay), foreign minister (1925-28) and finance minister (1938-39) of Paraguay. He was also minister of justice and public instruction (1924-25) and minister to the United States (1933-36).
Bordes, Pierre (Louis) (b. Dec. 28, 1870, Oloron-Sainte-Marie, Basses-Pyrénées [now Pyrénées-Atlantiques], France - d. July 22, 1943, Perpignan, France), governor-general of Algeria (1927-30).
Bordier, Paul (Camille) (b. Jan. 16, 1921, Saint-Nazaire-sur-Charente, Charente-Inférieure [now Charente-Maritime], France - d. Oct. 5, 2003), lieutenant governor of Niger (1956-58) and high commissioner of the Central African Republic (1958-60).
Bordoloi, (Srijut) Gopinath, Bordoloi also spelled Bardoloi (b. June 6, 1890 - d. Aug. 6, 1950, Gauhati [now Guwahati], Assam, India), chief minister of Assam (1938-39, 1946-50).
Bordon, Mauro (b. June 6, 1914 - d. Nov. 7, 1995), president of Valle d'Aosta (1969-70).
Bordyuzha, Nikolay (Nikolayevich) (b. Oct. 22, 1949, Oryol, Russian S.F.S.R.), secretary of the Security Council (1998-99) and head of the Administration of the President (1998-99) of Russia. He was also ambassador to Denmark (1999-2003).
Borel-Lincertin, Josette (Claire), née Lincertin (b. 1941, Capesterre-de-Marie-Galante, Guadeloupe), president of the Regional Council of Guadeloupe (2012-14).
Borg, Anders (Erik) (b. 1968, Stockholm, Sweden), finance minister of Sweden (2006- ).
Borg, Joe, byname of Joseph Borg (b. March 19, 1952, Malta), Maltese politician. Between 1989 and 1995 he was adviser on European Union matters to the minister of foreign affairs. During these years he set up and headed the directorate for EU matters in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and also prepared and drew up the "Report Regarding Malta's Membership of the European Community," published by the Maltese government in March 1990. Between 1989 and 1992 Borg was a member of the Board of Governors of the Malta International Business Authority and between 1992 and 1995 he was a member of the Board of Directors of the Central Bank of Malta. He was first elected to the House of Representatives for the Nationalist Party in 1995 and was reelected in the general elections of 1996. Between 1996 and 1998 he was shadow minister responsible for industry and for the impact of EU policies on Malta. During the same period he was a member of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the House of Representatives and of the EU-Malta Joint Parliamentary Committee. In 1997 he was elected International Secretary of the Nationalist Party. He was elected for the third time to the House of Representatives at the general elections of 1998, and following the Nationalist Party victory he was appointed parliamentary secretary in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, member of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the House of Representatives, and first vice-chairman of the EU-Malta Joint Parliamentary Committee. In March 1999 he was appointed foreign minister. He was confirmed in that post after the 2003 election but left the government in March 2004 to become Malta's first EU commissioner. He had been responsible for the accession negotiations leading to EU membership on May 1, 2004. He served as commissioner, responsible for fisheries and maritime affairs, until 2010.
Borg, Tonio (b. May 12, 1957, Floriana, Malta), home affairs minister (1995-96, 1998-2008), justice minister (2003-08), and foreign minister (2008-12) of Malta. In 2012 he became Malta's EU commissioner.
Borg Olivier, Giorgio, also called George Borg Olivier (b. July 5, 1911, Valletta, Malta - d. Oct. 29, 1980, Sliema, Malta), prime minister of Malta (1950-55, 1962-71). He served on the Council of Government from 1939 and with the return of responsible government in 1947 was elected to the Legislative Assembly. In 1950 he became minister of works and reconstruction and of education under Enrico Mizzi. He succeeded Mizzi as Nationalist Party leader and prime minister on the latter's death in December 1950. After the general elections of 1951, Borg Olivier formed a coalition government with the Labour Party. He was defeated in 1955, and Labour Party leader Dom Mintoff was elected and stayed in power until his resignation provoked the constitutional crisis of 1958-62. In 1962 the Nationalists were returned to power with Borg Olivier again as prime minister. After endorsement by referendum of the independence constitution, Malta became independent on Sept. 21, 1964. He then also became foreign minister. His political philosophy was based on a moderate, pro-Western stance. He believed that the country's economy as well as its defense interests were best served by strong links with Britain, but the economic benefits of this policy were eroded by British defense cuts. In 1971 Mintoff won the election, and in 1974 he declared Malta a republic. After the 1976 election, in which the Labour government was confirmed, Borg Olivier resigned the party leadership but remained a member of parliament.
Borge Martínez, Tomás (b. Aug. 13, 1930, Matagalpa, Nicaragua - d. April 30, 2012, Managua, Nicaragua), Nicaraguan politician. In July 1961 he, together with Carlos Fonseca Amador and Silvio Mayorga - all veterans of the student struggle of the 1950s - met in Tegucigalpa, capital of Honduras, to found the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN). They drew their inspiration from Fidel Castro's revolution in Cuba and from a Nicaraguan folk hero, Gen. Augusto César Sandino, who in 1927 had organized an army of workers and peasants to drive out the U.S. Marines then occupying the country. During his fight to overthrow Anastasio Somoza Debayle's dictatorship, he suffered long periods of imprisonment and torture, and his wife was murdered by Somoza's National Guardsmen only months before the Sandinistas' final victory in July 1979. Borge, the oldest member of the FSLN National Directorate, undoubtedly enjoyed the widest popular support of all the Sandinista leaders. Borge played a prominent part in restructuring the Nicaraguan Army from the heterogeneous FSLN forces that existed at the time of the final insurrection in 1979. As interior minister (1979-90) he was quick to dismiss Sandinista police for any reported abuses of authority, being keenly aware of the damage that any such abuses could do to relations between the FSLN and the people. He believed that the Sandinistas won an important moral victory when they decided not to execute any prisoners in 1979, but the Nicaraguans were paying dearly as a consequence of that policy as former National Guardsmen, with U.S. support, mounted attacks from the Honduran border. Hopes of defusing U.S. antagonism faded when Borge's intended visit to the U.S. at the end of November 1983 was blocked by the U.S. State Department's refusal of a visa. In 2007 he became ambassador to Peru.
Borgella, Jérôme Maximilien (b. June 5, 1773, Port-au-Prince - d. March 30, 1844, Port-au-Prince), president of the Council of the Department of the South (Haiti) (1811-12).
Borgers, Léon (b. Jan. 6, 1897 - d. 19...), resident of Urundi (1930-33).
Borges, César Augusto Rabelo (b. Nov. 21, 1948, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil), governor of Bahia (1998-2002).
Borges, Jorge (b. April 17, 1952), foreign minister of Cape Verde (2011-14).
Borges, Pedro Augusto (b. April 29, 1851, Fortaleza, Brazil - d. Sept. 12, 1922, Rio de Janeiro), governor of Ceará (1900-04).
Borges, Víctor (Manuel Barbosa) (b. May 24, 1955, Santa Catarina district, Santiago island, Cape Verde), foreign minister of Cape Verde (2004-08).
Borghouts, Harry, byname of Henricus Cornelius Johannes Lodewijk Borghouts (b. Feb. 7, 1943, Bergen op Zoom, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Noord-Holland (2002-09).
Borgnis-Desbordes, Gustave (b. Oct. 22, 1839, Provins, France - d. July 18, 1900, Hanoi, Vietnam), commandant-superior of Haut-Sénégal (1880-83).
Borgonovo (Pohl), Mauricio (Alfredo) (b. 1939? - d. May 10, 1977), foreign minister of El Salvador (1972-77). He was kidnapped in San Salvador on April 19, 1977, by members of the Farabundo Martí Popular Liberation Front and shot three weeks later; he was found dead in Santa Tecla, a short distance from the capital.
Boris III, baptismal name Kliment Robert Mariya Piy Ludvik Stanislav Ksaver (b. Jan. 30, 1894, Sofia, Bulgaria - d. Aug. 28, 1943, Sofia), king of Bulgaria (1918-43). The son of Ferdinand I of Bulgaria and Maria Luisa of Bourbon-Parma, he was a major in the first Balkan War of 1912, again saw service in the second Balkan War (1913), and during World War I was on the staff of his father. He succeeded as king when his father abdicated on Oct. 3, 1918. An opponent of the prime minister and political strongman Aleksandur Stamboliyski, Boris may have played some role in the coup that removed Stamboliyski from power in June 1923. Boris survived assassination attempts in 1921, 1925, and 1929. His marriage in October 1930 to Princess Giovanna (b. Nov. 13, 1907, Rome, Italy - d. Feb. 26, 2000, Estoril, Portugal), daughter of King Vittorio Emanuele of Italy, temporarily cemented Italian relations; but during the late 1930s he passed more into the German orbit and sought rapprochement with Yugoslavia. After the establishment of a military dictatorship in Bulgaria (1934), he worked gradually to reassert his power; in November 1935 he successfully installed Georgi Kyoseivanov, a personal favourite, as prime minister. From 1938 until his death Boris was dictator in all but name. After Bulgaria's adhesion to the Axis pact (March 1941), he maintained a modicum of independence; even after Bulgaria's entry into World War II on the side of the Axis, the pro-Russian sentiment in his country barred him from declaring war against the Soviet Union. He died after a brief illness shortly after returning from a stormy interview with Adolf Hitler; although there is no direct evidence, it has been speculated that he was poisoned on Hitler's orders.
