Rulers

Countries Ci-Co

Contents of this page:
Cocos Islands - Colombia - Comoros - Congo (Brazzaville) - Congo (Kinshasa) - Cook Islands - Costa Rica - Côte d'Ivoire

Ciskei: see under South African homelands.
Cochinchina: see under Vietnam.

Cocos Islands

   May 1826                settlement established on main island by Alexander Hare
27 Feb 1827                settlement established on South Island by John Clunies-Ross
       1831                Hare leaves; Clunies-Ross takes possession of all islands
       1857                British sovereignty
   Nov 1878                part of Ceylon
       1886                part of Straits Settlements
       1942                part of Ceylon
       1946                part of Singapore
23 Nov 1955                Australian territory
 1 Sep 1978                John Cecil Clunies-Ross relinquishes his authority

Kings (from 1857, governors)¹
       1827 - 26 May 1854  John Clunies-Ross                  (b. 1786 - d. 1854)
       1854 -        1872  John George Clunies-Ross           (b. 1823 - d. 1872)
       1872 -  7 Jul 1910  George Clunies-Ross                (b. 1842 - d. 1910)
       1910 - 14 Aug 1944  Sydney Clunies-Ross                (b. 1868 - d. 1944)
Administrators
   Sep 1944 -        1946  J.E.B. Jessamine
   Apr 1946 -        1947  D.A. Somerville
Governor
       1947 -  1 Sep 1978  John Cecil Clunies-Ross            (b. 1928)
Official representatives
       1955 - 13 Dec 1957  H.J. Hull
14 Dec 1957 - 13 Mar 1958  C.H. Cox (acting)
 8 Nov 1958 - 27 Jul 1960  J.W. Stokes
28 Jul 1960 - 17 Apr 1966  Charles Buffett
                           (acting to 24 Feb 1964)
18 Apr 1966 - 19 Jun 1966  P.L. Ryan
20 Jun 1966 - 25 Jun 1969  P.C. Burbrook
26 Jun 1969 - 28 Jul 1972  C.W. Suthern
29 Jul 1972 - 16 Jul 1975  C. McManus
Administrators
23 Jul 1975 - 15 Nov 1977  Robert James Linford               (b. 1917)
16 Nov 1977 - 31 Dec 1981  Charles Ivens Buffett              (b. 1914 - d. 1995)
21 Apr 1982 - 22 Dec 1983  Eric Herbert Hanfield              (b. 1918)
14 Dec 1983 - 19 Nov 1985  Kenneth Chan
20 Nov 1985 -    Dec 1987  Carolyn Stuart (f)
   Jan 1988 - 30 Jun 1988  W.N. Syrette (acting)
 1 Jul 1988 -  7 Nov 1988  M. Jopling (acting)
 8 Nov 1988 - 27 Nov 1990  A. Dawn Laurie (f)
 1 Dec 1990 -  4 Dec 1992  Barry Cunningham
 5 Dec 1992 -  4 Dec 1994  John Bell Read
 4 Dec 1994 - 31 Jan 1995  Danny Ambrose Gillespie (acting)
 1 Feb 1995 - 30 Jan 1996  Martin Mowbray
 1 Feb 1996 - 12 Apr 1997  Jarl Andersson (acting)
12 Apr 1997 - 30 Sep 1997  Maureen Ellis (f) (acting)
 1 Oct 1997 - 30 Oct 1998  Ron Harvey (acting)                (b. 1934)
 1 Nov 1998 -              the administrators of
                           Christmas Island
¹In 1886 the Clunies-Ross family again declared the islands a kingdom; this title was not recognized by the British or the Australians.

Colombia

This record is in five parts: (1) the Spanish territory; (2) some provinces that became independent of Spain and later joined the United Provinces; (3) the United Provinces of New Granada, from independence to reconquest by Spain, after which they became part of Great Colombia; (4) Great Colombia (a historians' term, never official), encompassing New Granada (later Colombia), Venezuela, and Ecuador; and (5) New Granada/Colombia from the breakup of Great Colombia.

