Rulers: Russia

Ministries, political parties, etc.


Vice president
10 Jul 1991 -  3 Oct 1993  Aleksandr Rutskoy                  (b. 1947)
                           (suspended from 1 Sep 1993)

Deputy prime ministers
 6 Nov 1991 - 14 Apr 1992  Gennady Burbulis (first deputy)    (b. 1945)
 6 Nov 1991 - 15 Dec 1992  Yegor Gaidar (1st time)            (b. 1956 - d. 2009)
                           (from 2 Mar 1992 first deputy)
15 Nov 1991 - 20 Jan 1994  Aleksandr Shokhin (1st time)       (b. 1951)
18 Dec 1991 - 31 Mar 1992  Sergey Shakhray (1st time)         (b. 1956)
20 May 1992 - 11 May 1993  Georgy Khizha                      (b. 1938)
30 May 1992 - 14 Dec 1992  Viktor Chernomyrdin                (b. 1938 - d. 2010)
 1 Jun 1992 - 16 Jan 1996  Anatoly Chubais (1st time)         (b. 1955)
                           (from 5 Nov 1994 first deputy)
 2 Jun 1992 - 20 Jan 1994  Vladimir Shumeiko (first deputy)   (b. 1945)
   Jun 1992 - 25 Mar 1993  Boris Saltykov                     (b. 1940)
15 Nov 1992 - 20 Jan 1994  Sergey Shakhray (2nd time)         (s.a.)
23 Dec 1992 - 20 Jan 1994  Boris Fyodorov (1st time)          (b. 1958 - d. 2008)
23 Dec 1992 - 24 Jul 1996  Yury Yarov                         (b. 1942)
10 Feb 1993 - 17 Mar 1997  Aleksandr Zaveryukha               (b. 1940)
15 Apr 1993 - 18 Sep 1993  Oleg Lobov (1st time)              (b. 1937)
                           (first deputy)
30 Apr 1993 - 20 Jun 1996  Oleg Soskovets (first deputy)      (b. 1949)
18 Sep 1993 - 20 Jan 1994  Yegor Gaidar (2nd time)            (s.a.)
                           (first deputy)
23 Mar 1994 -  6 Nov 1994  Aleksandr Shokhin (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 7 Apr 1994 -  5 Jan 1996  Sergei Shakhray (3rd time)         (s.a.)
 9 Nov 1994 - 17 Mar 1997  Aleksey Bolshakov                  (b. 1939)
                           (from 14 Aug 1996 first deputy)
 9 Nov 1994 - 17 Mar 1997  Oleg Davydov                       (b. 1940)
15 Nov 1994 - 24 Jan 1995  Vladimir Polevanov                 (b. 1949)
 7 Dec 1994 - 30 Jun 1995  Nikolay Yegorov                    (b. 1951 - d. 1997)
31 May 1995 - 17 Mar 1997  Vitaly Ignatenko                   (b. 1941)
 9 Jan 1996 -  9 Aug 1996  Vladimir Kinelyov                  (b. 1945)
25 Jan 1996 - 19 Jul 1996  Aleksandr Kazakov                  (b. 1948)
25 Jan 1996 -  9 Aug 1996  Vladimir Kadannikov                (b. 1941)
                           (first deputy)
18 Jun 1996 - 17 Mar 1997  Oleg Lobov (2nd time)              (s.a.)
                           (to 14 Aug 1996 first deputy)
14 Aug 1996 - 17 Mar 1997  Viktor Ilyushin (first deputy)     (b. 1947)
14 Aug 1996 - 17 Mar 1997  Vladimir Potanin (first deputy)    (b. 1961)
14 Aug 1996 - 17 Mar 1997  Aleksandr Livshits                 (b. 1946 - d. 2013)
14 Aug 1996 - 17 Mar 1997  Vladimir Babichev                  (b. 1939 - d. 2010)
14 Aug 1996 - 28 Feb 1998  Valery Serov                       (b. 1940)
17 Aug 1996 - 17 Mar 1997  Vladimir Fortov                    (b. 1946)
 4 Feb 1997 - 23 Mar 1998  Anatoly Kulikov                    (b. 1946)
 7 Mar 1997 - 23 Mar 1998  Anatoly Chubais (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                           (first deputy)
17 Mar 1997 - 28 Aug 1998  Boris Nemtsov                      (b. 1959)
                           (to 28 Apr 1998 first deputy)
17 Mar 1997 - 13 Aug 1997  Alfred Koch                        (b. 1961)
17 Mar 1997 - 28 Apr 1998  Vladimir Bulgak (1st time)         (b. 1941)
17 Mar 1997 - 16 Sep 1998  Oleg Sysuyev                       (b. 1953)
17 Mar 1997 - 28 Apr 1998  Yakov Urinson                      (b. 1944)
19 May 1997 - 30 Apr 1998  Viktor Khlystun                    (b. 1946)
 1 Aug 1997 - 25 Jul 1998  Ramazan Abdulatipov                (b. 1946)
13 Aug 1997 - 15 Nov 1997  Maksim Boyko                       (b. 1959)
20 Dec 1997 - 28 Apr 1998  Farit Gazizullin                   (b. 1946)
28 Feb 1998 - 25 Jul 1998  Ivan Rybkin                        (b. 1946)
23 Mar 1998 - 24 Apr 1998  Sergey Kiriyenko (first deputy)    (b. 1962)
28 Apr 1998 - 28 Sep 1998  Viktor Khristenko (1st time)       (b. 1957)
17 Aug 1998 - 28 Sep 1998  Boris Fyodorov (2nd time)          (s.a.)
11 Sep 1998 - 25 May 1999  Yury Maslyukov (first deputy)      (b. 1937 - d. 2010)
16 Sep 1998 - 21 Sep 1998  Vladimir Ryzhkov                   (b. 1966)
                           (refused the position)
16 Sep 1998 - 30 Sep 1998  Aleksandr Shokhin (3rd time)       (s.a.)
16 Sep 1998 - 25 May 1999  Vladimir Bulgak (2nd time)         (s.a.)
18 Sep 1998 - 27 Apr 1999  Vadim Gustov (first deputy)        (b. 1948)
21 Sep 1998 - 25 May 1999  Gennady Kulik                      (b. 1935)
21 Sep 1998 - 11 Mar 2003  Valentina Matvienko (f)            (b. 1949)
27 Apr 1999 - 19 May 1999  Sergey Stepashin (first deputy)    (b. 1952)
12 May 1999 - 10 Jan 2000  Nikolay Aksyonenko                 (b. 1949 - d. 2005)
                           (first deputy)
25 May 1999 - 20 May 2000  Vladimir Shcherbak                 (b. 1939)
25 May 1999 - 28 May 1999  Mikhail Zadornov (first deputy)    (b. 1963)
                           (refused the position)
31 May 1999 -  9 Mar 2004  Viktor Khristenko (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                           (to 10 Jan 2000 first deputy)
31 May 1999 - 18 Feb 2002  Ilya Klebanov                      (b. 1951)
 9 Aug 1999 - 16 Aug 1999  Vladimir Putin (first deputy)      (b. 1952)
15 Oct 1999 - 18 May 2000  Nikolay Koshman                    (b. 1944)
10 Jan 2000 - 17 May 2000  Mikhail Kasyanov (first deputy)    (b. 1957)
10 Jan 2000 - 18 May 2000  Sergey Shoigu                      (b. 1955)
18 May 2000 -  9 Mar 2004  Aleksey Kudrin (1st time)          (b. 1960)
20 May 2000 -  9 Mar 2004  Aleksey Gordeyev                   (b. 1955)
24 Apr 2003 -  9 Mar 2004  Galina Karelova (f)                (b. 1950)
24 Apr 2003 -  9 Mar 2004  Boris Alyoshin                     (b. 1955)
16 Jun 2003 -  9 Mar 2004  Vladimir Yakovlev                  (b. 1944)
 9 Mar 2004 - 20 Dec 2011  Aleksandr Zhukov                   (b. 1956)
                           (to 24 Sep 2007 first deputy)
14 Nov 2005 - 22 Dec 2011  Sergey Ivanov                      (b. 1953)
                           (15 Feb 2007 - 12 May 2008 first deputy)
14 Nov 2005 - 12 May 2008  Dmitry Medvedev (first deputy)     (b. 1965)
15 Feb 2007 - 12 May 2008  Sergey Naryshkin                   (b. 1954)
24 Sep 2007 - 27 Sep 2011  Aleksey Kudrin (2nd time)          (s.a.)
12 May 2008 - 21 May 2012  Viktor Zubkov (first deputy)       (b. 1941)
12 May 2008 -              Igor Shuvalov (first deputy)       (b. 1967)
12 May 2008 - 21 Oct 2010  Sergey Sobyanin                    (b. 1958)
12 May 2008 - 21 May 2012  Igor Sechin                        (b. 1960)
15 Oct 2008 -              Dmitry Kozak                       (b. 1958)
19 Jan 2010 -              Aleksandr Khloponin                (b. 1965)
21 Oct 2010 - 27 Dec 2011  Vyacheslav Volodin                 (b. 1964)
23 Dec 2011 -              Dmitry Rogozin                     (b. 1963)
27 Dec 2011 -  8 May 2013  Vladislav Surkov                   (b. 1964)
21 May 2012 -              Arkady Dvorkovich                  (b. 1972)
21 May 2012 -              Olga Golodets (f)                  (b. 1962)
22 May 2013 -              Sergey Prikhodko                   (b. 1957)
31 Aug 2013 -              Yury Trutnev                       (b. 1956)

