Rulers

Countries Ba-Bo

Contents of this page:
The Bahamas - Bahrain - Bangladesh - Barbados - Belarus - Belgium - Belize - Benin - Bermuda - Bhutan - Bolivia - Bonaire - Bosnia and Herzegovina - Botswana

Bahamas, The

       1648                first English settlement
       1718                British crown colony
 3 Mar 1776 - 17 Mar 1776  American occupation
 8 May 1782 - 19 Apr 1783  Spanish occupation
       1969                Commonwealth of the Bahama Islands
10 Jul 1973                independence (Commonwealth of The Bahamas)

Governors
       1697 -        1700  Nicholas Webb
       1700 -        1701  Elias Haskett
       1701 -        1705  Ellis Lightfood
   Jan 1706 -        1706  Edward Birch
       1706                Thomas Walker
       1706 -        1718  pirate rule
                           - Thomas Barrow
                           - Benjamin Hornigold               (b. ... - d. 1719?)
                           - Edward Teach "Blackbeard"        (b. 1680? - d. 1718)
                           et al.
26 Jul 1718 -        1721  Woodes Rogers (1st time)           (b. 1679? - d. 1732)
       1721 -        1728  George Phenney
   Aug 1729 - 16 Jul 1732  Woodes Rogers (2nd time)           (s.a.)
       1732 -        1733  Richard Thompson (acting)
   Nov 1733 -        1740  Richard Fitzwilliams
       1740 -        1758  John Tinker                        (b. ... - d. 1758)
       1758 -        1760  John Gambier (1st time) (acting)   (b. 1723 - d. 1782)
       1760 -        1768  William Shirley                    (b. 1694 - d. 1771)
28 Nov 1768 -        1774  Thomas Shirley                     (b. 1727 - d. 1780)
       1774 -  3 Mar 1776  Montfort Browne (1st time)
 3 Mar 1776 - 17 Mar 1776    Samuel Nicholas                  (b. 1744 - d. 1790)
                             (American commander)
       1776 -        1778  John Gambier (2nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)
       1778 -        1779  Montfort Browne (2nd time)
       1780 -        1784  John Robert Maxwell
                           (1782-83 Spanish prisoner)
 8 May 1782 - 19 Apr 1783    Bernardo de Gálvez               (b. 1746 - d. 1786)
                             (Spanish commander)
       1784 -        1786  James Edward Powell
       1786 -        1787  John Brown (acting)
       1787 -        1796  John Murray, Earl of Dunmore       (b. 1732 - d. 1809)
       1796 - 14 Feb 1797  Robert Hunt (acting)
14 Feb 1797 -    Jun 1797  John Forbes                        (b. 1750 - d. 1797)
20 Nov 1797 -        1801  William Dowdeswell                 (b. 1761 - d. 1828)
       1801 -        1804  John Halkett                       (b. 1768 - d. 1852)
 8 May 1804 -        1820  Charles Cameron                    (b. 1766? - d. 1828)
       1821 -        1829  Lewis Grant                        (b. ... - d. 1852)
       1829 -        1833  James Carmichael Smyth             (b. 1779 - d. 1838)
       1833 -        1835  Blayney Townley Balfour            (b. 1799 - d. 1882)
       1835 -        1837  William MacBean George Colebrooke  (b. 1787 - d. 1870)
       1837 -        1844  Francis Cockburne
       1844 -        1849  George Benvenuto Mathew            (b. 1807 - d. 1879)
       1849 -        1854  John Gregory
       1854 -        1857  Sir Alexander Bannerman            (b. 1783 - d. 1864)
       1857 -        1864  Charles John Bayley                (b. ... - d. 1873)
       1864 -        1869  Rawson William Rawson              (b. 1812 - d. 1899)
       1869 -        1871  Sir James Walker                   (b. 1809 - d. 1885)
       1871 -        1873  George Cumine Strahan              (b. 1838 - d. 1889)
       1873 -        1874  Sir John Pope Hennessy             (b. 1834 - d. 1891)
       1874 -        1880  William Robinson                   (b. 1836 - d. 1912)
       1880 -        1881  Jeremiah Thomas Fitzgerald
                           Callaghan                          (b. c.1830 - d. 1881)
       1882 -    Jan 1884  Charles Cameron Lees (from 1883,
                           Sir Charles Cameron Lees)          (b. 1837 - d. 1898)
 4 Jan 1884 -        1887  Sir Henry Arthur Blake             (b. 1840 - d. 1918)
       1887 -        1895  Sir Ambrose Shea                   (b. 1816 - d. 1905)
       1895 -        1898  Sir William Frederick Haynes Smith (b. 1839 - d. 1928)
       1898 -        1904  Sir Gilbert Thomas Carter          (b. 1848 - d. 1927)
29 Nov 1904 -        1912  Sir William Grey-Wilson            (b. 1852 - d. 1926)
29 Oct 1912 -        1914  Sir George Basil Haddon-Smith      (b. 1861 - d. 1931)
15 Jun 1914 -        1920  Sir William Lamond Allardyce       (b. 1861 - d. 1930)
 8 Dec 1920 -        1926  Sir Harry Edward Spiller Cordeaux  (b. 1870 - d. 1943)
15 Mar 1927 -    Jan 1932  Charles William James Orr
                           (from 1928, Sir Charles William
                           James Orr)                         (b. 1870 - d. 1945)
10 Jan 1932 -        1934  Bede Edmund Hugh Clifford
                           (from 1933, Sir Bede Edmund
                           Hugh Clifford)                     (b. 1890 - d. 1969)
       1934 -        1940  Charles Cecil Farquharson Dundas
                           (from 1938, Sir Charles Cecil
                           Farquharson Dundas)                (b. 1884 - d. 1956)
                           (acting to 1937)
18 Aug 1940 -        1945  Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor     (b. 1894 - d. 1972)
28 Jul 1945 -        1950  William Lindsay Murphy (from
                           1946, Sir William Lindsay Murphy)  (b. 1887 - d. 1965)
 5 Jan 1950 -    Dec 1950  Sir George Ritchie Sandford        (b. 1892 - d. 1950)
 7 Dec 1950 -        1953  Robert Arthur Ross Neville
                           (from 1952, Sir Robert Arthur
                           Ross Neville)                      (b. 1896 - d. 1987)
21 Dec 1953 -        1956  Thomas David Knox,
                           Earl of Ranfurly                   (b. 1913 - d. 1988)
 1 Apr 1957 -        1960  Sir Oswald Raynor Arthur           (b. 1905 - d. 1973)
18 Jul 1960 -        1964  Sir Robert Stapledon               (b. 1909 - d. 1975)
 3 Jun 1964 -        1968  Sir Ralph Francis Alnwick Grey     (b. 1910 - d. 1999)
 1 Nov 1968 -        1972  Sir Francis Edward Hovell-Thurlow-
                           Cumming-Bruce (from 1971,
                           Francis Edward Hovell-Thurlow-
                           Cumming-Bruce, Baron Thurlow)      (b. 1912 - d. 2013)
14 May 1972 - 10 Jul 1973  Sir John Warburton Paul            (b. 1916 - d. 2004)
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
10 Jul 1973 - 31 Jul 1973  Sir John Warburton Paul (acting)   (s.a.)
 1 Aug 1973 - 22 Jan 1979  Sir Milo Butler                    (b. 1906 - d. 1979)
22 Jan 1979 - 25 Jun 1988  Sir Gerald Cash                    (b. 1917 - d. 2003)
                           (acting [for Butler from 2 Sep 1976] to 23 Sep 1979)
26 Jun 1988 -  1 Jan 1992  Sir Henry Taylor                   (b. 1903 - d. 1994)
                           (acting to 28 Feb 1991)
 2 Jan 1992 -  2 Jan 1995  Sir Clifford Darling               (b. 1922 - d. 2011)
 3 Jan 1995 - 13 Nov 2001  Orville Turnquest (from 22 Feb
                           1995, Sir Orville Turnquest)       (b. 1929)
13 Nov 2001 - 30 Nov 2005  Dame Ivy Dumont (f)                (b. 1930)
                           (acting to 1 Jan 2002)
 1 Dec 2005 -  1 Feb 2006  Paul Adderley (acting)             (b. 1928 - d. 2012)
 1 Feb 2006 - 14 Apr 2010  Arthur Dion Hanna                  (b. 1928)
14 Apr 2010 -  8 Jul 2014  Sir Arthur Foulkes                 (b. 1928)
 8 Jul 2014 -              Dame Marguerite Pindling (f)       (b. 1932)

Chief minister 1955 - 7 Jan 1964 Roland T. Symonette (from 1959, Sir Roland T. Symonette) (b. 1898 - d. 1980) Premiers 7 Jan 1964 - 16 Jan 1967 Sir Roland T. Symonette (s.a.) 16 Jan 1967 - 10 May 1969 Lynden O. Pindling (b. 1930 - d. 2000) Prime ministers 10 May 1969 - 21 Aug 1992 Lynden O. Pindling (from 1 Jan 1983, Sir Lynden O. Pindling) (s.a.) 21 Aug 1992 - 3 May 2002 Hubert Ingraham (1st time) (b. 1947) 3 May 2002 - 4 May 2007 Perry Christie (1st time) (b. 1943) 4 May 2005 - 22 Jun 2005 Cynthia Pratt (f) (b. 1945) (acting for Christie) 4 May 2007 - 8 May 2012 Hubert Ingraham (2nd time) (s.a.) 8 May 2012 - Perry Christie (2nd time) (s.a.)

Bahrain

       1783                Al Khalifah lineage settles on Bahrain
 2 Dec 1880 - 15 Aug 1971  British protectorate
16 Aug 1971                State of Bahrain
14 Feb 2002                Kingdom of Bahrain

Rulers (hakim)
- Banu `Utub dynasty -
       1783 - 18 Jul 1795  Sheikh Ahmad ibn Muhammad
                           Al Khalifah                        (b. ... - d. 1795)
       1796 -    Apr 1843  Sheikh Abdullah ibn Ahmad
                           Al Khalifah                        (b. 17... - d. 1849)
                           (jointly with the following three)
       1796 -        1825  Sheikh Sulman ibn Ahmad
                           Al Khalifah                        (b. 17... - d. 1825)
       1825 - 31 May 1834  Sheikh Khalifah ibn Sulman
                           Al Khalifah                        (b. ... - d. 1834)
31 May 1834 -    Jun 1842  Sheikh Muhammad ibn Khalifah
                           Al Khalifah (1st time)             (b. 1813 - d. 1890)
   Apr 1843 -  6 Sep 1868  Sheikh Muhammad ibn Khalifah
                           Al Khalifah (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 6 Sep 1868 - 28 Sep 1869  Sheikh Ali ibn Khalifah
                           Al Khalifah                        (b. 1814 - d. 1869)
   Sep 1869 -  1 Dec 1869  Sheikh Muhammad ibn Abdullah
                           Al Khalifah                        (b. 1817 - d. 1877)
   Dec 1869 -  9 Dec 1932  Sheikh `Isa ibn Ali Al Khalifah    (b. 1848 - d. 1932)
                           (jointly with following)
   Dec 1869 -    Oct 1888  Sheikh Ahmad ibn Ali Al Khalifah   (b. 1850 - d. 1888)
                           (jointly with preceding)
 9 Dec 1932 - 24 Feb 1942  Sheikh Hamad ibn `Isa Al Khalifah  (b. 1872 - d. 1942)
24 Feb 1942 -  2 Nov 1961  Sheikh Sulman ibn Hamad
                           Al Khalifah                        (b. 1894 - d. 1961)
 2 Nov 1961 - 16 Aug 1971  Sheikh `Isa ibn Sulman
                           Al Khalifah                        (b. 1933 - d. 1999)
Emirs
16 Aug 1971 -  6 Mar 1999  Sheikh `Isa ibn Sulman
                           Al Khalifah                        (s.a.)
 6 Mar 1999 - 14 Feb 2002  Sheikh Hamad ibn `Isa Al Khalifah  (b. 1950)
King
14 Feb 2002 -              Sheikh Hamad ibn `Isa Al Khalifah  (s.a.)

Prime minister 19 Jan 1970 - Sheikh Khalifah ibn Sulman Al Khalifah (b. 1936) (president of the State Council to 16 Aug 1971) British political agents 10 Feb 1900 - 1904 John Calcott Gaskin 1904 - 1909 Francis Beville Prideaux (b. 1871 - d. 1938) 1909 - 1910 Charles Fraser Mackenzie (b. 1880 - d. 1965) 1910 - 1911 Stuart George Knox (b. 1869 - d. 1956) 1911 - 1912 David Lockhart Robertson Lorimer (b. 1876 - d. 1962) 1912 - 1914 Arthur Prescott Trevor (b. 1872 - d. 1930) 1914 - 1916 Terence Humphrey Keyes (b. 1877 - d. 1939) 1916 Hugh Stewart (b. 1872 - d. 1931) 1916 Trenchard Craven William Fowle (b. 1884 - d. 1940) 1916 - 1918 Percy Gordon Loch (1st time) (b. 1887 - d. 1963) 1918 George Alexander Gavin Mungavin (b. 1883 - d. 19...) 1918 - 1919 Norman Napier Bray (b. 1885 - d. 1962) 1919 - 1920 Harold Richard Patrick Dickson (b. 1881 - d. 1959) 1920 - 1921 Sayid Siddiq Hassan (acting) 1921 - 1926 Clive Kirkpatrick Daly (b. 1878 - d. 1966) 1926 - 1929 Cyril Charles Johnson Barrett (b. 1884 - d. 1933) 1929 - 1932 Charles Geoffrey Prior (b. 1896 - d. 1972) 1932 - 1937 Percy Gordon Loch (2nd time) (s.a.) 1937 Tom Hickinbotham (1st time) (b. 1903 - d. 1983) 1937 - 1940 Hugh Weightman (b. 1898 - d. 1949) 1940 - 1942 Reginald George Evelyn William Alban (b. 1899 - d. 1983) 1942 - 1943 Edward Birkbeck Wakefield (1st time) (b. 1903 - d. 1969) 1943 Michael Gray Dixon (acting) (b. 1910) 1943 - 1945 Tom Hickinbotham (2nd time) (s.a.) 1945 Cornelius James Pelly (1st time) (b. 1908 - d. 1985) 1945 - 1947 Edward Birkbeck Wakefield (2nd time) (s.a.) 1947 - 1951 Cornelius James Pelly (2nd time) (s.a.) 1951 - 1952 William Scott Laver (b. 1909 - d. 1988) 1952 - 1954 John William Wall (b. 1910 - d. 1989) 1954 - 1959 Charles Alexander Gault (b. 1908 - d. 1996) 1959 - 1962 Edward Parr Wiltshire (b. 1910 - d. 2004) 1962 - 1965 John Peter Tripp (b. 1927 - d. 1986) 1965 - 1969 Anthony Parsons (b. 1922 - d. 1996) 1969 - 1971 Alexander John Stirling (b. 1926 - d. 2014) Chief political residents of the Persian Gulf (for Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and the Trucial States) 1822 - 1823 John Mcleod (b. ... - d. 1851) 1823 - 1827 Ephraim Gerrish Stannus (b. 1784 - d. 1850) 1827 - 1831 David Wilson 1831 - 1835 David Alexander Blane 1835 - 1838 James Morrison (b. 1790 - d. 1857) 1838 - 1852 Samuel Hennell 1852 - 1856 Arnold Burrowes Kemball (b. 1820 - d. 1908) 1856 - 1862 Felix Jones 1862 - 1872 Lewis Pelly (b. 1825 - d. 1892) 1872 - 1891 Edward Charles Ross (b. 1836 - d. 1913) 1891 - 1893 Adelbert Cecil Talbot (b. 1845 - d. 1920) 1893 Stuart Hill Godfrey (acting) (b. 1861 - d. 1941) 1893 James Hayes Sadler (1st time) (b. 1851 - d. 1922) (acting) 1893 James Adair Crawford (acting) (b. 1857 - d. 1936) 1893 - 1894 James Hayes Sadler (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting) 1894 - 1897 Frederick Alexander Wilson (b. 1842 - d. 1899) 1897 - 1900 Malcolm John Meade (b. 1854 - d. 1933) 1900 - 1904 Charles Arnold Kemball (acting) (b. 1860 - d. 1943) 1904 - 1920 Percy Cox (from 1911, Sir Percy Cox) (b. 1864 - d. 1937) Acting for Cox: 1913 - 1914 John Gordon Lorimer (b. 1870 - d. 1914) 1914 Richard Lockinton Birdwood (b. 1879 - d. 1914) 1914 Stuart George Knox (1st time) (b. 1869 - d. 1956) 1915 Stuart George Knox (2nd time) (s.a.) 1915 - 1917 Arthur Prescott Trevor (1st time) (b. 1872 - d. 1930) 1917 - 1919 John Hugo Hepburn Bill (b. 1877 - d. 1919) 1919 Cecil Hamilton Gabriel (b. 1879 - d. 1947) 1919 - 1920 Arthur Prescott Trevor (2nd time) (s.a.) 1920 Arnold Talbot Wilson (acting) (b. 1884 - d. 1940) 1920 - 1924 Arthur Prescott Trevor (s.a.) 1924 - 1927 Francis Beville Prideaux (b. 1871 - d. 1938) 1927 - 1928 Lionel Berkeley Holt Haworth (b. 1873 - d. 1951) 1928 - 1929 Frederick William Johnston (b. 1872 - d. 1947) 1929 Cyril Charles Johnson Barrett (b. 1884 - d. 1933) (acting) 1929 - 1932 Hugh Vincent Biscoe (b. 1881 - d. 1932) 1932 - 1939 Trenchard Craven William Fowle (b. 1884 - d. 1940) 1939 - 1946 Charles Geoffrey Prior (b. 1896 - d. 1972) 1946 - 1953 Rupert Hay (from 1952, Sir Rupert Hay) (b. 1893 - d. 1962) 22 Oct 1953 - 1958 Bernard Burrows (from 1955, Sir Bernard Burrows) (b. 1910 - d. 2002) 8 Nov 1958 - 1961 Sir George Humphrey Middleton (b. 1910 - d. 1998) 1961 - 1966 Sir William Luce (b. 1907 - d. 1977) 1966 - 1970 Sir Stewart Crawford (b. 1913 - d. 2002) 1970 - 1971 Sir Geoffrey Arthur (b. 1920 - d. 1984)

