Rulers

Countries QR

Contents of this page:
Qatar - Réunion - Romania - Russia - Rwanda

Qatar

12 Sep 1868                Muhammad ibn Thani signs a treaty with the British,
                           effectively establishing Qatar (previously considered to
                           be a dependency of Bahrain) as an independent state
 3 Nov 1916                British protectorate
 3 Sep 1971                State of Qatar

Rulers (from 1971, emirs)
- Ma`adid dynasty -
12 Sep 1868 -        1878  Muhammad ibn Thani                 (b. ... - d. 1878)
       1878 - 17 Jul 1913  Sheikh Qasim ibn Muhammad Al Thani (b. c.1825 - d. 1913)
17 Jul 1913 - 20 Aug 1949  Sheikh Abdullah ibn Qasim Al Thani (b. c.1876 - d. 1957)
                           (regent 13 May - 17 Jul 1913)
20 Aug 1949 - 24 Oct 1960  Sheikh Ali ibn Abdullah Al Thani   (b. 1894 - d. 1974)
24 Oct 1960 - 22 Feb 1972  Sheikh Ahmad ibn Ali Al Thani      (b. 1917 - d. 1977)
22 Feb 1972 - 27 Jun 1995  Sheikh Khalifah ibn Hamad Al Thani (b. 1932)
27 Jun 1995 - 25 Jun 2013  Sheikh Hamad ibn Khalifah Al Thani (b. 1952)
25 Jun 2013 -              Sheikh Tamim ibn Hamad Al Thani    (b. 1980)

Prime ministers 29 May 1970 - 27 Jun 1995 Sheikh Khalifah ibn Hamad Al Thani (s.a.) 27 Jun 1995 - 29 Oct 1996 Sheikh Hamad ibn Khalifah Al Thani (s.a.) 29 Oct 1996 - 3 Apr 2007 Sheikh Abdullah ibn Khalifah Al Thani (b. 1959) 3 Apr 2007 - 26 Jun 2013 Sheikh Hamad ibn Jassim ibn Jabr Al Thani (b. 1959) 26 Jun 2013 - Sheikh Abdullah ibn Nasser ibn Khalifah Al Thani (b. 1969?) British political officers (from 1954, political agents) (subordinated to the chief political residents of the Persian Gulf; see under Bahrain) Aug 1949 - Jul 1950 John Wilton (b. 1921 - d. 2011) 1951 - 1953 Christopher Ewart-Biggs (b. 1921 - d. 1976) 1953 - 1955 William Bennett Morison Johnston (b. 1922) 1955 - 1958 Derrick Charles Carden (b. 1921 - d. 2006) 1958 - 1959 John Spenser Ritchie Duncan (b. 1921 - d. 2006) 1959 - 1962 John Moberly (b. 1925 - d. 2004) 1962 - 1965 Philip McKearney (b. 1926) 1965 - 1969 Ranald Boyle (b. 1921 - d. 1999) 1969 - 1971 Edward Henderson (b. 1917 - d. 1995)

Ras al-Khaimah: see under United Arab Emirates.

Réunion

   Sep 1642                French colony (Île Bourbon)
19 Mar 1793                Réunion
15 Aug 1806                Île Bonaparte
 9 Jul 1810 -        1815  British rule
 7 Aug 1810                Île Bourbon
 6 Sep 1848                Réunion
19 Mar 1946                French overseas département

Governors
21 Oct 1699 - 13 May 1701  Jacques de la Cour de la Saulais
12 Jun 1701 -  5 Mar 1709  Jean-Baptiste de Villers
 7 Mar 1709 - 24 Mar 1710  François Michel Desbordes, sieur
                           de Charanville
22 Apr 1710 - 14 Nov 1715  Pierre Antoine Parat de
                           Chaillenest                        (b. 16... - d. 1721)
 4 Dec 1715 - 14 Feb 1718  Henri de Justamond
 6 Sep 1718 - 22 Aug 1723  Joseph Beauvollier de Courchant
23 Aug 1723 -  1 Dec 1725  Antoine Desforges-Boucher          (b. c.1680 - d. 1725)
 2 Dec 1725 - 28 May 1727  Hélie Dioré                        (b. 1677 - d. bf.1741)
21 Jul 1727 - 11 Jul 1735  Pierre Benoît Dumas                (b. 1668 - d. 1745)
12 Jul 1735 -  1 Oct 1735  Bertrand François Mahé,
                           comte de La Bourdonnais            (b. 1699 - d. 1753)
Commandants (under the governor-general of the Mascarene Islands; see Mauritius)
 2 Oct 1735 - 30 Sep 1739  Charles L'Emery Dumont
11 Nov 1739 - 12 Dec 1743  André d'Héguerty                   (b. 1700 - d. 1763)
13 Dec 1743 -  8 May 1745  Didier de Saint-Martin (1st time)
15 May 1745 - 31 Oct 1745  Jean-Baptiste Azéma                (b. c.1697 - d. 1745)
 1 Nov 1745 - 18 Dec 1745  Didier de Saint-Martin (2nd time)
Governors
29 Dec 1745 - 28 Mar 1747  Gaspard de Ballade (1st time)      (b. ... - d. 1749)
14 Apr 1747 - 11 Nov 1748  Didier de Saint-Martin
22 Nov 1748 - 17 Mar 1749  Gaspard de Ballade (2nd time)      (s.a.)
24 May 1749 - 23 Aug 1749  Antoine Marie Desforges-Boucher
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1713 - d. 1790)
 6 Sep 1749 - 16 Oct 1750  Joseph Brénier (1st time)
16 Oct 1750 - 14 Dec 1752  Jean Baptiste Charles Bouvet de
                           Lozier (1st time)                  (b. 1705 - d. 1786)
14 Dec 1752 - 14 Jan 1756  Joseph Brénier (2nd time)
12 Jul 1757 - 15 Oct 1757  Antoine Marie Desforges-Boucher
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
19 Oct 1757 -  6 Sep 1763  Jean Baptiste Charles Bouvet de
                           Lozier (2nd time)                  (s.a.)
 7 Sep 1763 - 14 Oct 1763  Jean Sentuary                      (b. 1711 - d. 1784)
 5 Nov 1763 - 30 Mar 1767  François Jacques Bertin d'Avesnes  (b. 1716 - d. 1793)
31 Mar 1767 -  4 Nov 1767  Martin Adrien Bellier              (b. 1718 - d. 1793)
 4 Nov 1767 -  4 Oct 1773  Guillaume de Bellecombe            (b. 1728 - d. 1792)
15 Dec 1773 - 15 Oct 1776  Jean-Guillaume Steinauer
26 Oct 1776 - 30 Apr 1779  François de Souillac               (b. 1732 - d. 1803)
25 May 1779 - 22 Aug 1781  Joseph Murinay de Saint-Maurice
25 Aug 1781 - 21 Apr 1785  Joseph Chalvet, baron de Souville  (b. bf.1753 - d. bf.1810)
 2 May 1785 - 15 Feb 1788  Élie Dioré                         (b. 1727 - d. 1803)
21 Feb 1788 - 15 Aug 1790  David Charpentier de Cossigny      (b. 1740 - d. 1801)
 8 Sep 1790 - 18 Oct 1792  Prosper de Chermont                (b. 1741 - d. 1798)
19 Oct 1792 - 11 Apr 1794  Jean-Baptiste Vigoureux du Plessis (b. 1735 - d. 1825)
12 Apr 1794 -  1 Nov 1795  Pierre Alexandre Roubaud
 2 Nov 1795 -  7 Oct 1803  Philippe Antoine Jacob de Cordemoy (b. 17... - d. 1820)
10 Nov 1803 - 31 Dec 1805  François Louis Magallon, comte de
                           la Morličre                        (b. 1754 - d. 1825)
 9 Jan 1806 - 25 Sep 1809  Nicolas Ernault des Brulys         (b. 1757 - d. 1809)
 9 Oct 1809 -  8 Jul 1810  Jean-Chrysostome Bruneteau de
                           Sainte-Suzanne                     (b. 17... - d. 1830)
 9 Jul 1810 - 20 Dec 1810  Robert Townsend Farquhar
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1776 - d. 1830)
20 Dec 1810 - 26 Apr 1811  Henry Sheehy Keating (1st time)    (b. 1775 - d. 1847)
26 Apr 1811 - 10 Jul 1811  Robert Townsend Farquhar
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
10 Jul 1811 -  5 Apr 1815  Henry Sheehy Keating (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 6 Apr 1815 - 30 Jun 1817  Athanase Hyacinthe Bouvet de
                           Lozier                             (b. 1770 - d. 1825)
 1 Jul 1817 -  9 Sep 1818  Hilaire Urbain Lafitte de Courteil
13 Sep 1818 - 14 Feb 1821  Pierre Bernard de Milius           (b. 1773 - d. 1829)
15 Feb 1821 - 14 Oct 1826  Louis Henri de Saulces de
                           Freycinet                          (b. 1777 - d. 1840)
20 Oct 1826 -  4 Jul 1830  Achille Gui Marie Michel de
                           Penfentenio de Cheffontaines
 5 Jul 1830 -  7 Nov 1832  Étienne Henri Mengin du Valdailly  (b. 1778 - d. 1865)
 8 Nov 1832 -  4 May 1838  Jacques Philippe Cuvillier         (b. 1774 - d. 18...)
 5 May 1838 - 14 Oct 1841  Anne Chrétien Louis de Hell        (b. 1783 - d. 1864)
15 Oct 1841 -  4 Jun 1846  Charles Bazoche                    (b. 1784 - d. 1853)
 5 Jun 1846 - 13 Oct 1848  Emmanuel François Joseph Graeb     (b. 1790 - d. 1850)
13 Oct 1848 -  7 Mar 1850  Joseph Napoléon Sarda-Garriga      (b. 1808 - d. 1877)
 9 Mar 1850 - 14 Feb 1851  De Barolet de Puligny
15 Feb 1851 -  8 Aug 1852  Louis Isaac Pierre Hilaire Doret   (b. 1789 - d. 1866)
 8 Aug 1852 -  8 Jan 1858  Hubert Delisle                     (b. 1811 - d. 1881)
11 Jan 1858 - 27 Mar 1858  Lefevre
28 Mar 1858 - 19 Sep 1864  Rodolphe Augustin, baron Darricau  (b. 1807 - d. 1877)
 4 Jan 1865 - 23 Sep 1869  Marie Jules Dupré                  (b. 1813 - d. 1881)
27 Sep 1869 - 18 Sep 1875  Louis Hippolyte de Lormel
19 Nov 1875 - 29 Apr 1879  Pierre Aristide Faron              (b. 1814 - d. 1879)
 6 May 1879 - 23 Mar 1886  Pierre Étienne Cuinier             (b. 1824 - d. ...)
23 Mar 1886 - 11 Oct 1886  Jean Baptiste Antoine Lougnon
                           (1st time) (interim)               (b. 1843 - d. ...)
11 Oct 1886 - 16 Dec 1887  Étienne Richaud                    (b. 1841 - d. 1889)
16 Dec 1887 - 21 Aug 1888  Jean Baptiste Antoine Lougnon
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
22 Aug 1888 - 10 Jul 1893  Édouard Mančs
11 Jul 1893 - 21 Jun 1895  Henri Danel                        (b. 1850 - d. ...)
22 Jun 1895 - 12 Aug 1895  Henri Charles Roberdeau            (b. 1849 - d. 1916)
13 Aug 1895 - 19 May 1896  Benedict Jacob de Cordemoy
19 May 1896 - 30 Oct 1900  Laurent Marie Émile Beauchamp      (b. 1838 - d. 19...)
30 Oct 1900 - 19 Feb 1901  Charles Albert Madre               (b. 1844 - d. 19...)
19 Feb 1901 - 29 Jul 1905  Paul Samary                        (b. 1848 - d. 1911)
29 Jul 1905 - 30 Aug 1906  Fernand Theron
30 Aug 1906 -  7 Nov 1906  Marius Verignon                    (b. 1851 - d. 19...)
 8 Nov 1906 - 27 Dec 1907  Adrien Bonhoure                    (b. 1860 - d. 19...)
 1 Jan 1908 - 19 Mar 1908  Henri Cor
19 Mar 1908 - 18 Jan 1910  Camille Guy                        (b. 1860 - d. 1929)
18 Jan 1910 - 17 Sep 1910  Philippe Émile Jullien             (b. 1845 - d. 1912)
18 Sep 1910 - 28 Jul 1912  François Pierre Rodier             (b. 1854 - d. 19...)
30 Aug 1912 - 22 Nov 1913  Hubert Garbit                      (b. 1869 - d. 1933)
23 Nov 1913 -  1 Jun 1919  Pierre Louis Alfred Duprat
 2 Jun 1919 - 26 Jul 1920  Victor Brochard
27 Jul 1920 -  5 Sep 1922  Frédéric Estčbe                    (b. 1863 - d. 1936)
 6 Sep 1922 - 21 Aug 1923  Henri Cleret de Langavant
22 Aug 1923 -  2 Oct 1924  Maurice Pierre Lapalud             (b. 1868 - d. 19...)
31 Mar 1925 - 28 Nov 1932  Jules Repiquet                     (b. 1874 - d. 1960)
29 Nov 1932 - 13 Jun 1934  Louis Fabre (interim)              (b. 1885 - d. 1936)
14 Jun 1934 - 29 May 1936  Alphonse Choteau                   (b. ... - d. 1936)
29 May 1936 - 16 Aug 1936  Charles Victor Allard (interim)
17 Aug 1936 - 27 Oct 1938  Léon Truitard                      (b. 1885 - d. 1972)
28 Oct 1938 - 29 Dec 1939  Joseph Court                       (b. 1881 - d. 1948)
27 Feb 1940 -  1 Dec 1942  Pierre Aubert                      (b. 1888 - d. 1972)
 1 Dec 1942 - 17 Jul 1947  André Capagorry                    (b. 1894 - d. 1981)
Prefects (10 May 1982 - 24 Feb 1988, commissioners of the republic)
16 Aug 1947 -  1 Jun 1950  Paul Demange                       (b. 1906 - d. 1970)
 1 Jun 1950 -  4 Jul 1952  Roland Béchoff                     (b. 1906)
 4 Jul 1952 - 14 May 1956  Pierre Philip                      (b. 1893 - d. 1961)
12 Jun 1956 -  1 Mar 1963  Jean Perreau-Pradier               (b. 1911 - d. 1981)
 1 Mar 1963 -  1 Sep 1966  Alfred Diefenbacher                (b. 1915)
11 Sep 1966 - 22 Oct 1969  Jean Vaudeville                    (b. 1921 - d. 1993)
29 Oct 1969 - 21 Aug 1972  Paul Cousseran                     (b. 1922 - d. 2000)
28 Aug 1972 - 14 Apr 1975  Claude Vieillescazes               (b. 1923)
14 Apr 1975 - 12 May 1977  Robert Lamy                        (b. 1925)
16 May 1977 - 22 May 1980  Bernard Landouzy                   (b. 1933)
29 May 1980 -  1 Aug 1981  Jacques Seval                      (b. 1930)
 1 Aug 1981 - 15 Mar 1984  Michel Levallois                   (b. 1934)
26 Mar 1984 -  9 Apr 1986  Michel Blangy                      (b. 1939)
 9 Apr 1986 - 25 Apr 1986  Jean-Marc Rebičre (acting)         (b. 1948)
25 Apr 1986 - 11 Sep 1989  Jean Anciaux                       (b. 1930)
11 Sep 1989 - 18 Jul 1991  Daniel Constantin                  (b. 1940)
18 Jul 1991 -    Dec 1992  Jacques Dewatre                    (b. 1936)
 2 Dec 1992 -  2 Jan 1995  Hubert Fournier                    (b. 1948)
 9 Jan 1995 - 27 Nov 1995  Pierre Steinmetz                   (b. 1943)
27 Nov 1995 - 30 Nov 1995  Yves Dassonville (1st time)        (b. 1948)
                           (acting)
30 Nov 1995 - 15 Jul 1998  Robert Pommies                     (b. 1941)
15 Jul 1998 -  5 Aug 1998  Yves Dassonville (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 5 Aug 1998 -  2 Jul 2001  Jean Daubigny                      (b. 1948)
 2 Jul 2001 - 31 Jul 2001  Vincent Bouvier (acting)           (b. 1952)
31 Jul 2001 - 13 Aug 2004  Gonthier Friederici                (b. 1945)
13 Aug 2004 - 16 Aug 2004  Franck-Olivier Lachaud (1st time)  (b. 1969)
                           (acting)
16 Aug 2004 -  4 Jun 2005  Dominique Vian                     (b. 1944)
 4 Jun 2005 - 16 Jul 2005  Franck-Olivier Lachaud (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                           (acting)
16 Jul 2005 - 22 Aug 2006  Laurent Cayrel                     (b. 1950)
22 Aug 2006 - 28 Aug 2006  Franck-Olivier Lachaud (3rd time)  (s.a.)
                           (acting)
28 Aug 2006 -  8 Feb 2010  Pierre-Henry Maccioni              (b. 1948)
15 Feb 2010 -    Aug 2012  Michel Lalande                     (b. 1955)
27 Aug 2012 -    Aug 2014  Jean-Luc Marx                      (b. 1954)
 2 Sep 2014 -              Dominique Sorain                   (b. 1955)