Borisov, Boiko (Metodiev) (b. June 13, 1959, Bankya, Bulgaria), prime minister of Bulgaria (2009-13, 2014- ).
Borisov, Yegor (Afanasyevich) (b. Aug. 15, 1954), prime minister (2003-10), president (2010-14), and head of the republic (2014- ) of Sakha.
Borius, Augustin Valentin (b. July 26, 1772, Paris - d. 18...), commandant and administrator of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1818-19, 1825-28).
Borja Cevallos, Rodrigo (b. June 19, 1935, Quito, Ecuador), president of Ecuador (1988-92). He came to political prominence in 1968 as a founding member of the Izquierda Democrática (ID), a party he represented as a congressional deputy in 1962-82. Affiliated with the Socialist International, the ID became the largest party in Ecuador's highly factionalized political scene. When Borja ran for president in 1978, he came in fourth in the first round of voting and was eliminated from the race. In the 1984 elections he was a convincing first-round leader with 36% of the total vote, but he lost the second round by three percentage points to the more flamboyant and aggressive León Febres Cordero. In the 1988 presidential elections, the first round on January 31 proved inconclusive, with ten candidates vying for the nation's highest office. However, Borja led the field with 24.6% of the valid vote against the 17.6% won by his nearest rival, Abdalá Bucaram Ortiz. In the second round on May 8, Borja emerged with a narrow majority, taking some 52.8% of valid votes. While both candidates represented left-of-centre parties and promised to reverse the pro-U.S. policies of Febres Cordero, Bucaram's volatile personality and populist rhetoric raised fears that the military would intervene in the event of his victory. Thus some observers suggested that Borja won the election because he was seen as the lesser of two evils. He promised a government of national consensus to deal with Ecuador's severe economic problems, the most pressing of which were rising inflation, falling oil revenues, and the foreign debt. Shortly after taking office, his government introduced an economic austerity program prior to opening negotiations with the International Monetary Fund.
Borkovskis, Oskars (Fridrihs), also spelled Oskar Borkowsky (b. 1872 - d. 1945), acting prime minister of Latvia (1919).
Bormann, Martin (b. June 17, 1900, Halberstadt, Germany - d. May 2, 1945, Berlin?), German politician. In 1920 he joined an anti-Semitic organization and soon afterward became a member of one of the Freikorps, the paramilitary bands of right-wing radicals. He was imprisoned in 1924-25 for participation in a political murder, and after his release he joined the National Socialists. He became head of the Nazi press in Thuringia in 1926 and from 1928 held posts in the high command of the SA (Storm Troopers). In 1933 he became chief of staff to the deputy Führer, Rudolf Hess. On May 12, 1941, Hitler appointed Bormann to fill the post of head of the party chancellery, succeeding Hess after the latter had made his quixotic flight to Scotland. Bormann thus became head of the administrative machinery of the Nazi Party, and through intrigue, party infighting, and his shrewd manipulation of Hitler's weaknesses and eccentricities, he became a shadowy but extremely powerful presence in the Third Reich. He controlled all acts of legislation and all party promotions and appointments, and he had a broad influence on domestic policy questions concerning internal security. He disappeared shortly after the death of Hitler, was indicted Aug. 29, 1945, along with other Nazi leaders, on charges of war crimes and was found guilty and sentenced to death in absentia by the International Military Tribunal at Nürnberg on Oct. 1, 1946. Later reports alleged that Bormann had escaped and had been living in South America, possibly Paraguay. However, in January 1973 a Berlin forensic expert established that a skeleton unearthed during construction work in West Berlin in December 1972 was that of Bormann, and on April 11, 1973, West German authorities officially declared him dead.
Borne-Desfourneaux, Edme Étienne, comte (b. April 22, 1767 [or Dec. 10, 1769, Vézelay (now in Yonne département), France] - d. Feb. 20, 1849, Paris, France), agent of Guadeloupe (1798-99). He was created Baron Borne-Desfourneaux and Baron de l'Empire by letters patent of Sept. 10, 1808, and April 12, 1813, and Comte Borne-Desfourneaux in 1823.
Bornhausen, Jorge Konder (b. Oct. 1, 1937, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Santa Catarina (1979-82).
Borno, (Eustache Antoine François Joseph) Louis (b. Sept. 20, 1865, Port-au-Prince, Haiti - d. July 29, 1942, Pétionville, Haiti), finance minister (1918) and president (1922-30) of Haiti.
Borooah, Dev Kanta (b. Feb. 22, 1914, Dibrugarh, Assam, India - d. Jan. 28, 1996, New Delhi, India), governor of Bihar (1971-73). He was also Indian minister of petroleum and chemicals (1973-74) and president of the Indian National Congress (1975-78).
Boross, Péter (b. Aug. 27, 1928, Nagybajom village, Somogy county, Hungary), interior minister (1990-93) and prime minister (1993-94) of Hungary.
Borradori, Marco (b. June 6, 1959), president of the Council of State of Ticino (1999-2000, 2003-04, 2008-09, 2012-13).
Borrás, Raúl (Antonio) (b. June 13, 1933, Alcorta, Santa Fe, Argentina - d. May 25, 1985, Buenos Aires, Argentina), defense minister of Argentina (1983-85).
Borrell (Fontelles), Josep (b. April 24, 1947, La Pobla de Segur, Lleida province, Catalonia, Spain), president of the European Parliament (2004-07).
Borrero Bustamante, Arturo (b. Dec. 27, 1909, Cuenca, Ecuador), foreign minister of Ecuador (1953); son of Manuel María Borrero González. He was also chargé d'affaires in France (1937-40) and ambassador to Chile (1944-46, 1961-63), Argentina (1946-48), Peru (1949-50), and Brazil (1950-54).
Borrero González, Manuel María (b. May 10, 1883, Cuenca, Ecuador - d. June 6, 1975, Quito, Ecuador), interim president of Ecuador (1938).
Borret, Anton Joseph Lambert (b. Aug. 12, 1782, Gemert, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands - d. Sept. 7, 1858, Delft, Zuid-Holland), governor (1842-50) and king's commissioner (1850-56) of Noord-Brabant.
Borten, Per (b. April 3, 1913, Flå, Sør-Trøndelag, Norway - d. Jan. 20, 2005, Trondheim, Norway), prime minister of Norway (1965-71). He was mayor of Flå township before being elected to parliament in 1949 to represent what was known as the Agrarian Party (Bondepartiet), now known as the Centre Party (Senterpartiet). He was chairman of the party from 1955 to 1967 and was a driving force in trying to modernize it and change its name in 1959. He headed a four-party centre-right coalition, the first stable non-Labour government after World War II in the Nordic nation. Borten and his cabinet applied to join the European Community - the forerunner of the European Union - in 1967 after Norway's main European ally Britain decided to seek membership. But his party grew strongly against membership and Borten's government collapsed in 1971. In a referendum the following year, Norwegians voted "No" to membership by 53%-47%. Norwegians, rich from North Sea oil, also voted "No" in a new referendum in 1994 when both Borten and his party were firmly against membership. Borten remained in parliament until 1977, when he declined his party's nomination.
Borunda (Ortiz), Teófilo (b. Feb. 4, 1912, Satevó, Chihuahua, Mexico - d. March 18, 2001), governor of Chihuahua (1956-62). He was also Mexican ambassador to Argentina (1971-72).
Borusewicz, Bogdan (Michal) (b. Jan. 11, 1949, Lidzbark Warminski, Poland), marshal of the Senate of Poland (2005- ). He was acting president for a few hours on July 8, 2010.
Bory de Saint-Vincent, Gabriel de (b. March 11, 1720, Paris - d. Oct. 8, 1801, Paris), governor-general of Saint-Domingue (1762-63).
Bosc, Jules (Georges Théodore Gabriel) (b. April 6, 1871 - d. April 20, 1959), resident-superior of Laos (1918-31).
Bosch, Johannes graaf van den (b. Feb. 2, 1780, Herwijnen, Gelderland, Netherlands - d. Jan. 28, 1844, The Hague), commissioner-general of Dutch Guiana (1827-28), governor-general of the Netherlands East Indies (1830-33), and Dutch minister of the colonies (1834-39). He became baron on June 17, 1835, and graaf on Dec. 25, 1839.