Bangladesh

14 Aug 1947                part of Pakistan (previously part of British India)
26 Mar 1971                independence proclaimed (People's Republic of Bangladesh)
16 Dec 1971                de facto independence (capitulation of Pakistan)

Presidents
11 Apr 1971 - 12 Jan 1972  Mujibur Rahman (1st time)          (b. 1920 - d. 1975)
                           (Pakistani prisoner to 8 Jan 1972)
11 Apr 1971 - 10 Jan 1972    Syed Nazrul Islam                (b. 1925 - d. 1975)
                             (acting for Mujibur Rahman)
12 Jan 1972 - 24 Dec 1973  Abu Sayeed Chowdhury               (b. 1921 - d. 1987)
24 Dec 1973 - 25 Jan 1975  Mohammad Mohammadullah             (b. 1921 - d. 1999)
                           (acting to 27 Jan 1974)
25 Jan 1975 - 15 Aug 1975  Mujibur Rahman (2nd time)          (s.a.)
15 Aug 1975 -  6 Nov 1975  Khandakar Mushtaq Ahmed            (b. 1918 - d. 1996)
 6 Nov 1975 - 21 Apr 1977  Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem           (b. 1916 - d. 1997)
                           (also chief martial law administrator
                           7 Nov 1975 - 29 Nov 1976)
21 Apr 1977 - 30 May 1981  Ziaur Rahman                       (b. 1936 - d. 1981)
                           (also chief martial law administrator
                           29 Nov 1976 - 6 Apr 1979)
30 May 1981 - 24 Mar 1982  Abdus Sattar                       (b. 1906 - d. 1985)
                           (acting to 20 Nov 1981)
24 Mar 1982 - 27 Mar 1982  Hossain Mohammad Ershad (1st time) (b. 1930)
                           (chief martial law administrator 24 Mar 1982 - 30 Mar 1984)
27 Mar 1982 - 11 Dec 1983  A.F.M. Ahsanuddin Chowdhury        (b. 1915 - d. 2001)
11 Dec 1983 -  6 Dec 1990  Hossain Mohammad Ershad (2nd time) (s.a.)
 6 Dec 1990 - 10 Oct 1991  Shahabuddin Ahmed (1st time)       (b. 1930)
                           (acting)
10 Oct 1991 -  9 Oct 1996  Abdur Rahman Biswas                (b. 1926)
 9 Oct 1996 - 14 Nov 2001  Shahabuddin Ahmed (2nd time)       (s.a.)
14 Nov 2001 - 21 Jun 2002  A.Q.M. Badruddoza Chowdhury        (b. 1932)
21 Jun 2002 -  6 Sep 2002  Jamiruddin Sircar (acting)         (b. 1931)
 6 Sep 2002 - 12 Feb 2009  Iajuddin Ahmed                     (b. 1931 - d. 2012)
12 Feb 2009 - 20 Mar 2013  Zillur Rahman                      (b. 1929 - d. 2013)
20 Mar 2013 -              Abdul Hamid                        (b. 1944)
                           (acting to 24 Apr 2013)

Prime ministers 11 Apr 1971 - 12 Jan 1972 Tajuddin Ahmed (b. 1925 - d. 1975) 12 Jan 1972 - 26 Jan 1975 Mujibur Rahman (s.a.) 26 Jan 1975 - 15 Aug 1975 Mohammad Mansoor Ali (b. 1919 - d. 1975) 29 Jun 1978 - 12 Mar 1979 Mashiur Rahman (senior minister) (b. 1924 - d. 1979) 15 Apr 1979 - 24 Mar 1982 Shah Azizur Rahman (b. 1925 - d. 1988) 30 Mar 1984 - 9 Jul 1986 Ataur Rahman Khan (b. 1905 - d. 1991) 9 Jul 1986 - 27 Mar 1988 Mizanur Rahman Chowdhury (b. 1928 - d. 2006) 27 Mar 1988 - 12 Aug 1989 Moudud Ahmed (b. 1940) 12 Aug 1989 - 6 Dec 1990 Kazi Zafar Ahmed (b. 1940) 20 Mar 1991 - 30 Mar 1996 Khaleda Zia (f) (1st time) (b. 1945) 30 Mar 1996 - 23 Jun 1996 Mohammad Habibur Rahman (b. 1930 - d. 2014) (chief adviser) 23 Jun 1996 - 15 Jul 2001 Sheikh Hasina Wajed (f) (1st time) (b. 1947) 15 Jul 2001 - 10 Oct 2001 Latifur Rahman (chief adviser) (b. 1936) 10 Oct 2001 - 29 Oct 2006 Khaleda Zia (f) (2nd time) (s.a.) 29 Oct 2006 - 11 Jan 2007 Iajuddin Ahmed (chief adviser) (s.a.) 11 Jan 2007 - 12 Jan 2007 Fazlul Haque (b. 1938) (acting chief adviser) 12 Jan 2007 - 6 Jan 2009 Fakhruddin Ahmed (chief adviser) (b. 1940) 6 Jan 2009 - Sheikh Hasina Wajed (f) (2nd time) (s.a.)

Barbados

       1627                British colony
       1833 -        1885  part of the Windward Islands (with the governor of
                           Barbados also governor of the Windward Islands)
 3 Jan 1958 - 31 May 1962  part of the Federation of the West Indies
                           (see under Trinidad and Tobago)
30 Nov 1966                independence

Governors
   Dec 1697 -        1701  Ralph Grey                         (b. c.1661 - d. 1706)
       1701 -        1703  John Farmer (acting)
       1703 -        1706  Sir Bevil Granville                (b. 16... - d. 1706)
       1707 -        1710  Mitford Crow                       (b. 16... - d. 1719)
       1710 -        1711  George Lillington (acting)
       1711 -    Jan 1714  Robert Lowther (1st time)          (b. 1681 - d. 1745)
   Jan 1714 -        1715  William Sharpe (acting)
       1715 -        1720  Robert Lowther (2nd time)          (s.a.)
       1720 -        1721  John Frere (acting)
       1721 -        1722  Samuel Cox (acting)
       1722 -        1727  Henry Worsley                      (b. ... - d. 1740)
       1727 -        1731  Thomas Catesby Paget               (b. 1689 - d. 1742)
       1731                James Dotin (1st time) (acting)
       1731 -        1732  Walter Chetwynd                    (b. ... - d. 1732)
       1733 - 29 Mar 1735  Emanuel Scrope, Viscount Howe      (b. c.1699 - d. 1735)
       1735 -        1737  James Dotin (2nd time)
       1737 -        1738  Orlando Bridgeman
       1738                Humphrey Howarth
       1738 -        1739  Thomas Gage, Viscount Gage         (b. ... - d. 1754)
   May 1739 -        1740  Robert Byng                        (b. ... - d. 1741)
       1740                James Dotin (3rd time)
       1742 -        1747  Sir Thomas Robinson                (b. c.1700 - d. 1777)
       1747 -        1756  Henry Grenville                    (b. 1717 - d. 1784)
       1756 -        1766  Charles Pinfold                    (b. 1709 - d. 1788)
       1766 -        1768  Samuel Rous (1st time) (acting)
       1768 -        1772  William Spry                       (b. ... - d. 1802)
       1772                Samuel Rous (2nd time) (acting)
       1772 -        1779  Edward Hay                         (b. 1722 - d. 1779)
       1779 -        1780  John Dotin (1st time) (acting)
       1780 -        1782  James Cunninghame
       1783 -        1784  John Dotin (2nd time) (acting)
       1784 -        1793  David Parry
       1793 -        1794  William Bishop (1st time) (acting)
       1794 -        1800  George Poyntz Ricketts             (b. 1749 - d. 1800)
       1800 -        1801  William Bishop (2nd time) (acting)
       1802 -        1806  Francis Humberstone Mackenzie,
                           (from 1804) Baron Seaforth         (b. 1754 - d. 1815)
       1806 -        1810  John Spooner (acting)
       1810 -        1815  Sir George Beckwith                (b. 1753 - d. 1823)
10 May 1815 - 16 Oct 1816  Sir James Leith                    (b. 1763 - d. 1816)
       1817                John Foster Alleyne (acting)       (b. 1762 - d. 1823)
       1817 -        1820  Stapleton Cotton, Viscount
                           Combermere                         (b. 1773 - d. 1865)
       1820                John Brathwaite Skeete (acting)
       1821                Samuel Hinds (acting)
       1821 -        1829  Sir Henry Warde                    (b. 1766 - d. 1834)
       1829 -        1833  Sir James Lyon
       1833 -        1836  Sir Lionel Smith                   (b. 1778 - d. 1842)
       1836 - 14 Jun 1841  Sir Evan John Murray MacGregor     (b. 1785 - d. 1841)
       1841 -        1842  Henry Charles Darling (acting)     (b. 1780 - d. 1845)
   Feb 1842 -        1846  Sir Charles Edward Grey            (b. 1785 - d. 1865)
       1846 -        1848  William Reid                       (b. 1791 - d. 1858)
       1848 -        1856  William MacBean George Colebrooke  (b. 1787 - d. 1870)
       1856 -  4 Jan 1862  Francis Hincks                     (b. 1807 - d. 1885)
 4 Jan 1862 -        1868  James Walker                       (b. 1809 - d. 1885)
       1868 -        1875  Rawson William Rawson              (b. 1812 - d. 1899)
       1875                Sanford Freeling (acting)          (b. 1828 - d. 1894)
       1875 -        1876  Sir John Pope Hennessy             (b. 1834 - d. 1891)
       1876 -        1880  George Cumine Strahan              (b. 1838 - d. 1889)
       1880                D.J. Gamble (acting)
       1880 -        1885  William Robinson                   (b. 1836 - d. 1912)
       1885 -        1889  Sir Charles Cameron Lees           (b. 1837 - d. 1898)
       1889 -        1891  Sir Walter Joseph Sendall          (b. 1833 - d. 1904)
       1891 -        1900  Sir James Shaw Hay                 (b. 1839 - d. 1924)
18 Feb 1900 -        1904  Sir Frederick Mitchell Hodgson     (b. 1851 - d. 1925)
24 Oct 1904 -        1911  Sir Gilbert Thomas Carter          (b. 1848 - d. 1927)
13 Feb 1911 -        1918  Sir Leslie Probyn                  (b. 1862 - d. 1938)
27 Sep 1918 -        1925  Charles Richard Mackey O'Brien
                           (from 1920, Sir Charles Richard
                           Mackey O'Brien)                    (b. 1859 - d. 1935)
31 Dec 1925 -    Jan 1933  William Charles Fleming Robertson
                           (from 1927, Sir William Charles
                           Fleming Robertson)                 (b. ... - d. 1937)
   Jan 1933 - 12 Mar 1933  Harry Scott Newlands               (b. 1884 - d. 1933)
 5 Aug 1933 -    Mar 1938  Mark Young (from 1934, Sir Mark
                           Young)                             (b. 1886 - d. 1974)
 6 Aug 1938 -        1941  Eubule John Waddington (from 1939,
                           Sir Eubule John Waddington)        (b. 1890 - d. 1957)
23 Oct 1941 -        1947  Sir Henry Grattan Bushe            (b. 1886 - d. 1961)
 5 Feb 1947 -        1949  Sir Hilary Rudolph Robert Blood    (b. 1893 - d. 1967)
 1 Nov 1949 -        1953  Alfred William Lungley Savage
                           (from 1951, Sir Alfred William
                           Lungley Savage)                    (b. 1903 - d. 1980)
14 May 1953 -        1959  Sir Robert Duncan Harris Arundell  (b. 1904 - d. 1989)
 8 Oct 1959 - 29 Nov 1966  Sir John Montague Stow             (b. 1911 - d. 1997)
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
30 Nov 1966 - 18 May 1967  Sir John Montague Stow             (s.a.)
18 May 1967 -  9 Aug 1976  Sir Winston Scott                  (b. 1900 - d. 1976)
 9 Aug 1976 - 17 Nov 1976  Sir William Douglas (1st time)     (b. 1921 - d. 2003)
                           (acting)
17 Nov 1976 -  9 Jan 1984  Sir Deighton Lisle Ward            (b. 1909 - d. 1984)
10 Jan 1984 - 24 Feb 1984  Sir William Douglas (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                           (acting)
24 Feb 1984 -  6 Jun 1990  Sir Hugh Springer                  (b. 1913 - d. 1994)
 6 Jun 1990 - 19 Dec 1995  Dame Nita Barrow (f)               (b. 1916 - d. 1995)
19 Dec 1995 -  1 Jun 1996  Sir Denys Williams (acting)        (b. 1929 - d. 2014)
 1 Jun 1996 - 31 Oct 2011  Sir Clifford Husbands              (b. 1926)
 1 Nov 2011 - 30 May 2012  Elliot Belgrave (1st time)         (b. 1931)
                           (acting)
30 May 2012 -  1 Jun 2012  Sandra Mason (f) (acting)          (b. 1949)
 1 Jun 2012 -              Sir Elliot Belgrave (2nd time)     (s.a.)

Premiers 1 Feb 1954 - 17 Apr 1958 Grantley Herbert Adams (from 1957, Sir Grantley Herbert Adams) (b. 1898 - d. 1971) 17 Apr 1958 - 8 Dec 1961 Hugh Gordon Cummins (b. 1891 - d. 1970) 8 Dec 1961 - 18 Nov 1966 Errol Barrow (b. 1920 - d. 1987) Prime ministers 18 Nov 1966 - 3 Sep 1976 Errol Barrow (1st time) (s.a.) 3 Sep 1976 - 11 Mar 1985 J.M.G. Adams (b. 1931 - d. 1985) 11 Mar 1985 - 29 May 1986 Bernard St. John (b. 1931 - d. 2004) 29 May 1986 - 1 Jun 1987 Errol Barrow (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Jun 1987 - 7 Sep 1994 Erskine Sandiford (b. 1937) 7 Sep 1994 - 16 Jan 2008 Owen Arthur (b. 1949) 16 Jan 2008 - 23 Oct 2010 David Thompson (b. 1961 - d. 2010) 23 Oct 2010 - Freundel Stuart (b. 1951)

Basutoland: see Lesotho.
Bau: see under Fiji.
Bay Islands: see under Honduras.
Bechuanaland: see Botswana.