Spanish rule

       1564                New Granada (present Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador)
                           part of Viceroyalty of Peru
       1718                Viceroyalty of New Granada
       1724 -        1740  reincorporated into Viceroyalty of Peru

Presidents
       1694 -        1703  Gil de Cabrera y Dávalos
                           (2nd time)                         (b. 1646 - d. 1712)
       1703 -        1710  Diego Córdoba Lasso de la Vega
                           (1st time)                         (b. 16... - d. 1720)
       1710 -        1711  Francisco Cossío y Otero           (b. 1644 - d. 1714)
       1711 -        1712  Diego Córdoba Lasso de la Vega
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1712 -        1715  Francisco Meneses Bravo de Saravia (b. 1669 - d. 1723)
       1717 -        1718  Francisco del Rincón               (b. 1650 - d. 1723)
Viceroys
       1718 -        1719  Antonio de la Pedrosa y Guerrero
                           (acting)
       1719 -        1723  Jorge de Villalonga, conde de la
                           Cueva                              (b. c.1665 - d. 17...)
Presidents
   May 1724 -        1731  Antonio Manso Maldonado
       1731 -        1733  vacant
       1733 - 20 Apr 1737  Rafael de Eslava y Lazaga          (b. ... - d. 1737)
       1737 -  1 Sep 1738  Antonio González Manrique          (b. 1695 - d. 1738)
       1739 -        1740  Francisco González Manrique        (b. ... - d. 1747)
Viceroys
       1740 -        1749  Sebastián de Eslava y Lazaga       (b. 1684 - d. 1759)
       1749 -        1753  José Alfonso Pizarro, marqués del
                           Villar                             (b. 16... - d. 1755)
       1753 -        1761  José Solís Folch de Cardona        (b. 1716 - d. 1770)
       1761 -        1773  Pedro Messía de la Cerda,
                           marqués de la Vega de Armíjo       (b. 1700 - d. 1783)
       1773 -        1776  Manuel de Guirior y Portal de
                           Huarte y Edozain                   (b. 1708 - d. 1788)
       1776 -        1782  Manuel Antonio Flores              (b. 1723 - d. 1799)
       1782                Juan de Torrezar Díaz Pimienta     (b. 17... - d. 1782)
       1782                Juan Francisco Gutiérrez de
                           Pineres
       1782 -        1788  Antonio Caballero y Góngora        (b. 1723 - d. 1796)
       1788 -        1789  Francisco Gil de Taboada y Lemos   (b. 1736 - d. 1809)
       1789 -        1797  José de Ezpeleta                   (b. 1741 - d. 1823)
       1797 -        1803  Pedro Mendinueta y Múzquiz         (b. 1736 - d. 1825)
       1803 - 20 Jul 1810  Antonio Amar y Borbón              (b. 1742 - d. 1826)
       1810 -        1811  Manuel Bernardo de Álvarez
       1811 -        1812  vacant
21 Mar 1812 -    Nov 1812  Benito Pérez Brito de los Ríos
                           Fernández Valdelomar               (b. ... - d. 1813)
   Nov 1812 -        1816  vacant
16 Apr 1816 -        1818  Francisco Montalvo y Ambulodi
                           Arriola y Casabant Valdespino      (b. 1754 - d. 1822)
   Feb 1818 -    Aug 1819  Juan de Sámano                     (b. 1753 - d. 1821)
       1819 -        1821  Juan de la Cruz Mourgeon y Achet

Independent provinces

Cundinamarca

 4 Apr 1811                independence (State of Cundinamarca)
19 Jul 1813                monarchy abolished
12 Dec 1814                incorporation into United Provinces of New Granada
Note: From 4 Apr 1811 to 19 Jul 1813 Cundinamarca considered itself a monarchy, with Fernando VII, king of Spain, as "King of the Cundinamarqueses"; Fernando VII neither accepted nor acknowledged this office, but government was carried on in his name.
Presidents of the State (until 19 Jul 1813 also "Vicegerent of the King's Person")
 4 Aug 1811 - 21 Sep 1811  José Tadeo Lozano                  (b. 1771 - d. 1816)
21 Sep 1811 - 19 Aug 1812  Antonio Nariño (1st time)          (b. 1765 - d. 1823)
                           (interim to 24 Dec 1811)
19 Aug 1812 - 12 Sep 1812  Manuel Benito de Castro (acting)   (b. 1751 - d. 1826)
12 Sep 1812 - 14 May 1814  Antonio Nariño (2nd time)          (s.a.)
14 May 1814 - 12 Dec 1814  Manuel de Bernardo                 (b. 1750 - d. 1816)

Cartagena

11 Nov 1811                independence (Province of Cartagena de Indias)
21 Jan 1812                State of Cartagena de Indias
 4 Oct 1812                incorporation into United Provinces of New Granada

President of the Supreme Junta of Government
11 Nov 1811 - 20 Jan 1812  Ignacio Cavero                     (b. 1757 - d. 1834)
Governor President of the State
21 Jan 1812 -  1 Apr 1812  José María del Real                (b. 17... - d. 1835)
 1 Apr 1812 -  4 Oct 1812  Manuel Rodríguez Torices           (b. 1788 - d. 1816)
                           (Dictator President)