Presidents of the General Council 1982 - 1988 Auguste Legros (b. 1922) 1988 - 1992 Eric Boyer (b. 1939) 1992 - 28 Mar 1994 Joseph Sinimalé (interim) (b. 1943) 28 Mar 1994 - 30 Mar 1998 Christophe Payet (b. 1940) 30 Mar 1998 - 1 Apr 2004 Jean-Luc Poudroux (b. 1950) 1 Apr 2004 - Nassimah Dindar (f) (b. 1960)

Rewa: see under Fiji.
Rhodesia: see Zimbabwe.
Rif Republic: see under Morocco.
Rio Grande do Sul: see under Brazil.

Romania

Walachia

       1324                Principality of Hungaro-Walachia consolidated (Ungrovlahia;
                           in Romanian commonly called Tara Romaneasca, and even more
                           colloquially Muntenia)
23 Dec 1861                merger with Moldavia into the United Romanian
                           Principalities

Princesš
 7 Sep 1688 -  4 Apr 1714  Constantin Pavel Basarab
                           Cantacuzino Brâncoveanu
 5 Apr 1714 -  5 Jan 1716  Stefan Constantin Cantacuzino
 5 Jan 1716 - 25 Nov 1716  Nicolae Alexandru Mavrocordat-
                           Scarlati (1st time)
 2 Dec 1716 -  6 Mar 1719  Ioan Alexandru Mavrocordat-
                           Scarlati
   Mar 1719 - 14 Sep 1730  Nicolae Alexandru Mavrocordat-
                           Scarlati (2nd time)
14 Sep 1730 - 15 Oct 1730* Constantin Nicolae Mavrocordat-
                           Scarlati (1st time)                (b. ... - d. 1769)
       1730 - 24 Oct 1731  Mihai Ion Racovita (1st time)
24 Oct 1731 - 16 Apr 1733  Constantin Nicolae Mavrocordat-
                           Scarlati (2nd time)                (s.a.)
16 Apr 1733 - 27 Nov 1735  Grigore II Matei Ghica (1st time)
27 Nov 1735 -        1741  Constantin Nicolae Mavrocordat-
                           Scarlati (3rd time)                (s.a.)
*16Sep 1741 -    Jul 1744  Mihai Ion Racovita (2nd time)
   Jul 1744 -    Apr 1748  Constantin Nicolae Mavrocordat-
                           Scarlati (4th time)                (s.a.)
   Apr 1748 -  3 Sep 1752  Grigore II Matei Ghica (2nd time)
 4 Sep 1752 -  3 Jul 1753  Matei Grigore Ghica
 3 Jul 1753 - 19 Feb 1756  Constantin Mihai Racovita
                           (1st time)
20 Feb 1756 -        1758  Constantin Nicolae Mavrocordat-
                           Scarlati (5th time)                (s.a.)
*14Aug 1758 - 16 Jun 1761  Scarlat Grigore Ghica (1st time)
16 Jun 1761 - 20 Mar 1763  Constantin Nicolae Mavrocordat-
                           Scarlati (6th time)                (s.a.)
20 Mar 1763 -  6 Feb 1764  Constantin Mihai Racovita
                           (2nd time)
 6 Feb 1764 - 29 Aug 1765  Stefan Mihai Racovita
29 Aug 1765 - 13 Dec 1766  Scarlat Grigore Ghica (2nd time)
13 Dec 1766 - 28 Oct 1768  Alexandru I Scarlat Ghica
28 Oct 1768 - 16 Nov 1769  Grigore III Alexandru Ghica
16 Nov 1769 -        1770  Russian Military Administration
   May 1770 -    Oct 1771  Emanuel Giani Ruset "Manole"
       1771 - 21 Jul 1774  Russian Military Administration
26 Sep 1774 - 15 Jan 1782  Alexandru Ioan Ipsilanti
                           (1st time)
15 Jan 1782 - 17 Jul 1783  Nicolae Caragea
17 Jul 1783 -        1786  Mihai Dracon Sutu (1st time)       (b. 1730 - d. 1803)
 6 Apr 1786 - 19 Jun 1790  Nicolae Petru Mavroghieni
19 Jun 1790 -  4 Aug 1791  Russian Military Administration
                           (de facto from 15 Nov 1789)
   Mar 1791 -    Jan 1793  Mihai Dracon Sutu (2nd time)       (s.a.)
   Jan 1793 - 28 Aug 1796  Alexandru Constantin Moruzi
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1740? - d. 1816)
28 Aug 1796 -  9 Dec 1797  Alexandru Ioan Ipsilanti
                           (2nd time)
 9 Dec 1797 - 10 Feb 1799  Constantin Hangerliu
10 Feb 1799 - 20 Oct 1801  Alexandru Constantin Moruzi
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
20 Oct 1801 - 22 May 1802  Mihai Dracon Sutu (3rd time)       (s.a.)
 2 Jul 1802 - 30 Aug 1802  Alexandru Nicolae Sutu (1st time)  (b. 1758 - d. 1821)
                           (Princely Lieutenant)
30 Aug 1802 - 24 Aug 1806  Constantin Alexandru Ipsilanti
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1760 - d. 1816)
24 Aug 1806 - 13 Oct 1806  Alexandru Nicolae Sutu (2nd time)  (s.a.)
13 Oct 1806 - 31 May 1807  Constantin Alexandru Ipsilanti
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1807 -  8 Aug 1807  Russian Military Administration
                           (de facto from 28 Aug 1806)
 8 Aug 1807 - 28 Aug 1807  Constantin Alexandru Ipsilanti
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
28 Aug 1807 -  1 Mar 1808  Russian Military Administration
 1 Mar 1808 - 18 Sep 1808  Princely Lieutenancy
18 Sep 1808 -    Mar 1809  Committee of Five
   Mar 1809 - 28 May 1812  Russian Military Administration
 8 Sep 1812 - 11 Oct 1818  Ioan Gheorghe Caragea              (b. 1745 - d. 1845)
16 Nov 1818-30/31Jan 1821  Alexandru Nicolae Sutu (3rd time)  (s.a.)
   Feb 1821 -    Jun 1821  Scarlat Alexandru Callimachi       (b. 1773 - d. 1821)
   Feb 1821 -    Jun 1821    Tudor Constantin Vladimirescu    (b. c.1770 - d. 1821)
                             (Conducator [Leader], in rebellion)
       1821 - 21 Jun 1822  Ottoman Military Administration
12 Jul 1822 - 11 May 1828  Grigore IV Dimitrie Ghica          (b. 1755 - d. 1834)
22 Feb 1828 -  2 Apr 1834  Russian Military Administration
 2 Apr 1834 - 19 Oct 1842  Alexandru II Dimitrie Ghica
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1795 - d. 1862)
 1 Jan 1843 - 25 Jun 1848  Gheorghe Dimitrie Bibescu          (b. 1804 - d. 1873)
25 Jun 1848 - 10 Jul 1848  Neofit II (1st time)               (b. 1787 - d. 1850)
                           (President of the Provisional Government)
10 Jul 1848 - 12 Jul 1848  Princely Lieutenancy
                           - Teodor Vacarescu
                           - Emanoil Baleanu (1st time)
12 Jul 1848 -  9 Aug 1848  Neofit II (2nd time)               (s.a.)
                           (President of the Provisional Government)
 9 Aug 1848 - 25 Sep 1848  Princely Lieutenancy
                           - Ioan Heliade Radulescu           (b. 1802 - d. 1872)
                           - Nicolae Golescu                  (b. 1810 - d. 1877)
                           - Christian Tell                   (b. 1807 - d. 1884)
25 Sep 1848 -    Jun 1849  Constantin Cantacuzino             (b. 1800 - d. 1875)
                           (Princely Lieutenant)
28 Jun 1849 - 29 Oct 1853  Barbu Dimitrie Stirbei (1st time)  (b. 1799 - d. 1869)
29 Oct 1853 - 31 Jul 1854  Russian Military Administration
 8 Aug 1854 -    Aug 1854  Ottoman Military Administration
19 Aug 1854 -  5 Oct 1854  Austrian Military Administration
                           (de facto to 25 Mar 1856)
 5 Oct 1854 - 25 Mar 1856  Barbu Dimitrie Stirbei (2nd time)  (s.a.)
29 Jul 1856 - 30 Oct 1858  Alexandru Dimitrie Ghica
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
                           (Princely Lieutenant)
30 Oct 1858 -  5 Feb 1859  Princely Lieutenancy
                           - Ioan Manu
                           - Emanoil Baleanu (2nd time)
                           - Ioan Alexandru Filipescu         (b. 1811 - d. 1863)
 5 Feb 1859 - 23 Dec 1861  Alexandru Ioan Cuza Voievod        (b. 1820 - d. 1873)