Belarus

21 Feb 1918 -  9 Dec 1918  German occupation
 9 Mar 1918                Belorussian Republic declared
25 Mar 1918                independence declared (Belorussian People's Republic),
                           not recognized by Germany
10 Dec 1918                Russian control reestablished
 1 Jan 1919                Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
27 Feb 1919                part of "Litbel" (Lithuanian-Belorussian S.S.R.)
                           (see under Lithuania)
 1 Sep 1919                Polish occupation¹
   Jul 1920                Russian occupation¹
 1 Aug 1920                Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
30 Dec 1922                founding component of Soviet Union (see Soviet republics)
25 Aug 1991                independence declared
19 Sep 1991                Republic of Belarus (use of "Belorussian S.S.R." allowed
                           until 1993)
25 Dec 1991                final independence (dissolution of the Soviet Union)

Chairmen of the Rada
18 Mar 1918 -    May 1918  Ivan Mikitavich Syerada            (b. 1879 - d. af.1943)
   May 1918 -    Jun 1918  Pavel Pavlavich Alyaksyuk          (b. 1892 - d. 19...)
   Jun 1918 -  3 Dec 1918  Iosif Yuryevich Lyosik             (b. 1884 - d. 1940)
Chairman of the Provisional Revolutionary Workers-and-Peasants' Soviet Government
 1 Jan 1919 -  4 Feb 1919  Dzmitryi Fyodaravich Zhylunovich   (b. 1887 - d. 1937)
Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee
 4 Feb 1919 - 27 Feb 1919  Alyaksandr Fyodaravich Myasnikou   (b. 1886 - d. 1925)
13 Dec 1919 -        1920    Pyotr Krecheuski                 (b. 1879 - d. 1928)
                             (chairman Rada)¹
   Dec 1919 -    Jul 1920    Ivan Mikitavich Syerada¹         (s.a.)
 1 Aug 1920 -  8 Mar 1937  Alyaksandr Ryhoravich Charvyakou   (b. 1892 - d. 1937)
Chairmen of the Rada (in exile)
   Nov 1920 -  8 Mar 1928  Pyotr Krecheuski                   (s.a.)
 8 Mar 1928 -  6 Mar 1943  Vasil Zakharka                     (b. 1877 - d. 1943)
 6 Mar 1943 - 29 May 1970  Mikalay Abramchyk                  (b. 1903 - d. 1970)
   May 1970 -    Nov 1982  Vikentsiy Zhuk-Hryshkyevich        (b. 1903 - d. 1989)
   Nov 1982 -        1997  Jazep Sazhych                      (b. 1917 - d. 2007)
       1997                Barys Rahula (acting)              (b. 1920 - d. 2005)
       1997 -              Ivonka Survilla (f)                (b. 1936)
Chairmen of the Supreme Soviet
18 Sep 1991 - 26 Jan 1994  Stanislau Shushkevich              (b. 1934)
26 Jan 1994 - 28 Jan 1994  Vyachaslau Kuznyatsou (acting)     (b. 1947)
28 Jan 1994 - 20 Jul 1994  Myechyslau Hryb                    (b. 1938)
President
20 Jul 1994 -              Alyaksandr Lukashenka              (b. 1954)

Chairmen of the People's Secretariat 9 Mar 1918 - May 1918 Jazep Varonka (b. 1891 - d. 1952) May 1918 - Jun 1918 Raman Skirmunt (b. 1868 - d. af.1939) Jun 1918 Ivan Mikitavich Syerada (s.a.) Jun 1918 - Oct 1918 Anton Luckievich (b. 1884 - d. 1942) Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (from 1920 in exile) Oct 1918 - 13 Dec 1919 Anton Luckievich (s.a.) 13 Dec 1919 - 23 Aug 1923 Vaclau Lastouski (b. 1883 - d. 1938) 23 Aug 1923 - Oct 1925 Alyaksandr Tsvikievich (b. 1888 - d. 1937) Oct 1925 - 6 Mar 1943 Vasil Zakharka (s.a.) 6 Mar 1943 - 21 Jun 1948 Mikalay Abramchyk (s.a.) Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars 1 Aug 1920 - 17 Mar 1924 Alyaksandr Ryhoravich Charvyakou (s.a.) Chairman of the Council of Ministers 7 Apr 1990 - 21 Jul 1994 Vyachaslau Kebich (b. 1936) Prime ministers 21 Jul 1994 - 18 Nov 1996 Mikhail Chyhir (b. 1948) 18 Nov 1996 - 18 Feb 2000 Syarhey Linh (b. 1937) (acting to 19 Feb 1997) 18 Feb 2000 - 1 Oct 2001 Uladzimir Yarmoshyn (b. 1942) (acting to 14 Mar 2000) 1 Oct 2001 - 10 Jul 2003 Henadz Navitski (b. 1949) (acting to 10 Oct 2001) 10 Jul 2003 - 28 Dec 2010 Syarhey Sidorski (b. 1954) (acting to 19 Dec 2003) 28 Dec 2010 - Mikhail Myasnikovich (b. 1950)
¹During Polish and Russian occupation, there were two rebel revivals in part of the country of the Belorussian People's Republic.
Belgian Congo: see Congo (Kinshasa).

Belgium

       1556                Spanish Netherlands
       1713                Austrian Netherlands
11 Jan 1790 -  2 Dec 1790  United Belgian States in revolt against Habsburg rule
 1 Oct 1795                annexed to France
15 Feb 1814                Belgian territory separated from France
                           (Gouvernement-général de la Belgique)
12 May 1815                incorporation of the Belgian lands and Liège into the
                           Kingdom of the Netherlands
 4 Oct 1830                independence proclaimed (Belgium)
 7 Feb 1831                Kingdom of Belgium
 4 Aug 1914 - 11 Nov 1918  occupied by Germany
10 May 1940 -  3 Sep 1944  occupied by Germany

Governor
       1692 -        1706  Maximilian II, elector of Bavaria  (b. 1662 - d. 1726)
Statthalter
   May 1716 -    Dec 1724  Eugen Prinz von Savoyen            (b. 1663 - d. 1736)
   Jan 1725 -    Sep 1725  Wirich Philipp Graf Daun (interim) (b. 1669 - d. 1741)
   Sep 1725 - 26 Aug 1741  Maria Elisabeth Erzherzogin von
                           Österreich (f)                     (b. 1680 - d. 1741)
   Aug 1741 -    Mar 1743  Friedrich August Gervas Graf
                           Harrach (interim)                  (b. 1696 - d. 1749)
   Mar 1743 -  4 Jul 1780  Karl Alexander Prinz von
                           Lothringen (acting to Jan 1744)    (b. 1712 - d. 1780)
                           (jointly with following)
   Jan 1744 - 16 Dec 1744  Maria Anna Erzherzogin von
                           Österreich (f)                     (b. 1718 - d. 1744)
   Nov 1780 -    Nov 1789  Marie Christine Erzherzogin von
                           Österreich (f) (1st time)          (b. 1742 - d. 1798)
                           + Albert Prinz von Sachsen-Teschen
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1738 - d. 1822)
   Mar 1790 -    Nov 1792  Marie Christine Erzherzogin von
                           Österreich (f) (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                           + Albert Prinz von Sachsen-Teschen
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
   Mar 1793 -    Aug 1794  Karl Ludwig Erzherzog von
                           Österreich                         (b. 1771 - d. 1847)
Presidents of the Sovereign Congress
11 Jan 1790 -        1790  François de Nélis                  (b. 1736 - d. 1798)
 8 Nov 1790 -        1790  Hendrik Herman Werner Frans Anton
                           van Crumpipen                      (b. 1738 - d. 1811)
Governors-general (on behalf of the Allied Powers)
15 Feb 1814 - 18 Feb 1814  Eugène Jean Baptiste, comte de
                           Robiano (acting)                   (b. 1741 - d. 1820)
18 Feb 1814 - 23 Mar 1814  Frédéric Auguste Alexandre,
                           duc de Beaufort-Spontin            (b. 1751 - d. 1817)
23 Mar 1814 -  5 May 1814  August Friedrich Karl Hermann
                           Freiherr von der Horst             (b. 1780 - d. 1861)
 5 May 1814 -  1 Aug 1814  Charles, baron de Vincent
                           = Karl Freiherr von Vincent        (b. 1757 - d. 1834)
                           (Gouverneur-général militaire de la Belgique et du pays
                           de Liège)
 1 Aug 1814 - 12 May 1815  Willem van Oranje-Nassau           (b. 1772 - d. 1843)
                           declined to serve in person and designated a Lieutenant:
                           Godert Alexander Gerard Philip,
                           baron van der Capellen, heer van
                           Berkenwoude en Agterbroek          (b. 1778 - d. 1848)
24 Sep 1830 - 25 Feb 1831  Administrative Commission
                           (from 26 Sep 1830, Provisional Government)
                           - Emmanuel van der Linden,
                             baron d'Hooghvorst               (b. 1782 - d. 1866)
                             (to 12 Nov 1830)
                           - Charles Rogier                   (b. 1800 - d. 1885)
                             (signs as chairman on 25 Sep 1830, but never again)
                           - Félix, comte de Mérode           (b. 1791 - d. 1857)
                             (from 26 Sep 1830)
                           - Alexandre Gendebien              (b. 1789 - d. 1869)
                             (from 26 Sep 1830)
                           - Sylvain Van de Weyer             (b. 1802 - d. 1874)
                             (from 26 Sep 1830)
                           - André Édouard Jolly              (b. 1799 - d. 1883)
                           - Feuillen Charles Marie Joseph,
                             baron de Coppin de Falaën        (b. 1800 - d. 1887)
                           - Joseph van der Linden            (b. 1764 - d. 18...)
                           - Louis de Potter                  (b. 1786 - d. 1859)
                             (28 Sep - 13 Nov 1830)
                           - Jean Nicolay                     (b. ... - d. 1842)
                             (25 Sep - 10 Oct 1830)
Regent
25 Feb 1831 - 21 Jul 1831  Érasme Louis, baron Surlet de
                           Chokier                            (b. 1769 - d. 1839)
Kings¹
- Saxe-Cobourg et -Gotha (Wettin) dynasty -
21 Jul 1831 - 10 Dec 1865  Léopold I                          (b. 1790 - d. 1865)
10 Dec 1865 - 17 Dec 1865  Charles Rogier                     (s.a.)
                           (acting head of state)
17 Dec 1865 - 17 Dec 1909  Léopold II                         (b. 1835 - d. 1909)
17 Dec 1909 - 23 Dec 1909  Frans Schollaert                   (b. 1851 - d. 1917)
                           (acting head of state)
23 Dec 1909 - 17 Feb 1934  Albert I                           (b. 1875 - d. 1934)
26 Aug 1914 - 16 Dec 1914    Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz    (b. 1843 - d. 1916)
                             (governor-general)
16 Dec 1914 - 18 Apr 1917    Moritz Ferdinand Freiherr von
                             Bissing (governor-general)       (b. 1844 - d. 1917)
17 May 1917 - 11 Nov 1918    Ludwig Freiherr von Falkenhausen (b. 1844 - d. 1936)
                             (governor-general)
17 Feb 1934 - 23 Feb 1934  Charles, comte de Broqueville      (b. 1860 - d. 1940)
                           (acting head of state)
23 Feb 1934 - 16 Jul 1951  Léopold III                        (b. 1901 - d. 1983)
                           (German prisoner 28 May 1940 - 8 May 1945;
                           in exile in Switzerland 8 May 1945 - 22 Jul 1950)
20 May 1940 - 18 Jul 1944    Alexander von Falkenhausen       (b. 1878 - d. 1966)
                             (military governor for occupied Netherlands and Belgium
                             to 29 May 1940, then for Belgium and northern France)
18 Jul 1944 -    Sep 1944    Josef Grohé (Reichskommissar)    (b. 1902 - d. 1988)
20 Sep 1944 - 20 Jul 1950    Charles (regent)                 (b. 1903 - d. 1983)
11 Aug 1950 - 16 Jul 1951    Baudouin (regent)                (b. 1930 - d. 1993)
16 Jul 1951 - 17 Jul 1951  Joseph Pholien                     (b. 1884 - d. 1968)
                           (acting head of state)
17 Jul 1951 - 31 Jul 1993  Baudouin I                         (s.a.)
                           (declared incapacitated at his own request, 4-5 Apr 1990)
 4 Apr 1990 -  5 Apr 1990    Wilfried Martens                 (b. 1936 - d. 2013)
                             (acting head of state)
31 Jul 1993 -  9 Aug 1993  Jean-Luc Dehaene                   (b. 1940 - d. 2014)
                           (acting head of state)
 9 Aug 1993 - 21 Jul 2013  Albert II                          (b. 1934)
21 Jul 2013 -              Philippe                           (b. 1960)

Prime minister 11 Jan 1790 - 2 Dec 1790 Hendrik van der Noot (b. 1731 - d. 1827) Cabinet chiefs 26 Feb 1831 - 27 Feb 1831 Albert Joseph Goblet d'Alviella (1st time) Lib (b. 1790 - d. 1873) 27 Feb 1831 - 10 Mar 1831 Étienne Constantin de Gerlache Cat (b. 1785 - d. 1871) 10 Mar 1831 - 23 Mar 1831 Albert Joseph Goblet d'Alviella (2nd time) Lib (s.a.) 23 Mar 1831 - 3 Aug 1831 Étienne Noël Joseph, chevalier de Sauvage Lib (b. 1789 - d. 1867) 3 Aug 1831 - 12 Nov 1831 Charles Marie de Brouckère (1st time) Lib (b. 1796 - d. 1860) 12 Nov 1831 - 26 Mar 1832 Félix Armand de Mûelenaere Lib (b. 1794 - d. 1862) 26 Mar 1832 - 17 Sep 1832 Charles Marie de Brouckère (2nd time) Lib (s.a.) 17 Sep 1832 - 20 Oct 1832 Albert Joseph Goblet d'Alviella (3rd time) Lib (s.a.) 20 Oct 1832 - 4 Aug 1834 Joseph Lebeau (1st time) Lib (b. 1794 - d. 1865) 4 Aug 1834 - 18 Apr 1840 Barthélemy Théodore, chevalier de Theux de Meylandt (1st time) Cat (b. 1794 - d. 1874) 18 Apr 1840 - 13 Apr 1841 Joseph Lebeau (2nd time) Lib (s.a.) 13 Apr 1841 - 30 Jul 1845 Jean Baptiste Nothomb Lib (b. 1805 - d. 1881) 30 Jul 1845 - 31 Mar 1846 Sylvain Van de Weyer Lib (s.a.) 31 Mar 1846 - 12 Aug 1847 Barthélemy Théodore, comte de Theux de Meylandt (2nd time) Cat (s.a.) 12 Aug 1847 - 31 Oct 1852 Charles Rogier (1st time) Lib (s.a.) 31 Oct 1852 - 30 Mar 1855 Henri de Brouckère Lib (b. 1801 - d. 1891) 30 Mar 1855 - 9 Nov 1857 Pierre Jacques François De Decker Cat (b. 1812 - d. 1891) 9 Nov 1857 - 3 Jan 1868 Charles Rogier (2nd time) Lib (s.a.) 3 Jan 1868 - 2 Jul 1870 Walthère Frère-Orban (1st time) Lib (b. 1812 - d. 1896) 2 Jul 1870 - 7 Dec 1871 Jules Joseph, baron d'Anethan Cat (b. 1803 - d. 1888) 7 Dec 1871 - 19 Jun 1878 Jules Malou (1st time) Cat (b. 1810 - d. 1886) 19 Jun 1878 - 16 Jun 1884 Walthère Frère-Orban (2nd time) Lib (s.a.) 16 Jun 1884 - 26 Oct 1884 Jules Malou (2nd time) Cat (s.a.) 26 Oct 1884 - 26 Mar 1894 Auguste Beernaert Cat (b. 1829 - d. 1912) 26 Mar 1894 - 25 Feb 1896 Jules Philippe Marie de Burlet Cat (b. 1844 - d. 1897) 25 Feb 1896 - 24 Jan 1899 Paul de Smet de Naeyer (1st time) Cat (b. 1843 - d. 1913) 24 Jan 1899 - 5 Aug 1899 Julius Vandenpeereboom Cat (b. 1843 - d. 1917) 5 Aug 1899 - 2 May 1907 Paul de Smet de Naeyer (from 26 May 1900, Paul, comte de Smet de Naeyer) (2nd time) Cat (s.a.) 2 May 1907 - 31 Dec 1907 Jules de Trooz Cat (b. 1857 - d. 1907) 9 Jan 1908 - 17 Jun 1911 Frans Schollaert Cat (s.a.) 17 Jun 1911 - 31 May 1918 Charles, baron de Broqueville Cat (s.a.) (from Aug 1914 in France exile) Aug 1914 - Jul 1917 Maximilian von Sandt (b. 1861 - d. 1918) (chief of civil administration) 31 May 1918 - 21 Nov 1918 Geraard Cooreman Cat (b. 1852 - d. 1926) Prime ministers 21 Nov 1918 - 20 Nov 1920 Léon Delacroix Cat (b. 1867 - d. 1929) 20 Nov 1920 - 16 Dec 1921 Henri Carton de Wiart Cat (b. 1869 - d. 1951) 16 Dec 1921 - 13 May 1925 Georges Theunis (1st time) Cat (b. 1873 - d. 1966) 13 May 1925 - 17 Jun 1925 Aloys van de Vyvere Cat (b. 1871 - d. 1961) 17 Jun 1925 - 20 May 1926 Prosper, vicomte Poullet Cat (b. 1868 - d. 1937) 20 May 1926 - 6 Jun 1931 Henri Jaspar Cat (b. 1870 - d. 1939) 6 Jun 1931 - 22 Oct 1932 Jules Renkin Cat (b. 1862 - d. 1934) 22 Oct 1932 - 20 Nov 1934 Charles, comte de Broqueville Cat (s.a.) 20 Nov 1934 - 25 Mar 1935 Georges Theunis (2nd time) Cat (s.a.) 25 Mar 1935 - 24 Nov 1937 Paul van Zeeland Cat (b. 1893 - d. 1973) 24 Nov 1937 - 15 May 1938 Paul Emile Janson Lib (b. 1872 - d. 1944) 15 May 1938 - 22 Feb 1939 Paul-Henri Spaak (1st time) Soc (b. 1899 - d. 1972) 22 Feb 1939 - 12 Feb 1945 Hubert Pierlot Cat (b. 1883 - d. 1963) (25 May 1940 - 8 Sep 1944 in exile [first in France, from 25 Oct 1940 in London]) 12 Feb 1945 - 13 Mar 1946 Achille Van Acker (1st time) Soc (b. 1898 - d. 1975) 13 Mar 1946 - 31 Mar 1946 Paul-Henri Spaak (2nd time) Soc (s.a.) 31 Mar 1946 - 3 Aug 1946 Achille Van Acker (2nd time) Soc (s.a.) 3 Aug 1946 - 20 Mar 1947 Camille Huysmans Soc (b. 1871 - d. 1968) 20 Mar 1947 - 11 Aug 1949 Paul-Henri Spaak (3rd time) Soc (s.a.) 11 Aug 1949 - 8 Jun 1950 Gaston Eyskens (1st time) S-C (b. 1905 - d. 1988) 8 Jun 1950 - 15 Aug 1950 Jean Duvieusart S-C (b. 1900 - d. 1977) 15 Aug 1950 - 15 Jan 1952 Joseph Pholien S-C (s.a.) 15 Jan 1952 - 23 Apr 1954 Jean Van Houtte S-C (b. 1907 - d. 1991) 23 Apr 1954 - 26 Jun 1958 Achille Van Acker (3rd time) Soc (s.a.) 26 Jun 1958 - 25 Apr 1961 Gaston Eyskens (2nd time) S-C (s.a.) 25 Apr 1961 - 28 Jul 1965 Théo Lefèvre S-C (b. 1914 - d. 1973) 28 Jul 1965 - 19 Mar 1966 Pierre Harmel S-C (b. 1911 - d. 2009) 19 Mar 1966 - 17 Jun 1968 Paul Vanden Boeynants (1st time) S-C (b. 1919 - d. 2001) 17 Jun 1968 - 26 Jan 1973 Gaston Eyskens (3rd time) CVP (s.a.) 26 Jan 1973 - 25 Apr 1974 Edmond Leburton Soc (b. 1915 - d. 1997) 25 Apr 1974 - 20 Oct 1978 Léo Tindemans CVP (b. 1922) 20 Oct 1978 - 3 Apr 1979 Paul Vanden Boeynants (2nd time) CVP (s.a.) 3 Apr 1979 - 6 Apr 1981 Wilfried Martens (1st time) CVP (s.a.) 6 Apr 1981 - 17 Dec 1981 Mark Eyskens CVP (b. 1933) 17 Dec 1981 - 7 Mar 1992 Wilfried Martens (2nd time) CVP (s.a.) 7 Mar 1992 - 12 Jul 1999 Jean-Luc Dehaene CVP (s.a.) 12 Jul 1999 - 20 Mar 2008 Guy Verhofstadt VLD (b. 1953) 20 Mar 2008 - 30 Dec 2008 Yves Leterme (1st time) CD&V (b. 1960) 30 Dec 2008 - 25 Nov 2009 Herman Van Rompuy CD&V (b. 1947) 25 Nov 2009 - 6 Dec 2011 Yves Leterme (2nd time) CD&V (s.a.) 6 Dec 2011 - 11 Oct 2014 Elio Di Rupo PS (b. 1951) 11 Oct 2014 - Charles Michel MR (b. 1975)
Party abbreviations: Cat=Catholic, CD&V=Christian Democratic and Flemish, CVP=Christian People's Party, Lib=Liberal, MR=Reformist Movement, PS=Socialist Party (French), Soc=Socialist, S-C=Social-Christian, VLD=Flemish Liberals and Democrats-Citizens Party
¹Title Roi des Belges (French); Koning der Belgen (Dutch); König der Belgier (German) ("king of the Belgians"). Under the constitution of the Kingdom of Belgium there was initially no official language, but French was legally authoritative; French and Dutch became official jointly from 8 Aug 1898, joined by German from 23 Oct 1991.