Antioquia

29 Dec 1811                independence (State of Antioquia)
 7 Feb 1813                incorporation into United Provinces of New Granada

Presidents of the State
29 Dec 1811 - 10 Oct 1812  José Antonio Gómez Londoño         (b. 1754 - d. 1812)
10 Oct 1812 -  7 Feb 1813  José Miguel de Restrepo            (b. 1755 - d. 1829)

Tunja

       1812                independence (State of Tunja)
 4 Oct 1812                incorporation into United Provinces of New Granada

Governor President of the State
       1812 -  4 Oct 1812  Juan Nepomuceno Niño               (b. 1769 - d. 1816)

United Provinces of New Granada

 4 Oct 1812                United Provinces of New Granada
       1816                reconquest by Spain

President of the Congress, entrusted with the Federal Executive Power
 4 Oct 1812 -  5 Oct 1814  Camilo Torres Tenorio              (b. 1766 - d. 1816)
Presidents (presiding members of three-member Executive Power)
 5 Oct 1814 - 28 Nov 1814  José María del Castillo y Rada     (b. 1776 - d. 1835)
                           (acting)
28 Nov 1814 - 28 Mar 1815  Custodio García Rovira (1st time)  (b. 1786 - d. 1816)
28 Mar 1815 - 28 Jul 1815  José Miguel Pey                    (b. 1775 - d. 1838)
28 Jul 1815 - 15 Nov 1815  Manuel Rodríguez Torices           (s.a.)
15 Nov 1815 - 14 Mar 1816  Camilo Torres Tenorio              (s.a.)
14 Mar 1816 - 22 Jun 1816  José Fernández Madrid              (b. 1789 - d. 1830)
22 Jun 1816 - 30 Jun 1816  Liborio Mejía (acting)             (b. 1792 - d. 1816)
30 Jun 1816 - 10 Jul 1816  Custodio García Rovira (2nd time)  (s.a.)
16 Jul 1816 -        1816  Manuel Fernando Serrano

Great Colombia

17 Dec 1819                Republic of Colombia (independence from Spain, again)
21 Nov 1831                dissolution into New Granada, Venezuela, and Ecuador

Presidents
17 Dec 1819 -  4 May 1830  Simón Bolívar                      (b. 1783 - d. 1830)
                           (President-Liberator from 29 Aug 1828)
 4 May 1830 - 13 Jun 1830  Domingo Caycedo (1st time)         (b. 1783 - d. 1843)
                           (acting)
13 Jun 1830 -  5 Sep 1830  Joaquín de Mosquera                (b. 1787 - d. 1877)
 5 Sep 1830 -  3 May 1831  Rafael Urdaneta (acting)           (b. 1789 - d. 1845)
 3 May 1831 - 21 Nov 1831  Domingo Caycedo (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                           (acting)

New Granada and Colombia

21 Nov 1831                State of New Granada
20 Apr 1843                Republic of New Granada
22 May 1858                Granadine Confederation
18 Jul 1861                United States of New Granada
20 Sep 1861                United States of Colombia
 5 Aug 1886                Republic of Colombia