Foreign Affairs

Ministers
11 Oct 1990 -  9 Jan 1996  Andrey Kozyrev                     (b. 1951)
 9 Jan 1996 - 11 Sep 1998  Yevgeny Primakov                   (b. 1929)
11 Sep 1998 -  9 Mar 2004  Igor Ivanov                        (b. 1945)
 9 Mar 2004 -              Sergey Lavrov                      (b. 1950)

Defense

Ministers
16 Mar 1992 - 18 May 1992  Boris Yeltsin (acting)             (b. 1931 - d. 2007)
18 May 1992 - 18 Jun 1996  Pavel Grachev                      (b. 1948 - d. 2012)
18 Jun 1996 - 17 Jul 1996  Mikhail Kolesnikov (acting)        (b. 1939 - d. 2007)
17 Jul 1996 - 23 May 1997  Igor Rodionov                      (b. 1936)
23 May 1997 - 28 Mar 2001  Igor Sergeyev                      (b. 1938 - d. 2006)
28 Mar 2001 - 15 Feb 2007  Sergey Ivanov                      (b. 1953)
15 Feb 2007 -  6 Nov 2012  Anatoly Serdyukov                  (b. 1962)
 6 Nov 2012 -              Sergey Shoigu                      (b. 1955)

Chiefs of Joint Staff of the Russian Armed Forces
   Jun 1992 - 22 Nov 1992  Viktor Dubynin                     (b. 1943 - d. 1992)
23 Dec 1992 - 18 Oct 1996  Mikhail Kolesnikov                 (b. 1939 - d. 2007)
18 Oct 1996 - 22 May 1997  Viktor Samsonov                    (b. 1941)
22 May 1997 - 19 Jul 2004  Anatoly Kvashnin                   (b. 1946)
                           (acting to 19 Jun 1997)
19 Jul 2004 -  3 Jun 2008  Yury Baluyevsky                    (b. 1947)
 3 Jun 2008 -  9 Nov 2012  Nikolay Makarov                    (b. 1949)
 9 Nov 2012 -              Valery Gerasimov                   (b. 1955)

Defense Industry

Minister
 8 May 1996 - 17 Mar 1997  Zinovy Pak                         (b. 1939)

Interior

 8 Sep 1990                Ministry of Interior
19 Dec 1991                Ministry of Security and Interior
15 Jan 1992                Ministry of Interior

Ministers
 8 Sep 1990 - 13 Sep 1991  Viktor Barannikov (1st time)       (b. 1940 - d. 1995)
13 Sep 1991 - 19 Dec 1991  Andrey Dunayev (acting)            (b. 1936)
19 Dec 1991 - 15 Jan 1992  Viktor Barannikov (2nd time)       (s.a.)
15 Jan 1992 - 30 Jun 1995  Viktor Yerin                       (b. 1944)
30 Jun 1995 -  6 Jul 1995  Yevgeny Abramov (acting)           (b. 1939)
 6 Jul 1995 - 23 Mar 1998  Anatoly Kulikov                    (b. 1946)
23 Mar 1998 - 30 Mar 1998  Pavel Maslov (acting)              (b. 1946)
30 Mar 1998 - 21 May 1999  Sergey Stepashin                   (b. 1952)
                           (acting to 28 Apr 1998)
21 May 1999 - 28 Mar 2001  Vladimir Rushailo                  (b. 1954)
28 Mar 2001 - 24 Dec 2003  Boris Gryzlov                      (b. 1950)
24 Dec 2003 - 21 May 2012  Rashid Nurgaliyev                  (b. 1956)
                           (acting to 9 Mar 2004)
21 May 2012 -              Vladimir Kolokoltsev               (b. 1961)

Finance

11 Nov 1991 - 19 Feb 1992  merged with Ministry of Economy

Ministers
18 Jul 1990 -  5 Dec 1990  Boris Fyodorov (1st time)          (b. 1958 - d. 2008)
 5 Dec 1990 - 11 Nov 1991  Igor Lazarev                       (b. 1937 - d. 1997)
19 Feb 1992 -  2 Apr 1992  Yegor Gaidar                       (b. 1956 - d. 2009)
 2 Apr 1992 - 25 Mar 1993  Vasily Barchuk                     (b. 1941)
25 Mar 1993 - 26 Jan 1994  Boris Fyodorov (2nd time)          (s.a.)
26 Jan 1994 - 12 Oct 1994  Sergey Dubinin (acting)            (b. 1950)
12 Oct 1994 -  4 Nov 1994  Andrey Vavilov (acting)            (b. 1961)
 4 Nov 1994 - 15 Aug 1996  Vladimir Panskov                   (b. 1944)
15 Aug 1996 - 17 Mar 1997  Aleksandr Livshits                 (b. 1946 - d. 2013)
17 Mar 1997 - 20 Nov 1997  Anatoly Chubais                    (b. 1955)
20 Nov 1997 - 25 May 1999  Mikhail Zadornov                   (b. 1963)
25 May 1999 - 18 May 2000  Mikhail Kasyanov                   (b. 1957)
18 May 2000 - 27 Sep 2011  Aleksey Kudrin                     (b. 1960)
27 Sep 2011 -              Anton Siluanov                     (b. 1963)
                           (acting to 16 Dec 2011)

Taxes

Ministers
23 Dec 1998 - 25 May 1999  Georgy Boos                        (b. 1963)
25 May 1999 - 18 May 2000  Aleksandr Pochinok                 (b. 1958 - d. 2014)
18 May 2000 -  9 Mar 2004  Gennady Bukayev                    (b. 1947)

Economy

11 Nov 1991                Ministry of Economy
17 May 2000                Ministry of Economic Development and Trade
12 May 2008                Ministry of Economy