Bouillon

25 Oct 1795                annexed to France
30 May 1814 -  1 Jan 1815  Allied administration (see Belgium, above)
   Mar 1815                French occupation
22 Jul 1815                part of Luxembourg
       1831                part of Belgium

Dukes
- La Tour d'Auvergne dynasty -
31 Jan 1696 - 16 May 1730  Emmanuel-Théodose                  (b. 1668 - d. 1730)
16 May 1730 - 24 Oct 1771  Charles-Godefroy                   (b. 1706 - d. 1771)
24 Oct 1771 -  3 Dec 1792  Godefroy-Charles-Henri             (b. 1728 - d. 1792)
 3 Dec 1792 - 24 Apr 1794  Jacques-Léopold-Charles-Godefroy   (b. 1746 - d. 1802)
24 Apr 1794 - 25 Oct 1795  Committee of Execution
                           - Claude-Pierre Jobard
                           - Remacle Poncelet
                           - François-Gérard Pirson
                           - Pierre Castilhon
                           - Rénéaume-Latache
                           - Dominique Millard
                           - Jean-Joseph Nannan
 1 Jan 1815 -    Mar 1815  Philippe                           (b. 1754 - d. 1816)

Liège

        343                traditional date of founding of the bishopric of Liège
 14 Apr 972                the bishop becomes a prince of the Reich, an immediate
                           vassal of the king
28 Nov 1792 -  4 Mar 1793  occupied by France
 8 May 1793                the French National Convention decrees the incorporation
                           of Liège into France (ineffective at the time)
27 Jul 1794                occupied by France, and treated as if incorporated,
                           together with the Belgian provinces
 1 Oct 1795                formal annexation to France; thereafter Liège undergoes the
                           same developments as the rest of Belgium

Prince-bishops (title Prince-évêque de Liège, comte de Looz, marquis de Franchimont, etc.)
25 Oct 1694 - 12 Nov 1723  Joseph-Clément, duc de Bavière     (b. 1671 - d. 1723)
 7 Dec 1724 -  5 Dec 1743  Georges II Louis de Berghes        (b. 1662 - d. 1743)
10 Mar 1744 - 27 Jan 1763  Jean XI Théodore, duc de Bavière   (b. 1703 - d. 1763)
 8 Apr 1763 - 22 Oct 1771  Charles-Nicolas-Alexandre, comte
                           d'Oultremont                       (b. 1716 - d. 1771)
14 Mar 1772 - 30 Apr 1784  François-Charles, comte de
                           Vellbrueck                         (b. 1719 - d. 1784)
15 Aug 1784 - 13 Sep 1790  César-Constantin-François, comte
                           de Hoensbroek (1st time)           (b. 1724 - d. 1792)
13 Sep 1790 - 10 Jan 1791  Ferdinand-Maximilien Mériadec de
                           Rohan, prince de Guémenée,
                           archevêque de Cambrai (regent)     (b. 1738 - d. 1813)
11 Jan 1791 -  3 Jun 1792  César-Constantin-François, comte
                           de Hoensbroek (2nd time)           (s.a.)
 3 Jun 1792 - 16 Aug 1792  Alexandre-Constantin-Joseph de
                           Nassau, comte de Corroy            (b. 1738 - d. 1804)
                           (Grand Dean of the Cathedral Chapter)
16 Aug 1792 - 28 Nov 1792  François-Antoine-Marie-Constantin,
                           comte de Méan et de Beaurieux
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1756 - d. 1817)
 5 Mar 1793 - 21 Apr 1793  Friedrich Josias, Prinz von und zu
                           Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld            (b. 1737 - d. 1815)
                           (imperial administrator)
21 Apr 1793 - 20 Jul 1794  François-Antoine-Marie-Constantin,
                           comte de Méan et de Beaurieux
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)

Limburg

       1106                Duchy of Limburg
10 Dec 1703                the Austrian Habsburg rulers become Dukes of Limburg
11 Jan 1790 -  2 Dec 1790  part of the United Belgian States
15 Dec 1792                annexed to France
28 Apr 1793                Habsburg rule restored
 1 Oct 1795                annexed to France (Ourthe département)
15 Feb 1814                part of the "Belgian" Netherlands (province of Liège)
 4 Oct 1830                part of Belgium (province of Liège)

Neutral Moresnet

26 Jun 1816                part of Moresnet, claimed by both The Netherlands and
                           Prussia, is "temporarily neutralized" and put under a
                           common administration
       1830                Belgium replaces Netherlands as claimant and administrator
27 Jun 1915                administration by Prussia only
   Nov 1918                administration by Belgium only
10 Jan 1920                annexed to Belgium

Netherlands royal commissioners
 8 Dec 1817 -  2 Dec 1823  Werner Jacob
 2 Dec 1823 -        1830  Joseph Brandès
Belgian royal commissioners
 8 Jun 1835 -        1840  Lambert Ernst                      (b. 1798 - d. 1871)
 1 Feb 1840 -        1889  Mathieu Crémer                     (b. 1805 - d. 1889)
30 Nov 1889 - 27 Mar 1915  Fernand Jacques Bleyfuesz
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1858 - d. 1935)
27 Mar 1915 - 27 Jun 1915  Bayer (acting)
   Nov 1918 - 10 Jan 1920  Fernand Jacques Bleyfuesz
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
Prussian royal commissioners
 6 Aug 1817 -        1819  Wilhelm Hardt
22 Apr 1819 -    Mar 1836  Johann Martin Daniel Mayer         (b. ... - d. 1836)
 9 Jul 1836 -  9 Nov 1853  Heinrich Martins
11 Aug 1852 -  7 Jan 1866  Amand Pierre von Harenne           (b. 1813 - d. 1866)
                           (head of police administration to 16 Jan 1854)
12 Dec 1866 - 10 Jul 1867  August Freiherr von der Heydt      (b. 1825 - d. 1867)
       1868 -        1871  Edward Gülcher                     (b. 18... - d. 1871)
18 Jun 1871 -        1893  Alfred Theodor Sternickel          (b. 1825 - d. 1894)
18 Apr 1893 -  1 Jan 1909  Alfred Gülcher
13 Jan 1909 -        1913  Walter The Losen                   (b. 1880 - d. 1919)
 2 Nov 1913 -    Nov 1918  Spiess (acting)

Mayors 1817 - 21 Feb 1859 Arnold Timothée de Lasaulx (b. 1774 - d. 1861) (acting) 21 Feb 1859 - 30 May 1859 Adolf Hubert van Scherpenzeel-Thim (b. 1824 - d. ...) 1 Jul 1859 - 3 Feb 1882 Joseph Kohl 3 Feb 1882 - 20 Jun 1885 ... 20 Jun 1885 - 15 Mar 1915 Hubert Schmetz (b. 18... - d. 1915) 29 Mar 1915 - 7 Dec 1918 Wilhelm Kyll 7 Dec 1918 - 10 Jan 1920 Pierre Grignard

Belize

       1665                first English settlement
       1862                crown colony (British Honduras)
 1 Jun 1973                renamed Belize
21 Sep 1981                independence

Superintendents (subordinated to the governor of Jamaica)
       1749 -        1758  Robert Hodgson, Sr.
       1760 -        1767  Joseph Otway
       1767 -        1775  Robert Hodgson, Jr.
       1776                John Ferguson
       1776 - 10 Mar 1787  James Lawrie                       (b. 1722 - d. c.1800)
       1787 -    Jun 1790  Edward Marcus Despard              (b. 1751 - d. 1803)
   Jun 1790 -    Mar 1791  Peter Hunter                       (b. 1746 - d. 1805)
   Mar 1791 -    Jan 1797  vacant
   Jan 1797 -        1800  Thomas Barrow (1st time)
       1800 -        1802  Richard Basset
   Jan 1803 -        1805  Thomas Barrow (2nd time)
       1805 -        1806  Gabriel Gordon
       1806 -        1809  Alexander Mark Kerr Hamilton       (b. 1767 - d. 1842)
       1809 -        1814  John Nugent Smyth
       1814 -        1822  George Arthur                      (b. 1784 - d. 1854)
       1822 -        1823  A.H. Pye
       1823 -        1829  Edward Codd
       1829 -        1830  Archibald MacDonald (1st time)
       1830 -        1837  Francis Cockburn                   (b. 1780 - d. 1868)
       1837 -        1843  Archibald MacDonald (2nd time)
       1843 -        1851  Charles St. John Fancourt          (b. 1804 - d. 1875)
       1851 -        1854  Philip Edmond Wodehouse            (b. 1811 - d. 1887)
       1854 -        1857  William Stevenson
       1857 -        1862  Frederick Seymour                  (b. 1820 - d. 1869)
Lieutenant governors (subordinated to the governor of Jamaica)
       1862 -        1864  Frederick Seymour                  (s.a.)
       1864 -        1867  John Gardiner Austin
       1867 -        1870  James Robert Longden               (b. 1827 - d. 1891)
       1870 -        1874  William Wellington Cairns          (b. 1828 - d. 1888)
       1874 -        1877  Robert Miller Mundy                (b. 1813 - d. 1892)
       1877 -        1883  Frederick Palgrave Barlee          (b. 1827 - d. 1884)
13 May 1883 -        1884  Robert William Harley
Governors
       1884 -        1891  Roger Tuckfield Goldsworthy (from
                           1889, Sir Roger Tuckfield
                           Goldsworthy)                       (b. 1839 - d. 1900)
       1891 -        1897  Sir Cornelius Alfred Moloney       (b. 1848 - d. 1913)
       1897 -        1904  David Wilson (from 1899,
                           Sir David Wilson)                  (b. 1838 - d. 1924)
15 Apr 1904 -        1906  Sir Ernest Bickham Sweet-Escott    (b. 1857 - d. 1941)
13 Aug 1906 -        1913  Sir Eric John Eagles Swayne        (b. 1863 - d. 1929)
19 May 1913 -    Jan 1918  Wilfred Collet (from 1915,
                           Sir Wilfred Collet)                (b. 1856 - d. 1929)
29 Jan 1918 -  4 Sep 1918  William Hart Bennett               (b. 1861 - d. 1918)
22 Mar 1919 -        1925  Sir Eyre Hutson                    (b. 1864 - d. 1936)
16 Apr 1925 -        1932  Sir John Alder Burdon              (b. 1866 - d. 1933)
 9 Mar 1932 -        1934  Sir Harold Baxter Kittermaster     (b. 1879 - d. 1939)
 2 Nov 1934 -        1939  Alan Cuthbert Maxwell Burns
                           (from 1936, Sir Alan Cuthbert
                           Maxwell Burns)                     (b. 1887 - d. 1980)
24 Feb 1940 -  1 Jul 1946  Sir John Adams Hunter              (b. 1890 - d. 1962)
 1 Jul 1946 - 14 Jan 1947  Arthur Norman Wolffsohn (acting)   (b. 1888 - d. 1967)
14 Jan 1947 -        1948  Sir Edward Gerald Hawkesworth      (b. 1897 - d. 1949)
28 Feb 1949 -        1952  Ronald Herbert Garvey (from
                           1950, Sir Ronald Herbert Garvey)   (b. 1903 - d. 1991)
21 Oct 1952 -        1955  Patrick Muir Renison (from
                           1955, Sir Patrick Muir Renison)    (b. 1911 - d. 1965)
17 Jan 1956 -        1961  Colin Hardwick Thornley (from
                           1957, Sir Colin Hardwick Thornley) (b. 1907 - d. 1983)
 9 Dec 1961 -        1966  Sir Peter Hyla Gawne Stallard      (b. 1915 - d. 1995)
11 Jul 1966 -    Jan 1972  Sir John Warburton Paul            (b. 1916 - d. 2004)
26 Jan 1972 -        1976  Richard Neil Posnett               (b. 1919 - d. 2009)
 1 Jun 1976 -        1980  Peter Donovan McEntee              (b. 1920 - d. 2002)
       1980 - 21 Sep 1981  Sir James Patrick Ivan Hennessy    (b. 1923)
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
21 Sep 1981 - 17 Nov 1993  Minita Gordon (from 14 Feb 1984,
                           Dame Minita Gordon) (f)            (b. 1930)
17 Nov 1993 -              Colville Young (from 22 Feb 1994,
                           Sir Colville Young)                (b. 1932)

Prime ministers 7 Apr 1961 - 17 Dec 1984 George Cadle Price (1st time) (b. 1919 - d. 2011) (first minister to 1 Jan 1964, then premier to 21 Sep 1981) 17 Dec 1984 - 7 Nov 1989 Manuel Esquivel (1st time) (b. 1940) 7 Nov 1989 - 3 Jul 1993 George Cadle Price (2nd time) (s.a.) 3 Jul 1993 - 28 Aug 1998 Manuel Esquivel (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Aug 1998 - 8 Feb 2008 Said Musa (b. 1944) 8 Feb 2008 - Dean Barrow (b. 1951)

Bencoolen: see under Indonesia.