Presidents
21 Nov 1831 - 23 Nov 1831  Domingo Caycedo (1st time)         (s.a.)
                           (acting)
23 Nov 1831 - 10 Mar 1832  José María Obando (1st time)       (b. 1797 - d. 1861)
                           (acting)
10 Mar 1832 -  7 Oct 1832  José Ignacio de Márquez (1st time) (b. 1793 - d. 1880)
                           (acting)
 7 Oct 1832 -  1 Apr 1837  Francisco de Paula Santander       (b. 1792 - d. 1840)
 1 Apr 1837 -  1 Apr 1841  José Ignacio de Márquez (2nd time) (s.a.)
 1 Apr 1841 -  2 May 1841  Domingo Caycedo (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 2 May 1841 -  1 Apr 1845  Pedro Alcántara Herrán Zaldúa      (b. 1800 - d. 1872)
 1 Apr 1845 -  1 Apr 1849  Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1798 - d. 1878)
 1 Apr 1849 -  1 Apr 1853  José Hilario López                 (b. 1798 - d. 1869)
 1 Apr 1853 - 17 Apr 1854  José María Obando (2nd time)       (s.a.)
17 Apr 1854 -  4 Dec 1854  José María Melo                    (b. 1800 - d. 1860)
                           (Supreme Chief of the State)
21 Apr 1854 -  5 Aug 1854    Tomás de Herrera                 (b. 1804 - d. 1854)
                             (acting; in rebellion)
 4 Dec 1854 -  1 Apr 1855  José de Obaldía                    (b. 1806 - d. 1889)
                           (acting [in rebellion from 5 Aug 1854])
 1 Apr 1855 -  1 Apr 1857  Manuel María Mallarino (acting)    (b. 1808 - d. 1872)
 1 Apr 1857 -  1 Apr 1861  Mariano Ospina Rodríguez           (b. 1805 - d. 1885)
 1 Apr 1861 - 18 Jul 1861  Bartolomé Calvo (acting)           (b. 1815 - d. 1889)
18 Jul 1861 -  4 Feb 1863  Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera
                           (2nd time) (provisional)           (s.a.)
 4 Feb 1863 -  9 Feb 1863  Francisco Javier Zaldúa            (b. 1811 - d. 1882)
                           (President of the Convention)
 9 Feb 1863 - 14 May 1863  Eustorgio Salgar (1st time)        (b. 1831 - d. 1885)
                           (President of Executive Ministry)
14 May 1863 -  8 Apr 1864  Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
                           (acting from 1 Apr 1864)
 8 Apr 1864 -  1 Apr 1866  Manuel Murillo Toro (1st time)     (b. 1816 - d. 1880)
 1 Apr 1866 - 22 May 1866  José María Rojas Garrido (acting)  (b. 1824 - d. 1883)
22 May 1866 -  1 Nov 1867  Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera
                           (4th time)                         (s.a.)
12 May 1867 - 28 Jun 1867    Joaquín Riascos                  (b. 1833 - d. 1875)
                             (acting; in rebellion)
23 May 1867 -  1 Apr 1868  Santos Acosta                      (b. 1828 - d. 1901)
                           (acting for suspended Mosquera to 1 Nov 1867)
 1 Apr 1868 -  1 Apr 1870  Santos Gutiérrez                   (b. 1820 - d. 1872)
 1 Apr 1870 -  1 Apr 1872  Eustorgio Salgar (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 1 Apr 1872 -  1 Apr 1874  Manuel Murillo Toro (2nd time)     (s.a.)
 1 Apr 1874 -  1 Apr 1876  Santiago Pérez                     (b. 1830 - d. 1900)
 1 Apr 1876 -  1 Apr 1878  Aquileo Parra                      (b. 1825 - d. 1900)
 1 Apr 1878 -  8 Apr 1880  Julián Trujillo Largacha           (b. 1828 - d. 1883)
                           (acting from 1 Apr 1880)
 8 Apr 1880 -  1 Apr 1882  Rafael Núñez (1st time)            (b. 1825 - d. 1894)
 1 Apr 1882 - 21 Dec 1882  Francisco Javier Zaldúa            (b. 1811 - d. 1882)
21 Dec 1882 - 22 Dec 1882  Clímaco Calderón (acting)          (b. 1852 - d. 1913)
22 Dec 1882 -  1 Apr 1884  José Eusebio Otálora               (b. 1828 - d. 1884)
 1 Apr 1884 - 11 Aug 1884  Ezequiel Hurtado (acting)          (b. 1825 - d. 1890)