Prime ministers 6 Feb 1859 - 8 Apr 1859 Ioan Alexandru Filipescu (s.a.) 8 Apr 1859 - 18 Sep 1859 Constantin Cretulescu (b. 1809 - d. 1884) 18 Sep 1859 - 23 Oct 1859 Nicolae Cretulescu (b. 1812 - d. 1900) 23 Oct 1859 - 9 Jun 1860 Prince Ion Ghica (b. 1816 - d. 1897) 9 Jun 1860 - 25 Jul 1860 Nicolae Golescu (s.a.) 25 Jul 1860 - 12 May 1861 Manolache Costache Epureanu (b. 1824 - d. 1880) 12 May 1861 - 24 May 1861 Barbu Catargiu (b. 1808 - d. 1862) 24 May 1861 - 31 Jul 1861 Stefan Golescu (b. 1809 - d. 1874) 31 Jul 1861 - 3 Feb 1862 Prince Dimitrie Ghica (b. 1816 - d. 1897)
šUsual translation of the title Domn (Lord), in full Din Mila lui Dumnezeu, Voievoda si Domn a toata Tara Ungrovlahiei ("By the grace of God, Governor and Lord of all the Hungaro-Walachian Land").

Moldavia

       1352                Principality of Moldavia founded
23 Dec 1861                merger with Walachia into the United Romanian
                           Principalities

Princesš
18 Dec 1695 - 25 Sep 1700  Antioh Constantin Cantemir
                           (1st time)
25 Sep 1700 - 26 Jun 1703  Constantin Gheorghe Duca "Duculet"
                           (2nd time)
26 Jun 1703 -    Sep 1703  Ioan Buhus (1st time)
                           (Princely Lieutenant)
   Sep 1703 - 23 Feb 1705  Mihai Ion Racovita (1st time)
23 Feb 1705 - 31 Jul 1707  Antioh Constantin Cantemir
                           (2nd time)
31 Jul 1707 -  5 Feb 1710  Ioan Buhus (2nd time)
                           (Princely Lieutenant)
 5 Feb 1710 -  4 Dec 1710  Nicolae Alexandru Mavrocordat-
                           Scarlati (1st time)
 4 Dec 1710 - 22 Jul 1711  Dimitrie Constantin Cantemir
                           (2nd time)                         (b. 1671 - d. 1723)
                           (in rebellion from 29 Nov 1710)
12 Aug 1711 - 20 Sep 1711  Princely Lieutenancy
                           - Lupu Gavril Costache
                           - Maxut
                           - Antioh Jora
21 Sep 1711 -  7 Oct 1711  Gheorghe Apostol
                           (Princely Lieutenant)
 7 Oct 1711 - 19 Nov 1711  Ioan Alexandru Mavrocordat-
                           Scarlati (Princely Lieutenant)
19 Nov 1711 -  5 Jan 1716  Nicolae Alexandru Mavrocordat-
                           Scarlati (2nd time)
 5 Jan 1716 -  6 Oct 1726  Mihai Ion Racovita (2nd time)
 7 Oct 1726 - 16 Apr 1733  Grigore II Matei Ghica (1st time)
16 Apr 1733 - 27 Nov 1735  Constantin Nicolae Mavrocordat-
                           Scarlati (1st time)                (b. ... - d. 1769)
27 Nov 1735 - 14 Sep 1739  Grigore II Matei Ghica (2nd time)
14 Sep 1739 -    Oct 1739  Russian Military Administration
   Oct 1739 - 24 Sep 1741  Grigore II Matei Ghica (3rd time)
   Sep 1741 - 31 Jul 1743  Constantin Nicolae Mavrocordat-
                           Scarlati (2nd time)                (s.a.)
31 Jul 1743 -    May 1747  Ioan Nicolae Mavrocordat-Scarlati
   May 1747 -    Apr 1748  Grigore II Matei Ghica (4th time)
   Apr 1748 - 31 Aug 1749  Constantin Nicolae Mavrocordat-
                           Scarlati (3rd time)                (s.a.)
31 Aug 1749 -  3 Jul 1753  Constantin Mihai Racovita
                           (1st time)
 3 Jul 1753 - 19 Feb 1756  Matei Grigore Ghica
19 Feb 1756 - 13 Mar 1757  Constantin Mihai Racovita
                           (2nd time)
13 Mar 1757 -        1758  Scarlat Grigore Ghica
*14Aug 1758 -        1761  Ioan Teodor Callimachi
*8 Jun 1761 - 29 Mar 1764  Grigore Ioan Callimachi (1st time)
29 Mar 1764 -  3 Feb 1767  Grigore III Alexandru Ghica
                           (1st time)
 3 Feb 1767 - 14 Jun 1769  Grigore Ioan Callimachi (2nd time)
29 Jun 1769 - 15 Dec 1769  Constantin Nicolae Mavrocordat-
                           Scarlati (4th time)                (s.a.)
15 Dec 1769 -    Sep 1774  Russian Military Administration
                           (de facto from 8 Oct 1769)
*9 Oct 1774 - 12 Oct 1777  Grigore III Alexandru Ghica
                           (2nd time)
12 Oct 1777 -  9 Jun 1782  Constantin Dimitrie Moruzi
 9 Jun 1782 - 12 Jan 1785  Alexandru Constantin Mavrocordat
                           "Deli-bei"
12 Jan 1785 - 14 Dec 1786  Alexandru Ioan Mavrocordat
                           "Firaris," "Fugarul"
   Dec 1786 - 19 Apr 1788  Alexandru Ioan Ipsilanti           (b. 1726 - d. 1807)
   May 1788 -    Oct 1788  Emanuel Giani Ruset "Manole"
   Oct 1788 -    Mar 1792  Russian Military Administration
                           (de facto to 9 Jan 1793)
                           together with
   Oct 1788 -  4 Aug 1791  Austrian Military Administration
   Mar 1792 - 10 Jan 1793  Alexandru Constantin Moruzi
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1740? - d. 1816)
10 Jan 1793 -  6 May 1795  Mihai Dracon Sutu
 6 May 1795 - 18 Mar 1799  Alexandru Callimachi
18 Mar 1799 - 10 Jul 1801  Constantin Alexandru Ipsilanti     (b. 1760 - d. 1816)
10 Jul 1801 -  1 Oct 1802  Alexandru Nicolae Sutu             (b. 1758 - d. 1821)
 1 Oct 1802 -  9 Nov 1802  Iordache Canta
                           (Princely Lieutenant)
 9 Nov 1802 - 24 Aug 1806  Alexandru Constantin Moruzi
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
24 Aug 1806 - 15 Oct 1806  Scarlat Alexandru Callimachi
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1773 - d. 1821)
17 Oct 1806 - 19 Mar 1807  Alexandru Constantin Moruzi
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
19 Mar 1807 -  5 Aug 1807  Alexandru Hangerliu
 5 Aug 1807 -  7 Aug 1812  Veniamin Costache (1st time)       (b. 1768 - d. 1846)
                           (Princely Lieutenant)
 8 Sep 1812 -  2 Jul 1819  Scarlat Alexandru Callimachi
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
24 Jun 1819 - 10 Apr 1821  Mihai Grigore Sutu                 (b. 1784 - d. 1864)
10 Apr 1821 -    May 1821  Veniamin Costache (2nd time)
                           (Princely Lieutenant)
       1821 - 22 Jul 1822  Stefan Vogoride                    (b. 1774 - d. 1869)
                           (Princely Lieutenant)
21 Jun 1822 -  5 May 1828  Ioan Alexandru Sturza              (b. ... - d. 1842)
13 Feb 1828 -    Apr 1834  Russian Military Administration
   Apr 1834 -    Jun 1849  Mihai Grigore Sturza               (b. 1795 - d. 1884)
14 Oct 1849 - 30 Oct 1853  Grigore IV Alexandru Ghica
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1807 - d. 1857)
30 Oct 1853 - 16 Sep 1854  Russian Military Administration
19 Apr 1854 - 25 Mar 1856  Ottoman and Austrian Military Administrations
14 Oct 1854 -  8 Jul 1856  Grigore IV Alexandru Ghica
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
15 Jul 1856 - 22 Jul 1856  Extraordinary Administrative Council
23 Jul 1856 -  1 Mar 1857  Teodor Bals (Princely Lieutenant)
 1 Mar 1857 -    Oct 1858  Nicolae Stefan Conachi-Vogoride    (b. 1820 - d. 1863)
                           (Princely Lieutenant)
18 Oct 1858 - 18 Jan 1859  Princely Lieutenancy
                           - Stefan Catargiu (to 1 Nov 1858)
                           - Ioan Alexandru Cantacuzino
                             (from 1 Nov 1858)
                           - Vasile Sturdza                   (b. 1810 - d. 1870)
                           - Anastasie Panu                   (b. 1810 - d. 1867)
18 Jan 1859 - 23 Dec 1861  Alexandru Ioan Cuza Voievod        (b. 1820 - d. 1873)

Prime ministers 29 Jan 1859 - 20 Mar 1859 Vasile Sturdza (s.a.) 20 Mar 1859 - 9 May 1859 Prince Ion Ghica (b. 1816 - d. 1897) 9 May 1859 - 15 Apr 1860 Manolache Costache Epureanu (b. 1824 - d. 1880) 15 Apr 1860 - 29 Jan 1861 Mihail Kogalniceanu (b. 1817 - d. 1891) 29 Jan 1861 - 17 Oct 1861 Anastasie Panu (s.a.) 17 Oct 1861 - 3 Feb 1862 Alexandru Moruzi (b. 1805 - d. 1873)
šUsual translation of the title Domn (Lord), in full Din Mila lui Dumnezeu, Voievod si Domn al Tarii Moldovei ("By the grace of God, Governor and Lord of the Moldavian Land").