Benin

   Jan 1894                French protectorate
22 Jun 1894                Colony of Dahomey and Dependencies
17 Oct 1899                part of French West Africa (see under Senegal)
27 Oct 1946                French overseas territory
 4 Dec 1958                autonomy (Republic of Dahomey)
 1 Aug 1960                independence
30 Nov 1975                People's Republic of Benin
 1 Mar 1990                Republic of Benin

Governors
22 Jun 1894 -  3 Jul 1899  Victor Ballot                      (b. 1853 - d. 1939)
 3 Jul 1899 -  8 Oct 1899  Jean-Baptiste Fonssagrives         (b. 1862 - d. 1910)
                           (acting)
 8 Oct 1899 - 26 Nov 1900  Pierre Pascal (acting)
26 Nov 1900 -  5 May 1906  Victor Liotard                     (b. 1858 - d. 1916)
 5 May 1906 -  9 Jun 1906  Joseph Étienne Gabriel Lhuerre
                           (acting)
 9 Jun 1906 -  8 Mar 1908  Charles Marchal                    (b. 1855 - d. 1917)
                           (acting to 16 Jul 1906)
 8 Mar 1908 - 22 Sep 1908  Marie Antoine Gaudart (acting)
22 Sep 1908 -  9 Oct 1908  Auguste Brunet (acting)            (b. 1878 - d. 1957)
 9 Oct 1908 - 25 Apr 1909  Jean Jules Émile Peuvergne         (b. 1849 - d. 19...)
25 Apr 1909 -  6 Mar 1911  Henri Malan                        (b. 1869 - d. 1912)
29 Jun 1909 - 10 Feb 1910    Raphaël Antonetti                (b. 1872 - d. 1938)
                             (acting for Malan)
 6 Mar 1911 - 11 Jun 1911  Raphaël Antonetti (acting)         (s.a.)
24 Jun 1911 -  9 May 1912  Émile Merwart                      (b. 1869 - d. 1960)
 9 May 1912 -  7 Apr 1917  Charles Henri Adrien Noufflard     (b. 1872 - d. 1952)
                           (acting to 11 Jul 1912)
 7 Apr 1917 - 29 Aug 1928  Gaston Léopold Joseph Fourn        (b. 1868 - d. 1952)
                           (acting to Jul 1919)
29 Aug 1928 -  4 Apr 1929  Lucien Eugène Geay (acting)        (b. 1900 - d. 1976)
 4 Apr 1929 -  8 Feb 1931  François Joseph Reste              (b. 1879 - d. 1976)
 8 Feb 1931 -  7 Jan 1932  Théophile Antoine Pascal Tellier   (b. 1872 - d. 1955)
 7 Jan 1932 -  2 Aug 1932  Louis Placide Blacher              (b. 1883 - d. 1960)
 2 Aug 1932 - 22 Jul 1933  Louis Aujas (acting)               (b. 1876 - d. 1962)
22 Jul 1933 - 24 Aug 1934  Marcel de Coppet                   (b. 1881 - d. 1968)
24 Aug 1934 - 15 Feb 1935  Jean Desanti (acting)              (b. 1899 - d. 1944)
15 Feb 1935 - 12 Jan 1937  Maurice Bourgine                   (b. 1879 - d. 1963)
12 Jan 1937 -  7 Aug 1937  Henri Étienne Martinet (1st time)  (b. 1896 - d. 1941)
                           (acting)
 7 Aug 1937 -  7 Apr 1938  Ernest Gayon (acting)
 7 Apr 1938 -  1 Jun 1938  Henri Étienne Martinet (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 1 Jun 1938 - 27 Aug 1940  Armand Annet                       (b. 1888 - d. 1973)
27 Aug 1940 - 18 Sep 1940  Pierre Jean André Saliceti         (b. 1893 - d. 1946)
                           (acting)
18 Sep 1940 - 26 Aug 1943  Léon Truitard                      (b. 1885 - d. 1972)
26 Aug 1943 - 21 May 1946  Maurice Assier de Pompignan        (b. 1889 - d. 1952)
21 May 1946 - 14 Jan 1948  Robert Legendre (acting)
14 Jan 1948 -    Nov 1948  Jean Chambon                       (b. 1896 - d. 1965)
13 Jan 1949 - 19 Sep 1949  Jacques Boissier                   (b. 1910 - d. 1967)
19 Sep 1949 -    Nov 1951  Claude Valluy (acting)
   Nov 1951 - 21 Jun 1955  Charles Bonfils                    (b. 1908 - d. 2001)
21 Jun 1955 - 21 Mar 1958  Marc Casimir Biros                 (b. 1905 - d. 1995)
21 Mar 1958 - 15 Jul 1958  Bernard Hepp (acting)              (b. 1919 - d. 1986)
15 Jul 1958 -  4 Dec 1958  René Tirant (acting)               (b. 1907)
High commissioner
 4 Dec 1958 -  1 Aug 1960  René Tirant                        (s.a.)
Presidents
 1 Aug 1960 - 27 Oct 1963  Hubert Maga (1st time)             (b. 1916 - d. 2000)
                           (Head of State to 31 Dec 1960)
27 Oct 1963 - 28 Oct 1963  Provisional Government
                           - Hubert Maga                      (s.a.)
                           - Sourou Migan Apithy              (b. 1913 - d. 1989)
                           - Justin Ahomadegbé                (b. 1917 - d. 2002)
28 Oct 1963 - 25 Jan 1964  Christophe Soglo (1st time)        (b. 1909 - d. 1983)
                           (Head of Provisional Government)
25 Jan 1964 - 27 Nov 1965  Sourou Migan Apithy                (s.a.)
27 Nov 1965 - 29 Nov 1965  Justin Ahomadegbé (1st time)       (s.a.)
                           (acting)
29 Nov 1965 - 22 Dec 1965  Tahirou Congacou (acting)          (b. 1913 - d. 1994)
22 Dec 1965 - 19 Dec 1967  Christophe Soglo (2nd time)        (s.a.)
19 Dec 1967 - 20 Dec 1967  Jean-Baptiste Hachème
                           (chairman Revolutionary Committee)
20 Dec 1967 - 21 Dec 1967  Maurice Kouandété (1st time)       (b. 1932 - d. 2003)
                           (Head of State)
21 Dec 1967 - 17 Jul 1968  Alphonse Alley (Head of State)     (b. 1930 - d. 1987)
17 Jul 1968 - 10 Dec 1969  Émile Zinsou                       (b. 1918)
10 Dec 1969 - 13 Dec 1969  Maurice Kouandété (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                           (Chief-of-Staff of Army)
13 Dec 1969 -  7 May 1970  Paul-Émile de Souza                (b. 1930? - d. 1999)
                           (chairman Directory)
 7 May 1970 -  7 May 1972  Hubert Maga (2nd time)             (s.a.)
                           (chairman Presidential Council)
 7 May 1972 - 26 Oct 1972  Justin Ahomadegbé (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                           (chairman Presidential Council)
26 Oct 1972 -  4 Apr 1991  Mathieu Kérékou (1st time)¹        (b. 1933)
 4 Apr 1991 -  4 Apr 1996  Nicéphore Soglo                    (b. 1934)
 4 Apr 1996 -  6 Apr 2006  Mathieu Kérékou (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 6 Apr 2006 -              Yayi Boni                          (b. 1952)

Prime ministers 25 May 1957 - 22 May 1959 Sourou Migan Apithy (s.a.) (vice president of the Government Council to 26 Jul 1958, president of the Government Council 26 Jul - 4 Dec 1958, president of the provisional government from 4 Dec 1958) 22 May 1959 - 31 Dec 1960 Hubert Maga (s.a.) 25 Jan 1964 - 29 Nov 1965 Justin Ahomadegbé (s.a.) 18 Dec 1967 - 17 Jul 1968 Maurice Kouandété (s.a.) 12 Mar 1990 - 4 Apr 1991 Nicéphore Soglo (s.a.) 9 Apr 1996 - 14 May 1998 Adrien Houngbédji (b. 1942) 28 May 2011 - 11 Aug 2013 Pascal Koupaki (b. 1951)
¹Kérékou changed his first name to Ahmed on his conversion to Islam on 28 Sep 1980, but a few years later used the name Mathieu again.
Berbice: see under Guyana.

Bermuda

       1612                first English settlement
       1684                crown colony

Governors
20 Oct 1698 - 18 Dec 1700  Samuel Day (acting)
 2 May 1701 -        1722  Benjamin Bennett
       1722 -        1727  John Bruce Hope
   Nov 1727 -    Aug 1728  John Trimingham (acting)
       1728 -        1737  John Pitt                          (b. c.1698 - d. 1754)
   Dec 1737 -    May 1738  Andrew Auchinleck (acting)
 2 Aug 1738 -  9 Nov 1744  Alured Popple                      (b. 1699 - d. bf.1746)
   Nov 1744 -    Jun 1747  Francis Jones (1st time) (acting)
   Jul 1747 -    Dec 1763  William Popple                     (b. c.1701 - d. 1764)
   Dec 1763 -    Aug 1764  Francis Jones (2nd time) (acting)
   Aug 1764 -    Aug 1780  George James Bruere
   Sep 1780 -    Oct 1780  Thomas Jones (acting)
   Oct 1780 -    Dec 1781  George Bruere
   Jan 1782 -  1 Jan 1790  William Browne                     (b. 1737 - d. 1802)
 1 Jan 1790 -    Oct 1794  Henry Hamilton                     (b. 1734 - d. 1796)
                           (acting for absent Browne 27 Oct 1788 - 1 Jan 1790)
 8 Nov 1794 - 27 Oct 1796  James Crawford
27 Oct 1796 - 22 Nov 1796  Henry Tucker (1st time) (acting)
22 Nov 1796 -  1 Dec 1796  William Campbell                   (b. ... - d. 1796)
   Dec 1796 -    Feb 1798  Henry Tucker (2nd time) (acting)
   Feb 1798 -    Mar 1803  George Beckwith                    (b. 1753 - d. 1823)
   Mar 1803 -    Apr 1805  Henry Tucker (3rd time) (acting)
   May 1805 -    Jun 1806  Francis Gore                       (b. 1769 - d. 1852)
13 Jun 1806 - 31 Jul 1806  Henry Tucker (4th time) (acting)
   Jul 1806 -    Jun 1810  John Hodgson
   Jun 1810 -    Aug 1811  Samuel Trott (acting)
   Aug 1811 -    Apr 1819  Sir James Cockburn
15 Apr 1819 - 25 Nov 1819  William Smith (1st time) (acting)
   Nov 1819 -    Jun 1825  William Lumley                     (b. 1769 - d. 1850)
   Jun 1825 -    Feb 1826  William Smith (2nd time) (acting)
   Feb 1826 -    Jan 1832  Sir Hilgrove Turner                (b. 1764 - d. 1843)
   Jan 1832 -    Apr 1839  Sir Stephen Remnant Chapman        (b. 1776 - d. 1851)
   Apr 1839 -    Nov 1846  William Reid                       (b. 1791 - d. 1858)
   Nov 1846 -    Dec 1846  W.N. Hutchinson (acting)
   Dec 1846 -    Feb 1854  Sir Charles Elliot                 (b. 1801 - d. 1875)
   Feb 1854 -    Oct 1854  Montgomery Williams (acting)
   Oct 1854 -    Mar 1861  Freeman Murray                     (b. 1805 - d. 1885)
   Mar 1861 -    Nov 1866  Harry St. George Ord               (b. 1819 - d. 1885)
   Nov 1866 -    Apr 1867  W.G. Hamley (acting)
   Apr 1867                Arnold Thompson (acting)
   Apr 1867 -    May 1870  Frederick Edward Chapman           (b. 1815 - d. 1893)
   May 1870 -    Sep 1870  W.F. Brett (acting)
   Sep 1870 -    Apr 1871  Sir Thomas Gore Browne             (b. 1807 - d. 1887)
   Apr 1871 -    May 1871  A.A.C. Fisher (acting)
   May 1871 -        1877  Sir John Henry Lefroy              (b. 1817 - d. 1890)
       1877 - 22 Mar 1882  Sir Robert Laffan                  (b. 1821 - d. 1882)
       1882 -        1888  Thomas Lionel John Galwey          (b. 1822 - d. 1906)
       1888 -        1892  Edward Newdigate Newdegate         (b. 1825 - d. 1902)
       1892 -        1896  Thomas Casey Lyons                 (b. 1830 - d. 1897)
       1896 -        1902  George Digby Barker (from 1900,
                           Sir George Digby Barker)           (b. 1833 - d. 1914)
       1902 -        1904  Sir Henry Le Guay Geary            (b. 1837 - d. 1918)
       1904 -        1907  Sir Robert Macgregor Stewart       (b. 1842 - d. 1919)
       1907 -        1908  Josceline Heneage Wodehouse
                           (from 1908, Sir Josceline
                           Heneage Wodehouse)                 (b. 1852 - d. 1930)
       1908 -        1912  Sir Frederick Walter Kitchener     (b. 1859 - d. 1912)
       1912 -        1917  Sir George Mockworth Bullock       (b. 1851 - d. 1926)
       1917 -        1922  Sir James Willcocks                (b. 1857 - d. 1926)
       1922 -        1927  Sir Joseph John Asser              (b. 1867 - d. 1949)
       1927 -        1930  Sir Louis Jean Bols                (b. 1867 - d. 1930)
       1931 -        1936  Sir Thomas Astley Cubitt           (b. 1871 - d. 1939)
       1936 -        1939  Sir Reginald John Thoroton
                           Hildyard                           (b. 1876 - d. 1965)
       1939 -        1941  Sir Denis John Charles Kirwan
                           Bernard                            (b. 1882 - d. 1956)
 4 Oct 1941 -        1943  Edward George William Tyrwhitt
                           Knollys, Viscount Knollys          (b. 1895 - d. 1966)
24 Aug 1943 -        1945  David George Brownlow Cecil,
                           Baron Burghley                     (b. 1905 - d. 1981)
       1945 -    May 1946  William Addis (acting)             (b. 1901 - d. 1978)
   May 1946 -        1949  Ralph Leatham                      (b. 1886 - d. 1954)
24 Oct 1949 -        1955  Sir Alexander Hood                 (b. 1888 - d. 1980)
24 Oct 1955 -        1959  Sir John Dane Woodall              (b. 1897 - d. 1985)
       1959 -        1964  Sir Julian Alvery Gascoigne        (b. 1903 - d. 1990)
       1964 -        1972  John Roland Robinson,
                           Baron Martonmere                   (b. 1907 - d. 1989)
   Oct 1972 - 10 Mar 1973  Sir Richard Sharples               (b. 1916 - d. 1973)
10 Mar 1973 - 16 Jul 1973  Ian Albert Clark Kinnear (acting)  (b. 1924 - d. 2008)
16 Jul 1973 -  7 Apr 1977  Sir Edwin Leather                  (b. 1919 - d. 2005)
 7 Apr 1977 -  6 Sep 1977  Peter Lloyd (1st time) (acting)    (b. 1926 - d. 2007)
 6 Sep 1977 - 30 Dec 1980  Sir Peter Ramsbotham               (b. 1919 - d. 2010)
 1 Jan 1981 -    Feb 1981  Peter Lloyd (2nd time) (acting)    (s.a.)
   Feb 1981 - 15 Mar 1983  Sir Richard Neil Posnett           (b. 1919 - d. 2009)
14 Feb 1983 -    Jul 1983  Mark Herdman                       (b. 1932)
                           (acting [for Posnett to 15 Mar 1983])
   Jul 1983 -        1988  John William Morrison,
                           Viscount Dunrossil                 (b. 1926 - d. 2000)
   Oct 1988 - 25 Aug 1992  Sir Desmond Langley                (b. 1930 - d. 2008)
25 Aug 1992 -  4 Jun 1997  David Waddington, Baron
                           Waddington                         (b. 1929)
 4 Jun 1997 - 27 Nov 2001  Thorold Masefield                  (b. 1939)
27 Nov 2001 - 11 Apr 2002  Tim Gurney (acting)                (b. 1955)
11 Apr 2002 - 12 Oct 2007  Sir John Vereker                   (b. 1944)
12 Oct 2007 - 12 Dec 2007  Mark Capes (acting)                (b. 1954)
12 Dec 2007 - 18 May 2012  Sir Richard Gozney                 (b. 1951)
18 May 2012 - 23 May 2012  David B. Arkley (acting)
23 May 2012 -              George Fergusson                   (b. 1955)