11 Aug 1884 -  1 Apr 1886  Rafael Núñez (2nd time)            (s.a.)
 1 Apr 1886 -  7 Aug 1886  José María Campo Serrano (acting)  (b. 1832 - d. 1915)
 7 Aug 1886 -  4 Jun 1887  Eliseo Payán (acting)              (b. 1825 - d. 1895)
 4 Jun 1887 -  7 Aug 1892  Rafael Núñez (3rd time)            (s.a.)
 7 Aug 1892 - 29 Sep 1892  Miguel Antonio Caro (1st time)     (b. 1843 - d. 1909)
                           (acting)
29 Sep 1892 - 18 Sep 1894  Rafael Núñez (4th time)            (s.a.)
18 Sep 1894 -  7 Aug 1898  Miguel Antonio Caro (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 7 Aug 1898 - 19 Mar 1902  Manuel Antonio Sanclemente         (b. 1814 - d. 1902)
31 Jul 1900 -  7 Aug 1904  José Manuel Marroquín              (b. 1827 - d. 1908)
                           (acting for suspended Sanclemente to 19 Mar 1902)
 7 Aug 1904 - 27 Jul 1909  Rafael Reyes                       (b. 1849 - d. 1921)
27 Jul 1909 -  4 Aug 1909  Jorge Holguín (1st time) (acting)  (b. 1848 - d. 1928)
 4 Aug 1909 -  7 Aug 1910  Ramón González Valencia            (b. 1854 - d. 1928)
                           (provisional)
 7 Aug 1910 -  7 Aug 1914  Carlos E. Restrepo                 (b. 1867 - d. 1937)
 7 Aug 1914 -  7 Aug 1918  José Vicente Concha                (b. 1867 - d. 1929)
 7 Aug 1918 -  7 Aug 1922  Marco Fidel Suárez                 (b. 1855 - d. 1927)
11 Nov 1921 -  7 Aug 1922    Jorge Holguín (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                             (acting for Suárez)
 7 Aug 1922 -  7 Aug 1926  Pedro Nel Ospina                   (b. 1858 - d. 1927)
 7 Aug 1926 -  7 Aug 1930  Miguel Abadía Méndez               (b. 1867 - d. 1947)
 7 Aug 1930 -  7 Aug 1934  Enrique Olaya Herrera              (b. 1881 - d. 1937)
 7 Aug 1934 -  7 Aug 1938  Alfonso López Pumarejo (1st time)  (b. 1886 - d. 1959)
 7 Aug 1938 -  7 Aug 1942  Eduardo Santos Montejo             (b. 1888 - d. 1974)
 7 Aug 1942 -  7 Aug 1945  Alfonso López Pumarejo (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 7 Aug 1945 -  7 Aug 1946  Alberto Lleras Camargo (1st time)  (b. 1906 - d. 1990)
                           (acting)
 7 Aug 1946 -  7 Aug 1950  Mariano Ospina Pérez               (b. 1891 - d. 1976)
 7 Aug 1950 - 13 Jun 1953  Laureano Gómez Castro              (b. 1889 - d. 1965)
 5 Nov 1951 - 13 Jun 1953    Roberto Urdaneta Arbeláez        (b. 1890 - d. 1972)
                             (acting for Gómez)
13 Jun 1953 - 10 May 1957  Gustavo Rojas Pinilla              (b. 1900 - d. 1975)
10 May 1957 -  7 Aug 1958  Gabriel París Gordillo             (b. 1910 - d. 2008)
                           (chairman Military Junta of Government)
 7 Aug 1958 -  7 Aug 1962  Alberto Lleras Camargo (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 7 Aug 1962 -  7 Aug 1966  Guillermo León Valencia            (b. 1909 - d. 1971)
 7 Aug 1966 -  7 Aug 1970  Carlos Lleras Restrepo             (b. 1908 - d. 1994)
 7 Aug 1970 -  7 Aug 1974  Misael Pastrana Borrero            (b. 1923 - d. 1997)
 7 Aug 1974 -  7 Aug 1978  Alfonso López Michelsen            (b. 1913 - d. 2007)
 7 Aug 1978 -  7 Aug 1982  Julio César Turbay Ayala           (b. 1916 - d. 2005)
 7 Aug 1982 -  7 Aug 1986  Belisario Betancur Cuartas         (b. 1923)
 7 Aug 1986 -  7 Aug 1990  Virgilio Barco Vargas              (b. 1921 - d. 1997)
 7 Aug 1990 -  7 Aug 1994  César Gaviria Trujillo             (b. 1947)
 7 Aug 1994 -  7 Aug 1998  Ernesto Samper Pizano              (b. 1950)
 7 Aug 1998 -  7 Aug 2002  Andrés Pastrana Arango             (b. 1954)
 7 Aug 2002 -  7 Aug 2010  Álvaro Uribe Vélez                 (b. 1952)
 7 Aug 2010 -              Juan Manuel Santos                 (b. 1951)