Ministers
11 Nov 1991 - 19 Feb 1992  Yegor Gaidar (1st time)            (b. 1956 - d. 2009)
19 Feb 1992 - 25 Mar 1993  Andrey Nechayev                    (b. 1953)
26 Mar 1993 - 15 Apr 1993  Andrey Shapovalyants (1st time)    (b. 1952)
                           (acting)
15 Apr 1993 - 18 Sep 1993  Oleg Lobov                         (b. 1937)
18 Sep 1993 - 20 Jan 1994  Yegor Gaidar (2nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)
20 Jan 1994 -  6 Nov 1994  Aleksandr Shokhin                  (b. 1951)
 8 Nov 1994 - 17 Mar 1997  Yevgeny Yasin                      (b. 1934)
17 Mar 1997 - 25 Sep 1998  Yakov Urinson                      (b. 1944)
25 Sep 1998 - 17 May 2000  Andrey Shapovalyants (2nd time)    (s.a.)
18 May 2000 - 24 Sep 2007  German Gref                        (b. 1964)
24 Sep 2007 - 21 May 2012  Elvira Nabiullina (f)              (b. 1963)
21 May 2012 - 24 Jun 2013  Andrey Belousov                    (b. 1959)
24 Jun 2013 -              Aleksey Ulyukayev                  (b. 1956)

Industry and Trade

23 Jul 1990                Ministry of Industry
30 Sep 1992                abolished
15 Aug 1996                reestablished
17 Mar 1997                abolished
30 Apr 1998                Ministry of Industry and Trade
25 Sep 1998                Ministry of Trade
17 May 2000                merged with Ministry of Economy
12 May 2008                Ministry of Industry and Trade

Ministers
23 Jul 1990 - 15 Nov 1991  Viktor Kisin                       (b. 1941)
15 Nov 1991 - 30 Sep 1992  Aleksandr Titkin                   (b. 1948 - d. 1999)
22 Aug 1996 - 17 Mar 1997  Yury Bespalov                      (b. 1939)
 8 May 1998 - 23 Jul 1998  Georgy Gabunia (1st time) (acting) (b. 1952 - d. 2000)
23 Jul 1998 - 22 Sep 1998  Yury Maslyukov                     (b. 1937 - d. 2010)
25 Sep 1998 - 25 May 1999  Georgy Gabunia (2nd time)          (s.a.)
25 May 1999 - 17 May 2000  Mikhail Fradkov                    (b. 1950)
12 May 2008 - 31 Jan 2012  Viktor Khristenko                  (b. 1957)
 2 Feb 2012 -              Denis Manturov                     (b. 1969)
                           (acting to 21 May 2012)

External Economic Relations

11 Nov 1991 - 22 Feb 1992  abolished

Ministers
25 Jul 1990 -  9 Aug 1991  Viktor Yaroshenko                  (b. 1946)
11 Aug 1991 - 11 Nov 1991  Gennady Filshin (acting)           (b. 1931)
22 Feb 1992 - 23 Dec 1992  Pyotr Aven                         (b. 1955)
23 Dec 1992 - 22 Sep 1993  Sergey Glazyev                     (b. 1961)
22 Sep 1993 -  1 Apr 1997  Oleg Davydov                       (b. 1940)
26 Mar 1997 - 30 Apr 1998  Mikhail Fradkov                    (b. 1950)
                           (acting to 16 Apr 1997)

Industry, Science, and Technology

14 Jul 1990                State Committee for Science and High School Affairs
11 Nov 1991                Ministry of Science and Technical Policy
28 Nov 1991                Ministry of Science, High School and Technical Policy
25 Mar 1993                Ministry of Science and Technical Policy
15 Aug 1996                State Committee for Science and Technical Policy
17 Mar 1997                Ministry of Science and Technical Policy
18 May 2000                Ministry of Industry, Science, and Technology

Chairman of the State Committee
14 Jul 1990 - 10 Nov 1991  Nikolay Malyshev                   (b. 1945)
Minister
11 Nov 1991 - 19 Aug 1996  Boris Saltykov                     (b. 1940)
Chairman of the State Committee
19 Aug 1996 - 17 Mar 1997  Vladimir Fortov                    (b. 1946)
Ministers
17 Mar 1997 - 30 Apr 1998  Vladimir Fortov                    (s.a.)
30 Apr 1998 - 25 Sep 1998  Vladimir Bulgak                    (b. 1941)
25 Sep 1998 - 18 May 2000  Mikhail Kirpichnikov               (b. 1945)
18 May 2000 - 17 Oct 2001  Aleksandr Dondukov                 (b. 1954)
17 Oct 2001 -  1 Nov 2003  Ilya Klebanov                      (b. 1951)
 1 Nov 2003 -  9 Mar 2004  Andrey Fursenko (acting)           (b. 1949)

Antitrust Policy and Business Support

Ministers
30 Oct 1998 - 12 May 1999  Gennady Khodyrev                   (b. 1942)
31 May 1999 -  9 Mar 2004  Ilya Yuzhanov                      (b. 1960)

Property Relations

23 Jul 1990                State Committee for Management of State Property
23 Sep 1997                Ministry of State Property
17 May 2000                Ministry of Property Relations
 9 Mar 2004                abolished

Chairmen of the State Committee
21 Nov 1990 - 10 Nov 1991  Mikhail Maley                      (b. 1941)
10 Nov 1991 -  5 Nov 1994  Anatoly Chubais                    (b. 1955)
15 Nov 1994 - 24 Jan 1995  Vladimir Polevanov                 (b. 1949)
24 Jan 1995 -  8 Feb 1995  Pyotr Mostovoy (acting)            (b. 1949)
 8 Feb 1995 - 10 Jan 1996  Sergey Belyayev                    (b. 1954)
25 Jan 1996 -  9 Aug 1996  Aleksandr Kazakov                  (b. 1948)
13 Sep 1996 - 13 Aug 1997  Alfred Koch                        (b. 1961)
13 Aug 1997 - 23 Sep 1997  Maksim Boyko                       (b. 1959)
Ministers
23 Sep 1997 - 15 Nov 1997  Maksim Boyko                       (s.a.)
20 Dec 1997 -  9 Mar 2004  Farit Gazizullin                   (b. 1946)
20 Jan 1999 - 10 Mar 1999    Aleksandr Braverman              (b. 1954)
                             (acting for Gazizullin)

Bread

Minister
 5 Aug 1991 - 12 Nov 1991  Leonid Cheshinsky                  (b. 1945)

Energy

 9 Sep 1991                Ministry of Energy and Fuels
16 Jun 2001                Ministry of Energy
 9 Mar 2004                Ministry of Industry and Energy
12 May 2008                Ministry of Energy

Ministers
 9 Sep 1991 - 10 Nov 1991  Anatoly Dyakov                     (b. 1936)
10 Nov 1991 - 30 May 1992  Vladimir Lopukhin                  (b. 1952)
30 May 1992 - 14 Dec 1992  Viktor Chernomyrdin                (b. 1938 - d. 2010)
12 Jan 1993 - 22 Aug 1996  Yury Shafranik                     (b. 1952)
22 Aug 1996 -  9 Apr 1997  Pyotr Rodionov                     (b. 1951)
10 Apr 1997 - 24 Apr 1997  Viktor Ott (1st time) (acting)     (b. 1948)
24 Apr 1997 - 20 Nov 1997  Boris Nemtsov                      (b. 1959)
20 Nov 1997 - 23 Mar 1998  Sergey Kiriyenko                   (b. 1962)
23 Mar 1998 - 30 Apr 1998  Viktor Ott (2nd time) (acting)     (s.a.)
13 May 1998 - 25 May 1999  Sergey Generalov                   (b. 1963)
25 May 1999 - 20 May 2000  Viktor Kalyuzhny                   (b. 1947)
20 May 2000 -  5 Feb 2001  Aleksandr Gavrin                   (b. 1953)
16 Jun 2001 -  9 Mar 2004  Igor Yusufov                       (b. 1956)
 9 Mar 2004 - 12 May 2008  Viktor Khristenko                  (b. 1957)
12 May 2008 - 21 May 2012  Sergey Shmatko                     (b. 1966)
21 May 2012 -              Aleksandr Novak                    (b. 1971)