Government leaders 10 Jun 1968 - 29 Dec 1971 Sir Henry Tucker (b. 1903 - d. 1986) 29 Dec 1971 - 18 Apr 1973 Sir Edward Richards (b. 1908 - d. 1991) Premiers 18 Apr 1973 - 29 Dec 1975 Sir Edward Richards (s.a.) 29 Dec 1975 - 30 Aug 1977 John Sharpe (b. 1921 - d. 1999) 30 Aug 1977 - 15 Jan 1982 David Gibbons (b. 1927 - d. 2014) 15 Jan 1982 - 25 Aug 1995 John Swan (from 1990, Sir John Swan) (b. 1935) 25 Aug 1995 - 27 Mar 1997 David Saul (b. 1939) 27 Mar 1997 - 10 Nov 1998 Pamela Gordon (f) (b. 1955) 10 Nov 1998 - 29 Jul 2003 Jennifer Smith (f) (b. 1947) 29 Jul 2003 - 30 Oct 2006 Alex Scott (b. 1940) 30 Oct 2006 - 29 Oct 2010 Ewart Brown (b. 1946) 29 Oct 2010 - 18 Dec 2012 Paula Cox (f) (b. 1964?) 18 Dec 2012 - 19 May 2014 Craig Cannonier (b. 1963) 19 May 2014 - Michael Dunkley (b. 1958) (acting to 20 May 2014)

Bhutan

17 Dec 1907                Kingdom of Bhutan

Spiritual rulers (title Shabdrun Thuktrul or Dharma Raja)
       1698 -        1712  Kunga Gyaltshen                    (b. 1689 - d. 1713)
       1712 -        1729  Phyogla Namgyal                    (b. 1708 - d. 1736)
       1730 -        1735  Jigme Norbu                        (b. 1717 - d. 1735)
       1735 -        1738  Mipham Wangpo                      (b. 1709 - d. 1738)
       1738 -        1761  Jigme Dragpa I                     (b. 1724 - d. 1761)
       1762 -        1788  Choeki Gyaltshen                   (b. 1762 - d. 1788)
       1791 -        1830  Jigme Dragpa II                    (b. 1791 - d. 1830)
       1831 -        1861  Jigme Norbu                        (b. 1831 - d. 1861)
       1862 -        1904  Jigme Chogyal                      (b. 1862 - d. 1904)
       1905 -        1931  Jigme Dorji                        (b. 1905 - d. 1931)

Rulers (title Druk Desi or Deb Raja) 1695 - 1701 Gedun Chomphel (b. 16... - d. 1701) 1701 - 1704 Ngawang Tshering 1704 - 1707 Umdze Peljor 1707 - 1719 Druk Rabgye (b. ... - d. c.1729) 1719 - 1729 Ngawang Gyamtsho (b. ... - d. 1729) 1729 - 1736 Mipham Wangpo (s.a.) 1736 - 1739 Khuwo Peljor 1739 - 1744 Ngawang Gyaltshen 1744 - 1763 Sherab Wangchuk 1763 - 1765 Druk Phuntsho 1765 - 1768 Druk Tendzin I 1768 - 1773 Donam Lhundub (b. ... - d. 1773) 1773 - 1776 Kunga Rinchen 1776 - 1788 Jigme Singye (b. 1742 - d. 1789) 1788 - 1792 Druk Tendzin II 1792 - 1799 Tashi Namgyal (1st time) 1799 - 1803 Druk Namgyal 1803 - 1805 Tashi Namgyal (2nd time) 1805 - 1806 Sangye Tendzin 1806 - 1808 Umdze Parpop (jointly with following) 1807 - 1808 Bop Choda 1809 - 1810 Tsulthrim Drayga (b. 1790 - d. 1820) 1810 - 1811 Jigme Dragpa II (s.a.) 1811 - 1815 Yeshey Gyaltshen (b. 1781 - d. 1830) 1815 Tshaphu Dorji 1815 - 1819 Sonam Drugyal 1819 - 1823 Tendzin Drugdra 1823 - 1831 Choki Gyaltshen (1st time) 1831 - 1832 Dorji Namgyal 1832 - 1835 Adap Thrinley 1835 - 1838 Choki Gyaltshen (2nd time) 1838 - 1847 Dorji Norbu 1847 - 1850 Tashi Dorji 1850 Wangchuk Gyalpo 1850 - 1852 Jigme Norbu (at Thimphu) 1851 - 1852 Chagpa Sangye (at Punakha) 1852 - 1856 Damcho Lhundrup 1856 - 1861 Kunga Palden (at Punakha) 1856 - 1861 Sherab Tharchin (at Thimphu) 1861 - 1864 Phuntsho Namgyal 1864 Tshewang Sithub (1st time) 1864 Tsulthrim Yonten 1864 Kagyu Wangchuk 1864 - 1866 Tshewang Sithub (2nd time) 1866 - 1870 Tsondru Pekar 1870 - 1873 Jigme Namgyal (1st time) (b. 1825 - d. 1881) 1873 - 1877 Kitsep Dorji Namgyal (1st time) 1877 - 1878 Jigme Namgyal (2nd time) (s.a.) 1878 - 1879 Kitsep Dorji Namgyal (2nd time) Mar 1879 - Jun 1880 Chogyal Zangpo (b. 18... - d. 1880) 1880 - Jul 1881 Jigme Namgyal (3rd time) (s.a.) 1881 - May 1883 Lam Tshewang (b. 1836 - d. 1883) 16 May 1883 - 23 Aug 1885 Gawa Zangpo 1885 - 1901 Sangye Dorji (b. 18... - d. 1901) 1903 - 1905 Choley Yeshe Ngodub (b. 1851 - d. 1917) Kings (title Druk Gyalpo, until 1963 also Maharaja) - Wangchuk dynasty - 17 Dec 1907 - 21 Aug 1926 Ugyen Wangchuk (b. 1861 - d. 1926) 21 Aug 1926 - 24 Mar 1952 Jigme Wangchuk (b. 1906 - d. 1952) 24 Mar 1952 - 21 Jul 1972 Jigme Dorji Wangchuk (b. 1929 - d. 1972) 24 Jul 1972 - 14 Dec 2006 Jigme Singye Wangchuk (b. 1955) 14 Dec 2006 - Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuk (b. 1980)
Chief ministers (title Gongzim) 1907 - 1917 Raja Ugyen Dorji 1917 - 1952 Raja Sonam Tobgay Dorji (b. 1896 - d. 1953) 1952 - 1958 Jigme Palden Dorji (b. 1919 - d. 1964) Prime ministers 1958 - 5 Apr 1964 Jigme Palden Dorji (s.a.) 25 Jul 1964 - 27 Nov 1964 Dasho Lhendup Dorji (acting) (b. 1935 - d. 2007) 20 Jul 1998 - 9 Jul 1999 Lyonpo Jigmi Thinley (1st time) (b. 1952) 9 Jul 1999 - 20 Jul 2000 Lyonpo Sangay Ngedup (1st time) (b. 1953) 20 Jul 2000 - 8 Aug 2001 Lyonpo Yeshey Zimba (1st time) (b. 1952) 8 Aug 2001 - 14 Aug 2002 Lyonpo Khandu Wangchuk (1st time) (b. 1950) 14 Aug 2002 - 30 Aug 2003 Lyonpo Kinzang Dorji (1st time) (b. 1951) 30 Aug 2003 - 18 Aug 2004 Lyonpo Jigmi Thinley (2nd time) (s.a.) 18 Aug 2004 - 5 Sep 2005 Lyonpo Yeshey Zimba (2nd time) (s.a.) 5 Sep 2005 - 7 Sep 2006 Lyonpo Sangay Ngedup (2nd time) (s.a.) 7 Sep 2006 - 31 Jul 2007 Lyonpo Khandu Wangchuk (2nd time) (s.a.) 31 Jul 2007 - 9 Apr 2008 Lyonpo Kinzang Dorji (2nd time) (s.a.) 9 Apr 2008 - 28 Apr 2013 Lyonchen Jigmi Thinley (3rd time) (s.a.) 28 Apr 2013 - 27 Jul 2013 Lyonpo Sonam Tobgye (b. 1949) (chief advisor) 27 Jul 2013 - Lyonchen Tshering Tobgay (b. 1965)

Biafra: see under Nigeria.

Bolivia

17 Aug 1825                República Bolívar
 3 Oct 1825                Bolivia; also República Bolivia
26 Nov 1825                Bolivian Republic
28 Oct 1836 - 20 Feb 1839  component of Peru-Bolivian Confederation
 1 Oct 1868                Republic of Bolivia (the old style lingers until 1908)
18 Mar 2009                Plurinational State of Bolivia

Liberator, invested with the Supreme Executive Power
11 Aug 1825 - 28 May 1826  Simón Bolívar                      (b. 1783 - d. 1830)
28 May 1826 - 19 Jun 1826  Antonio José de Sucre              (b. 1795 - d. 1830)
                           (in charge of the Supreme Executive Power)
Presidents
19 Jun 1826 -  2 Aug 1828  Antonio José de Sucre              (s.a.)
18 Apr 1828 -  2 Aug 1828    José María Pérez de Urdininea    (b. 1784 - d. 1865)
                             (acting for Sucre)
 2 Aug 1828 - 18 Dec 1828  José Miguel de Velasco (1st time)  (b. 1795 - d. 1859)
                           (acting)
18 Dec 1828 - 31 Dec 1828  Pedro Blanco (provisional)         (b. 1795 - d. 1829)
 1 Jan 1829 - 24 May 1829  José Miguel de Velasco (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                           ("accidental")
24 May 1829 - 20 Feb 1839  Andrés de Santa Cruz               (b. 1792 - d. 1865)
                           (provisional to 15 Aug 1831; also Supreme Protector of the
                           Peru-Bolivian Confederation 28 Oct 1836 - 20 Feb 1839)
20 Feb 1839 - 10 Jun 1841  José Miguel de Velasco (3rd time)  (s.a.)
                           (Provisional Supreme Chief to 16 Jun 1839,
                           provisional to 15 Aug 1840)
10 Jun 1841 -  9 Jul 1841  Sebastián de Ágreda                (b. 1795 - d. 1875)
                           (Provisional Chief)
 9 Jul 1841 - 22 Sep 1841  Mariano Enrique Calvo (acting)     (b. 1782 - d. 1842)
22 Sep 1841 - 23 Dec 1847  José Ballivián                     (b. 1805 - d. 1852)
                           (provisional to 15 Aug 1844)
23 Dec 1847 -  2 Jan 1848  Eusebio Guilarte (interim)         (b. 1799 - d. 1849)
 6 Jan 1848 - 18 Jan 1848  Manuel Isidoro Belzu (1st time)    (b. 1808 - d. 1865)
                           (interim)
18 Jan 1848 -  6 Dec 1848  José Miguel de Velasco (4th time)  (s.a.)
                           (provisional)
 6 Dec 1848 - 15 Aug 1855  Manuel Isidoro Belzu (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                           (provisional [in rebellion from 13 Oct 1848] to 15 Aug 1850)
15 Aug 1855 - 21 Oct 1857  Jorge Córdova                      (b. 1822 - d. 1861)
21 Oct 1857 - 14 Jan 1861  José María Linares                 (b. 1810 - d. 1861)
                           (provisional [in rebellion from 9 Sep 1857])
14 Jan 1861 -  4 May 1861  Governing Junta
                           - Ruperto Fernández                (b. ... - d. 1877)
                           - José María de Achá               (b. 1810 - d. 1868)
                           - Manuel Antonio Sánchez           (b. 1810 - d. 1861)
                             (to 9 Apr 1861)
 4 May 1861 - 28 Dec 1864  José María de Achá                 (s.a.)
                           (provisional to 15 Aug 1862)
28 Dec 1864 - 15 Jan 1871  Mariano Melgarejo                  (b. 1818 - d. 1871)
                           (provisional to 15 Aug 1870)
15 Jan 1871 - 27 Nov 1872  Agustín Morales                    (b. 1808 - d. 1872)
                           (Supreme Chief of the Revolution [in rebellion from 26 Nov
                           1870] to 21 Jan 1871; provisional to 25 Aug 1872)
27 Nov 1872 - 28 Nov 1872  Juan de Dios Bosque (acting)       (b. 1829 - d. 1890)
28 Nov 1872 -  9 May 1873  Tomás Frías (1st time)             (b. 1804 - d. 1884)
 9 May 1873 - 14 Feb 1874  Adolfo Ballivián                   (b. 1831 - d. 1874)
14 Feb 1874 -  4 May 1876  Tomás Frías (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 4 May 1876 - 28 Dec 1879  Hilarión Daza (provisional)        (b. 1840 - d. 1893)
28 Dec 1879 - 17 Jan 1880  Uladislao Silva
                           (President of Junta)
19 Jan 1880 - 31 May 1880  Narciso Campero (1st time)         (b. 1813 - d. 1896)
                           (provisional)
31 May 1880 - 19 Jun 1880  Aniceto Arce (1st time) (acting)   (b. 1824 - d. 1906)
19 Jun 1880 -  3 Sep 1884  Narciso Campero (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                           (interim from 6 Aug 1884)
 3 Sep 1884 - 15 Aug 1888  Gregorio Pacheco                   (b. 1823 - d. 1899)
15 Aug 1888 - 11 Aug 1892  Aniceto Arce (2nd time)            (s.a.)
11 Aug 1892 - 19 Aug 1896  Mariano Baptista                   (b. 1832 - d. 1907)
19 Aug 1896 - 12 Apr 1899  Severo Fernández Alonso            (b. 1849 - d. 1925)
12 Apr 1899 - 25 Oct 1899  Serapio Reyes Ortiz                (b. 1822 - d. 1900)
                           (President of Federal Junta [in rebellion
                           from 12 Dec 1898])
25 Oct 1899 - 14 Aug 1904  Manuel Pando                       (b. 1849 - d. 1917)
                           (interim from 6 Aug 1904)
14 Aug 1904 - 12 Aug 1909  Ismael Montes (1st time)           (b. 1861 - d. 1933)
12 Aug 1909 - 14 Aug 1913  Eliodoro Villazón                  (b. 1848 - d. 1939)
14 Aug 1913 - 15 Aug 1917  Ismael Montes (2nd time)           (s.a.)
15 Aug 1917 - 12 Jul 1920  José Gutiérrez Guerra              (b. 1869 - d. 1929)
12 Jul 1920 - 13 Jul 1920  Bautista Saavedra (1st time)       (b. 1870 - d. 1939)
                           ("Political Chief")
13 Jul 1920 - 28 Jan 1921  Government Junta
                           - José María Escalier              (b. 1862 - d. 1934)
                           - Bautista Saavedra                (s.a.)
                           - José Manuel Ramírez              (b. 1868 - d. 19...)
28 Jan 1921 -  3 Sep 1925  Bautista Saavedra (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 3 Sep 1925 - 10 Jan 1926  Felipe S. Guzmán (provisional)     (b. 1879 - d. 1932)
10 Jan 1926 - 28 May 1930  Hernando Siles Reyes               (b. 1882 - d. 1942)
28 May 1930 - 25 Jun 1930  Council of Ministers (acting)
                           - Alberto Diez de Medina Lertora   (b. 1877 - d. 1932)
                           - Germán Antelo Arauz
                             (to 17 Jun 1930)
                           - Franklin Mercado                 (b. 1891 - d. 19...)
                           - José David Toro                  (b. 1898 - d. 1977)
                           - José Aguirre Achá                (b. 1877 - d. 19...)
                           - Fidel Vega                       (b. ... - d. 1939)
                           - Carlos Banzer
                           - Ezequiel Romecín Calderón
                             (from 17 Jun 1930)
28 Jun 1930 -  5 Mar 1931  Carlos Blanco Galindo              (b. 1882 - d. 1943)
                           (chairman Military Government Junta)
 5 Mar 1931 - 27 Nov 1934  Daniel Domingo Salamanca           (b. 1869 - d. 1935)
28 Nov 1934 - 17 May 1936  José Luis Tejada Sorzano           (b. 1882 - d. 1938)
17 May 1936 - 20 May 1936  Germán Busch (1st time)            (b. 1903 - d. 1939)
                           (provisional chairman Government Junta)
20 May 1936 - 13 Jul 1937  José David Toro                    (s.a.)
                           (chairman Government Junta)
13 Jul 1937 - 23 Aug 1939  Germán Busch (2nd time)            (s.a.)
                           (chairman Government Junta to 28 May 1938)
23 Aug 1939 - 15 Apr 1940  Carlos Quintanilla (provisional)   (b. 1888 - d. 1964)
15 Apr 1940 - 20 Dec 1943  Enrique Peñaranda                  (b. 1892 - d. 1969)
20 Dec 1943 - 21 Jul 1946  Gualberto Villarroel               (b. 1908 - d. 1946)
                           (chairman Government Junta to 5 Apr 1944; provisional
                           president 5 Apr - 6 Aug 1944)
21 Jul 1946 - 15 Aug 1946  Néstor Guillén                     (b. 1890 - d. 1966)
                           (Senior Judge to 22 Jul 1946, then chairman Provisional
                           Government Junta)
15 Aug 1946 - 10 Mar 1947  Tomás Monje Gutiérrez              (b. 1884 - d. 1954)
                           (chairman Provisional Government Junta)
10 Mar 1947 - 22 Oct 1949  Enrique Hertzog                    (b. 1897 - d. 1980)
22 Oct 1949 - 16 May 1951  Mamerto Urriolagoitia              (b. 1895 - d. 1974)
                           (acting [for Hertzog from 7 May 1949] to 24 Oct 1949)
16 May 1951 - 11 Apr 1952  Hugo Ballivián Rojas               (b. 1901 - d. 1993)
                           (chairman military junta)
11 Apr 1952 - 16 Apr 1952  Hernán Siles Zuazo (1st time)      (b. 1914 - d. 1996)
                           (provisional)
16 Apr 1952 -  6 Aug 1956  Víctor Paz Estenssoro (1st time)   (b. 1907 - d. 2001)
 6 Aug 1956 -  6 Aug 1960  Hernán Siles Zuazo (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 6 Aug 1960 -  4 Nov 1964  Víctor Paz Estenssoro (2nd time)   (s.a.)
Chairmen of the military junta
 4 Nov 1964 -  5 Nov 1964  Alfredo Ovando Candía (1st time)   (b. 1918 - d. 1982)
 5 Nov 1964     (hours)    Alfredo Ovando Candía (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                           + René Barrientos Ortuño (1st
                           time) (co-chairmen)                (b. 1919 - d. 1969)
 5 Nov 1964 - 26 May 1965  René Barrientos Ortuño (2nd time)  (s.a.)
26 May 1965 -  4 Jan 1966  René Barrientos Ortuño (3rd time)  (s.a.)
                           + Alfredo Ovando Candía (3rd
                           time) (co-chairmen)                (s.a.)
 4 Jan 1966 -  6 Aug 1966  Alfredo Ovando Candía (4th time)   (s.a.)
Presidents
 6 Aug 1966 - 27 Apr 1969  René Barrientos Ortuño             (s.a.)
27 Apr 1969 - 26 Sep 1969  Luis Adolfo Siles Salinas          (b. 1925 - d. 2005)
26 Sep 1969 -  6 Oct 1970  Alfredo Ovando Candía              (s.a.)
 6 Oct 1970 -  7 Oct 1970  Military junta
                           - Efraín Guachalla Ibáñez
                           - Fernando Sattori Ribera          (b. ... - d. 2005)
                           - Alberto Albarracín Crespo        (b. 1922 - d. 2006)
 7 Oct 1970 - 21 Aug 1971  Juan José Torres Gonzales          (b. 1921 - d. 1976)
21 Aug 1971 - 22 Aug 1971  Jaime Florentino Mendieta Vargas   (b. 1922)
                           + Hugo Banzer Suárez               (b. 1926 - d. 2002)
                           + Andrés Selich Chop               (b. 1927? - d. 1973)
                           (junta chairmen)
22 Aug 1971 - 21 Jul 1978  Hugo Banzer Suárez (1st time)      (s.a.)
21 Jul 1978     (hours)    Víctor González Fuentes
                           (chairman military junta)
21 Jul 1978 - 24 Nov 1978  Juan Pereda Asbún                  (b. 1931 - d. 2012)
24 Nov 1978 -  8 Aug 1979  David Padilla Arancibia            (b. 1927)
                           (chairman military junta)
 8 Aug 1979 -  1 Nov 1979  Wálter Guevara Arze (interim)      (b. 1912 - d. 1996)
 1 Nov 1979 - 16 Nov 1979  Alberto Natusch Busch              (b. 1933 - d. 1994)
17 Nov 1979 - 18 Jul 1980  Lidia Gueiler Tejada (f) (interim) (b. 1921 - d. 2011)
18 Jul 1980     (hours)    Junta of Commanders
                           - Luis García Meza Tejada          (b. 1929)
                           - Waldo Bernal Pereira (1st time)  (b. 1934)
                           - Ramiro Terrazas Rodríguez
18 Jul 1980 -  4 Aug 1981  Luis García Meza Tejada            (s.a.)
 4 Aug 1981 -  4 Sep 1981  Junta of Commanders
                           - Waldo Bernal Pereira (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                           - Celso Torrelio Villa             (b. 1933 - d. 1999)
                           - Óscar Pammo Rodríguez (1st time) (b. 1934)
 4 Sep 1981 - 19 Jul 1982  Celso Torrelio Villa               (s.a.)
19 Jul 1982 - 21 Jul 1982  Junta of Commanders
                           - Natalio Morales Mosquera
                           - Óscar Pammo Rodríguez (2nd time) (s.a.)
                           - Ángel Mariscal Gómez
21 Jul 1982 - 10 Oct 1982  Guido Vildoso Calderón             (b. 1937)
10 Oct 1982 -  6 Aug 1985  Hernán Siles Zuazo (3rd time)      (s.a.)
 6 Aug 1985 -  6 Aug 1989  Víctor Paz Estenssoro (3rd time)   (s.a.)
 6 Aug 1989 -  6 Aug 1993  Jaime Paz Zamora                   (b. 1939)
 6 Aug 1993 -  6 Aug 1997  Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1930)
 6 Aug 1997 -  7 Aug 2001  Hugo Banzer Suárez (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 7 Aug 2001 -  6 Aug 2002  Jorge Quiroga Ramírez              (b. 1960)
 6 Aug 2002 - 17 Oct 2003  Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
17 Oct 2003 -  9 Jun 2005  Carlos Mesa                        (b. 1953)
 9 Jun 2005 - 22 Jan 2006  Eduardo Rodríguez                  (b. 1956)
22 Jan 2006 -              Evo Morales                        (b. 1959)