Comayagua: see under Honduras.

Comoros

       1886                Ngazidja (Grande Comore), Ndzuwani (Anjouan), and Mwali
                           (Mohéli) become French protectorates
25 Jul 1912                annexed by France (joined with Mayotte as Mayotte and
                           Dependencies); subordinated to Madagascar (de facto 23 Feb
                           1914)
27 Oct 1946                French overseas territory
 6 Jul 1975                independence (State of Comoros) (excluding Mayotte)
24 May 1978                Federal and Islamic Republic of Comoros
23 Dec 2001                new constitution approved by referendum, creating the
                           Union of Comoros

Administrators
25 Jul 1912 - 21 Feb 1913  Gabriel Samuel Garnier-Mouton      (b. 1864 - d. 19...)
21 Feb 1913 -        1914  Honoré Cartron
Administrators-superior (from 27 Feb 1962, high commissioners)
24 Oct 1946 - 31 Dec 1948  Alain Alaniou                      (b. 1896 - d. 1969)
31 Dec 1948 -    Dec 1950  Marie Emmanuel Adolphe Roger Rémy  (b. 1897 - d. 1992)
                           (acting)
   Dec 1950 -    Apr 1956  Pierre Coudert                     (b. 1900 - d. 1970)
   Apr 1956 - 30 Jun 1959  Georges Victor Maurice Arnaud      (b. 1919 - d. 1971)
                           (acting to 11 Feb 1958)
30 Jun 1959 - 14 Dec 1960  Gabriel Savignac (acting)          (b. 1917 - d. 1987)
14 Dec 1960 - 22 May 1962  Louis Saget                        (b. 1915)
22 May 1962 - 15 Feb 1963  Yves de Daruvar                    (b. 1921)
15 Feb 1963 - 26 Jul 1966  Henri Bernard                      (b. 1920 - d. 2000)
26 Jul 1966 -    Nov 1969  Antoine Colombani                  (b. 1919)
   Nov 1969 -    Jul 1975  Jacques Mouradian                  (b. 1910 - d. 1992)
Presidents
 6 Jul 1975 -  3 Aug 1975  Ahmed Abdallah (1st time)          (b. 1919 - d. 1989)
                           (President of the Government to 7 Jul 1975, then
                           Head of State)
 3 Aug 1975 -  3 Jan 1976  Said Mohamed Jaffar                (b. 1918 - d. 1993)
                           (chairman National Council of the Revolution to 10 Aug
                           1975, then chairman National Executive Council)
 3 Jan 1976 - 13 May 1978  Ali Soilih                         (b. 1937 - d. 1978)
                           (Head of State to 28 Oct 1977)
13 May 1978 - 23 May 1978  Said Atthoumani
                           (chairman Politico-Military Directorate)
23 May 1978 -  3 Oct 1978  Ahmed Abdallah (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                           + Mohamed Ahmed                    (b. 1917 - d. 1984)
                           (co-chairmen [to 22 Jul 1978, Politico-Military]
                           Directorate)
 3 Oct 1978 - 27 Nov 1989  Ahmed Abdallah (3rd time)          (s.a.)
                           (chairman Directorate to 25 Oct 1978)
27 Nov 1989 - 29 Sep 1995  Said Mohamed Djohar (1st time)     (b. 1918 - d. 2006)
                           (acting to 20 Mar 1990)
29 Sep 1995 -  2 Oct 1995  Combo Ayouba                       (b. 19... - d. 2010)
                           (coordinator Transitional Military Committee)
 2 Oct 1995 -  5 Oct 1995  Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1936 - d. 1998)
                           + Said Ali Kemal                   (b. 1938)
                           (acting)
 5 Oct 1995 - 26 Jan 1996  Caabi El-Yachroutu (interim)       (b. 1948?)
26 Jan 1996 - 25 Mar 1996  Said Mohamed Djohar (2nd time)     (s.a.)
25 Mar 1996 -  6 Nov 1998  Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 6 Nov 1998 - 30 Apr 1999  Tadjidine Ben Said Massounde       (b. 1933 - d. 2004)
                           (interim)
30 Apr 1999 - 21 Jan 2002  Azali Assoumani (1st time)         (b. 1959)
                           (Chief of Staff of the National Development Army to
                           6 May 1999, then Head of State)
21 Jan 2002 - 26 May 2002  Hamada Madi (interim)              (b. 1965)
26 May 2002 - 26 May 2006  Azali Assoumani (2nd time)         (s.a.)
26 May 2006 - 26 May 2011  Ahmed Abdallah Sambi               (b. 1958)
26 May 2011 -              Ikililou Dhoinine                  (b. 1962)