Transylvania

        896                the Magyars (Hungarians) invade the area; first dux
                           ultrasilvanus (Transylvanian prince) recorded
       1070 -        1170  Transylvania progressively attached to the Hungarian kingdom
       1176                first governor with the style vajvoda recorded; this style
                           becomes standard
       1176 -        1540  a political structure emerges in which the vajvoda, still
                           appointed by the Hungarian king, becomes progressively
                           autonomous and an increasingly powerful diet is formed in
                           which the "three nations" - Magyars, Szeklers, and Saxons -
                           are represented; the Magyars (i.e., the descendants of the
                           Hungarian invaders) include most of the nobility; the Szeklers,
                           although ethnically related to the Magyars, are a mystery
                           regarding their origins; the Saxons are the descendants of
                           (peaceful) German settlers; the Romanian (mostly peasant)
                           majority population has no political participation
       1241 -        1243  Mongol army invades, then withdraws
   Aug 1540                János Zsigmond Szapolyai (or Zápolya), king of Hungary (in
                           contention with Ferdinánd Habsburg), inherits his father's
                           claim to the crown of Hungary, and establishes his base in
                           Transylvania
31 Dec 1551                Ferdinánd Habsburg (later Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand I)
                           also lays claim to Transylvania
16 Aug 1570                János Zsigmond Szapolyai, having relinquished his claim to
                           the crown of Hungary, adopts the style Erdélyi Fejedelem
                           (prince of Transylvania); Transylvania becomes an elective
                           principality
 2 Nov 1765                Mária Terézia, queen of Hungary, princess of Transylvania,
                           transforms Transylvania into a hereditary grand-principality
                           (Erdélyi Nagyfejedelemség)
 7 Feb 1867                as part of the Austro-Hungarian Ausgleich, Transylvania is
                           formally incorporated into the Kingdom of Hungary, the emperor-
                           king preserving the style of grand prince of Transylvania
13 Nov 1918                Kingdom of Hungary enters into dissolution
 1 Dec 1918                Transylvania declares independence
11 Jan 1919                Transylvania incorporated into Romania
30 Aug 1940                under German pressure a major part of Transylvania is
                           retroceded to Hungary
15 Sep 1947                retroceded part of Transylvania is de jure returned to Romania
                           (de facto since Mar 1945)

Princes/princesses (title Erdélyi Fejedelem/Fejedelemnö)
 1 Jun 1696 -  8 Jul 1704  Lipót de Habsburg                  (b. 1640 - d. 1705)
 8 Jul 1704 - 14 Nov 1711  Ferenc Lipót Rákóczy de
                           Felsövadász II                     (b. 1676 - d. 1735)
14 Nov 1711 - 20 Oct 1740  Károly József Ferenc de Habsburg   (b. 1685 - d. 1740)
20 Oct 1740 -  2 Nov 1765  Mária Terézia de Habsburg (f)      (b. 1717 - d. 1780)
Grand princes/princesses (title Erdélyi Nagyfejedelem/Nagyfejedelemnö)
 2 Nov 1765 -  7 Feb 1867  the rulers of Hungary
Governors
 4 Dec 1690 - 15 Nov 1708  György gróf Bánffy de Losoncz I    (b. 1660? - d. 1708)
                           (acting to 7 Feb 1691)
10 Aug 1709 -  2 May 1710  István gróf Haller de Hallerkö     (b. 16... - d. 1710)
                           (president of the diet)
 2 May 1710 - 31 Mar 1713  István báró Wesselényi de Hadad
                           (1st time) (president of the diet) (b. 1674 - d. 1734)
31 Mar 1713 - 15 Dec 1731  Zsigmond gróf Kornis de
                           Gönczruszka                        (b. 16... - d. 1731)
15 Dec 1731 -    Jul 1732  István báró Wesselényi de Hadad
                           (2nd time) (president of the diet) (s.a.)
   Jul 1732 -    Jul 1734  Franz Anton Paul Graf Wallis       (b. 1677 - d. 1737)
                           (president of the government)
 2 Dec 1734 - 18 Oct 1755  János gróf Haller de Hallerkö
   Dec 1755 -  6 Jul 1758  Franz Wenzel Graf Wallis           (b. 1696 - d. 1770)
                           (president of the government)
 6 Jul 1758 -  7 May 1762  László gróf Kemény de
                           Gyerö-monostor                     (b. ... - d. 1774)
                           (president of the government)
 7 May 1762 - 18 May 1764  Adolf Nicolaus Baron Buccow        (b. ... - d. 1764)
                           (president of the government)
21 Jul 1764 - 20 Oct 1767  András gróf Hadik de Futak         (b. 1710 - d. 1790)
                           (president of the government)
14 Dec 1767 - 28 Sep 1770  Carl O'Donnell Graf von Tyrconnel  (b. 1715 - d. 1771)
                           (president of the government)
13 Jan 1771 -  6 Jul 1774  Maria Joseph Graf Auersperg        (b. 17... - d. 1806)
 6 Jul 1774 -  9 Jan 1787  Samuel Brekner, Baron von
                           Brukenthal                         (b. 1721 - d. 1803)
                           (president of the government to 16 Jul 1777)
 9 Jan 1787 -  5 Jul 1822  György gróf Bánffy de Losoncz II   (b. 1747 - d. 1822)
                           (president of the government)
11 Sep 1822 - 15 Oct 1834  János báró Jósika de Branyicska    (b. ... - d. 1843)
                           (president of the government)
 6 Feb 1835 - 30 Apr 1837  Ferdinand Karl Joseph Erzherzog
                           von Österreich-Este                (b. 1781 - d. 1850)
                           (president of the government)
 5 Oct 1838 - 15 Aug 1840  János gróf Kornis de Gönczruszka   (b. ... - d. 1840)
 8 Jan 1842 - 14 Nov 1848  József gróf Teleki de Szék         (b. 1790 - d. 1855)
14 Nov 1848 - 22 Dec 1848  Imre gróf Mikó de Hidvég
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1805 - d. 1876)
                           (president of the government)
22 Dec 1848 - 11 Jul 1849  Anton Freiherr von Puchner         (b. 1779 - d. 1852)
11 Jul 1849 - 24 Feb 1851  Ludwig Baron Wohlgemuth            (b. 1788 - d. 1851)
29 Apr 1851 - 25 Jun 1858  Karl Borromäus Fürst zu
                           Schwarzenberg                      (b. 1802 - d. 1858)
26 Jul 1858 - 23 Apr 1861  Friedrich Prinz von Liechtenstein  (b. 1807 - d. 1885)
10 Dec 1860 - 26 Nov 1861  Imre gróf Mikó de Hidvég
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
                           (president of the government)
26 Nov 1861 -  2 Apr 1867  Ludwig Graf Folliot de Crenneville (b. 1813 - d. 1876)
                           (president of the government)
President of the Directing Council
 2 Dec 1918 - 11 Jan 1919  Iuliu Maniu                        (b. 1873 - d. 1953)

Romania

23 Dec 1861                United Romanian Principalities
12 Jul 1866                Romania
22 May 1877                independence from Ottoman Empire proclaimed
13 Jul 1878                independence recognized
26 Mar 1881                Kingdom of Romania
30 Dec 1947                Romanian People's Republic
21 Aug 1965                Socialist Republic of Romania
29 Dec 1989                Romania
Note: The country was known in English as Rumania until the spelling was officially changed to Romania in Feb 1966.
General secretaries (19 Apr 1954 - Jul 1965, first secretaries)
of the Romanian Communist Party (Feb 1948 - Jul 1965, Romanian Workers' Party)
   Oct 1945 - 19 Apr 1954  Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej (1st time)  (b. 1901 - d. 1965)
19 Apr 1954 - 30 Sep 1955  Gheorghe Apostol                   (b. 1913 - d. 2010)
30 Sep 1955 - 19 Mar 1965  Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej (2nd time)  (s.a.)
22 Mar 1965 - 22 Dec 1989  Nicolae Ceausescu                  (b. 1918 - d. 1989)