Bosch (Gaviño), Juan (Emilio) (b. June 30, 1909, La Vega, Dominican Republic - d. Nov. 1, 2001, Santo Domingo), president of the Dominican Republic (1963). He early opposed Rafael Trujillo's dictatorial regime. He went into exile in 1937 and in 1939 founded the leftist Dominican Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Dominicano; PRD), the country's first organized political party. He won a landslide victory in the elections of Dec. 20, 1962, and took office Feb. 27, 1963. At the outset he faced severe problems: the United States was dismayed by the Fidel Castro government in Cuba and leery of the slightest whiff of leftist politics in the Caribbean. And Bosch's constitution of April 29, liberal and democratic, alienated four powerful groups in the country: landholders were frightened by his prohibition against latifundia; the church was angered by the secular nature of the constitution; industrialists felt the constitution was worker-oriented; and the military considered that its powers were curtailed. On Sept. 25, 1963, the military deposed Bosch; on September 28 he began a two-year exile in Puerto Rico. In September 1965 he was allowed to return and agreed to take part in new elections. Fearful for his safety, he campaigned half-heartedly, making no public appearances, and lost to Joaquín Balaguer, the conservative candidate with heavy backing from the United States. Bosch and his party abstained from the 1970 elections, but by 1973 the PRD wanted to rejoin the political process. Bosch resigned from the PRD and formed the Party of Dominican Liberation (Partido de la Liberación Dominicana; PLD). In subsequent presidential elections (the last in 1994) he repeatedly lost but repeatedly claimed vote fraud. In 1994 he resigned as PLD leader.
Bosch van Drakestein, Paulus Jan (b. Feb. 15, 1825, Utrecht - d. May 25, 1894, 's-Hertogenbosch), king's/queen's commissioner of Noord-Brabant (1856-94).
Boselli, (Benito) Francesco Maria (b. Dec. 30, 1768, Savona, Italy - d. Feb. 17, 1826, Paris, France), member of the Commission of Government of the Ligurian Republic (1799).
Boselli, Paolo (b. June 8, 1838, Savona, Piedmont, Kingdom of Sardinia [now in Italy] - d. March 10, 1932, Rome, Italy), prime minister of Italy (1916-17). He entered the Italian civil service and in 1867 represented his country as secretary-general at the Paris Exhibition. He served as a parliamentary deputy from 1870 to 1921, representing the right centre, and as a senator from 1921. He was minister of education in the government of Francesco Crispi in 1888, held the portfolios of agriculture and finance in the government of 1893-96, reorganized the Bank of Italy as minister of the treasury under Premier Luigi Pelloux in 1899-1900, and was a minister in the government of Sidney Sonnino in 1906. In 1907 he became president of the Dante Alighieri Society, promoting Italian culture abroad. Favouring Italy's entry into World War I against Austria-Hungary (May 1915), he made an important speech in the chamber in support of a bill giving full powers to Premier Antonio Salandra. When Salandra's government fell after the Austrian offensive of May-July 1916, the 78-year-old Boselli became premier, forming a coalition government. After recovering territory lost in the Austrian offensive, Boselli's government declared war on Germany on Aug. 28, 1916. The following year Italy's disastrous defeat at Caporetto brought about his resignation. After Benito Mussolini's accession to power in 1922, Boselli declared his allegiance to the new Fascist regime; in 1924 he received an honorary membership of the Fascist party. In March 1929 he acted as government spokesman in the Senate for the bill to approve the Lateran treaties between Italy and the Vatican. In 1916 he received the Collar of the Annunziata, the highest decoration conferred by the Italian crown.
Bosic, Boro (b. June 17, 1950), co-prime minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1997-99). A member of the Serb Democratic Party, he earlier was a manager of a power plant in Ugljevik in northeast Bosnia and energy minister in the Republika Srpska.
Boskovski, Ljube, also spelled Boskoski (b. April 24, 1960, Tetovo, northern Macedonia), interior minister of Macedonia (2001-02). In April 2004 he was charged with murder, being accused of ordering the killing in March 2002 of seven innocent migrants (six Pakistanis and one Indian) set up to look like "Mujahideen terrorists," in an attempt to show the United States that the government was actively supporting the campaign against terror and to win a free hand to deal harshly with Macedonia's ethnic Albanian minority. Boskovski, who also holds Croatian citizenship, was arrested in Croatia in September 2004. In March 2005 he was furthermore indicted by the Hague war crimes tribunal for his alleged role in clashes between security forces and ethnic Albanians in 2001 in which 10 people died. He denied all the charges against him. He left Zagreb for The Hague on March 24, 2005, was brought to trial in April 2007, and was acquitted in July 2008. In May 2009 he announced the formation of the United for Macedonia party. On Nov. 29, 2011, he was sentenced to seven years' imprisonment after being convicted by a court in Skopje of illicit party funding and abuse of official position in the June 2011 parliamentary elections. His party failed to win representation in the elections.
Bosnjak, Rade (b. Sept. 27, 1959, Risovac, near Jablanica [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), governor of Herzegovina-Neretva (2000-01).
Bosnjak, Teodor (b. July 6, 1876, Banja Luka, Ottoman Empire [now in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina] - d. June 14, 1942, Belgrade, Serbia), acting ban of Croatia (1920-21).
Bossano, Joe, byname of Joseph John Bossano (b. June 10, 1939), chief minister of Gibraltar (1988-96).
Bossard, André (b. June 18, 1926, Saint-Ouen, France), secretary-general of the International Criminal Police Organization (1978-85).
Bossche, Edouard Dénis Ernest van den (b. Jan. 23, 1831, Brussels, Belgium - d. June 14, 1908, The Hague, Netherlands), administrator of Aruba (1863-66), Bonaire (1866-71), and Sint Maarten (1871-83).
Bosse, Auguste (b. March 15, 1809, Saint-Denis, Île Bonaparte [now Réunion] - d. 1891), commandant of the Naval Division of the Western Coasts of Africa (1859-61).
Bossi, Umberto (b. Sept. 19, 1941, Cassano Magnago, north of Milan), Italian politician. In 1979 he met Bruno Salvadori, a federalist reformer from the northwestern Italian region of Valle d'Aosta, who inspired him in the mid-1980s to form a regional party called the Lombard League, which captured seats in the national legislature in 1987, installing Bossi as senator. Two years later the Lombard League won representation in the European Parliament. In 1991 Bossi refashioned the Lombard League as the Northern League, which soon proved dominant in northern Italy. In the elections of 1992 he was voted into the Chamber of Deputies. In 1994 the Northern League became the largest political faction in the nation on the strength of its federalist message, distance from incumbent corruption, and timely alliance with Silvio Berlusconi, who was elected prime minister that March. By December 1994, however, the Northern League had retreated from this alliance, and Bossi's threat of a no-confidence vote forced Berlusconi's resignation. In the 1996 national elections, the party won 10.1% of the vote for the Chamber of Deputies and 10.4% of the Senate vote. Secessionist Bossi raised eyebrows in 1996 by calling for a complete break - dividing Italy into separate nations. In September he declared independence for a portion of northern Italy that he dubbed the Republic of Padania. He illustrated his vision with flashy iconography that recalled the historic Lombard League, a medieval alliance between northern Italian towns. As a political reality, however, the proposed republic remained mired in mythology; very few Italians actually supported secession. When Berlusconi again formed a government in 2001 Bossi became minister of institutional reforms and devolution. He was in a coma from March 11 to April 5, 2004, after a heart attack, and resigned as minister on July 19. He resigned as party leader in 2012.
Boston, Sir Henry (Josiah) Lightfoot (b. Aug. 19, 1898 - d. Jan. 11, 1969), governor-general of Sierra Leone (1962-68); knighted 1962.
Bostwick, Janet (Gwennett), née Musgrove (b. Oct. 30, 1939, Nassau, Bahamas), foreign minister of The Bahamas (1994-2002). She was also minister of housing and labour (1992-93), minister of justice and immigration (1993-95), and attorney general (1994-95).
Boswell, Charles H. (b. Oct. 31, 1909, Henderson, Ky. - d. Dec. 30, 2006), mayor of Indianapolis (1959-62). He was a Democrat who was city controller from 1956 until he became mayor in January 1959 when Mayor Phil Bayt resigned to become county prosecutor. Boswell was elected mayor to a full term in November 1959, but left office early when he was appointed the city's postmaster by Pres. John F. Kennedy in 1962. Boswell got the nickname "Snow Belt Charlie" in 1961 when he announced the city would rent, not buy, snow equipment - news reports quoting Boswell as saying he made his decision because Indianapolis was not in the snow belt - and shortly afterwards the city was hit by a blizzard that caused him to declare a snow emergency. He later said it was the weather service that said the city was not in the snow belt.