Vice president of the Government Council 13 Aug 1957 - 1 Jan 1962 Mohamed Ahmed (s.a.) Presidents of the Government Council 1 Jan 1962 - 16 Mar 1970 Said Mohamed Cheikh (b. 1904 - d. 1970) 2 Apr 1970 - 16 Jun 1972 Said Ibrahim Ben Ali (b. 1911 - d. 1975) 16 Jun 1972 - 26 Dec 1972 Said Mohamed Jaffar (s.a.) 26 Dec 1972 - 6 Jul 1975 Ahmed Abdallah (s.a.) Prime ministers 6 Jan 1976 - 22 Dec 1978 Abdallah Mohamed (b. 19... - d. 2000) 22 Dec 1978 - 8 Feb 1982 Salim Ben Ali (b. 1918? - d. 2002) 8 Feb 1982 - 31 Dec 1984 Ali Mroudjae (b. 1939) 7 Jan 1992 - 15 Jul 1992 Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim (s.a.) 1 Jan 1993 - 26 May 1993 Ibrahim Halidi (b. 1954) 26 May 1993 - 19 Jun 1993 Said Ali Mohamed (b. 1946) 20 Jun 1993 - 2 Jan 1994 Ahmed Ben Cheikh Attoumane (b. 1938) 2 Jan 1994 - 14 Oct 1994 Mohamed Abdou Madi (b. 1956?) 14 Oct 1994 - 29 Apr 1995 Halifa Houmadi 29 Apr 1995 - 27 Mar 1996 Caabi El-Yachroutu (s.a.) 27 Mar 1996 - 27 Dec 1996 Tadjidine Ben Said Massounde (s.a.) 27 Dec 1996 - 9 Sep 1997 Ahmed Abdou (b. 1936) 7 Dec 1997 - 30 May 1998 Nourdine Bourhane (b. 1958) 22 Nov 1998 - 30 Apr 1999 Abbas Djoussouf (b. 1942 - d. 2010) 2 Dec 1999 - 29 Nov 2000 Bianrifi Tarmidi (b. 1958) 29 Nov 2000 - 15 Apr 2002 Hamada Madi (s.a.)

Ngazidja (Grande Comore)

       1886                the ruler of Bambao unifies the island (the local rulers
                           retaining their titles) into a State of Ngazidja; in that
                           same year (24 Jun), Ngazidja becomes a French protectorate
 6 Jan 1892                local sultanates suppressed
       1911                annexed by France (officially ratified 1914)
 7 Apr 2002                new constitution approved by referendum, establishing
                           Grande Comore as an autonomous part of the Union of Comoros
Note: Some rulers of Bambao and of Itsandra acquired the paramount-ruler style tibe. These are marked (tibe z), where z indicates the order in which they held it.

Bambao

Sultans (also styled mfalme [plural wafalme])
- Inya Mwatsoa Pirusa dynasty -
        ... -         ...  Ngoma Mrahafu
        ... -         ...  Mwasi Pirusa
        ... -         ...  Fum Mbavu Inkwaba
        ... -         ...  Mwenye Mji wa Mwenye Mambo
        ... -         ...  Inye wa Mantsi
        ... -         ...  Mwenye Mji wa Mwanze
        ... -         ...  Tambavu mna Muhame wa Saidi
        ... -         ...  Tambavu Inkwaba
        ... -         ...  Fum Nau wa Kori Dozi (tibe i)
        ... -         ...  Mwenye Mji wa Mvunza Panga
        ... -         ...  Mla Nau (tibe ii)
        ... -         ...  Fozi Wa
        ... -         ...  Suja Oma Inkwaba
        ... -         ...  Nyau wa Faume (f)
        ... -         ...  Bamba Oma wa Ju Mamba (1st time)
        ... -         ...  Ahmed bin Shekhe Ngome (1st time)  (b. c.1793 - d. 1875)
                           (tibe iv)
        ... -         ...  Bamba Oma wa Ju Mamba (2nd time)
        ... -         ...  Ahmed bin Shekhe Ngome (2nd time)  (s.a.)
        ... -         ...  Saidi Bakari
        ... -         ...  Ahmed bin Shekhe Ngome (3rd time)  (s.a.)
        ... -         ...  Mwenye Mambo
        ... -         ...  Ju Mamba
        ... -         ...  Mohamed bin Ahmed (1st time)
       18.. -        18..  Ahmed bin Shekhe Ngome (4th time)  (s.a.)
                           (tibe x)
       18.. -        18..  Abdallah bin Saidi Hamza (1st time)
      *1874*               Mohamed bin Ahmed (2nd time)
       18.. -        18..  Mwenye Mji (1st time)
       18.. -        18..  Abdallah bin Saidi Hamza (2nd time)
       18.. -        18..  Saidi Bakari bin Ahmed (1st time)
       18.. -        18..  Mwenye Mji (2nd time)
       18.. -        18..  Abdallah bin Saidi Hamza (3rd time)
       18.. -        18..  Saidi Bakari bin Ahmed (2nd time)
       18.. -        1886  Saidi Ali bin Saidi Omar (tibe xv) (b. c.1856 - d. 1915)