Princes - Cuza-Voievod dynasty - 23 Dec 1861 - 23 Feb 1866 Alexandru Ioan I (b. 1820 - d. 1873) 23 Feb 1866 - 22 May 1866 Princely Lieutenancy - Nicolae Golescu (b. 1810 - d. 1877) - Lascar Catargiu (b. 1823 - d. 1899) - Nicolae Haralambie (b. 1835 - d. 1908) - Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen dynasty - 22 May 1866 - 26 Mar 1881 Carol I (b. 1839 - d. 1914) Kings - Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen dynasty - 26 Mar 1881 - 10 Oct 1914 Carol I (s.a.) 10 Oct 1914 - 20 Jul 1927 Ferdinand I (b. 1865 - d. 1927) 20 Jul 1927 - 8 Jun 1930 Mihai I (1st time) (b. 1921) 20 Jul 1927 - 8 Jun 1930 Regency - Prince Nicolae (b. 1903 - d. 1978) - Miron Cristea (b. 1868 - d. 1939) - Gheorghe Buzdugan (b. 1867 - d. 1929) (to 7 Oct 1929) - Constantin Sarateanu (b. 1882 - d. 1935) (from 9 Oct 1929) 8 Jun 1930 - 6 Sep 1940 Carol II (b. 1893 - d. 1953) 6 Sep 1940 - 30 Dec 1947 Mihai I (2nd time) (s.a.) 30 Dec 1947 - 9 Jan 1948 Presidium of the Romanian People's Republic - Mihail Sadoveanu (b. 1880 - d. 1961) - Constantin I. Parhon (b. 1874 - d. 1969) - Ion Niculi (b. 1887 - d. 1979) - Gheorghe Stere (b. 1893 - d. 1970) - Stefan Voitec (b. 1900 - d. 1984) Chairman of the Presidium of the Romanian People's Republic 9 Jan 1948 - 13 Apr 1948 Constantin I. Parhon (s.a.) Chairmen of the Presidium of the Grand National Assembly 13 Apr 1948 - 2 Jun 1952 Constantin I. Parhon (s.a.) 2 Jun 1952 - 7 Jan 1958 Petru Groza (b. 1884 - d. 1958) 7 Jan 1958 - 11 Jan 1958 Mihail Sadoveanu (s.a.) + Anton Moisescu (b. 1913) (acting) 11 Jan 1958 - 21 Mar 1961 Ion Gheorghe Maurer (b. 1902 - d. 2000) Presidents of the State Council 21 Mar 1961 - 19 Mar 1965 Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej (s.a.) 19 Mar 1965 - 24 Mar 1965 Ion Gheorghe Maurer (s.a.) + Stefan Voitec (s.a.) + Avram Bunaciu (b. 1909 - d. 1983) (acting) 24 Mar 1965 - 9 Dec 1967 Chivu Stoica (b. 1908 - d. 1975) 9 Dec 1967 - 22 Dec 1989 Nicolae Ceausescu (s.a.) Presidents 28 Mar 1974 - 22 Dec 1989 Nicolae Ceausescu (s.a.) 22 Dec 1989 - 26 Dec 1989 Council of the National Salvation Frontš 26 Dec 1989 - 29 Nov 1996 Ion Iliescu (1st time) (b. 1930) (president of the Council of the National Salvation Front to 13 Feb 1990; president of the Provisional National Unity Council 13 Feb - 20 Jun 1990) 29 Nov 1996 - 20 Dec 2000 Emil Constantinescu (b. 1939) 20 Dec 2000 - 20 Dec 2004 Ion Iliescu (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Dec 2004 - Traian Basescu (b. 1951) 20 Apr 2007 - 23 May 2007 Nicolae Vacaroiu (b. 1943) (acting for suspended Basescu) 10 Jul 2012 - 28 Aug 2012 Crin Antonescu (b. 1959) (acting for suspended Basescu)
Prime ministers 3 Feb 1862 - 20 Jun 1862 Barbu Catargiu (b. 1808 - d. 1862) 20 Jun 1862 - 6 Jul 1862 Apostol Arsache (acting) (b. 1789 - d. 1869) 6 Jul 1862 - 24 Oct 1863 Nicolae Cretulescu (1st time) (b. 1812 - d. 1900) 24 Oct 1863 - 6 Feb 1865 Mihail Kogalniceanu (b. 1817 - d. 1891) 6 Feb 1865 - 24 May 1866 Nicolae Cretulescu (2nd time) (s.a.) 24 May 1866 - 28 Jul 1866 Lascar Catargiu (1st time) (s.a.) 28 Jul 1866 - 13 Mar 1867 Prince Ion Ghica (1st time) (b. 1816 - d. 1897) 13 Mar 1867 - 26 Nov 1867 Nicolae Cretulescu (3rd time) (s.a.) 26 Nov 1867 - 12 May 1868 Stefan Golescu (b. 1809 - d. 1874) 12 May 1868 - Jul 1868 Nicolae Golescu (s.a.) Jul 1868 - 28 Nov 1868 Ion C. Bratianu (1st time) (b. 1821 - d. 1891) 28 Nov 1868 - 14 Feb 1870 Prince Dimitrie Ghica (b. 1816 - d. 1897) 14 Feb 1870 - 1 May 1870 Alexandru G. Golescu (b. 1819 - d. 1881) 1 May 1870 - 26 Dec 1870 Manolache Costache Epureanu (1st time) (b. 1824 - d. 1880) 26 Dec 1870 - 24 Mar 1871 Prince Ion Ghica (2nd time) (s.a.) 24 Mar 1871 - 17 Apr 1876 Lascar Catargiu (2nd time) (s.a.) 17 Apr 1876 - 6 May 1876 Emanoil Ion Florescu (1st time) (b. 1819 - d. 1893) 6 May 1876 - 5 Aug 1876 Manolache Costache Epureanu (2nd time) (s.a.) 5 Aug 1876 - 19 Apr 1881 Ion C. Bratianu (2nd time) (s.a.) 19 Apr 1881 - 21 Jun 1881 Dimitrie C. Bratianu (b. 1818 - d. 1892) 21 Jun 1881 - 13 Apr 1888 Ion C. Bratianu (3rd time) (s.a.) 13 Apr 1888 - 11 Apr 1889 Teodor Rosetti (b. 1837 - d. 1923) 11 Apr 1889 - 15 Nov 1889 Lascar Catargiu (3rd time) (s.a.) 15 Nov 1889 - 2 Mar 1891 Gheorghe Manu (b. 1833 - d. 1911) 2 Mar 1891 - 29 Dec 1891 Emanoil Ion Florescu (2nd time) (s.a.) 29 Dec 1891 - 15 Oct 1895 Lascar Catargiu (4th time) (s.a.) 15 Oct 1895 - 2 Dec 1896 Dimitrie Sturdza (1st time) (b. 1833 - d. 1914) 2 Dec 1896 - 12 Apr 1897 Petre S. Aurelian (b. 1833 - d. 1909) 12 Apr 1897 - 23 Apr 1899 Dimitrie Sturdza (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Apr 1899 - 19 Jul 1900 Prince Gheorghe Cantacuzino (1st time) (b. 1837 - d. 1913) 19 Jul 1900 - 27 Feb 1901 Petre P. Carp (1st time) (b. 1837 - d. 1919) 27 Feb 1901 - 4 Jan 1905 Dimitrie Sturdza (3rd time) (s.a.) 4 Jan 1905 - 24 Mar 1907 Prince Gheorghe Cantacuzino (2nd time) (s.a.) 24 Mar 1907 - 9 Jan 1909 Dimitrie Sturdza (4th time) (s.a.) 9 Jan 1909 - 14 Jan 1911 Ion I.C. Bratianu (1st time) (b. 1864 - d. 1927) 14 Jan 1911 - 10 Apr 1912 Petre P. Carp (2nd time) (s.a.) 10 Apr 1912 - 15 Jan 1914 Titu Maiorescu (b. 1840 - d. 1917) 15 Jan 1914 - 9 Feb 1918 Ion I.C. Bratianu (2nd time) (s.a.) 9 Feb 1918 - 15 Mar 1918 Alexandru Averescu (1st time) (b. 1859 - d. 1938) 15 Mar 1918 - 24 Oct 1918 Alexandru Marghiloman (b. 1854 - d. 1925) 24 Oct 1918 - 14 Dec 1918 Constantin Coanda (b. 1857 - d. 1932) 14 Dec 1918 - 1 Oct 1919 Ion I.C. Bratianu (3rd time) (s.a.) 1 Oct 1919 - 9 Dec 1919 Arthur Vaitoianu (b. 1864 - d. 1956) 9 Dec 1919 - 19 Mar 1920 Alexandru Vaida-Voevod (1st time) (b. 1872 - d. 1950) 19 Mar 1920 - 18 Dec 1921 Alexandru Averescu (2nd time) (s.a.) 18 Dec 1921 - 19 Jan 1922 Take Ionescu (b. 1858 - d. 1922) 19 Jan 1922 - 30 Mar 1926 Ion I.C. Bratianu (4th time) (s.a.) 30 Mar 1926 - 4 Jun 1927 Alexandru Averescu (3rd time) (s.a.) 4 Jun 1927 - 21 Jun 1927 Prince Barbu Stirbei (b. 1873 - d. 1946) 21 Jun 1927 - 24 Nov 1927 Ion I.C. Bratianu (5th time) (s.a.) 24 Nov 1927 - 11 Nov 1928 Vintila Bratianu (b. 1867 - d. 1930) 11 Nov 1928 - 8 Jun 1930 Iuliu Maniu (1st time) (b. 1873 - d. 1953) 8 Jun 1930 - 13 Jun 1930 Gheorghe G. Mironescu (1st time) (b. 1874 - d. 1949) 13 Jun 1930 - 10 Oct 1930 Iuliu Maniu (2nd time) (s.a.) 10 Oct 1930 - 19 Apr 1931 Gheorghe G. Mironescu (2nd time) (s.a.) 19 Apr 1931 - 6 Jun 1932 Nicolae Iorga (b. 1871 - d. 1940) 6 Jun 1932 - 19 Oct 1932 Alexandru Vaida-Voevod (2nd time) (s.a.) 19 Oct 1932 - 14 Jan 1933 Iuliu Maniu (3rd time) (s.a.) 14 Jan 1933 - 14 Nov 1933 Alexandru Vaida-Voevod (3rd time) (s.a.) 14 Nov 1933 - 29 Dec 1933 Ion Duca (b. 1879 - d. 1933) 29 Dec 1933 - 3 Jan 1934 Constantin Angelescu (b. 1869 - d. 1948) 3 Jan 1934 - 28 Dec 1937 Gheorghe Tatarescu (1st time) (b. 1892 - d. 1957) 28 Dec 1937 - 11 Feb 1938 Octavian Goga (b. 1881 - d. 1938) 11 Feb 1938 - 6 Mar 1939 Miron Cristea (s.a.) 7 Mar 1939 - 21 Sep 1939 Armand Calinescu (b. 1893 - d. 1939) 21 Sep 1939 - 28 Sep 1939 Gheorghe Argesanu (b. 1883 - d. 1940) 28 Sep 1939 - 24 Nov 1939 Constantin Argetoianu (b. 1871 - d. 1952) 24 Nov 1939 - 4 Jul 1940 Gheorghe Tatarescu (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Jul 1940 - 4 Sep 1940 Ion Gigurtu (b. 1886 - d. 1959) 4 Sep 1940 - 23 Aug 1944 Ion Antonescu (b. 1882 - d. 1946) (from 14 Sep 1940 styled Conducator al Statului [Leader of the State]) 23 Aug 1944 - 2 Dec 1944 Constantin Sanatescu (b. 1885 - d. 1947) 2 Dec 1944 - 6 Mar 1945 Nicolae Radescu (b. 1874 - d. 1953) Chairmen of the Council of Ministers 6 Mar 1945 - 2 Jun 1952 Petru Groza (s.a.) 2 Jun 1952 - 3 Oct 1955 Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej (s.a.) 3 Oct 1955 - 21 Mar 1961 Chivu Stoica (s.a.) 21 Mar 1961 - 29 Mar 1974 Ion Gheorghe Maurer (s.a.) 29 Mar 1974 - 29 Mar 1979 Manea Manescu (b. 1916 - d. 2009) 29 Mar 1979 - 21 May 1982 Ilie Verdet (b. 1925 - d. 2001) 21 May 1982 - 22 Dec 1989 Constantin Dascalescu (b. 1923 - d. 2003) Prime ministers 26 Dec 1989 - 1 Oct 1991 Petre Roman (b. 1946) (interim to 20 Jun 1990) 1 Oct 1991 - 4 Nov 1992 Theodor Stolojan (b. 1943) 4 Nov 1992 - 12 Dec 1996 Nicolae Vacaroiu (s.a.) 12 Dec 1996 - 30 Mar 1998 Victor Ciorbea (b. 1954) 30 Mar 1998 - 17 Apr 1998 Gavril Dejeu (interim) (b. 1932) 17 Apr 1998 - 14 Dec 1999 Radu Vasile (b. 1942 - d. 2013) 14 Dec 1999 - 22 Dec 1999 Alexandru Athanasiu (interim) (b. 1955) 22 Dec 1999 - 28 Dec 2000 Mugur Isarescu (b. 1949) 28 Dec 2000 - 21 Dec 2004 Adrian Nastase (b. 1950) 21 Dec 2004 - 29 Dec 2004 Eugen Bejinariu (interim) (b. 1959) 29 Dec 2004 - 22 Dec 2008 Calin Popescu-Tariceanu (b. 1952) 22 Dec 2008 - 6 Feb 2012 Emil Boc (b. 1966) 6 Feb 2012 - 9 Feb 2012 Catalin Predoiu (interim) (b. 1968) 9 Feb 2012 - 7 May 2012 Mihai-Razvan Ungureanu (b. 1968) 7 May 2012 - Victor Ponta (b. 1972)
šMembers: Ion Iliescu (s.a.) (spokesman), Doina Cornea (f) (b. 1929), Ana Blandiana (f) (b. 1942), Mircea Dinescu (b. 1950), László Tökés (b. 1952), Dumitru Mazilu (b. 1934), Dan Desliu (b. 1927 - d. 1992), Aurel Dragos Munteanu (b. 1942 - d. 2005), Corneliu Manescu (b. 1916 - d. 2000), Alexandru Birladeanu (b. 1911 - d. 1997), Silviu Brucan (b. 1916 - d. 2006), Petre Roman (s.a.), Ion Caramitru (b. 1942), Sergiu Nicolaescu (b. 1930), Mihail Montanu (b. 1949), Mihai Ispas, Gelu Voican Voiculescu (b. 1941), Dan Martian (b. 1935 - d. 2002), Vasile Neacsa, Cristina Ciontu (f), Marian Baciu, Bogdan Teodoriu (b. 1953), Eugenia Iorga (f), Paul Negritiu, Gheorghe Manole (b. 1949), Vladimir Ionescu, Adrian Sirbu, Constantin Cirjan, Géza Domokos (b. 1928 - d. 2007), Magdalena Ionescu (f), Marian Mierla, Constantin Ivanovici (b. 1947), Vlad Ovidiu, Valeriu Bucurescu, Stefan Gusa (b. 1940 - d. 1994), Victor Stanculescu, Dan Voinea, Mihai Lupoi (b. 1953 - d. 2012), Emil Dumitrescu.