Bot, Ben, byname of Bernard Rudolf Bot (b. Nov. 21, 1937, Batavia, Netherlands East Indies [now Jakarta, Indonesia]), foreign minister of the Netherlands (2003-07).
Botella (Serrano), Ana (María) (b. July 23, 1954, Madrid, Spain), mayor of Madrid (2011- ); wife of José María Aznar.
Botha, Louis (b. Sept. 27, 1862, Honeyfontein farm, near Greytown, Natal [now in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa] - d. Aug. 27, 1919, Pretoria, Transvaal [now in Gauteng], South Africa), prime minister of Transvaal (1907-10) and of South Africa (1910-19). He joined Lucas Meijer in an expedition into Zululand to support Dinuzulu against a rival for the Zulu throne. He then (1884) helped to found the New Republic, which was formed, with its capital at Vryheid, from land granted to the Boers by Dinuzulu as a reward for their help. In 1888 the New Republic was incorporated into the South-African Republic (Transvaal), where he became a member of the Volksraad in 1897 and was an opponent of Paul Kruger's government. During the South African War (1899-1902) he once took Winston Churchill prisoner, and he succeeded Piet Joubert as commandant-general of the Transvaal forces in 1900. In 1902 he was one of the signatories of the Peace of Vereeniging. After the war he became chairman of a new party called Het Volk (The People), and when Transvaal was given responsible government he became its first and only prime minister. In 1910 he became the first prime minister of the new Union of South Africa. In 1911 he established the South African Party, designed to unite the anti-imperialist parties of the Transvaal, Orange Free State, and Cape. But his program of conciliation between Boers and Britons caused revolts among his own followers. In World War I, he acceded to the British request to conquer German South West Africa, a campaign he led personally (1915) after first putting down a Boer rebellion. In 1919 he participated in the Versailles peace conference, where he advocated leniency for the Central Powers.
Botha, Louis Johannes (b. Dec. 22, 1939, Reitz, Orange Free State [now Free State], South Africa - d. Jan. 24, 1999), administrator of the Orange Free State (1980-91).
Botha, Pieter Willem (b. Jan. 12, 1916, Paul Roux district, Orange Free State [now Free State], South Africa - d. Oct. 31, 2006, near Wildernes, Western Cape, South Africa), prime minister (1978-84) and state president (1984-89) of South Africa. Already active in politics in his teens, he became a full-time organizer for the National Party (NP) at age 20. In 1946 he became the first secretary of the NP's youth organization, the Nasionale Jeugbond. He was elected to parliament in the National landslide of 1948. He became deputy minister of the interior in 1958 and thereafter was successively minister of community development and Coloured affairs (1961-66), public works (1964-66), and defense (1966-80). He became leader of the NP and prime minister upon the resignation of B.J. Vorster in 1978. His policy included military raids into neighbouring countries and he refused to withdraw from Namibia, though he continued negotiations on the question. His domestic reforms - such as the policy of granting "independence" to various black homelands - were meant to divide his nonwhite opposition as well as to mollify international public opinion. A key point in this program was the promulgation of a new constitution (1983), which provided legislative chambers for Asians and Coloureds but excluded the black majority. Though the proposed reforms maintained white supremacy, the right wing of the NP split away in protest in 1982 to form the Conservative Party. In 1984 he was elected under the new constitution as state president. Early in 1989 he fell ill and resigned his post as party leader, but he did not yield the presidency until he faced opposition not only from the NP but from within his own cabinet. His 1998 contempt conviction for refusing to testify before the Truth Commission regarding apartheid-era crimes was overturned on a technicality in 1999.
Botha, Roelof (Frederik), byname Pik Botha (b. April 27, 1932, Rustenburg, South Africa), foreign minister of South Africa (1977-94). He also served as permanent representative to the United Nations (1974-77) and ambassador to the United States (1975-77).
Botha, Stoffel, in full Jan Christoffel Greyling Botha (b. 1929 - d. April 1998, Howick, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa), administrator of Natal (1979-84) and South African home affairs minister (1985-89).
Botmang, Michael (b. Jan. 1, 1938, Zawan [now in Plateau state], Nigeria - d. Jan. 18, 2014, Zawan), governor of Plateau (2006-07).
Botsio, Kojo (b. Feb. 21, 1916, Winneba, Central region, Gold Coast [now Ghana] - d. Feb. 6, 2001, Accra), foreign minister of Ghana (1958-59, 1963-65).
Botta, Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo (b. Nov. 6, 1766, San Giorgio, Piedmont - d. Aug. 10, 1837, Paris, France), member of the Provisional Government (1798-99) and of the Executive Commission (1800-01) of the Piedmontese Republic.
Bottone, (Giacomo) Ugo (Vincenzo Emanuele Maria), conte di Castellamonte (b. 1753 - d. 1828), member of the Provisional Government of Piedmont (1798-99).
Botusharova(-Doicheva), Snezhana (Damyanova) (b. Sept. 20, 1955, Sofia, Bulgaria), vice president (1991-94) and acting president (1992) of the National Assembly of Bulgaria. She was ambassador to the United States in 1994-98.
Bouabid, Maati, Arabic Ma`ati Bu `Abid (b. Nov. 11, 1927, Casablanca, Morocco - d. Nov. 1, 1996, Rabat, Morocco), prime minister of Morocco (1979-83). Bouabid, who held several ministerial posts beginning in 1958 (he was labour and social affairs minister in 1958-60 and justice minister in 1977-81), was head of the Constitutional Union party since it was founded in 1983. He was twice elected to parliament.
Bouasone Bouphavanh (b. June 3, 1954, Ban Tao Poun, Salavan province, southern Laos), prime minister of Laos (2006-10).
Bouattour, (Cheikh Mohamed al-)Aziz, Arabic Shaykh Muhammad al-`Aziz Bu `Atur (b. Feb. 20, 1825 - d. Feb. 4, 1907), prime minister of Tunisia (1882-1907).
Boubacar, Sidi Mohamed Ould, Arabic Sayyidi Muhammad walad Abu Bakr (b. May 31, 1957, Atar, northwestern Mauritania), finance minister (1990-92) and prime minister (1992-96, 2005-07) of Mauritania. He has also been ambassador to France (2004-05), Spain (2007-10), and Egypt (2010-14) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2014- ).
Boucault, Bernard (b. July 17, 1948, Blois, Loir-et-Cher, France), prefect of police of Paris (2012- ). He was also prefect of the départements of Haute-Corse (1988-90), Maine-et-Loire (1993-97), Seine-Saint-Denis (1997-99), Haute-Garonne (1999-2000), and Loire-Atlantique (2002-07).
Bouceif, Ahmed Ould (b. 1934 - d. [plane crash] May 27, 1979, off Dakar, Senegal), prime minister of Mauritania (1979).
Boucetta, M'hamed, Arabic Muhammad Bu Sitta (b. Dec. 23, 1925, Marrakech, Morocco), foreign minister of Morocco (1977-83). He was also minister of public service (1960-61) and justice (1961-63) and secretary-general of the Istiqlal party (1974-98).
Bouchard, Lucien (b. Dec. 22, 1938, Saint-Coeur-de-Marie, Quebec), premier of Quebec (1996-2001). In 1985 Bouchard became Canadian ambassador to France. In that role he promoted the interests of Canada and of Quebec. He helped organize the first Francophone summit in Paris (1986) and was chairman of the preparation committee for the second Francophone summit in Québec city (1987). Bouchard began his career in politics as a member of the Progressive Conservative Party. In 1988 Prime Minister Brian Mulroney invited Bouchard to join his cabinet. After being appointed secretary of state, Bouchard won a seat in the House of Commons from the Quebec riding of Lac-Saint-Jean. He was made minister of the environment in 1989. Bouchard's aim in entering politics was to help in salvaging the Meech Lake accord, a constitutional agreement that would have recognized Quebec as a distinct society. When the failure of the accord seemed inevitable in 1990, Bouchard resigned from the cabinet and the Progressive Conservative caucus to become an independent member. He decided to remain in politics to work for the sovereignty of Quebec, and later in 1990 he was a founding member of the Bloc Québécois, which was formed to promote sovereignty for the province of Quebec on the federal level. In the federal election of 1993, the BQ surprised many Canadians by winning 54 ridings (districts) in Quebec to become the official opposition in the House of Commons. As BQ leader, Bouchard became leader of the opposition. In 1996 he succeeded Jacques Parizeau as leader of the Parti Québécois and as premier of Quebec. Bouchard led the government on a tough austerity programme aimed at eliminating its budget deficit. In 2001 he suddenly resigned, having decided that he had taken the quest for independence as far as he could.