Bonaire

       1642                Dutch colony
   Jan 1807 - 27 May 1815  British occupation
       1828                united with other Dutch territories
                           (see Netherlands Antilles, under Curaçao)
10 Oct 2010                Dutch special municipality

Commanders
       1690 -        1695  Jan Burggraeff (1st time)          (b. 16... - d. 1714)
       1695 -        1699  Isaac Lamont
       1699 -        1705  Jan Burggraeff (2nd time)          (s.a.)
       1705 -        1712  Pieter Born (1st time)
       1712 -        1714  Hans Jurgen Cramer
       1714 -        1719  Pieter Born (2nd time)
 1 Dec 1719 - 30 Jul 1723  Pieter Scholten (provisional)      (b. 16... - d. 1723)
       1723 -        1738  Jan Hendrik Geerkens               (b. 16... - d. 1738)
                           (provisional to 1729)
31 May 1738 -        1750  Frederik Zaunslifer
                           (provisional to 17...)
15 Aug 1750 -  2 Feb 1756  Johannes Philippus Eijlbracht      (b. ... - d. 1756)
 2 Feb 1756 - 12 Nov 1768  Theunis Dirkszoon Kock             (b. ... - d. 1782)
12 Nov 1768 -        1780  Andreas Daal                       (b. 1733 - d. ...)
       1780 -        1795  Christiaan Gerard Dammers
                           (provisional to 1784)
11 Aug 1795 -  4 Jun 1796  Barent Dirkszoon Kock (1st time)
                           (acting)
 4 Jun 1796 - 30 Sep 1797  Michiel de Groot (provisional)
30 Sep 1797 - 29 Oct 1805  Barent Dirkszoon Kock (2nd time)
29 Oct 1805 - 27 May 1815  Johannes Palm Hzn. (interim)
   Jan 1807 - 27 May 1815    Jean François du Briel
                             (British superintendent)
27 May 1815 - 11 Oct 1817  Samuel Bartholomeus van den Broek  (b. 17... - d. 1817)
11 Oct 1817 - 23 Mar 1827  Isaac Debrot                       (b. 1771 - d. 18...)
23 Mar 1827 - 21 Mar 1840  Claas Schotborgh                   (b. 1775 - d. 1840)
24 Mar 1840 -    Jun 1848  Jan Schotborgh Claaszoon           (b. 1800? - d. 1876)
Administrators (gezaghebbers)
   Jun 1848 -  1 Apr 1854  Jan Schotborgh Claaszoon           (s.a.)
   Aug 1853 -  5 Jan 1859  Cornelis Boyé                      (b. 1805 - d. ...)
                           (acting for Schotborgh to 1 Apr 1854)
21 Jan 1859 - 14 Dec 1865  Herman François Gerardus Wagner    (b. 1822 - d. 1904)
14 Mar 1866 -  1 Jun 1871  Edouard Dénis Ernest van den
                           Bossche                            (b. 1831 - d. 1908)
 1 Jun 1871 - 20 Feb 1873  Jan Helenus Ferguson (acting)      (b. 1826 - d. 1908)
20 Feb 1873 - 20 Oct 1881  John George Louis Illidge van
                           Romondt                            (b. 1833 - d. 1896)
20 Oct 1881 - 10 Jul 1885  Johan Hendrik Waters Gravenhorst
10 Jul 1885 - 15 Mar 1890  Vincent Rogers van Romondt         (b. 18... - d. 1899)
10 Aug 1890 - 13 Jun 1910  Arend Evert Johannes van den
                           Brandhof                           (b. 1861 - d. 1910)
20 Apr 1905 -  1 Jun 1907    Herman Statius Muller
                             (acting for Brandhof)
28 Jun 1910 - 16 Apr 1920  Jacob Achilles Petrus Thielen      (b. 1871 - d. 1942)
                           (acting to 1 May 1911)
                             Acting for Thielen:
 1 Dec 1918 -  1 Mar 1919    P.L. Gorsira
11 Apr 1919 - 16 Apr 1919    Carel Pieter de Haseth           (b. 1882 - d. 1928)
27 Oct 1919 - 21 Nov 1919    Jan Louis Carel Monsanto
 7 Mar 1920 - 13 Mar 1920    Julio Herrera
25 Apr 1920 - 20 Jul 1921  Carel Pieter de Haseth             (s.a.)
20 Jul 1921 -  6 Sep 1923  Richard Johannes Beaujon, Jr.      (b. 1883 - d. 19...)
 1 Oct 1923 - 20 Aug 1927  Johan Hendrik Perret Gentil Lz.    (b. 1889 - d. 1950)
                             Acting for Perret Gentil:
 6 Apr 1925 - 29 Apr 1925    William Rufus Plantz (1st time)  (b. 1895 - d. 1984)
22 Nov 1925 - 17 Jan 1926    William Rufus Plantz (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 7 Aug 1927 - 12 Aug 1927    William Rufus Plantz (3rd time)  (s.a.)
20 Aug 1927 -  7 Feb 1928  William Rufus Plantz               (s.a.)
11 Feb 1928 - 31 Dec 1934  Herman Bernard Cornelis Schotborgh (b. 1898 - d. ...)
 1 Jan 1935 - 26 Oct 1939  Johan Marin Statius van Eps        (b. 1894 - d. ...)
26 Oct 1939 -  7 Oct 1943  Pieter Hendrik van Leeuwen         (b. 1893 - d. ...)
31 Dec 1943 -  9 Feb 1952  Xavier Henri Charles Marie Krugers (b. 1896 - d. ...)
 9 Feb 1952 -  5 Nov 1956  Willem George Shon Weis de Haseth
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1915)
12 Dec 1956 -        1957  Antonius Johannes van Hesteren
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1922)
       1957 -        1958  Willem George Shon Weis de Haseth
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1958 -        1963  Antonius Johannes van Hesteren
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 6 Jan 1963 -  6 Jan 1969  Elias José Morkos                  (b. 1919 - d. 1982)
23 Jun 1969 - 24 May 1973  Raymundo Pedro Saleh
24 May 1973 - 18 Dec 1985  Alfred Richard Wenseslau Sint Jago
   Dec 1985 -    Feb 1986  A.J. Cecilia (acting)?
12 Feb 1986 -  1 Feb 1992  George Soliana                     (b. 1950)
 1 Feb 1992 -    Jan 1998  Frits Goedgedrag                   (b. 1951)
   Jan 1998 -  2 Dec 2003  Richard Nelson Hart                (b. 1943)
 2 Dec 2003 - 24 Oct 2008  Herbert Filomeno Domacassé         (b. 1947?)
24 Oct 2008 - 31 Dec 2011  Glenn Thodé                        (b. 1965)
 1 Jan 2012 -  1 Mar 2012  Peter Silberie (acting)
 1 Mar 2012 -  1 Mar 2014  Lydia Emerencia (f)                (b. 1954)
 1 Mar 2014 -              Edison Rijna                       (b. 1967)
                           (acting to 22 Aug 2014)

Caribbean Netherlands

Representatives of the National Government (for Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba)
10 Oct 2010 -  1 May 2011  Hans Gerritsen (acting)            (b. 1958?)
 1 May 2011 -              Wilbert Stolte                     (b. 1950)

Bophuthatswana: see under South African homelands.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

       1463                part of Ottoman Empire
13 Jul 1878                administered by Austria-Hungary
 7 Oct 1908                annexed by Austria-Hungary
 1 Dec 1918                part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes
                           (later Yugoslavia)
10 Apr 1941 -  6 May 1945  part of independent Croatia
 4 Dec 1943                part of Yugoslavia
 2 Dec 1945                People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
 7 Jul 1963                Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
20 Dec 1990                Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
 3 Mar 1992                independence declared
 5 Oct 1996                Bosnia and Herzegovina

Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party
(from 1952, League of Communists)
   Dec 1943 -    Mar 1965  Djuro-Stari Pucar                  (b. 1899 - d. 1979)
   Mar 1965 -        1969  Cvijetin Mijatovic                 (b. 1913 - d. 1993)
       1969 -        1978  Branko Mikulic                     (b. 1928 - d. 1994)
       1978 -        1982  Nikola Stojanovic                  (b. 1933)
23 May 1983 - 28 May 1984  Hamdija Pozderac                   (b. 1923 - d. 1988)
28 May 1984 -    Jun 1986  Mato Andric                        (b. 1928)
   Jun 1986 -        1988  Milan Uzelac                       (b. 1932 - d. 2005)
       1988 - 29 Jun 1989  Abdulah Mutapcic                   (b. 1932)
29 Jun 1989 -        1990  Nijaz Durakovic                    (b. 1949 - d. 2012)