Allied Control Commission

Chairman
   Sep 1944 - 15 Sep 1947  Rodion Malinovsky (U.S.S.R.)        (b. 1898 - d. 1967)
   Sep 1944 -    Feb 1945    Vladislav Vinogradov (U.S.S.R.)   (b. 1899 - d. 1962)
                             (acting for Malinovsky)
   Feb 1945 - 15 Sep 1947    Ivan Susaikov (U.S.S.R.)          (b. 1903 - d. 1967)
                             (acting for Malinovsky)

Rotuma: see under Fiji.

Russia

16 Jan 1547                Russian Tsardom
 2 Nov 1721                All-Russian Empire
 6 May 1906                Russian Empire (or Russian State)
14 Sep 1917                Russian Republic
28 Jan 1918                Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic
30 Dec 1922                Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union)
                           including Russia, Ukraine, Belorussia, and Transcaucasia
13 May 1925                accession of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan
 5 Dec 1929                accession of Tadzhikistan
 5 Dec 1936                accession of Kazakhstan and Kirgiziya
 2 Aug 1940                accession of Moldavia
 3 Aug 1940                accession of Lithuania
 5 Aug 1940                accession of Latvia
 6 Aug 1940                accession of Estonia
 6 Sep 1991                recognition of Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian
                           independence
25 Dec 1991                final dissolution of the U.S.S.R.;
                           R.S.F.S.R. becomes Russian Federation

Russia to 1922

Tsarsš
- Romanov dynasty -
 7 May 1682 -  2 Nov 1721  Pyotr I                            (b. 1672 - d. 1725)
                           jointly with
 2 Jun 1682 -  8 Feb 1696  Ivan V                             (b. 1666 - d. 1696)
                           (specified to be First Tsar 4 Jun 1682)
 7 May 1682 -  8 Jun 1682    Natalya Kirillovna Naryshkina
                             (f) (regent)                     (b. 1651 - d. 1694)
 8 Jun 1682 -    Sep 1689    Sofiya Alekseyevna Romanova (f)  (b. 1657 - d. 1704)
                             (regent; from 1686 styled autocrat)
Emperors/Empresses˛
- Romanov dynasty - (actual affiliation specified in [ ])
 2 Nov 1721 -  8 Feb 1725  Pyotr I "Veliky"                   (s.a.)
 8 Feb 1725 - 17 May 1727  Yekaterina I (f)     [Skavronsky]  (b. 1684 - d. 1727)
18 May 1727 - 30 Jan 1730  Pyotr II                           (b. 1715 - d. 1730)
30 Jan 1730 - 13 Feb 1730  Supreme Privy Council
                           - Knyaz Dmitry Mikhailovich
                             Golitsyn                         (b. 1665 - d. 1737)
                           - Knyaz Vasily Lukich Dolgoruky    (b. c.1670 - d. 1739)
                           - Knyaz Aleksey Grigoryevich
                             Dolgoruky                        (b. ... - d. 1734)
                           - Knyaz Mikhail Vladimirovich
                             Dolgoruky                        (b. 1667 - d. 1750)
                           - Graf Gavril Ivanovich Golovkin   (b. 1660 - d. 1734)
                           - Baron Andrey Ivanovich Osterman  (b. 1686 - d. 1747)
                           - Knyaz Mikhail Mikhailovich
                             Golitsyn                         (b. 1675 - d. 1730)
                           - Knyaz Vasily Vladimirovich
                             Dolgoruky                        (b. 1667 - d. 1746)
13 Feb 1730 - 28 Oct 1740  Anna (f)                           (b. 1693 - d. 1740)
28 Oct 1740 -  6 Dec 1741  Ivan VI   [Braunschweig-Lüneburg]  (b. 1740 - d. 1764)
28 Oct 1740 - 20 Nov 1740    Ernst Johann Biron (regent)      (b. 1690 - d. 1772)
20 Nov 1740 -  6 Dec 1741    Anna Leopoldovna (f) (regent)    (b. 1718 - d. 1746)
 6 Dec 1741 -  5 Jan 1762  Yelizaveta (f)                     (b. 1709 - d. 1762)
 5 Jan 1762 -  9 Jul 1762  Pyotr III      [Holstein-Gottorp]  (b. 1728 - d. 1762)
 9 Jul 1762 - 17 Nov 1796  Yekaterina II "Velikaya" (f)
                                             [Anhalt-Zerbst]  (b. 1729 - d. 1796)
17 Nov 1796-23/24Mar 1801  Pavel I        [Holstein-Gottorp]  (b. 1754 - d. 1801)
24 Mar 1801 -  1 Dec 1825  Aleksandr I    [Holstein-Gottorp]  (b. 1777 - d. 1825)
 1 Dec 1825 - 26 Dec 1825  Konstantin     [Holstein-Gottorp]  (b. 1779 - d. 1831)
                           (proclaimed, but did not accept)
26 Dec 1825 -  2 Mar 1855  Nikolay I      [Holstein-Gottorp]  (b. 1796 - d. 1855)
 2 Mar 1855 - 13 Mar 1881  Aleksandr II   [Holstein-Gottorp]  (b. 1818 - d. 1881)
13 Mar 1881 -  1 Nov 1894  Aleksandr III  [Holstein-Gottorp]  (b. 1845 - d. 1894)
 1 Nov 1894 - 15 Mar 1917  Nikolay II     [Holstein-Gottorp]  (b. 1868 - d. 1918)
Acting heads of state
15 Mar 1917 -  8 Nov 1917  see heads of government
Chairmen of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee
 9 Nov 1917 - 21 Nov 1917  Lev Borisovich Kamenev             (b. 1883 - d. 1936)
21 Nov 1917 - 16 Mar 1919  Yakov Mikhailovich Sverdlov        (b. 1885 - d. 1919)
16 Mar 1919 - 30 Mar 1919  Mikhail Fyodorovich Vladimirsky    (b. 1874 - d. 1951)
                           (acting)
30 Mar 1919 - 15 Jul 1938  Mikhail Kalinin                    (b. 1875 - d. 1946)

Chairmen of the Committee of Ministers 7 Mar 1864 - 4 Mar 1872 Pavel Pavlovich Gagarin (b. 1789 - d. 1872) 9 Mar 1872 - 1 Jan 1880 Pavel Nikolayevich Ignatyev (from 24 Dec 1877, Pavel Nikolayevich, Graf Ignatyev) (b. 1797 - d. 1880) 6 Jan 1880 - 16 Oct 1881 Pyotr Aleksandrovich Valuyev (from 2 Mar 1880, Pyotr Aleksandrovich, Graf Valuyev) (b. 1815 - d. 1890) 16 Oct 1881 - 11 Jan 1887 Mikhail Khristoforovich Reytern (b. 1820 - d. 1890) 13 Jan 1887 - 15 Jun 1895 Nikolay Khristianovich Bunge (b. 1823 - d. 1895) 27 Oct 1895 - 11 Jun 1903 Ivan Nikolayevich Durnovo (b. 1834 - d. 1903) 29 Aug 1903 - 5 May 1906 Sergey Yulyevich Witte (from 1 Oct 1905, Sergey Yulyevich, Graf Witte) (b. 1849 - d. 1915) Prime ministers (chairmen of the Council of Ministers) 6 Nov 1905 - 5 May 1906 Sergey Yulyevich, Graf Witte (s.a.) 5 May 1906 - 21 Jul 1906 Ivan Logginovich Goremykin (1st time) (b. 1839 - d. 1917) 21 Jul 1906 - 18 Sep 1911 Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin (b. 1862 - d. 1911) 15 Sep 1911 - 12 Feb 1914 Vladimir Nikolayevich Kokovtsov (b. 1853 - d. 1943) (acting to 22 Sep 1911 [for Stolypin to 18 Sep 1911]) 12 Feb 1914 - 2 Feb 1916 Ivan Logginovich Goremykin (2nd time) (s.a.) 2 Feb 1916 - 23 Nov 1916 Boris Vladimirovich Shtyurmer (b. 1848 - d. 1917) 23 Nov 1916 - 9 Jan 1917 Aleksandr Fyodorovich Trepov (b. 1862 - d. 1928) 9 Jan 1917 - 12 Mar 1917 Knyaz Nikolay Dmitriyevich Golitsyn (b. 1850 - d. 1925) 15 Mar 1917 - 23 Mar 1917 Knyaz Georgy Yevgenyevich Lvov (b. 1861 - d. 1925) Minister-chairmen of the Provisional Government 23 Mar 1917 - 21 Jul 1917 Knyaz Georgy Yevgenyevich Lvov (s.a.) 21 Jul 1917 - 8 Nov 1917 Aleksandr Kerensky (b. 1881 - d. 1970) Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars 8 Nov 1917 - 21 Jan 1924 Vladimir Ilich Lenin (b. 1870 - d. 1924)

Alternative "White" governments

Chairmen of the Provisional All-Russian Government ("Ufa Directory")
23 Sep 1918 -  5 Nov 1918  Nikolay Dmitriyevich Avksentyev    (b. 1878 - d. 1943)
 7 Nov 1918 - 12 Nov 1918  Vasily Georgiyevich Boldyrev       (b. 1875 - d. af.1932)
Supreme Governor
18 Nov 1918 - 15 Jan 1920  Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak      (b. 1874 - d. 1920)
Commanders-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of South Russia
15 Jan 1920 -  4 Apr 1920  Anton Ivanovich Denikin            (b. 1872 - d. 1947)
 4 Apr 1920 - 16 Nov 1920  Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Vrangel   (b. 1878 - d. 1928)
                           (from 11 Apr 1920 styled Governor and Commander-in-Chief of
                           the Armed Forces in the South of Russia; from 19 Aug 1920
                           Governor of the South of Russia and Commander-in-Chief of
                           the Russian Army)

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers 4 Nov 1918 - 22 Nov 1919 Pyotr Vasilyevich Vologodsky (b. 1863 - d. 1928) 23 Nov 1919 - 15 Jan 1920 Viktor Nikolayevich Pepelyayev (b. 1885 - d. 1920) Chairman of the Government of the South of Russia 19 Aug 1920 - 11 Nov 1920 Aleksandr Vasilyevich Krivoshein (b. 1857 - d. 1921)
šTitle Bozhiyeyu Milostiyu Veliky Gosudar Tsar i Veliky Knyaz N.N. vseya Rossiy Samodyerzhets ("By the Grace of God Great Sovereign Tsar and Grand Prince, N.N., of All Russia, Autocrat").
˛The colloquial use of the term "tsar" for the emperor is strictly incorrect. Since 1721 the correct style was Bozhiyeyu milostiyu, N.N., Imperator/Imperatritsa i Samodyerzhets/Samodyerzhitsa Vserossiysky/Vserossiyskaya ("By the Grace of God, N.N., All-Russian Emperor/Empress and Autocrat"); the term tsar was used in the full style for subsidiary (and partially imaginary) polities; in particular, it was used to mean "king" with regard to Poland.