Boudiaf, Mohamed, Arabic Muhammad Abu Diyyaf (b. June 23, 1919, M'Sila, Algeria - d. June 29, 1992, Annaba, Algeria), chairman of the High State Committee of Algeria (1992). He fought in the French army in World War II, but later became a central figure in the nationalist movement against France, being a co-founder of the Organisation Spéciale, and in 1954 he joined Ahmed Ben Bella on the National Liberation Front (FLN) leadership council. After being captured and imprisoned by the French (1956-62), Boudiaf and Ben Bella were released to form a provisional government in newly independent Algeria, with Boudiaf as deputy premier. But he soon fell out with Ben Bella and founded the Party of the Socialist Revolution (PRS). He was arrested on June 21, 1963, and after being interned for several months, he went into exile in Morocco (1964), where he denounced the increasingly corrupt FLN. In January 1992, with the Islamic fundamentalists on the verge of winning parliamentary elections, he was invited to return as the head of a military-backed High State Committee. But once in office, he was equally outspoken against the fundamentalists and against corruption by government officials. He proposed a new 60-seat National Assembly from which both fundamentalists and old-time politicians of the FLN would be excluded, and spoke of holding presidential elections in early 1994, hinting he might run. On June 29, 1992, he was assassinated while giving a speech at the opening of a new cultural centre. Lembarek Boumaarafi, a member of the presidential guard with Islamist sympathies, was blamed for the killing and, in June 1995, sentenced to death. However, many believe that the assassination was planned by people within the establishment.
Boueiz, Farès, Arabic Faris Bu Izz (b. Jan. 15, 1955, Beirut, Lebanon), foreign minister of Lebanon (1990-92, 1992-98); son-in-law of Elias Hrawi. He was also environment minister (2003-04).
Bouët-Willaumez, Louis Édouard, original surname Bouët (until Dec. 31, 1844, when he was adopted by his uncle Jean-Baptiste Willaumez) (b. April 24, 1808, Brest, France - d. Sept. 10, 1871, Maisons-Laffitte, Yvelines, France), commandant of the Naval Division of the Western Coasts of Africa (1839-45, 1848-50) and governor of Senegal (1843-44).
Bouffier, Volker (b. Dec. 18, 1951, Giessen, West Germany), minister-president of Hessen (2010- ).
Boufflers, (Catherine) Stanislas Jean, marquis (earlier chevalier) de, (b. May 31, 1738, Lunéville, Meurthe-et-Moselle, France - d. Jan. 18, 1815, Paris), governor of Senegal (1786-87).
Bougainville, Louis Antoine, comte de (b. Nov. 11, 1729, Paris - d. Aug. 31, 1811, Paris), governor of East Falkland (1764-67). He was made comte on April 26, 1808.
Bouge, Louis (Joseph) (b. Nov. 25, 1878, Toulon, France - d. [car crash] August 1960), interim resident of Wallis and Futuna (1911-12), acting governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1928-30) and of French Guiana (1931-33), and governor of Guadeloupe (1933-36). He was appointed (Oct. 31, 1930) but not installed as governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.
Bouhageb (Bey), (Sidi) Khelil, Arabic Sayyidi Khalil Bay ibn Salim (ibn `Umar ibn Salim) Bu Hajib (b. Aug. 27, 1863 - d. Feb. 8, 1942, La Marsa, Tunisia), prime minister of Tunisia (1926-32).
Bouhin, Clément (b. Feb. 2, 1926, Dunkerque, Nord département, France - d. Jan. 30, 2010), prefect of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1979-81) and high commissioner of New Caledonia (1987-88). He was also prefect of the départements of Vosges (1983-85) and Pyrénées-Atlantiques (1985-87).
Bouilloux-Lafont, Maurice (b. April 10, 1875, La Ferté-Allais, Essonne, France - d. July 29, 1937, Barcelonnette, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France), minister of state of Monaco (1932-37).
Boulama, Aïchatou Kané (b. April 24, 1955, Keita, Tahoua region, Niger), foreign minister of Niger (2015- ). She was also governor of Niamey region (2011-13).
Boularès, (Mohamed) Habib, Arabic Habib Bu al-Ariz (b. July 29, 1933, Tunis, Tunisia - d. April 18, 2014, Paris, France), foreign minister (1990-91), defense minister (1991), and president of the Chamber of Deputies (1991-97) of Tunisia and secretary-general of the Arab Maghreb Union (2002-06). He was also culture and information minister (1970-71) and culture minister (1988-90).
Boulay, Sir Roger (William Houssemayne) du (b. March 30, 1922), British resident commissioner of the New Hebrides (1973-75); knighted 1982.
Boulloche, Léon Jules Pol (b. April 19, 1855 [according to another source May 19, 1859], Paris - d. 19...), resident-superior of Laos (1895-96), Tonkin (1897), Annam (1898-1900), and Cambodia (1901-02) and governor of Guadeloupe (1905-06).
Boulos (Makary), Jawad (b. Jan. 1, 1900, Zgharta, northern Lebanon - d. Sept. 17, 1982), foreign minister of Lebanon (1943).
Boulter, Hugh (b. Jan. 4, 1672, London - d. Sept. 27, 1742, London), joint acting lord lieutenant of Ireland (1730-31). He was archbishop of Armagh (1724-42).
Boumaza, Bachir (b. Nov. 26, 1927, Kherrata, Algeria - d. Nov. 6, 2009, Lausanne, Switzerland), Algerian politician. He was minister of labour and social affairs (1962-63), national economy (1963-64), industry and energy (1964-65), and information (1965-66) and president of the Council of the Nation (1997-2001).
Boumedienne, Houari, Boumedienne also spelled Boumédiène (Arabic Hawwari Abu Midyan), original name Mohamed Ben Brahim Boukharouba (Muhammad Ibrahim Abu Kharruba) (b. Aug. 23, 1932 [officially; some sources indicate he was born Aug. 23, 1925 or 1927], Clauzel, near Guelma, Algeria - d. Dec. 27, 1978, Algiers), president of Algeria (1965-78). He went to Egypt to avoid conscription in the French Army. In 1955 he joined a guerrilla unit in western Algeria, adopting his nom de guerre Houari Boumedienne. The rebels divided the country into military districts, and Boumedienne commanded the one around Oran. As chief of staff of the National Liberation Front from 1960, he centred his efforts on raising an Algerian army in Morocco and Tunisia, out of reach of the French. A peace treaty was signed with France in March 1962, Ahmed Ben Bella became president, and Boumedienne was named defense minister and vice president. But Ben Bella's autocracy clashed with Boumedienne's military pragmatism, and in a June 1965 coup Boumedienne installed himself as president. Lacking widespread popular support, he at first governed through a 26-member revolutionary council. As a result his leadership was weak and indecisive, but after an attempt by military officers to overthrow his regime failed in December 1967, he asserted his direct and undisputed leadership of Algeria. In 1971 he imposed state control on the oil industry, at the cost of ending Algeria's special relationship with France. He risked war with Morocco in 1975 by trying to gain territorial access to the Atlantic across the Spanish Sahara (later Western Sahara). In 1976 his government issued a National Charter and then a new constitution, both adopted by referendum. He was a leading figure in the nonaligned movement and was chairman of the Organization of African Unity in 1968-69.
Boun Oum (na Champasak), Prince (b. Dec. 12, 1912, Champasak, Laos - d. March 17, 1980, Boulogne-Billancourt, near Paris), prince of Champasak (1946) and prime minister and foreign minister of Laos (1948-50, 1960-62). He took part in the resistance movement against the Japanese during World War II and supported France following the war. An independence agreement was signed in 1949 while he first served as prime minister of Laos. Despite the 14-nation 1954 Geneva Conference agreement stating that Laos was to be a unified, independent buffer state, the deeply divided country continued to be torn apart by three factions. The civil war among pro-Western (led by Boun Oum), Communist (Pathet Lao, led by Souphanouvong), and neutralist (led by Souvanna Phouma) forces was halted in 1962 when the three reaffirmed that Laos was a neutral state. Boum Oum rejoined the government four years later as minister of religion, serving until 1972, and retained the honorary title of inspector general of the realm until the Pathet Lao gained full control of Laos in 1975. He then fled to France. The Lao People's Democratic Republic condemned Boun Oum to death in absentia.
Bounkoulou, Benjamin (b. Sept. 25, 1942, Kinkengué village, Bouenza region, southern Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)]), foreign minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (1992-95). He was also ambassador to the United States (1987-90) and minister of privatization (1997).