Nuclear Energy

Ministers
 2 Mar 1992 -  2 Mar 1998  Viktor Mikhailov                   (b. 1934 - d. 2011)
 4 Mar 1998 - 28 Mar 2001  Yevgeny Adamov                     (b. 1939)
28 Mar 2001 -  9 Mar 2004  Aleksandr Rumyantsev               (b. 1945)

Natural Resources and Ecology

25 Jul 1991                Ministry of Nature
28 Nov 1991                Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources
30 Sep 1992                Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources
22 Aug 1996                Ministry of Natural Resources
12 May 2008                Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology

Ministers
29 Jul 1991 -  5 Dec 1991  Igor Gavrilov                      (b. 1939 - d. 2011)
 5 Dec 1991 - 22 Aug 1996  Viktor Danilov-Danilyan            (b. 1938)
22 Aug 1996 - 30 Apr 1998  Viktor Orlov (1st time)            (b. 1940)
30 Apr 1998 -  6 Oct 1998  Viktor Nekrutenko                  (b. 1951)
 6 Oct 1998 - 19 Aug 1999  Viktor Orlov (2nd time)            (s.a.)
19 Aug 1999 - 16 Jun 2001  Boris Yatskevich                   (b. 1948)
16 Jun 2001 -  9 Mar 2004  Vitaly Artyukhov                   (b. 1944)
 9 Mar 2004 - 21 May 2012  Yury Trutnev                       (b. 1956)
21 May 2012 -              Sergey Donskoy                     (b. 1968)

Civil Defense, Emergency Situations, and Disaster Relief

Chairman of the State Committee (from 20 Jan 1994, ministers)
 5 Aug 1991 - 11 May 2012  Sergey Shoigu                      (b. 1955)
21 May 2012 -              Vladimir Puchkov                   (b. 1959)

Agriculture and Fisheries

14 Jul 1990                Ministry of Agriculture and Food
 9 Mar 2004                Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries

Ministers
14 Jul 1990 - 15 Nov 1991  Gennady Kulik                      (b. 1935)
15 Nov 1991 - 27 Oct 1994  Viktor Khlystun (1st time)         (b. 1946)
27 Oct 1994 - 12 Jan 1996  Aleksandr Nazarchuk                (b. 1939)
12 Jan 1996 - 14 May 1996  Aleksandr Zaveryukha (acting)      (b. 1940)
14 May 1996 - 30 Apr 1998  Viktor Khlystun (2nd time)         (s.a.)
30 Apr 1998 - 25 May 1999  Viktor Semyonov                    (b. 1958)
25 May 1999 - 19 Aug 1999  Vladimir Shcherbak                 (b. 1939)
19 Aug 1999 - 12 Mar 2009  Aleksey Gordeyev                   (b. 1955)
12 Mar 2009 - 21 May 2012  Elena Skrynnik (f)                 (b. 1961)
21 May 2012 -              Nikolay Fyodorov                   (b. 1958)

Forestry

Minister
 2 Aug 1991 - 10 Nov 1991  Valery Shubin                      (b. 1949)

Transport

 8 Sep 1990                Ministry of Transport
 9 Mar 2004                Ministry of Transport and Communications
20 May 2004                Ministry of Transport

Ministers
 8 Sep 1990 - 10 Jan 1996  Vitaly Yefimov                     (b. 1940)
12 Jan 1996 - 28 Feb 1998  Nikolay Tsakh                      (b. 1939)
28 Feb 1998 -  9 Mar 2004  Sergey Frank                       (b. 1960)
 9 Mar 2004 - 21 May 2012  Igor Levitin                       (b. 1952)
21 May 2012 -              Maksim Sokolov                     (b. 1968)

Railways

Ministers
20 Jan 1992 - 22 Aug 1996  Gennady Fadeyev (1st time)         (b. 1937)
22 Aug 1996 - 14 Apr 1997  Anatoly Zaytsev                    (b. 1940)
14 Apr 1997 - 21 May 1999  Nikolay Aksyonenko (1st time)      (b. 1949 - d. 2005)
29 May 1999 - 16 Sep 1999  Vladimir Starostenko               (b. 1948)
16 Sep 1999 -  3 Jan 2002  Nikolay Aksyonenko (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 4 Jan 2002 - 22 Sep 2003  Gennady Fadeyev (2nd time)         (s.a.)
22 Sep 2003 -  9 Mar 2004  Vadim Morozov                      (b. 1954)

Telecommunications and Mass Communications

25 Jul 1990                Ministry of Communications, Informatics and Space
10 Nov 1991                Ministry of Communications
18 Mar 1997                State Committee for Communications and Informatics
22 Sep 1998                State Committee for Communications and Information Technologies
25 May 1999                State Committee for Telecommunications
12 Nov 1999                Ministry of Telecommunications
 9 Mar 2004                merged with ministry of Transport
20 May 2004                reestablished as Ministry of Information Technologies and
                           Telecommunications
12 May 2008                Ministry of Telecommunications and Mass Communications

Minister
25 Jul 1990 - 17 Mar 1997  Vladimir Bulgak                    (b. 1941)
Chairmen of the State Committee
25 Mar 1997 -  1 Jun 1999  Aleksandr Krupnov                  (b. 1941)
 1 Jun 1999 - 12 Nov 1999  Aleksandr Ivanov                   (b. 1940)
Ministers
12 Nov 1999 -  9 Mar 2004  Leonid Reyman (1st time)           (b. 1957)
20 May 2004 - 12 May 2008  Leonid Reyman (2nd time)           (s.a.)
12 May 2008 - 21 May 2012  Igor Shchegolev                    (b. 1960)
21 May 2012 -              Nikolay Nikiforov                  (b. 1982)

Justice

Ministers
14 Jul 1990 - 24 Mar 1993  Nikolay Fyodorov                   (b. 1958)
13 Apr 1993 -  7 Dec 1994  Yury Kalmykov                      (b. 1934 - d. 1997)
                           (acting to 5 Aug 1993)
 5 Jan 1995 -  2 Jul 1997  Valentin Kovalyov                  (b. 1944)
                           (suspended from 25 Jun 1997)
28 Jun 1997 -  2 Jul 1997    Georgy Kulikov                   (b. 1950)
                             (acting for Kovalyov)
 2 Jul 1997 - 30 Mar 1998  Sergey Stepashin                   (b. 1952)
30 Mar 1998 - 17 Aug 1999  Pavel Krasheninnikov               (b. 1964)
                           (acting to 30 Apr 1998)
17 Aug 1999 - 23 Jun 2006  Yury Chaika                        (b. 1951)
23 Jun 2006 - 12 May 2008  Vladimir Ustinov                   (b. 1953)
12 May 2008 -              Aleksandr Konovalov                (b. 1968)

Education and Science

19 Jul 1990                Ministry of Education
14 Aug 1996                Ministry of General and Professional Education
 9 Mar 2004                Ministry of Education and Science