Soviet Union

General secretaries of the Communist Party ("leading role" abolished 13 Mar 1990)
 3 Apr 1922 -  5 Mar 1953  Iosif Stalin                       (b. 1878 - d. 1953)
                           (senior secretary from 10 Feb 1934)
 5 Mar 1953 - 14 Mar 1953  Georgy Malenkov                    (b. 1902 - d. 1988)
                           (senior secretary)
14 Mar 1953 - 14 Oct 1964  Nikita Khrushchev                  (b. 1894 - d. 1971)
                           (senior secretary to 13 Sep 1953, then first secretary)
14 Oct 1964 - 10 Nov 1982  Leonid Brezhnev                    (b. 1906 - d. 1982)
                           (first secretary to 29 Mar 1966, then from 8 Apr 1966
                           general secretary)
12 Nov 1982 -  9 Feb 1984  Yury Andropov                      (b. 1914 - d. 1984)
13 Feb 1984 - 10 Mar 1985  Konstantin Chernenko               (b. 1911 - d. 1985)
11 Mar 1985 - 24 Aug 1991  Mikhail Gorbachev                  (b. 1931)
24 Aug 1991 - 29 Aug 1991  Vladimir Ivashko (acting)          (b. 1932 - d. 1994)

Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee (jointly) 30 Dec 1922 - 12 Jan 1938 Mikhail Kalinin (s.a.) 30 Dec 1922 - 12 Jan 1938 Grigory Petrovsky (b. 1878 - d. 1958) 30 Dec 1922 - 16 Jun 1937 Aleksandr Chervyakov (b. 1892 - d. 1937) 30 Dec 1922 - 19 Mar 1925 Nariman Narimanov (b. 1870 - d. 1925) 21 May 1925 - Jun 1937 Gazanfar Musabekov (b. 1888 - d. 1938) 21 May 1925 - 21 Jul 1937 Nedirbay Aytakov (b. 1894 - d. 1938) 21 May 1925 - 17 Jun 1937 Fayzulla Khodzhayev (b. 1896 - d. 1938) 18 Mar 1931 - 4 Jan 1934 Nusratulla Lutfullayev (b. 1881 - d. 1937) 4 Jan 1934 - Sep 1937 Abdullo Rakhimbayev (b. 1896 - d. 1938) Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet 17 Jan 1938 - 19 Mar 1946 Mikhail Kalinin (s.a.) 19 Mar 1946 - 15 Mar 1953 Nikolay Shvernik (b. 1888 - d. 1970) 15 Mar 1953 - 7 May 1960 Kliment Voroshilov (b. 1881 - d. 1969) 7 May 1960 - 15 Jul 1964 Leonid Brezhnev (1st time) (s.a.) 15 Jul 1964 - 9 Dec 1965 Anastas Mikoyan (b. 1895 - d. 1978) 9 Dec 1965 - 16 Jun 1977 Nikolay Podgorny (b. 1903 - d. 1983) 16 Jun 1977 - 10 Nov 1982 Leonid Brezhnev (2nd time) (s.a.) 10 Nov 1982 - 16 Jun 1983 Vasily Kuznetsov (1st time) (b. 1901 - d. 1990) (acting) 16 Jun 1983 - 9 Feb 1984 Yury Andropov (s.a.) 9 Feb 1984 - 11 Apr 1984 Vasily Kuznetsov (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting) 11 Apr 1984 - 10 Mar 1985 Konstantin Chernenko (s.a.) 10 Mar 1985 - 2 Jul 1985 Vasily Kuznetsov (3rd time) (s.a.) (acting) 2 Jul 1985 - 1 Oct 1988 Andrey Gromyko (b. 1909 - d. 1989) 1 Oct 1988 - 25 May 1989 Mikhail Gorbachev (s.a.) Chairman of the Supreme Soviet 25 May 1989 - 15 Mar 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev (s.a.) President 15 Mar 1990 - 25 Dec 1991 Mikhail Gorbachev (s.a.) 19 Aug 1991 - 21 Aug 1991 Gennady Yanayev (b. 1937 - d. 2010) (acting; in opposition)
Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars (from 15 Mar 1946, chairmen of the Council of Ministers) 6 Jul 1923 - 21 Jan 1924 Vladimir Ilich Lenin (s.a.) 2 Feb 1924 - 19 Dec 1930 Aleksey Rykov (b. 1881 - d. 1938) 19 Dec 1930 - 6 May 1941 Vyacheslav Molotov (b. 1890 - d. 1986) 6 May 1941 - 5 Mar 1953 Iosif Stalin (s.a.) 6 Mar 1953 - 8 Feb 1955 Georgy Malenkov (s.a.) 8 Feb 1955 - 27 Mar 1958 Nikolay Bulganin (b. 1895 - d. 1975) 27 Mar 1958 - 15 Oct 1964 Nikita Khrushchev (s.a.) 15 Oct 1964 - 23 Oct 1980 Aleksey Kosygin (b. 1904 - d. 1980) 23 Oct 1980 - 27 Sep 1985 Nikolay Tikhonov (b. 1905 - d. 1997) 27 Sep 1985 - 14 Jan 1991 Nikolay Ryzhkov (b. 1929) Prime minister 14 Jan 1991 - 22 Aug 1991 Valentin Pavlov (b. 1937 - d. 2003) Chairman of the Committee on Operative Management of the National Economy (from 20 Sep 1991, Chairman of the Interrepublican Economic Committee; from 14 Nov 1991, Chairman of the Interstate Economic Committee - Prime Minister of the Economic Commonwealth) 6 Sep 1991 - 25 Dec 1991 Ivan Silayev (b. 1930)

Russia from 1991

Presidents
10 Jul 1991 - 31 Dec 1999  Boris Yeltsin                      (b. 1931 - d. 2007)
22 Sep 1993 -  4 Oct 1993    Aleksandr Rutskoy                (b. 1947)
                             (acting; in opposition)
31 Dec 1999 -  7 May 2008  Vladimir Putin (1st time)          (b. 1952)
                           (acting to 7 May 2000)
 7 May 2008 -  7 May 2012  Dmitry Medvedev                    (b. 1965)
 7 May 2012 -              Vladimir Putin (2nd time)          (s.a.)

Prime ministers 26 Sep 1991 - 6 Nov 1991 Oleg Lobov (acting) (b. 1937) 15 Jun 1992 - 14 Dec 1992 Yegor Gaidar (acting) (b. 1956 - d. 2009) 14 Dec 1992 - 23 Mar 1998 Viktor Chernomyrdin (1st time) (b. 1938 - d. 2010) 23 Mar 1998 (hours) Boris Yeltsin (acting) (s.a.) 23 Mar 1998 - 23 Aug 1998 Sergey Kiriyenko (b. 1962) (acting to 24 Apr 1998) 23 Aug 1998 - 11 Sep 1998 Viktor Chernomyrdin (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting) 11 Sep 1998 - 12 May 1999 Yevgeny Primakov (b. 1929) 12 May 1999 - 9 Aug 1999 Sergey Stepashin (b. 1952) (acting to 19 May 1999) 9 Aug 1999 - 7 May 2000 Vladimir Putin (1st time) (s.a.) (acting to 16 Aug 1999) 7 May 2000 - 24 Feb 2004 Mikhail Kasyanov (b. 1957) (acting to 17 May 2000) 24 Feb 2004 - 5 Mar 2004 Viktor Khristenko (acting) (b. 1957) 5 Mar 2004 - 14 Sep 2007 Mikhail Fradkov (b. 1950) 14 Sep 2007 - 8 May 2008 Viktor Zubkov (1st time) (b. 1941) 8 May 2008 - 7 May 2012 Vladimir Putin (2nd time) (s.a.) 7 May 2012 - 8 May 2012 Viktor Zubkov (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.) 8 May 2012 - Dmitry Medvedev (s.a.)

Far-Eastern Republic

 6 Apr 1920                independence declared
15 Nov 1922                incorporated into the Russian S.F.S.R.

Chairmen of the Government
 6 Apr 1920 -    Dec 1921  Aleksandr Mikhailovich
                           Krasnoshchekov                     (b. 1880 - d. 1937)
                           (provisional to 29 Apr 1921)
   Dec 1921 - 15 Nov 1922  Nikolay Mikhailovich Matveyev      (b. 1877 - d. 1951)

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers 6 Apr 1920 - Nov 1920 Aleksandr Mikhailovich Krasnoshchekov (s.a.) Nov 1920 - Apr 1921 Boris Zakharovich Shumyatsky (b. 1886 - d. 1938) 8 May 1921 - Dec 1921 Pyotr Mikhailovich Nikiforov (b. 1882 - d. 1974) Dec 1921 - 14 Nov 1922 Nikolay Mikhailovich Matveyev (s.a.) 14 Nov 1922 - 15 Nov 1922 Pyotr Alekseyevich Kobozev (b. 1878 - d. 1941)

Tannu Tuva

14 Aug 1921                independence declared (People's Republic of Tannu Tuva)
24 Nov 1926                Tuvinian People's Republic
11 Oct 1944                incorporated into U.S.S.R.

First secretaries of the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party
 Fe/Mr 1922 -  9 Jul 1923  Maadi Lopsan-Osur                  (b. 1876 - d. 1934?)
                           (chairman Central Committee)
 9 Jul 1923 - 15 Mar 1924  Oyun Kursedy (president)
   Apr 1924 -    Jan 1926  Shagdyr (general secretary)
   Jan 1926 -    Feb 1927  Mongush Buyan-Badyrgy              (b. 1892 - d. 1932)
   Feb 1927 -    Jan 1929  Sodnam Oorzhak                     (b. 1901 - d. ...)
   Jan 1929 -    Mar 1932  Irgit Shagdyrzhap
 6 Mar 1932 - 11 Oct 1944  Salchak Toka                       (b. 1901 - d. 1973)

Chairman of the Constituent Khural 14 Aug 1921 - 15 Aug 1921 Mongush Buyan-Badyrgy (s.a.) Chairmen of the Presidium of the Little Khural 18 Sep 1924 - 4 Feb 1929 Mongush Nimazhap (b. 1879 - d. 1932) 5 Feb 1929 - 6 Oct 1933 Adyg-Tulush Chuldum (b. 1900 - d. 1933) 6 Nov 1936 - Feb 1938 Adyg-Tulush Khemchik-ool (b. 1893 - d. 1938) 2 Mar 1938 - 4 Apr 1940 Oyun Polat (b. 1906 - d. 1992) 6 Apr 1940 - 11 Oct 1944 Khertek Anchimaa-Toka (f) (b. 1912 - d. 2008)
Chairman of the Central Council 15 Aug 1921 - 28 Feb 1922 Sodnam Balchir Chairmen of the Council of Ministers 1 Mar 1922 - 15 Aug 1922 Maadi Lopsan-Osur (s.a.) 15 Aug 1922 - 19 Sep 1923 Idam-Syurun 20 Sep 1923 - 18 Sep 1924 Mongush Buyan-Badyrgy (s.a.) 18 Sep 1924 - 1925 Soyan Oruygu (b. 1876 - d. 19...) 1925 - Jan 1929 Kuular Donduk (b. 1888 - d. 1932) Jan 1929 - 6 Nov 1936 Adyg-Tulush Khemchik-ool (s.a.) 6 Nov 1936 - 1938 Sat Churmit-Dazhi (b. 1894 - d. 1938) 1938 - 1940 Bair Ondar (b. 1904 - d. 1986) 6 Apr 1940 - 11 Oct 1944 Saryg-Dongak Chymba (b. 1906)

Karafuto

 5 Sep 1905                Karafuto (southern Sakhalin Island) annexed to Japan
25 Aug 1945                incorporated into U.S.S.R.