Bourassa, Robert (b. July 14, 1933, Montreal, Quebec - d. Oct. 2, 1996, Montreal), premier of Quebec (1970-76, 1985-94). A master of ambiguity, Bourassa flirted with the fledgling separatist movement but rejected its hazy economic dreams. He was first elected as a Liberal Party deputy in the Quebec National Assembly on June 5, 1966. Although inexperienced and relatively unknown, he was elected leader of the Quebec Liberal Party on Jan. 17, 1970, led it to victory in the April 1970 elections, and on April 29, at age 36, he became Quebec's youngest premier. In October 1970 a radical Quebec separatist group murdered a cabinet member and kidnapped the British trade commissioner. Bourassa was harshly criticized for his handling of the crisis; the federal government intervened, suspending civil liberties and sending armed troops to Montreal. Bourassa's economic policy, however, which focused on large-scale development, notably the James Bay hydroelectric project, was popular, and he won reelection in 1973. The following year he signed Bill 22, which made French the official language of the province and limited the use of English. The bill, which increased tensions between federalists and Quebec nationalists, contributed to his defeat in the 1976 elections. Four days later, Bourassa abruptly quit politics. In 1980 his tireless campaigning against a referendum on Quebec independence won favour with the Liberal Party, and on Oct. 15, 1983, he was reelected its leader. With the Liberals' victory in 1985, Bourassa was again named premier; he was reelected in 1989. In 1990 a dispute over land claims led to a standoff with Mohawk Indians that ended peacefully. In 1992 his support for the North American Free Trade Agreement helped sway Canadian opinion.
Bourcier Saint-Chaffray, Jean (Baptiste) Édouard (b. June 24, 1870, Chania, Crete, Ottoman Empire [now in Greece] - d. 19...), resident-superior of Laos (1913-14) and Tonkin (1917-21).
Bourdiaux, Henri (b. Aug. 29, 1838, Sermoise-sur-Loire, Nièvre, France - d. Aug. 10, 1899, Saint-Pierre-Le-Moutier, Nièvre), acting governor of Senegal (1883-84).
Bourgarel, Frédéric Amable (b. May 23, 1826, Toulon, France - d. May 21, 1897, Toulon), commandant-particular of Gabon (1868-69).
Bourgeois, Geert (b. July 6, 1951, Roeselare, Belgium), foreign minister (2004-08, 2014- ) and minister-president (2014- ) of Flanders.
Bourgeois, Léon (Victor Auguste) (b. May 29, 1851, Paris, France - d. Sept. 29, 1925, Château d'Oger, near Épernay, France), prime minister of France (1895-96). He was also prefect of the départements of Tarn (1882-83), Seine (1883-85), and Haute-Garonne (1885-86), prefect of police of Paris (1887-88), minister of interior (1890, 1895-96), public instruction and fine arts (1890-92, 1898), justice (1892-93, 1893), foreign affairs (1896, 1906, 1914), and labour and social security (1912-13, 1917), minister of state (1915-16, 1917), and president of the Chamber of Deputies (1902-05) and the Senate (1920-23). A champion of the League of Nations, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1920.
Bourges, Yvon (b. June 29, 1921, Pau, France - d. April 18, 2009, Paris, France), governor of Upper Volta (1956-58), high commissioner of French Equatorial Africa (1958-60), commerce minister (1972-73) and defense minister (1975-80) of France, and president of the Regional Council of Bretagne (1986-98).
Bourgès-Maunoury, Maurice (b. Aug. 19, 1914, Luisant, Eure-et-Loir - d. Feb. 10, 1993, Paris), finance minister (1953), industry minister (1954), interior minister (1955-56, 1957-58), defense minister (1956-57), and prime minister (1957) of France.
Bourgine, Maurice (Léon) (b. Jan. 15, 1879, Saint-Joseph, Réunion - d. Sept. 23, 1963, Pamiers, Ariège, France), lieutenant governor of Niger (1933-34), commissioner of French Togo (1934-35), and governor of Dahomey (1935-37).
Bourguiba, Habib (Ben Ali), Arabic Habib ibn `Ali Abu Ruqayba (b. Aug. 3, 19031, Monastir, Tunisia - d. April 6, 2000, Monastir), president of Tunisia (1957-87). He first joined the Destour Party, but when this did not seem to make any headway in the struggle for Tunisian independence from France, Bourguiba and others broke away to form the Neo-Destour Party in 1934, with Bourguiba as its secretary-general; he would become its president 14 years later. As the central figure in the Tunisian national struggle, he was imprisoned several times (1934-36, 1938-42, 1952-55). In 1954 the government of Pierre Mendès-France began negotiations with Bourguiba; in April 1955 he secured autonomy for his country from Edgar Faure, Mendès-France's successor. Foreign affairs and defense were reserved for France. On March 20, 1956, he concluded - with French premier Guy Mollet - a treaty giving Tunisia its independence. He became prime minister, foreign minister, and defense minister. In 1957 agreement in principle for the evacuation of the French forces from Tunisia, except Bizerte, was reached. After the abolition of the monarchy in 1957, he was elected the first president of Tunisia. In 1961 he asked France to evacuate Bizerte, which was finally effected in 1963. He established a prosperous secular state, but brooked no serious opposition. In 1975 the Tunisian National Assembly made him president for life. In 1986 the aged leader began acting erratically, dismissing close advisers and his handpicked successor, Prime Minister Mohamed Mzali. In early 1987 he appointed Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, the interior minister, to the prime ministry after the latter had firmly suppressed Islamic fundamentalists who had planned to overthrow the government. In November 1987 Ben Ali removed Bourguiba from the presidency on grounds of senility.
1 His actual birth year may be 1901, the change to 1903 having been caused by a secretarial error when he registered at the Faculty of Law of the University of Paris in 1924.
Bourguiba, Habib, Jr., Arabic Habib ibn Habib Abu Ruqayba (b. April 9, 1927, Paris, France - d. Dec. 28, 2009, Tunis, Tunisia), foreign minister of Tunisia (1964-70); son of Habib Bourguiba. He was also ambassador to Italy (1957-58), France (1958-61), and the United States (1961-63) and justice minister (1970).
Bourhane, Nourdine (b. Oct. 28, 1958, Mayotte), prime minister of the Comoros (1997-98).
Bouri, Wahbi al- (b. Jan. 23, 1916 - d. June 2010), foreign minister of Libya (1957-58, 1965-66).
Bourlamaque, François Charles de (b. 1716, Paris - d. June 24, 1764, Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe), governor of Guadeloupe (1763-64).
Bourmont, Louis (Auguste Victor de Ghaisnes, comte) de (b. Sept. 2, 1773, Bourmont castle, Freigné [now in Maine-et-Loire], France - d. Oct. 27, 1846, Bourmont castle), French minister of war (1829-30) and military commander of Algeria (1830).
Bournat, Gilbert (Marie Jean, baron) de (b. Nov. 7, 1896, Aix-en-Provence, Bouches-du-Rhône, France - d. 197...), administrator of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1936-41).
Bours Castelo, (José) Eduardo (Robinson) (b. Dec. 17, 1956, Ciudad Obregón, Sonora, Mexico), governor of Sonora (2003-09).
Bousquet, Rufus (George), foreign minister of Saint Lucia (2006-07, 2009-11).
Bouteflika, Abdelaziz, Arabic `Abd al-`Aziz Abu Tifliqa (b. March 2, 1937, Oujda, northeastern Morocco), president of Algeria (1999- ). He was minister of youth, sport, and tourism (1962-63) and then foreign minister (1963-79). In 1974-75 he was president of the UN General Assembly. He was a staunch supporter of military ruler Col. Houari Boumedienne. He built a vast network of links with foreign leaders, mostly from developing countries, and Algiers was dubbed "Mecca of Revolutionaries" in the 1970s because of its active role in opposing both the U.S.-led capitalist camp and the Communist bloc. He was seen as one of the most militant anti-Western figures in the Third World. He caused outrage in Western capitals when he publicly embraced the gunman Carlos during the 1975 kidnapping of OPEC ministers from Vienna. Even though one of the captives was Algeria's own oil minister, Algiers ignored Western demands that Carlos be arrested and he was allowed to slip back into the shadows. Bouteflika's rising star was highlighted in 1978 when he was selected to read Boumedienne's funeral oration - a strong signal of confidence and the influence required to succeed him. But a government audit, led by Ahmed Taleb Ibrahimi, who was a senior presidential official, accused him of embezzling millions of dollars as minister - a charge that appeared then to have finished off his political career forever. His supporters said the corruption allegations had been used to silence him. Having left the country in 1980, he lived mainly in Arab Gulf states, and returned for short periods in 1989 and in 1994 when he rejected a military offer to take over as an unelected head of state. In the 1999 presidential election he was widely believed to be the army candidate. He pledged to negotiate with the banned Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) to end Algeria's seven-year-old civil strife. He was reelected in 2004 and 2009.
Bouteiller, Paul (Gustave) (b. March 2, 1921, Paris, France - d. May 15, 2011, Paris), prefect of French Guiana (1967-70).