Ministers
19 Jul 1990 -  4 Dec 1992  Eduard Dneprov                     (b. 1936)
 5 Dec 1992 - 14 Aug 1996  Yevgeny Tkachenko                  (b. 1935)
                           (acting to 23 Dec 1992)
14 Aug 1996 - 28 Feb 1998  Vladimir Kinelyov                  (b. 1945)
28 Feb 1998 - 30 Sep 1998  Aleksandr Tikhonov                 (b. 1947)
30 Sep 1998 -  9 Mar 2004  Vladimir Filippov                  (b. 1951)
 9 Mar 2004 - 21 May 2012  Andrey Fursenko                    (b. 1949)
21 May 2012 -              Dmitry Livanov                     (b. 1967)

Healthcare

19 Sep 1990                Ministry of Healthcare
10 Jan 1994                Ministry of Healthcare and Medical Industry
 9 Mar 2004                Ministry of Healthcare and Social Development
21 May 2012                Ministry of Healthcare

Ministers
19 Sep 1990 - 14 Nov 1991  Vyacheslav Kalinin
14 Nov 1991 - 23 Dec 1992  Andrey Vorobyov                    (b. 1928)
23 Dec 1992 - 28 Nov 1995  Eduard Nechayev                    (b. 1934)
 5 Dec 1995 - 17 Aug 1996  Aleksandr Tsaregorodtsev           (b. 1946)
17 Aug 1996 -  5 May 1998  Tatyana Dmitriyeva (f)             (b. 1951 - d. 2010)
 5 May 1998 - 30 Sep 1998  Oleg Rutkovsky                     (b. 1947 - d. 2008)
30 Sep 1998 - 12 May 1999  Vladimir Starodubov                (b. 1950)
 5 Jul 1999 -  9 Mar 2004  Yury Shevchenko                    (b. 1947)
 9 Mar 2004 - 24 Sep 2007  Mikhail Zurabov                    (b. 1955)
24 Sep 2007 - 21 May 2012  Tatyana Golikova (f)               (b. 1966)
21 May 2012 -              Veronika Skvortsova (f)            (b. 1960)

Labour and Social Security

14 Jul 1990                Ministry of Labour
10 Nov 1991                Ministry of Labour and Employment
14 Jun 1992                Ministry of Labour
14 Aug 1996                Ministry of Labour and Social Development
 9 Mar 2004                merged with Ministry of Healthcare
21 May 2012                Ministry of Labour and Social Security

Ministers
28 Jan 1991 - 26 Aug 1991  Rafik Batkayev                     (b. 1931)
26 Aug 1991 - 14 Jun 1992  Aleksandr Shokhin                  (b. 1951)
14 Jun 1992 - 14 Apr 1997  Gennady Melikyan                   (b. 1947)
14 Apr 1997 - 30 Apr 1998  Oleg Sysuyev                       (b. 1953)
30 Apr 1998 - 30 Sep 1998  Oksana Dmitriyeva (f)              (b. 1958)
30 Sep 1998 - 18 May 2000  Sergey Kalashnikov                 (b. 1951)
18 May 2000 -  9 Mar 2004  Aleksandr Pochinok                 (b. 1958 - d. 2014)
21 May 2012 -              Maksim Topilin                     (b. 1967)

Social Security

Ministers
28 Nov 1991 -  2 Mar 1994  Ella Pamfilova (f)                 (b. 1953)
 4 May 1994 - 14 Aug 1996  Lyudmila Bezlepkina (f)            (b. 1941)

Culture

       1990                Ministry of Culture
 9 Mar 2004                Ministry of Culture and Mass Communications
12 May 2008                Ministry of Culture

Ministers
 8 Jul 1990 - 15 Nov 1991  Yury Solomin                       (b. 1935)
 5 Feb 1992 - 28 Aug 1997  Yevgeny Sidorov                    (b. 1938)
28 Aug 1997 - 30 Sep 1998  Natalya Dementyeva (f)             (b. 1945)
30 Sep 1998 -  8 Feb 2000  Vladimir Yegorov                   (b. 1938)
 8 Feb 2000 -  9 Mar 2004  Mikhail Shvydkoy                   (b. 1948)
 9 Mar 2004 - 12 May 2008  Aleksandr Sokolov                  (b. 1949)
12 May 2008 - 21 May 2012  Aleksandr Avdeyev                  (b. 1946)
21 May 2012 -              Vladimir Medinsky                  (b. 1970)

Press, Broadcasting, and Means of Mass Communication Affairs

26 Jul 1990                Ministry of Press and Mass Information
28 Nov 1991                Ministry of Press and Information
22 Dec 1993                State Committee for Press
 6 Jul 1999                Ministry of Press, Broadcasting, and Means of Mass
                           Communication Affairs
 9 Mar 2004                abolished

Ministers
26 Jul 1990 - 25 Nov 1992  Mikhail Poltoranin                 (b. 1939)
23 Dec 1992 - 23 Aug 1993  Mikhail Fedotov                    (b. 1949)
 5 Oct 1993 - 22 Dec 1993  Vladimir Shumeyko                  (b. 1945)
Chairmen of the State Committee
22 Dec 1993 -  2 Sep 1994  Boris Mironov                      (b. 1951)
 3 Nov 1994 - 25 Jul 1995  Sergey Gryzunov                    (b. 1949)
25 Jul 1995 -  6 Jul 1999  Ivan Laptev                        (b. 1934)
Minister
 6 Jul 1999 -  9 Mar 2004  Mikhail Lesin                      (b. 1958)

Regional Development

21 Nov 1990                State Committee for Ethnic Policy
 2 Mar 1993                State Committee for Federation Affairs and Nationalities
20 Jan 1994                Ministry of Nationalities and Regional Policy
 4 Mar 1996                Ministry of Nationalities and Federation Affairs
 8 May 1998                Ministry of Regional and Ethnic Policy
25 Sep 1998                divided into ministries of Regional Policy and Ethnic Policy
25 May 1999                ministries merged into Ministry on Federation Affairs and
                           Nationalities
19 May 2000                Ministry on Federation Affairs, Ethnic and Migration Policies
17 Oct 2001                ministry abolished
13 Sep 2004                reestablished as Ministry of Regional Development

Ministers (to 20 Jan 1994 chairman of the State Committee)
21 Nov 1990 -  5 Dec 1991  Leonid Prokopyev                   (b. 1934 - d. 2006)
27 Feb 1992 - 15 Oct 1992  Valery Tishkov                     (b. 1941)
 4 Nov 1992 - 16 May 1994  Sergey Shakhray                    (b. 1956)
16 May 1994 - 30 Jun 1995  Nikolay Yegorov                    (b. 1951 - d. 1997)
 5 Jul 1995 -  8 May 1998  Vyacheslav Mikhailov (1st time)    (b. 1938)
 8 May 1998 - 25 Sep 1998  Yevgeny Sapiro                     (b. 1934)
- Regional Policy -
30 Sep 1998 - 25 May 1999  Valery Kirpichnikov                (b. 1946)
- Ethnic Policy -
25 Sep 1998 - 25 May 1999  Ramazan Abdulatipov                (b. 1946)
- reunited ministry -
25 May 1999 -  6 Jan 2000  Vyacheslav Mikhailov (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 6 Jan 2000 - 17 Oct 2001  Aleksandr Blokhin                  (b. 1951)
13 Sep 2004 - 24 Sep 2007  Vladimir Yakovlev                  (b. 1944)
24 Sep 2007 - 15 Oct 2008  Dmitry Kozak                       (b. 1958)
15 Oct 2008 - 28 Apr 2012  Viktor Basargin                    (b. 1957)
28 Apr 2012 - 21 May 2012  Vladimir Tokarev (acting)          (b. 1977)
21 May 2012 - 17 Oct 2012  Oleg Govorun                       (b. 1969)
17 Oct 2012 -              Igor Slyunyayev                    (b. 1966)