Governors-general
 1 Apr 1907 - 24 Apr 1908  Sachihiko Kususe                   (b. 1858 - d. 1927)
24 Apr 1908 - 12 Jun 1908  Takejiro Tokonami                  (b. 1866 - d. 1935)
12 Jun 1908 -  5 Jun 1914  Sadataro Hiraoka                   (b. 1863 - d. 19...)
 5 Jun 1914 -  9 Oct 1916  Bunji Okada                        (b. 1874 - d. 19...)
13 Oct 1916 - 17 Apr 1919  Akira Sakaya (1st time)
17 Apr 1919 - 11 Jun 1924  Kinjiro Nagai                      (b. 1873 - d. 1927)
11 Jun 1924 -  5 Aug 1926  Akira Sakaya (2nd time)
 5 Aug 1926 - 27 Jul 1927  Katsuzo Toyoda                     (b. 1881? - d. 1939)
27 Jul 1927 -  9 Jul 1929  Koji Kita                          (b. 1878 - d. 1934)
 9 Jul 1929 - 17 Dec 1931  Shinobu Agata                      (b. 1881 - d. 1942)
17 Dec 1931 -  5 Jul 1932  Masao Kishimoto
 5 Jul 1932 -  7 May 1938  Takeshi Imamura                    (b. 1880 - d. 19...)
 7 May 1938 -  9 Apr 1940  Shun'ichi Munesue                  (b. 1893 - d. ...)
 9 Apr 1940 -  1 Jul 1943  Seigi Ogawa                        (b. 1894 - d. ...)
 1 Jul 1943 -        1945  Toshio Otsu                        (b. 1893 - d. ...)

Chechnya

15 Sep 1991                Supreme Soviet of Chechen-Ingush republic is dissolved
 1 Nov 1991                independence declared (Republic of Chechnya)
16 Jan 1994                Chechen Republic of Ichkeria
19 Jan 1995 -  6 Aug 1996  capital Grozny occupied by Russian forces
 6 Feb 2000                Grozny again captured by Russian forces
11 Oct 2007                Caucasus Emirate proclaimed, to encompass Chechnya,
                           Ingushetia, Dagestan, Ossetia, and other areas

Chairman of the Supreme Provisional Council
15 Sep 1991 - 17 Sep 1991  Lecha Magomadov                    (b. 1938 - d. 2005)
Chairman of the Provisional Council
17 Sep 1991 -  5 Oct 1991  Huseyn Akhmadov                    (b. 1950)
Chairman of the Supreme Provisional Council
 7 Oct 1991 -  2 Nov 1991  Bagauddin Bakhmadov
Presidents
 9 Nov 1991 - 21 Apr 1996  Dzhokhar Dudayev                   (b. 1944 - d. 1996)
21 Apr 1996 - 12 Feb 1997  Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev              (b. 1952 - d. 2004)
12 Feb 1997 -  8 Mar 2005  Aslan Maskhadov                    (b. 1951 - d. 2005)
                           (abandoned Grozny 1 Feb 2000)
 9 Mar 2005 - 17 Jun 2006  Abdul-Khalim Sadulayev             (b. 1967 - d. 2006)
17 Jun 2006 - 11 Oct 2007  Doku Umarov                        (b. 1964 - d. 2014)
Emirs
11 Oct 2007 -    Mar 2014  Abu Usman (= Doku Umarov)          (s.a.)
23 Nov 2007 -                Akhmed Zakayev                   (b. 1956)
                             (chairman of the cabinet of Chechen Republic of Ichkeria,
                             in opposition)
   Mar 2014 -              Ali Abu Mukhammad

Prime ministers 16 Oct 1996 - 1 Jan 1997 Aslan Maskhadov (s.a.) 1 Jan 1998 - 3 Jul 1998 Shamil Basayev (1st time) (b. 1965 - d. 2006) 27 Jun 2006 - 10 Jul 2006 Shamil Basayev (2nd time) (s.a.)

Moscow-installed leaders

Chairman of the Government of National Revival
 3 Jan 1995 - 23 Oct 1995  Salambek Khadzhiyev                (b. 1941)
Head of state
24 Oct 1995 -  9 Dec 1996  Doku Zavgayev                      (b. 1940)
Representative of the federal government in Chechnya
15 Oct 1999 - 28 Jun 2000  Nikolay Koshman                    (b. 1944)
Head of the administration
20 Jun 2000 - 27 Mar 2003  Akhmad Kadyrov                     (b. 1951 - d. 2004)
Presidents
27 Mar 2003 -  9 May 2004  Akhmad Kadyrov                     (s.a.)
                           (acting to 19 Oct 2003)
 5 Aug 2003 - 18 Oct 2003    Anatoly Popov                    (b. 1960)
                             (acting for Kadyrov)
 9 May 2004 -  5 Oct 2004  Sergey Abramov (acting)            (b. 1972)
 5 Oct 2004 - 15 Feb 2007  Alu Alkhanov                       (b. 1957)
15 Feb 2007 -  2 Sep 2010  Ramzan Kadyrov                     (b. 1976)
                           (acting to 5 Apr 2007)
Head of the republic
 2 Sep 2010 -              Ramzan Kadyrov                     (s.a.)

Prime ministers 13 Apr 1996 - 17 Nov 1996 Nikolay Koshman (s.a.) 19 Jan 2001 - 15 Nov 2002 Stanislav Ilyasov (b. 1953) 15 Nov 2002 - 10 Feb 2003 Mikhail Babich (b. 1969) 10 Feb 2003 - 17 Mar 2004 Anatoly Popov (s.a.) 3 Dec 2003 - 17 Mar 2004 Eli Isayev (acting for Popov) (b. 1964) 17 Mar 2004 - 2 Mar 2006 Sergey Abramov (s.a.) (acting 5-15 Oct 2004) 17 Nov 2005 - 10 Apr 2007 Ramzan Kadyrov (s.a.) (acting to 4 Mar 2006 [for Abramov to 2 Mar 2006]) 10 Apr 2007 - 21 May 2012 Odes Baisultanov (b. 1965) 21 May 2012 - 24 May 2012 Isa Tumkhadzhiyev (acting) (b. 1981) 24 May 2012 - Abubakar Edelgeriyev (b. 1974)

Rwanda

     c.14..                Rwanda kingdom founded
 1 Jul 1890                part of German East Africa
                           (effective German control only since 1897; until 1899
                           part of the military district of Tanganyika-Kivu)
       1899 -        1907  part of the military district of Ruanda-Urundi
                           (see under Burundi)
   May 1916                Belgian occupation
20 Jul 1922                League of Nations mandate (Ruanda-Urundi)
13 Dec 1946                United Nations trust territory (Ruanda-Urundi)
18 Oct 1960                autonomy
28 Jan 1961                Republic of Rwanda
 1 Jul 1962                independence

Kings (Abami, singular Mwami)
- Abanyiginya clan -
        ... -         ...  Karemera Rwaka
        ... -         ...  Cyilima II Rujugira
        ... -        1741  Kigeri III Ndabarasa
       1741 -        17..  Mibambwe III Sentabyo
       17.. -        1802  Yuhi IV Gahindiro
       1802 -        1853  Mutara II Rwogera
       1853 -        1895  Kigeri IV Rwabugiri                (b. ... - d. 1895)
       1895 -    Nov 1896  Mibambwe IV Rutarindwa             (b. ... - d. 1896)
   Nov 1896 - 12 Nov 1931  Yuhi V Musinga                     (b. 1883 - d. 1944)
   Nov 1896 -        1916?   Regency
                             - Kabare
                             - Kanyogera (f)                  (b. 18... - d. 1933)
                             - Ruhinankiko
       1911 - 10 Apr 1912    Ndungutse (in rebellion)         (b. ... - d. 1912)
16 Nov 1931 - 25 Jul 1959  Mutara III Rudahigwa               (b. 1913 - d. 1959)
28 Jul 1959 - 28 Jan 1961  Kigeri V Ndahindurwa               (b. 1936)
                           (from 25 Jul 1960 in exile)
Presidents
28 Jan 1961 - 26 Oct 1961  Dominique Mbonyumutwa              (b. 1921 - d. 1986)
26 Oct 1961 -  5 Jul 1973  Grégoire Kayibanda                 (b. 1924 - d. 1976)
 5 Jul 1973 -  6 Apr 1994  Juvénal Habyarimana                (b. 1937 - d. 1994)
                           (president of Committee for Peace and National Unity
                           to 1 Aug 1973)
 9 Apr 1994 - 19 Jul 1994  Théodore Sindikubwabo (acting)     (b. 1928 - d. c.1998?)
19 Jul 1994 - 23 Mar 2000  Pasteur Bizimungu                  (b. 1950)
24 Mar 2000 -              Paul Kagame                        (b. 1957)
                           (acting to 22 Apr 2000)

Prime ministers 19 Oct 1960 - 1 Jul 1962 Grégoire Kayibanda (s.a.) 12 Oct 1991 - 2 Apr 1992 Sylvestre Nsanzimana (b. 1936) 2 Apr 1992 - 18 Jul 1993 Dismas Nsengiyaremye (b. 1945) 18 Jul 1993 - 7 Apr 1994 Agathe Uwilingiyimana (f) (b. 1953 - d. 1994) 9 Apr 1994 - 19 Jul 1994 Jean Kambanda (b. 1955) 19 Jul 1994 - 31 Aug 1995 Faustin Twagiramungu (b. 1945) 31 Aug 1995 - 8 Mar 2000 Pierre-Célestin Rwigema (b. 1953) 8 Mar 2000 - 7 Oct 2011 Bernard Makuza (b. 1961) 7 Oct 2011 - 24 Jul 2014 Pierre Damien Habumuremyi (b. 1961) 24 Jul 2014 - Anastase Murekezi (b. 1952) German residents Aug 1907 - 1913 Richard Kandt (b. 1867 - d. 1918) 1913 - 1916 Max Wintgens (acting) Belgian residents 27 Jun 1916 - 30 Apr 1917 Gustave Eugčne Henri Stevens (b. 1866 - d. 1928) (military resident) 30 Apr 1917 - Dec 1918 Gérard François Declerck (b. 1878 - d. 1919) (military resident) Jan 1919 - 1922 Edouard van den Eede (b. 1888 - d. 1947) 1923 - 18 Dec 1932 Georges Mortehan + Oger Coubeau (b. 1885 - d. 19...) (alternating, with two interruptions as below) Feb 1925 - 1925 Keyser Sep 1929 - Jan 1930 H. Wilmin 19 Dec 1932 - 9 Sep 1940 Maurice Simon 9 Sep 1940 - 15 Apr 1942 Jean F.G. Paradis (1st time) 15 Apr 1942 - 1 Jul 1942 Léon Grauls (1st time) 1 Jul 1942 - Sep 1942 Jean F.G. Paradis (2nd time) Sep 1942 - 15 Apr 1943 Léon Grauls (2nd time) 15 Apr 1943 - 1 Nov 1943 Jean F.G. Paradis (3rd time) 1 Nov 1943 - 1 Dec 1943 Léon Grauls (3rd time) 1 Dec 1943 - 24 Jan 1944 Jean F.G. Paradis (4th time) 24 Jan 1944 - 27 Feb 1944 Léon Grauls (4th time) 27 Feb 1944 - 19 Mar 1947 George Victor Sandrart (1st time) (b. 1899 - d. 1973) 19 Mar 1947 - 4 Aug 1947 Daniel Vauthier 4 Aug 1947 - 27 Jan 1948 Marcel Édouard Antoine Dessaint (1st time) (b. 1903 - d. 1971) 28 Jan 1948 - 27 Jan 1951 George Victor Sandrart (2nd time) (s.a.) 27 Jan 1951 - 1957 Marcel Édouard Antoine Dessaint (2nd time) (s.a.) 1958 - 11 Nov 1959 André Preud'homme (b. 1915) 11 Nov 1959 - Jan 1962 Guy Logiest (b. 1912) (special military resident) High Representative Jan 1962 - 1 Jul 1962 Guy Logiest (s.a.)

Ryukyu: see under Japan.