Bouterse, Dési(ré Delano) (b. Oct. 13, 1945, Domburg, Suriname), de facto leader (1980-88) and president (2010- ) of Suriname. One of a group of army men who overthrew the elected government of Suriname in February 1980, Bouterse became the leading figure of the National Military Council. He imposed martial law and censorship, and he was accused of ordering the killings of 15 top intellectuals, political leaders, and journalists in 1982. He conceded his regime was responsible for the killings, but did not acknowledge any personal responsibility. The Netherlands, Suriname's colonial ruler until 1975, reacted to the slayings by suspending a vital $1.5 billion aid package. In 1985 he drafted a new constitution that retained a strong role for the military. Aid was resumed when Bouterse permitted elections in 1987. Bouterse resigned as army chief in 1990, but that same year he overthrew the elected president and aid was suspended again. Bouterse allowed new elections the following year, retired from the military, and started building his army-based National Democratic Party. In 1996 elections, the party campaigned on a strongly nationalistic platform and won the most seats in parliament. It assembled a coalition government that named a close Bouterse associate, Jules Wijdenbosch, president. Wijdenbosch, in turn, named Bouterse a special adviser - a move that gave Bouterse diplomatic immunity when traveling abroad and helped him avoid drug smuggling charges filed in 1997 by Dutch prosecutors. The Dutch alleged Bouterse, now a timber executive, exported tons of drugs to Europe and had links to Colombian cocaine cartels. Bouterse denied it. He was tried in absentia in 1999 and sentenced to 11 years in jail. In 2005 he made an abortive bid for the presidency, widely seen as a move to avoid imprisonment over the 1982 killings. In 2010 he succeeded, while still facing trial.
Boutros, Fouad, Arabic Fu´ad Butrus (b. 1920, Beirut, Lebanon), defense minister (1966, 1976-80) and foreign minister (1968, 1976-82) of Lebanon. He was also minister of planning (1959-60), education (1959-60, 1966), justice (1961-64), and tourism (1968).
Boutros Ghali Pasha, Arabic Butrus Ghali Basha (b. 1847 - d. [assassinated] Feb. 21, 1910), foreign minister (1894-1910) and prime minister (1908-10) of Egypt.
Boutros-Ghali, Boutros, Arabic Butrus Butrus Ghali (b. Nov. 14, 1922, Cairo, Egypt), secretary-general of the United Nations (1992-96); grandson of Boutros Ghali Pasha; nephew of Wasef Boutros Ghali Pasha. In October 1977, in an effort to bring more Egyptian Christians into the government, Boutros-Ghali was appointed Egypt's minister of state for foreign affairs, and the following month he accompanied Pres. Anwar as-Sadat on his historic trip to Jerusalem after Egypt's foreign minister resigned in protest against the Egyptian-Israeli rapprochement. Boutros-Ghali was part of the secretariat of the National Democratic Party from 1980 and became a member of the Egyptian parliament in 1987. He became deputy prime minister in May 1991 and played a major role in securing Arab support for the Gulf war. He was the first Arab and first African to become UN secretary-general. The selection process at the end of 1991 was dominated by demands from the Organization of African Unity (OAU) that a leader from their continent be chosen. He was only one of six candidates the OAU had recommended, and his inclusion on the list was apparently an afterthought, brought about by pressure from France on the OAU to recommend at least one fluent French speaker. As secretary-general, Boutros-Ghali vigorously supported UN mediation in post-Cold War strife. His term saw lengthy and difficult peacekeeping operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Somalia, and Rwanda. In 1995, he led the international celebration of the UN's 50th anniversary. The United States, a permanent member of the UN Security Council, became dissatisfied with Boutros-Ghali's independent leadership and successfully blocked his bid for a second term as secretary-general in 1996. In 1997-2002, Boutros-Ghali was secretary-general of La Francophonie, a 49-member grouping of French-speaking nations.
Boutros Ghali Pasha, Wasef, Arabic Wasif Butrus Ghali Basha (b. April 14, 1878, Cairo, Egypt - d. 1958, Cairo), foreign minister of Egypt (1924, 1928, 1930, 1936-37); son of Boutros Ghali Pasha.
Boutros-Ghali, Youssef, Arabic Yusuf Butrus Ghali (b. Aug. 20, 1952, Cairo, Egypt), finance minister of Egypt (2004-11); nephew of Boutros Boutros-Ghali. He was also minister of economy (1997-2001) and foreign trade (1997-2004).
Boutwell, George S(ewel) (b. Jan. 28, 1818, Brookline, Mass. - d. Feb. 27, 1905, Groton, Mass.), governor of Massachusetts (1851-53) and U.S. commissioner of internal revenue (1862-63) and secretary of the treasury (1869-73).
Bouvet de Lozier, Jean Baptiste Charles (b. Jan. 14, 1705, Saint-Malo, France - d. 1786, Saint-Malo), governor of Île Bourbon (1750-52, 1757-63) and Île de France (1753-55).
Bouvier, Vincent (b. Sept. 8, 1952, Paris, France), prefect of Mayotte (2007-08) and high commissioner of New Caledonia (2014- ). He was also prefect of the départements of Aveyron (2008-09) and Haut-Rhin (2013-14).
Bouzet, Charles (Philippe) du (b. Jan. 14, 1817, Paris, France - d. May 14, 1883, Paris), extraordinary commissioner of France in Algeria (1870-71).
Bouzet, Joseph Fidèle Eugène, marquis du (b. Dec. 9, 1805, Paris, France - d. Sept. 22, 1867, Brest, Finistère, France), governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1854-58) and commandant of New Caledonia (1855-56).
Bovens, Theo(dorus Jozef Franciscus Marie) (b. Oct. 1, 1959, Maastricht, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Limburg (2011- ).
Bovesse, François (Louis Charles Marie) (b. June 10, 1890, Namur, Belgium - d. Feb. 1, 1944, Namur), justice minister of Belgium (1934-35, 1936-37).
Bowell, Sir Mackenzie (b. Dec. 27, 1823, Rickinghall, Suffolk, England - d. Dec. 10, 1917, Belleville, Ontario, Canada), prime minister of Canada (1894-96). He immigrated to Canada in 1833. In 1867 he was first elected to the Canadian House of Commons from North Hastings as a Conservative, remaining until 1892, when he switched to the Senate. In 1878 he became minister of customs, in 1892 minister of militia and defense, and later in 1892 he was made minister of trade and commerce. As senior member of the cabinet, he acted for the prime minister during his absence from Canada, and upon the sudden death of Sir John Thompson in 1894 he was chosen to become prime minister. He was knighted in 1895. His tenure was short and full of strife. In January 1896 seven of his ministers resigned en masse, demanding a change in leadership. He called them a "nest of traitors," but agreed to step down. After the Conservatives were defeated he remained in the Senate as opposition leader until his retirement in 1906.
Bowen, Nigel Hubert (b. May 26, 1911, British Columbia, Canada - d. Sept. 27, 1994), attorney general (1966-69, 1971) and foreign minister (1971-72) of Australia.
Bowen, Otis R(ay), byname Doc Bowen (b. Feb. 26, 1918, Richland Township, Fulton county, Ind. - d. May 4, 2013, Donaldson, Ind.), governor of Indiana (1973-81) and U.S. secretary of health and human services (1985-89).
Bowles, Chester (Bliss) (b. April 5, 1901, Springfield, Mass. - d. May 25, 1986, Essex, Conn.), U.S. politician. Ten days after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (Dec. 7, 1941), Bowles became director of Connecticut's Office of Price Administration, in charge of rationing scarce commodities. In 1943 he was appointed federal price administrator by Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt. After World War II Pres. Harry S. Truman urged Bowles, a liberal Democrat, to accept the position of director of the newly created Office of Economic Stabilization, a post he held from February to July 1946. In the same year, he was defeated in his quest to gain the Democratic nomination for governor of Connecticut. Bowles then served (1947-48) as a special consultant to the UN secretary-general and as international chairman of fundraising efforts for the Appeal for Children. He was elected governor of Connecticut in 1948 and established the first state commission on civil rights; he lost his reelection bid in 1950. He fulfilled a lifetime ambition when President Truman (September 1951) appointed him ambassador to India and Nepal. After the election of Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower, however, he resigned and returned to the U.S. in early 1953. In 1958, he was elected to the House of Representatives from the second congressional district of Connecticut. In 1961 he was named under secretary of state by Pres. John F. Kennedy. Later in the same year, he was appointed special representative and adviser to the president on African, Asian, and Latin-American affairs. He was a staunch opponent of American involvement in Cuba and Vietnam. In 1963 he was reappointed ambassador to India and held the post until 1969, when he retired from public life.
Bowo, Fauzi (b. April 10, 1948, Jakarta, Indonesia), governor of Jakarta (2007-12). He became ambassador to Germany in 2014.
Bowring, Sir Charles (Calvert) (b. Nov. 20, 1872 - d. June 13, 1945), acting governor of Kenya (1909, 1912, 1917-19) and governor of Nyasaland (1924-29); knighted 1919.