Development of the Far East

Ministers
21 May 2012 - 31 Aug 2013  Viktor Ishayev                     (b. 1948)
11 Sep 2013 -              Aleksandr Galushka                 (b. 1975)

Relations with Open Government

Minister
21 May 2012 -              Mikhail Abyzov                     (b. 1972)

Sports

 8 Sep 1990                Ministry of Physical Culture and Sports
14 Dec 1991                abolished
 6 Jun 1999                Ministry of Physical Culture, Sports, and Tourism
18 May 2000                transferred to State Committee for Physical Culture,
                           Sports, and Tourism
12 May 2008                Ministry of Sports, Tourism, and Youth Policy
21 May 2012                Ministry of Sports

Ministers
 8 Sep 1990 -  5 Dec 1991  Vasily Machuga                     (b. 1951  - d. 1996)
 6 Jun 1999 - 18 May 2000  Boris Ivanyuzhenkov                (b. 1966)
12 May 2008 -              Vitaly Mutko                       (b. 1958)

Construction, Housing, and Communal Services

27 Nov 1991                Ministry of Architecture, Construction, and Communal Services
30 Sep 1992                State Committee for Construction and Architecture
12 Jul 1994                Ministry of Construction and Architecture
17 Mar 1997                State Committee for Construction and Architecture
30 Apr 1998                Ministry of Land Policy, Construction, and Communal Services
22 Sep 1998 -  9 Apr 2004  State Committee for Construction, Architecture, and
                           Housing Policy
 1 Nov 2013                Ministry of Construction, Housing, and Communal Services

Chairman of the State Committee
 7 Aug 1991 - 26 Nov 1991  Aleksey Poryadin                   (b. 1938 - d. 2008)
Minister
27 Nov 1991 - 30 Sep 1992  Boris Furmanov                     (b. 1936)
Chairman of the State Committee
30 Sep 1992 - 12 Jul 1994  Yefim Basin                        (b. 1940)
Minister
12 Jul 1994 - 17 Mar 1997  Yefim Basin                        (s.a.)
Chairman of the State Committee
17 Mar 1997 - 30 Apr 1998  Yefim Basin                        (s.a.)
Minister
 5 May 1998 - 22 Sep 1998  Ilya Yuzhanov                      (b. 1960)
Chairmen of the State Committee
22 Sep 1998 -  7 Oct 1998  Ilya Yuzhanov                      (s.a.)
 7 Oct 1998 - 15 Jun 1999  Yefim Basin                        (s.a.)
15 Jun 1999 - 30 Oct 2002  Anvar Shamuzafarov                 (b. 1952)
30 Oct 2002 -  9 Apr 2004  Nikolay Koshman                    (b. 1944)
Minister
 1 Nov 2013 -              Mikhail Men                        (b. 1960)

Commonwealth of Independent States Affairs

10 Jan 1994                Ministry of Cooperation with Commonwealth of Independent
                           States
30 Apr 1998                abolished
22 Sep 1998                reestablished as Ministry of Commonwealth of Independent
                           States Affairs
17 May 2000                abolished

Ministers
10 Jan 1994 - 16 Feb 1995  Vladimir Mashits (acting)          (b. 1953)
16 Feb 1995 - 22 Aug 1996  Valery Serov                       (b. 1940)
22 Aug 1996 -  1 Jul 1997  Aman Tuleyev                       (b. 1944)
28 Aug 1997 - 30 Apr 1998  Anatoly Adamishin                  (b. 1934)
25 Sep 1998 - 25 May 1999  Boris Pastukhov                    (b. 1933)
25 May 1999 - 17 May 2000  Leonid Drachevsky                  (b. 1942)

Crimea Affairs

Minister
31 Mar 2014 -              Oleg Savelyev                      (b. 1965)

North Caucasus Affairs

Minister
12 May 2014 -              Lev Kuznetsov                      (b. 1965)

Government Apparatus

Ministers - Heads of the Government Apparatus (chiefs of staff)
24 Dec 1991 - 11 Jan 1993  Aleksey Golovkov                   (b. 1956 - d. 2009)
11 Jan 1993 - 11 Nov 1994  Vladimir Kvasov                    (b. 1936)
15 Nov 1994 - 23 Mar 1998  Vladimir Babichev                  (b. 1939 - d. 2010)
 8 May 1998 - 28 Aug 1998  Nikolay Khvatkov                   (b. 1948)
28 Aug 1998 - 14 Sep 1998  Igor Shabdurasulov (acting)        (b. 1957)
14 Sep 1998 - 14 May 1999  Yury Zubakov                       (b. 1944)
14 May 1999 - 25 May 1999  Mstislav Afanasyev (acting)        (b. 1967)
25 May 1999 - 19 Aug 1999  Andrey Chernenko                   (b. 1953)
19 Aug 1999 - 18 May 2000  Dmitry Kozak (1st time)            (b. 1958)
18 May 2000 - 28 May 2003  Igor Shuvalov                      (b. 1967)
28 May 2003 -  9 Mar 2004  Konstantin Merzlikin               (b. 1965)
 9 Mar 2004 - 13 Sep 2004  Dmitry Kozak (2nd time)            (s.a.)
13 Sep 2004 - 12 May 2008  Sergey Naryshkin                   (b. 1954)
12 May 2008 - 21 Oct 2010  Sergey Sobyanin                    (b. 1958)
21 Oct 2010 - 27 Dec 2011  Vyacheslav Volodin                 (b. 1964)
27 Dec 2011 - 21 May 2012  Anton Vayno                        (b. 1972)
21 May 2012 -  8 May 2013  Vladislav Surkov                   (b. 1964)
 8 May 2013 -              Sergey Prikhodko                   (b. 1957)
                           (acting to 22 May 2013)

Federal Security Service

24 Jan 1992                Ministry of Security
21 Dec 1993                Federal Counterintelligence Service
12 Apr 1995                Federal Security Service

Ministers (from 21 Dec 1993, directors)
24 Jan 1992 - 28 Jul 1993  Viktor Barannikov                  (b. 1940 - d. 1995)
28 Jul 1993 -  3 Mar 1994  Nikolay Golushko                   (b. 1937)
 3 Mar 1994 - 30 Jun 1995  Sergey Stepashin                   (b. 1952)
30 Jun 1995 - 24 Jul 1995  Anatoly Safonov (acting)           (b. 1945)
24 Jul 1995 -  9 Jul 1996  Mikhail Barsukov                   (b. 1947)
 9 Jul 1996 - 25 Jul 1998  Nikolay Kovalyov                   (b. 1949)
25 Jul 1998 -  9 Aug 1999  Vladimir Putin                     (b. 1952)
 9 Aug 1999 - 12 May 2008  Nikolay Patrushev                  (b. 1951)
12 May 2008 -              Aleksandr Bortnikov                (b. 1951)

Security Council

Secretaries
 3 Apr 1992 - 11 Jun 1993  Yury Skokov                        (b. 1938 - d. 2013)
11 Jun 1993 - 18 Sep 1993  Yevgeny Shaposhnikov               (b. 1942)
18 Sep 1993 - 18 Jun 1996  Oleg Lobov                         (b. 1937)
18 Jun 1996 - 19 Oct 1996  Aleksandr Lebed                    (b. 1950 - d. 2002)
19 Oct 1996 -  2 Mar 1998  Ivan Rybkin                        (b. 1946)
 3 Mar 1998 - 14 Sep 1998  Andrey Kokoshin                    (b. 1945)
14 Sep 1998 - 29 Mar 1999  Nikolay Bordyuzha                  (b. 1949)
29 Mar 1999 -  9 Aug 1999  Vladimir Putin                     (b. 1952)
 9 Aug 1999 - 15 Nov 1999  Vladislav Sherstyuk (acting)       (b. 1940)
15 Nov 1999 - 28 Mar 2001  Sergey Ivanov                      (b. 1953)
28 Mar 2001 -  9 Mar 2004  Vladimir Rushailo                  (b. 1954)
 9 Mar 2004 - 18 Jul 2007  Igor Ivanov                        (b. 1945)
18 Jul 2007 - 12 May 2008  Valentin Sobolev (acting)          (b. 1947)
12 May 2008 -              Nikolay Patrushev                  (b. 1951)