Presidents of the Presidium of the People's Assembly (until 26 Apr 1945, chairman of the Anti-Fascist Council of People's Liberation) 25 Nov 1943 - Nov 1946 Vojislav Kecmanovic (b. 1881 - d. 1961) Nov 1946 - Sep 1948 Djuro-Stari Pucar (s.a.) Sep 1948 - Mar 1953 Vlado Segrt (b. 1907 - d. 1991) Presidents of the People's Assembly Mar 1953 - Dec 1953 ... Dec 1953 - Jun 1963 Djuro-Stari Pucar (s.a.) Jun 1963 - 1967 Rato Dugonjic (b. 1916 - d. 1987) 1967 - 1971 Dzemal Bijedic (b. 1917 - d. 1977) 1971 - May 1974 Hamdija Pozderac (s.a.) Presidents of the Presidency May 1974 - Apr 1978 Rato Dugonjic (s.a.) Apr 1978 - Apr 1982 Raif Dizdarevic (b. 1926) Apr 1982 - 26 Apr 1984 Branko Mikulic (s.a.) 26 Apr 1984 - 26 Apr 1985 Milanko Renovica (b. 1928 - d. 2013) 26 Apr 1985 - Apr 1987 Munir Mesihovic (b. 1928) Apr 1987 - Apr 1988 Mato Andric (s.a.) Apr 1988 - Apr 1989 Nikola Filipovic (b. 1928) Apr 1989 - 20 Dec 1990 Obrad Piljak (b. 1933) Chairman of the State Presidency 20 Dec 1990 - 5 Oct 1996 Alija Izetbegovic (b. 1925 - d. 2003) Chairmen of the Presidency of the Republic 5 Oct 1996 - 13 Oct 1998 Alija Izetbegovic (1st time) (s.a.) 13 Oct 1998 - 15 Jun 1999 Zivko Radisic (1st time) (b. 1937) 15 Jun 1999 - 14 Feb 2000 Ante Jelavic (b. 1963) 14 Feb 2000 - 14 Oct 2000 Alija Izetbegovic (2nd time) (s.a.) 14 Oct 2000 - 14 Jun 2001 Zivko Radisic (2nd time) (s.a.) 14 Jun 2001 - 14 Feb 2002 Jozo Krizanovic (b. 1944 - d. 2009) 14 Feb 2002 - 28 Oct 2002 Beriz Belkic (b. 1946) 28 Oct 2002 - 2 Apr 2003 Mirko Sarovic (b. 1956) 10 Apr 2003 - 27 Jun 2003 Borislav Paravac (1st time) (b. 1943) 27 Jun 2003 - 28 Feb 2004 Dragan Covic (b. 1956) 28 Feb 2004 - 28 Oct 2004 Sulejman Tihic (1st time) (b. 1951 - d. 2014) 28 Oct 2004 - 28 Jun 2005 Borislav Paravac (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Jun 2005 - 28 Feb 2006 Ivo Miro Jovic (b. 1950) 28 Feb 2006 - 6 Nov 2006 Sulejman Tihic (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Nov 2006 - 6 Jul 2007 Nebojsa Radmanovic (1st time) (b. 1949) 6 Jul 2007 - 6 Mar 2008 Zeljko Komsic (1st time) (b. 1964) 6 Mar 2008 - 6 Nov 2008 Haris Silajdzic (1st time) (b. 1945) 6 Nov 2008 - 6 Jul 2009 Nebojsa Radmanovic (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Jul 2009 - 6 Mar 2010 Zeljko Komsic (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Mar 2010 - 10 Nov 2010 Haris Silajdzic (2nd time) (s.a.) 10 Nov 2010 - 10 Jul 2011 Nebojsa Radmanovic (3rd time) (s.a.) 10 Jul 2011 - 10 Mar 2012 Zeljko Komsic (3rd time) (s.a.) 10 Mar 2012 - 10 Nov 2012 Bakir Izetbegovic (1st time) (b. 1956) 10 Nov 2012 - 10 Jul 2013 Nebojsa Radmanovic (4th time) (s.a.) 10 Jul 2013 - 10 Mar 2014 Zeljko Komsic (4th time) (s.a.) 10 Mar 2014 - Bakir Izetbegovic (2nd time) (s.a.)
Prime ministers 27 Apr 1945 - Sep 1948 Rodoljub Colakovic (b. 1900 - d. 1983) Sep 1948 - Mar 1953 Djuro-Stari Pucar (s.a.) Chairmen of the Executive Council Mar 1953 - Dec 1953 Djuro-Stari Pucar (s.a.) Dec 1953 - 1956 Avdo Humo (b. 1914 - d. 1983) 1956 - 1963 Osman Karabegovic (b. 1911 - d. 1996) 1963 - 1965 Hasan Brkic (b. 1913 - d. 1965) 1965 - 1967 Rudi Kolak (b. 1918 - d. 2004) 1967 - 1969 Branko Mikulic (s.a.) 1969 - Apr 1974 Dragutin Kosovac (b. 1924 - d. 2012) Apr 1974 - 28 Apr 1982 Milanko Renovica (s.a.) 28 Apr 1982 - 28 Apr 1984 Seid Maglajlija (b. 1940) 28 Apr 1984 - Apr 1986 Gojko Ubiparip (b. 1927 - d. 2000) Apr 1986 - Apr 1988 Josip Lovrenovic (b. 1929) Apr 1988 - 20 Dec 1990 Marko Ceranic Prime ministers 20 Dec 1990 - 9 Nov 1992 Jure Pelivan (b. 1928 - d. 2014) 9 Nov 1992 - 25 Oct 1993 Mile Akmadzic (b. 1939) 25 Oct 1993 - 30 Jan 1996 Haris Silajdzic (s.a.) 30 Jan 1996 - 3 Jan 1997 Hasan Muratovic (b. 1940) Co-prime ministers 3 Jan 1997 - 3 Feb 1999 Haris Silajdzic (s.a.) + Boro Bosic (b. 1950) 3 Feb 1999 - 6 Jun 2000 Haris Silajdzic (s.a.) + Svetozar Mihajlovic (b. 1949) Prime ministers 6 Jun 2000 - 18 Oct 2000 Spasoje Tusevljak (b. 1952) 18 Oct 2000 - 22 Feb 2001 Martin Raguz (b. 1958) 22 Feb 2001 - 18 Jul 2001 Bozidar Matic (b. 1937) 18 Jul 2001 - 15 Mar 2002 Zlatko Lagumdzija (b. 1955) 15 Mar 2002 - 23 Dec 2002 Dragan Mikerevic (b. 1955) 23 Dec 2002 - 11 Jan 2007 Adnan Terzic (b. 1960) 11 Jan 2007 - 12 Jan 2012 Nikola Spiric (b. 1956) 12 Jan 2012 - Vjekoslav Bevanda (b. 1956) International High Representatives 14 Dec 1995 - 18 Jun 1997 Carl Bildt (Sweden) (b. 1949) 18 Jun 1997 - 18 Aug 1999 Carlos Westendorp (Spain) (b. 1937) 18 Aug 1999 - 27 May 2002 Wolfgang Petritsch (Austria) (b. 1947) 27 May 2002 - 31 Jan 2006 Paddy Ashdown, Baron Ashdown (United Kingdom) (b. 1941) 31 Jan 2006 - 2 Jul 2007 Christian Schwarz-Schilling (Germany) (b. 1930) 2 Jul 2007 - 26 Mar 2009 Miroslav Lajcák (Slovakia) (b. 1963) 26 Mar 2009 - Valentin Inzko (Austria) (b. 1949)

Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Presidents
31 May 1994 - 18 Mar 1997  Kresimir Zubak                     (b. 1947)
18 Mar 1997 - 29 Dec 1997  Vladimir Soljic                    (b. 1943)
29 Dec 1997 -  1 Jan 1999  Ejup Ganic (1st time)              (b. 1946)
 1 Jan 1999 -  1 Jan 2000  Ivo Andric-Luzanski (1st time)     (b. 1956)
 1 Jan 2000 -  1 Jan 2001  Ejup Ganic (2nd time)              (s.a.)
 1 Jan 2001 - 28 Feb 2001  Ivo Andric-Luzanski (2nd time)     (s.a.)
28 Feb 2001 -  1 Jan 2002  Karlo Filipovic                    (b. 1954)
 1 Jan 2002 - 27 Jan 2003  Safet Halilovic                    (b. 1951)
27 Jan 2003 - 22 Feb 2007  Niko Lozancic                      (b. 1957)
22 Feb 2007 - 17 Mar 2011  Borjana Kristo (f)                 (b. 1961)
17 Mar 2011 -              Zivko Budimir                      (b. 1962)

Prime ministers 31 May 1994 - 31 Jan 1996 Haris Silajdzic (s.a.) 31 Jan 1996 - 18 Dec 1996 Izudin Kapetanovic (b. 1953) 18 Dec 1996 - 11 Jan 2001 Edhem Bicakcic (b. 1952) 11 Jan 2001 - 2 Mar 2001 Dragan Covic (acting) (b. 1956) 2 Mar 2001 - 14 Feb 2003 Alija Behmen (b. 1940) 14 Feb 2003 - 22 Mar 2007 Ahmet Hadzipasic (1st time) (b. 1952 - d. 2008) 22 Mar 2007 - 23 Mar 2007 Nedzad Brankovic (1st time) (b. 1962) 23 Mar 2007 - 30 Mar 2007 Ahmet Hadzipasic (2nd time) (s.a.) 30 Mar 2007 - 25 Jun 2009 Nedzad Brankovic (2nd time) (s.a.) 25 Jun 2009 - 17 Mar 2011 Mustafa Mujezinovic (b. 1954) 17 Mar 2011 - Nermin Niksic (b. 1960)

Republika Srpska

21 Dec 1991                Republika Srpska Bosna i Hercegovina
                           (Serb Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina)
12 Aug 1992                Republika Srpska (Serb Republic)

Presidents
21 Dec 1991 - 12 May 1992  Momcilo Krajisnik                  (b. 1945)
                           (speaker of the People's Assembly)
12 May 1992 - 19 Jul 1996  Radovan Karadzic                   (b. 1945)
                           (president of Presidency to 17 Dec 1992)
19 Jul 1996 -  4 Nov 1998  Biljana Plavsic (f)                (b. 1930)
 4 Nov 1998 -  5 Mar 1999  Nikola Poplasen                    (b. 1951)
                           (removal by international High Representative,
                           not accepted by Poplasen, enforced 2 Sep 1999)
26 Jan 2000 -  2 Feb 2000  Mirko Sarovic (1st time)           (b. 1956)
                           (not recognized by High Representative)
16 Dec 2000 - 28 Nov 2002  Mirko Sarovic (2nd time)           (s.a.)
28 Nov 2002 -  9 Nov 2006  Dragan Cavic                       (b. 1958)
 9 Nov 2006 - 30 Sep 2007  Milan Jelic                        (b. 1956 - d. 2007)
 1 Oct 2007 - 28 Dec 2007  Igor Radojicic (interim)           (b. 1966)
28 Dec 2007 - 15 Nov 2010  Rajko Kuzmanovic                   (b. 1931)
15 Nov 2010 -              Milorad Dodik                      (b. 1959)

Prime ministers 21 Dec 1991 - 22 Apr 1992 Miodrag Simovic (b. 1952) (president of Ministerial Council) 22 Apr 1992 - 20 Jan 1993 Branko Djeric (b. 1948) 20 Jan 1993 - 18 Aug 1994 Vladimir Lukic (b. 1933) 18 Aug 1994 - 16 Oct 1995 Dusan Kozic (b. 1958) 16 Oct 1995 - 18 May 1996 Rajko Kasagic (b. 1942) 18 May 1996 - 31 Jan 1998 Gojko Klickovic (b. 1955) 31 Jan 1998 - 16 Jan 2001 Milorad Dodik (1st time) (s.a.) 16 Jan 2001 - 17 Jan 2003 Mladen Ivanic (b. 1958) 17 Jan 2003 - 17 Feb 2005 Dragan Mikerevic (b. 1955) 17 Feb 2005 - 28 Feb 2006 Pero Bukejlovic (b. 1946) 28 Feb 2006 - 15 Nov 2010 Milorad Dodik (2nd time) (s.a.) 15 Nov 2010 - 3 Feb 2011 Anton Kasipovic (acting) (b. 1956) 3 Feb 2011 - 13 Mar 2013 Aleksandar Dzombic (b. 1968) 13 Mar 2013 - Zeljka Cvijanovic (f) (b. 1967)

Brcko

14 Feb 1997                international arbitration panel decides to put Brcko area
                           under international supervision
 8 Mar 2000                Brcko District created, part of neither Republika Srpska
                           nor Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (though for some
                           purposes part of both)

International supervisors
 7 Mar 1997 -  2 Jun 2000  Robert W. Farrand (U.S.)           (b. 1934)
 2 Jun 2000 - 14 Mar 2001  Gary L. Matthews (U.S.)            (b. 1938)
14 Mar 2001 - 20 Apr 2001  Gerhard Sontheim (Germany)
                           (1st time) (acting)
20 Apr 2001 -  1 Oct 2003  Henry Lee Clarke (U.S.)            (b. 1941)
 1 Oct 2003 - 16 Jan 2004  Gerhard Sontheim (Germany)
                           (2nd time) (acting)
16 Jan 2004 -  1 Oct 2006  Susan R. Johnson (f) (U.S.)
 1 Oct 2006 -  2 Aug 2010  Raffi Gregorian (U.S.)             (b. 1964)
 2 Aug 2010 - 22 Sep 2010  Gerhard Sontheim (Germany)
                           (3rd time) (acting)
22 Sep 2010 - 21 Oct 2013  Roderick W. Moore (U.S.)           (b. 1965)
21 Oct 2013 -              Tamir Waser (U.S.)

Mayors Mar 1994 - 13 Nov 1997 Miodrag Pajic (b. 1950) 13 Nov 1997 - 15 Apr 1999 Borko Reljic (b. 1952) 15 Apr 1999 - 12 Nov 2003 Sinisa Kisic (b. 1954) 12 Nov 2003 - 3 Dec 2003 Ivan Krndelj (acting) (b. 1959) 3 Dec 2003 - 8 Dec 2004 Branko Damjanac (b. 1947) 8 Dec 2004 - 12 Feb 2009 Mirsad Djapo (b. 1953) 12 Feb 2009 - 14 Sep 2011 Dragan Pajic (b. 1956) 14 Sep 2011 - 23 Nov 2012 Miroslav Gavric (b. 1971) 23 Nov 2012 - Anto Domic (b. 1967)

Botswana

       1884                British protectorate (Bechuanaland)
 1 Sep 1885                area south of the Molopo River becomes a crown colony
                           (see under South Africa)
30 Sep 1966                independence (Republic of Botswana)

Resident
       1884 -    Jan 1885  John Mackenzie                     (b. 1835 - d. 1899)
Special commissioner
23 Jan 1885 -    Sep 1885  Sir Charles Warren                 (b. 1840 - d. 1927)
Resident commissioners (from 3 Oct 1963, commissioners)
(subordinated to the High Commissioner for Southern Africa to 3 Oct 1963)
   Sep 1885 -    Nov 1895  Sidney Shippard (from Jun 1887,
                           Sir Sidney Shippard)               (b. 1837 - d. 1902)
19 Nov 1895 -        1897  Francis James Newton               (b. 1857 - d. 1948)
21 Dec 1897 -        1900  Hamilton John Goold-Adams          (b. 1858 - d. 1920)
   Jan 1901 -        1906  Sir Ralph Champneys Williams       (b. 1848 - d. 1927)
       1906 -        1916  Francis William Panzera            (b. 1851 - d. 1917)
       1916 -        1917  Edward Charles Frederick Garraway  (b. 1865 - d. 1932)
       1917 -        1923  James Comyn MacGregor              (b. 1861 - d. 1935)
       1923 -        1927  Jules Ellenberger                  (b. 1871 - d. 1973)
       1928 -        1930  Rowland Mortimer Daniel            (b. 1873 - d. 1957)
       1930 -        1937  Charles Fernand Rey                (b. 1877 - d. 1968)
       1937 -        1942  Charles Noble Arden-Clarke         (b. 1898 - d. 1962)
       1942 -        1946  Aubrey Denzil Forsyth-Thompson     (b. 1897 - d. 1982)
       1946 -        1950  Anthony Sillery                    (b. 1903 - d. 1976)
       1950 -        1953  Edward Betham Beetham              (b. 1905 - d. 1979)
       1953 -        1955  William Forbes Mackenzie           (b. 1907 - d. 1980)
       1955 -        1959  Martin Osterfield Wray             (b. 1912 - d. 1991)
       1959 -        1963  John Redcliffe Maud                (b. 1906 - d. 1982)
       1963 -        1965  Peter Fawcus (from 1964,
                           Sir Peter Fawcus)                  (b. 1915 - d. 2003)
       1965 - 30 Sep 1966  Hugh Selby Norman-Walker
                           (from 1966, Sir Hugh Selby
                           Norman-Walker)                     (b. 1916 - d. 1985)
Presidents
30 Sep 1966 - 13 Jul 1980  Sir Seretse Khama                  (b. 1921 - d. 1980)
13 Jul 1980 - 31 Mar 1998  Quett Masire (from 1991,
                           Sir Ketumile Masire)               (b. 1925)
                           (acting to 18 Jul 1980)
 1 Apr 1998 - 31 Mar 2008  Festus Mogae                       (b. 1939)
 1 Apr 2008 -              Ian Khama                          (b. 1953)

Prime minister 3 Mar 1965 - 30 Sep 1966 Seretse Khama (from 23 Sep 1966, Sir Seretse Khama) (s.a.)

High Commission Territories

High commissioners for Southern Africa
27 Jan 1847 -  6 Mar 1901  the governors of the Cape Colony
 5 May 1897 -  1 Apr 1905  Alfred Milner, Viscount Milner     (b. 1854 - d. 1925)
 2 Apr 1905 - 31 May 1910  William Waldegrave Palmer,
                           Earl of Selborne                   (b. 1859 - d. 1942)
31 May 1910 - 11 Dec 1923  the governors-general of South Africa
11 Dec 1923 - 21 Jan 1924  Sir Rudolf Bentinck (acting)       (b. 1869 - d. 1947)
21 Jan 1924 -  6 Apr 1931  the governors-general of South Africa
 6 Apr 1931 -  6 Jan 1935  Sir Herbert Stanley                (b. 1872 - d. 1955)
 7 Jan 1935 -  3 Jan 1940  Sir William Clark                  (b. 1876 - d. 1952)
 3 Jan 1940 - 24 May 1941  Sir Walter Huggard (1st time)      (b. 1883 - d. 1957)
                           (acting)
24 May 1941 - 13 May 1944  William Ormsby-Gore, Baron Harlech (b. 1885 - d. 1964)
13 May 1944 - 23 Jun 1944  Harold Eddey Priestman (acting)    (b. 1888 - d. 1956)
23 Jun 1944 - 27 Oct 1944  Sir Walter Huggard (2nd time)      (s.a.)
27 Oct 1944 -  1 Oct 1951  Sir Evelyn Baring                  (b. 1903 - d. 1973)
 2 Oct 1951 -  2 Feb 1955  Sir John Le Rougetel               (b. 1894 - d. 1975)
 4 Mar 1955 -    Dec 1958  Sir Percivale Liesching            (b. 1895 - d. 1973)
15 Jan 1959 -        1963  Sir John Maud                      (b. 1906 - d. 1982)
       1963 - 31 Jul 1964  Sir Hugh Southern Stephenson       (b. 1906 - d. 1972)