Bowser, William John (b. Dec. 3, 1867, Rexton, New Brunswick - d. Oct. 25, 1933, Vancouver, B.C.), premier of British Columbia (1915-16). Moving to Vancouver in 1891, he quickly became involved in local politics, running for provincial office several times until he won a Vancouver seat in the provincial legislature in 1903 as a Conservative. In 1907 Premier Richard McBride appointed Bowser attorney general, and in 1909 he was also assigned the duties of finance minister. He was largely seen as the "power behind the throne" during the McBride days, and was promptly sworn in as premier following McBride's resignation in 1915. In 1914 he sent the militia to the Vancouver Island coal mines to put down civil disturbances during the drawn-out strike by coal miners. He also attempted to derail women's suffrage and prohibition by promising referenda on both issues, which he personally opposed. Bowser had a reputation as a politician who lacked personal warmth but was skilled at dispensing favours and getting out the vote. He inherited a divided party from McBride. C.H. Tupper, a prominent Tory, lobbied publicly against him, calling him a "little Kaiser." This, combined with Liberal charges of corruption, brought down the government in the 1916 election. Bowser held his own seat and remained leader of the opposition until his defeat in 1924. He continued as leader of the provincial Conservative Party until November 1926. He came out of retirement to lead a non-partisan group into the 1933 election but died during the campaign; only two of the movement's candidates won seats.
Boya Alós, Francés X(avier), Catalan Francesc Xavier Boya i Alòs (b. Jan. 23, 1960, Les, Val d'Aran, Catalonia, Spain), syndic of Val d'Aran (2007-11).
Boyd (de la Guardia), Aquilino (Edgardo) (b. March 30, 1921 - d. Sept. 4, 2004, Panama City, Panama), foreign minister of Panama (1956-58, 1976-77). He was also president of the Legislative Assembly (1949), permanent representative to the United Nations (1962-76, 1985-89, 1997-99), and ambassador to the United States (1982-85) and to the United Kingdom (1994-97).
Boyd (Briceño), Augusto Samuel (b. Aug. 1, 1879, Panama City, Colombia [now in Panama] - d. June 17, 1957, Panama City), acting president of Panama (1939-40); son of Federico Boyd. He became president of the Municipal Council of Panama City in 1906. He served as member and vice president of the National Assembly and as president and vice president of the National Electoral Council. Elected first vice president in 1936, he was serving as Panamanian ambassador to the United States when he was called home in December 1939 to become president after the sudden death of Pres. Juan Demóstenes Arosemena. He served until the Arosemena term ended in October 1940.
Boyd (López), Federico (Augusto) (b. Sept. 24, 1851, Panama City, Colombia [now in Panama] - d. May 25, 1924, New York City), acting president (1910) and foreign minister (1911-12) of Panama.
Boyd Orr (of Brechin Mearns in the County of Angus), John Boyd Orr, (1st) Baron (b. Sept. 23, 1880, Kilmaurs, Ayrshire, Scotland - d. June 25, 1971, Newton of Stracathro, near Brechin, Angus, Scotland), director-general of the Food and Agriculture Organization (1945-48). He was knighted in 1935 and created a baron in 1949. In the latter year he also received the Nobel Peace Prize.
Boyé, Cornelis (b. July 20, 1805, Curaçao - d. ...), administrator of Bonaire (1853-59).
Boye, Mame Madior (b. 1940, Saint-Louis, Senegal), prime minister of Senegal (2001-02). She was justice minister in 2000-01.
Boyer, Jean-Pierre (b. Feb. 28, 1776, Port-au-Prince, Haiti - d. July 9, 1850, Paris), president of Haiti (1818-43). A mulatto himself, he served with the mulatto leader Alexandre Sabès Pétion and the black leader Henry Christophe after they had killed the dictator Jean-Jacques Dessalines in 1806. When Pétion and Christophe established separate regimes, Boyer served with Pétion against Christophe and succeeded to the presidency after Pétion died. In 1820, Christophe committed suicide and Boyer succeeded in unifying the country. In 1822 he conquered Santo Domingo, uniting the whole island. He invited the blacks of the U.S. to settle in Haiti. In 1825 France sent warships forcing Boyer to sign an agreement by which the French recognized Haitian independence in return for the payment of an indemnity of 150 million francs as compensation for the massacre of French plantation owners during the Haitian wars of independence. This debt burden strapped the already impoverished country far beyond her means. In an unsuccessful effort to halt the decline of the economy, Boyer passed the Code Rural, which sought to tie the peasant labourers to plantation land by denying them the right to leave the land, enter the towns, or start farms or shops of their own and by creating a rural constabulary to enforce the code. He also maintained a huge corrupt army and a civil service that constantly preyed on the rural population. The gap between the black peasants in the countryside and the mulattoes of the towns grew during Boyer's presidency. The corruption of Boyer's rule and the stagnation of the economy combined with the devastation of an earthquake in 1843 brought about a rebellion that forced Boyer to flee to Jamaica and later to France.
Boyer-Bazelais, Jean-Pierre, byname of Charles Jean-Pierre Bazelais (b. Nov. 7, 1836, Port-au-Prince, Haiti - d. Jan. 8, 1884, Miragoane, Haiti), chief executive of the Central Revolutionary Committee of Haiti (1883).
Boyer de Latour (du Moulin), Pierre (Georges Jacques Marie) (b. June 14, 1896, Maisons-Laffitte, Yvelines, France - d. Jan. 31, 1976, Paris), French resident-general of Tunisia (1954-55) and Morocco (1955).
Boyle, Ranald (Hugh Montgomerie) (b. Aug. 19, 1921, Fairlie, Ayrshire, Scotland - d. Sept. 17, 1999, Fairlie), British political agent in Qatar (1965-69).
Boyle, Tony, byname of William Anthony Boyle (b. Dec. 1, 1904, Bald Butte, Mont. - d. May 31, 1985, Wilkes-Barre, Pa.), president of the United Mine Workers of America (1963-72). In April 1974 he was convicted of having ordered the murder of a union rival, Joseph A. Yablonski, and his family in 1969. He received three consecutive life sentences and began to serve them after ending another prison term for embezzlement in April 1976. In January 1977 he was granted a new trial, but he was convicted again in early 1978 and drew the same sentence.
Bozanga, Simon Narcisse (b. Dec. 26, 1942, Bangassou, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic] - d. July 7, 2010, Amiens, France), prime minister of the Central African Republic (1981). He was also ambassador to Gabon (1978-79) and justice minister (1980-81).
Bozer, Ali (Hüsrev) (b. July 28, 1925, Ankara, Turkey), acting prime minister (1989) and foreign minister (1990) of Turkey.
Bozhenov, Sergey (Anatolyevich) (b. April 8, 1965, Chamlykskaya, Krasnodar kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), head of administration of Volgograd oblast (2012-14). He was mayor of Astrakhan in 2004-11.
Bozhilov (Hadzhiyanakiev), Dobri (b. June 13, 1884, Kotel, Bulgaria - d. [executed] Feb. 1, 1945, Sofia, Bulgaria), finance minister (1938-44) and prime minister (1943-44) of Bulgaria.
Bozizé (Yangouvonda), François, original name Bozouissé Yangouvonda (b. Oct. 14, 1946, Mouila or Libreville, Gabon), president (2003-13) and defense minister (1979-81, 2003-09) of the Central African Republic. After attending a military officers' training college in the northeastern province of Bouar, he became captain in 1975. Self-proclaimed emperor Bokassa I appointed Bozizé brigadier-general in 1978. When David Dacko ousted Bokassa in 1979, he appointed Bozizé secretary of state for the armed forces. Bozizé was undergoing military training in France when André Kolingba ousted Dacko in 1981. He returned home and was appointed communications minister, but in 1982 Kolingba accused him of plotting a coup and he fled to Benin. Arrested there in July 1989, he was brought back to the Central African Republic, was imprisoned and tortured, but was acquitted in December 1991 by a Bangui court. In 1993, he contested presidential elections but won only 1.5% of the vote. The winner, Ange-Félix Patassé, appointed him army chief of staff in 1996. On Nov. 26, 2001, Bozizé was sacked in connection with a failed coup attempt on May 28 by Kolingba. Bozizé resisted an attempt to arrest him and fled to southern Chad, where he was followed by soldiers loyal to him. On Oct. 25, 2002, he claimed responsibility for a coup attempt foiled by Congolese militiamen loyal to former rebel leader Jean-Pierre Bemba. He launched another attack while Patassé traveled overseas, and triumphantly entered Bangui on March 15, 2003. He managed to keep the country relatively calm and set up a transitional government of national unity that brought in some of his opponents. In 2004 he assumed the rank of Général d'armée. In 2005 he won presidential elections in which Patassé was barred from running. In 2011 he was reelected, defeating Patassé. In March 2013 the Seleka rebel coalition resumed hostilities, accusing Bozizé of breaking a January peace agreement, and succeeded in taking the capital; Bozizé fled to Congo (Kinshasa).