External Intelligence Service

Directors
26 Dec 1991 -  9 Jan 1996  Yevgeny Primakov                   (b. 1929)
10 Jan 1996 - 21 May 2000  Vyacheslav Trubnikov               (b. 1944)
21 May 2000 -  5 Oct 2007  Sergey Lebedev                     (b. 1948)
 7 Oct 2007 -              Mikhail Fradkov                    (b. 1950)

Administration of the President

Heads
19 Jul 1991 - 19 Jan 1993  Yury Petrov                        (b. 1939 - d. 2013)
19 Jan 1993 - 22 Feb 1996  Sergey Filatov                     (b. 1936)
22 Feb 1996 - 16 Jul 1996  Nikolay Yegorov                    (b. 1951 - d. 1997)
16 Jul 1996 -  9 Mar 1997  Anatoly Chubais                    (b. 1955)
 9 Mar 1997 -  7 Dec 1998  Valentin Yumashev                  (b. 1957)
 7 Dec 1998 - 19 Mar 1999  Nikolay Bordyuzha                  (b. 1949)
19 Mar 1999 - 30 Oct 2003  Aleksandr Voloshin                 (b. 1956)
30 Oct 2003 - 14 Nov 2005  Dmitry Medvedev                    (b. 1965)
14 Nov 2005 - 12 May 2008  Sergey Sobyanin                    (b. 1958)
12 May 2008 - 20 Dec 2011  Sergey Naryshkin                   (b. 1954)
20 Dec 2011 - 22 Dec 2011  Vladislav Surkov (acting)          (b. 1964)
22 Dec 2011 -              Sergey Ivanov                      (b. 1953)

Department for Presidential Affairs

   Jul 1991                established as Property Department of Administration of the
                           President
   Nov 1993                separated from the Administration of the President

Managers
   Nov 1993 - 12 Jan 2000  Pavel Borodin                      (b. 1946)
12 Jan 2000 - 12 May 2014  Vladimir Kozhin                    (b. 1959)
12 May 2014 -              Aleksandr Kolpakov

Federal Protection Service

   Dec 1991                Main Protection Department
19 Jun 1996                Federal Protection Service

Heads
   Dec 1991 -    Jun 1992  Vladimir Redkoborody               (b. 1937)
12 Jun 1992 - 24 Jul 1995  Mikhail Barsukov                   (b. 1947)
24 Jul 1995 - 18 May 2000  Yury Krapivin                      (b. 1947)
18 May 2000 -              Yevgeny Murov                      (b. 1948)

Presidential Security Service

 2 Jul 1996                subordinated to Federal Protection Service
       1996                renamed Department of Presidential Security
   Apr 2000                renamed Presidential Security Service

Heads
 3 Sep 1991 - 20 Jun 1996  Aleksandr Korzhakov                (b. 1950)
20 Jun 1996 -    Aug 1996  Yury Krapivin (acting)             (b. 1947)
   Aug 1996 -    Jan 2000  Anatoly Kuznetsov                  (b. 1957)
   Apr 2000 - 18 Sep 2013  Viktor Zolotov                     (b. 1954)
18 Sep 2013 -              Oleg Klimentyev

Independent agencies


Prosecutor General's Office

Prosecutors General
27 Jun 1990 - 26 Nov 1990  Nikolay Trubin                     (b. 1931)
28 Feb 1991 -  5 Oct 1993  Valentin Stepankov                 (b. 1951)
 5 Oct 1993 - 26 Apr 1994  Aleksey Kazannik                   (b. 1941)
                           (suspended from 26 Feb 1994)
26 Feb 1994 -  8 Oct 1995  Aleksey Ilyushenko (acting)        (b. 1957)
 8 Oct 1995 - 24 Oct 1995  Oleg Gaidanov (acting)
24 Oct 1995 - 19 Apr 2000  Yury Skuratov                      (b. 1952)
                           (suspended from 2 Apr 1999)
 2 Apr 1999 -  6 Aug 1999    Yury Chaika                      (b. 1951)
                             (acting for Skuratov)
 6 Aug 1999 -  2 Jun 2006  Vladimir Ustinov                   (b. 1953)
                           (acting to 17 May 2000 [for Skuratov to 19 Apr 2000])
 2 Jun 2006 - 23 Jun 2006  Yury Biryukov (acting)             (b. 1948)
23 Jun 2006 -              Yury Chaika                        (s.a.)

Central Bank

Chairmen
25 Dec 1990 - 17 Jul 1992  Georgy Matyukhin                   (b. 1934)
17 Jul 1992 - 18 Oct 1994  Viktor Gerashchenko (1st time)     (b. 1937)
                           (acting to 4 Nov 1992)
18 Oct 1994 -  8 Nov 1995  Tatyana Paramonova (f) (acting)    (b. 1950)
 8 Nov 1995 - 22 Nov 1995  Aleksandr Khandruyev (acting)      (b. 1945)
22 Nov 1995 - 11 Sep 1998  Sergey Dubinin                     (b. 1950)
11 Sep 1998 - 20 Mar 2002  Viktor Gerashchenko (2nd time)     (s.a.)
20 Mar 2002 - 24 Jun 2013  Sergey Ignatyev                    (b. 1948)
24 Jun 2013 -              Elvira Nabiullina (f)              (b. 1963)

Supreme Court

Chairman
26 Jul 1989 -              Vyacheslav Lebedev                 (b. 1943)

Constitutional Court

Chairmen
 1 Nov 1991 -  6 Oct 1993  Valery Zorkin (1st time)           (b. 1943)
 6 Oct 1993 - 13 Feb 1995  Nikolay Vitruk (acting)            (b. 1937 - d. 2012)
13 Feb 1995 - 20 Feb 1997  Vladimir Tumanov                   (b. 1926 - d. 2011)
20 Feb 1997 - 21 Feb 2003  Marat Baglai                       (b. 1931)
21 Feb 2003 -              Valery Zorkin (2nd time)           (s.a.)

Supreme Arbitration Court

Chairmen
23 Jan 1992 - 26 Jan 2005  Veniamin Yakovlev                  (b. 1932)
26 Jan 2005 -              Anton Ivanov                       (b. 1965)

Central Electoral Commission

Chairmen
23 Sep 1993 - 14 Nov 1996  Nikolay Ryabov                     (b. 1946)
14 Nov 1996 - 24 Mar 1999  Aleksandr Ivanchenko               (b. 1954)
24 Mar 1999 - 27 Mar 2007  Aleksandr Veshnyakov               (b. 1952)
27 Mar 2007 -              Vladimir Churov                    (b. 1953)

Audit Chamber

Chairmen
17 Jan 1994 - 19 Apr 2000  Khachim Karmokov                   (b. 1941)
19 Apr 2000 - 20 Sep 2013  Sergey Stepashin                   (b. 1952)
20 Sep 2013 -              Tatyana Golikova (f)               (b. 1966)

Human Rights Representative

Representatives
17 Jan 1994 - 10 Mar 1995  Sergey Kovalyov                    (b. 1930)
22 May 1998 - 13 Feb 2004  Oleg Mironov                       (b. 1939)
13 Feb 2004 - 18 Mar 2014  Vladimir Lukin                     (b. 1937)
18 Mar 2014 -              Ella Pamfilova (f)                 (b. 1953)

Parliament


Supreme Council

21 Sep 1993                Supreme Council dissolved by presidential decree;
                           not recognized by Supreme Council
 4 Oct 1993                decree enforced

Chairmen
29 May 1990 - 10 Jul 1991  Boris Yeltsin                      (b. 1931 - d. 2007)
10 Jul 1991 -  4 Oct 1993  Ruslan Khasbulatov                 (b. 1942)
                           (acting to 29 Oct 1991)

Federation Council

Chairmen
13 Jan 1994 - 23 Jan 1996  Vladimir Shumeiko                  (b. 1945)
23 Jan 1996 -  5 Dec 2001  Yegor Stroyev                      (b. 1937)
 5 Dec 2001 - 18 May 2011  Sergey Mironov                     (b. 1953)
18 May 2011 - 21 Sep 2011  Aleksandr Torshin (acting)         (b. 1953)
21 Sep 2011 -              Valentina Matvienko (f)            (b. 1949)

State Duma

Chairmen
14 Jan 1994 - 17 Jan 1996  Ivan Rybkin                        (b. 1946)
17 Jan 1996 - 29 Dec 2003  Gennady Seleznyov                  (b. 1947)
29 Dec 2003 - 21 Dec 2011  Boris Gryzlov                      (b. 1950)
21 Dec 2011 -              Sergey Naryshkin                   (b. 1954)

Political parties


Communist Party

15 Mar 1898                Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party
23 Aug 1903                Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party of Bolsheviks
 6 Mar 1918                Russian Communist Party of Bolsheviks
20 Dec 1925                All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks,
                           no branch established in Russian S.F.S.R.
12 Oct 1952                Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU)
20 Jun 1990                Communist Party of Russian S.F.S.R. established as a branch
                           of CPSU
23 Aug 1991                activities of the party suspended
 6 Nov 1991                party banned
30 Nov 1992                party legalized under ruling of Constitutional Court
13 Feb 1993                reestablished as Communist Party of the Russian Federation

Chairmen of the Central Committee
23 Jun 1990 -  6 Aug 1991  Ivan Polozkov                      (b. 1935)
 6 Aug 1991 - 23 Aug 1991  Valentin Kuptsov                   (b. 1937)
13 Feb 1993 -              Gennady Zyuganov                   (b. 1944)
                           (chairman Central Executive Committee to 21 Jan 1995)
 1 Jul 2004 -  3 Aug 2004    Vladimir Tikhonov                (b. 1947)
                             (in opposition)

Liberal-Democratic Party

31 Mar 1990                Liberal-Democratic Party of Soviet Union established
       1992                Liberal-Democratic Party of Russia

Chairman
31 Mar 1990 -              Vladimir Zhirinovsky               (b. 1946)

United Russia

28 Dec 1999                "Unity" Public Movement established
27 May 2000                "Unity" becomes a party
 1 Dec 2001                "Unity" merges with public movements "Fatherland" and
                           "All Russia" to form United Russia Party

Leader
28 Dec 1999 -  1 Dec 2001  Sergey Shoigu                      (b. 1955)
Chairmen of the Supreme Council
 1 Dec 2001 - 20 Nov 2002  Sergey Shoigu                      (s.a.)
                           + Yury Luzhkov                     (b. 1936)
                           + Mintimer Shaimiyev               (b. 1937)
                           (co-chairmen)
20 Nov 2002 -              Boris Gryzlov                      (b. 1950)
Chairmen
 7 May 2008 - 26 May 2012  Vladimir Putin                     (b. 1952)
26 May 2012 -              Dmitry Medvedev                    (b. 1965)

Yabloko

 5 Jan 1995                Yabloko Alliance
23 Dec 2001                Russian Democratic Party Yabloko

Chairmen
 5 Jan 1995 - 22 Jun 2008  Grigory Yavlinsky                  (b. 1952)
22 Jun 2008 -              Sergey Mitrokhin                   (b. 1963)

Right Cause

20 May 2000                Union of Rightist Forces Public Movement
26 May 2001                Union of Rightist Forces becomes a party
16 Nov 2008                merged with Civil Force and Democratic Party of Russia
                           to form Right Cause

Co-chairmen
20 May 2000 - 29 Dec 2001  Sergey Kiriyenko                   (b. 1962)
20 May 2000 - 29 Dec 2001    Lyubov Glebova (f)               (b. 1960)
                             (acting for Kiriyenko)
20 May 2000 - 24 Jan 2004  Anatoly Chubais                    (b. 1955)
20 May 2000 - 24 Jan 2004  Yegor Gaidar                       (b. 1956 - d. 2009)
20 May 2000 - 24 Jan 2004  Irina Khakamada (f)                (b. 1955)
20 May 2000 - 24 Jan 2004  Boris Nemtsov                      (b. 1959)
Secretary of the Federal Political Council
18 Mar 2004 - 28 May 2005  Viktor Nekrutenko                  (b. 1951)
Chairmen of the Federal Political Council
28 May 2005 - 26 Sep 2008  Nikita Belykh                      (b. 1975)
26 Sep 2008 - 15 Nov 2008  Leonid Gozman (acting)             (b. 1950)
Co-chairmen
16 Nov 2008 - 25 Jun 2011  Leonid Gozman                      (s.a.)
                           + Boris Titov (to 24 Dec 2009)     (b. 1960)
                           + Georgy Bovt                      (b. 1960)
Chairmen
25 Jun 2011 - 15 Sep 2011  Mikhail Prokhorov                  (b. 1965)
15 Sep 2011 -              Andrey Dunayev                     (b. 1977)
                           (acting to 24 Feb 2012)

Democratic Choice of Russia

12 Jun 1994                established as party
19 May 2001                merged into Union of Rightist Forces

Chairman
12 Jun 1994 - 19 May 2001  Yegor Gaidar                       (s.a.)

A Just Russia

 8 Oct 2002                Party of Russian Regions established
15 Feb 2004                renamed "Motherland" (Rodina)
28 Oct 2006                merged with Party of Pensioners and Party of Life to form
                           A Just Russia

Co-chairmen
 8 Oct 2002 -  6 Jul 2004  Oleg Denisov                       (b. 1966)
 8 Oct 2002 -  6 Jul 2004  Oleg Kutafin                       (b. 1937 - d. 2008)
 8 Oct 2002 -  6 Jul 2004  Yury Skokov                        (b. 1938 - d. 2013)
 8 Oct 2002 -  6 Jul 2004  Shamil Sultanov                    (b. 1952)
 8 Oct 2002 -  6 Jul 2004  Valentin Chistyakov
 3 Jun 2003 - 15 Feb 2004  Sergey Glazyev                     (b. 1961)
15 Feb 2004 -  6 Jul 2004  Viktor Gerashchenko                (b. 1937)
15 Feb 2004 -  6 Jul 2004  Dmitry Rogozin                     (b. 1963)
Chairmen
 6 Jul 2004 - 25 Mar 2006  Dmitry Rogozin                     (s.a.)
25 Mar 2006 - 28 Oct 2006  Aleksandr Babakov                  (b. 1963)
28 Oct 2006 - 16 Apr 2011  Sergey Mironov (1st time)          (b. 1953)
16 Apr 2011 - 27 Oct 2013  Nikolay Levichev                   (b. 1953)
27 Oct 2013 -              Sergey Mironov (2nd time)          (s.a.)