Itsandra

Sultans (also styled mfalme)
- Inya Fey wa Mbaya dynasty -
        ... -         ...  Fey Owa Mbaya
        ... -         ...  Fey Mwenza
        ... -         ...  Fey Jumbe
        ... -         ...  Ju Mwamba Pirusa
        ... -         ...  Zombe Ilingo
        ... -         ...  Nguzo wa Inehili
        ... -         ...  Tibe wa Kanzu
        ... -         ...  Mkongo
        ... -         ...  Mna Musa Hibu
        ... -         ...  Muhammadi Saidi
        ... -         ...  Mvunza Panga
        ... -         ...  Fey Beja wa Wabeja (f)
        ... -         ...  Fum Nau wa Kori Dozi (tibe i)
        ... -         ...  Fey Fumu (1st time) (tibe iii)
        ... -         ...  Bwana Fumu (1st time) (tibe v)
        ... -         ...  Fey Fumu (2nd time) (tibe vi)
        ... -         ...  Bwana Fumu (2nd time) (tibe vii)
        ... -         ...  Fey Fumu (3rd time) (tibe viii)
        ... -         ...  Fum Mbavu (tibe ix)
        ... -         ...  Musa Fumu wa Fey Fumu (1st time)   (b. ... - d. 1883)
                           (tibe xi)
        ... -         ...  Tibe Bamba (1st time) (tibe xii)
        ... -         ...  Musa Fumu wa Fey Fumu (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                           (tibe xiii)
        ... -         ...  Tibe Bamba (2nd time) (tibe xiv)
        ... -         ...  Musa Fumu wa Fey Fumu (3rd time)   (s.a.)
        ... -         ...  Tibe Bamba (3rd time)
        ... -         ...  Musa Fumu wa Fey Fumu (4th time)   (s.a.)
        ... -         ...  Tibe Bamba (4th time)
        ... -         ...  Kalega

Mitsamihuli

Sultans (also styled mfalme)
- Inya Mwatsoa Pirusa dynasty -
        ... -         ...  Mahame Msahi
        ... -         ...  Fozi wa Mahame
        ... -         ...  Mbantsi
        ... -         ...  Ju Mambu Madi wa Musa Fumu
        ... -         ...  Jumbe Fumu Mfaume wa Domba (1st time)
                           (jointly with following)
        ... -         ...  Kori Dazi
        ... -         ...  Jumbe Fumu Mfaume wa Domba (2nd time)
        ... -         ...  Tambavu wa Jumbe Fumu
        ... -         ...  Fozi Wa
        ... -         ...  Suja Fumu Mbamba
                           (jointly with following)
        ... -         ...  Mba Fumu wa Jumbe Fumu
        ... -         ...  Msa Fumu wa Tambwe
                           (jointly with following)
        ... -         ...  Jumbe Fumu wa Jumbe Mfumu
        ... -         ...  Mbandhi wa Bwana Haji
                           (jointly with following)
        ... -         ...  Abdallah bin Ahmed
        ... -        1886* Bwana Fumu

Bajini

Sultans (also styled mfalme)
- Inya Mdombozi dynasty -
        ... -         ...  Mwenye Bamba I
        ... -         ...  Bamba Jumbe
        ... -         ...  Tambe Mbafu wa Fum Nau
        ... -         ...  Ju Mamba Oma wa Mla Nau
                           (jointly with following)
        ... -         ...  Mwambatsi
        ... -         ...  Mwenye Bamba II
        ... -         ...  Bamba Oma
                           (jointly with the following two)
        ... -         ...  Suja Oma wa Tambwe
        ... -         ...  Shekani
        ... -         ...  Fumu Oma
                           (jointly with following)
        ... -        1884  Oma wa Dari                        (b. ... - d. 1884)
       188. -        188.  Ja Mhaba (f)
       188. -        188.  Hashimu bin Ahmed (1st time)       (b. ... - d. 1889)
       188. -        188.  Hadija bint Ahmed (f)
       188. -        1886  Hashimu bin Ahmed (2nd time)       (s.a.)
       1889                Hashimu bin Ahmed (3rd time)       (s.a.)

Hambu

Sultans (also styled mfalme)
- Inya Mba Mro dynasty -
        ... -         ...  Beja Mbuyuni
        ... -         ...  Nau wa Migira
        ... -         ...  Nau wa Moro
        ... -         ...  Fumu Nau
        ... -         ...  Yasi Azi
        ... -         ...  Demani Mtango
        ... -         ...  Fumu Jimba wa Idimani
        ... -         ...  Madi Jimbwa wa Tangwe
                           (jointly with following)
        ... -         ...  Dari wa Mla Nau
        ... -         ...  Jumbe Fumu wa Suja Oma Inkwaba
        ... -         ...  Suja Oma wa Tambwe
        ... -         ...  Mrunda Mijo
                           (jointly with the following two)
        ... -         ...  Fey Mwando wa Tambwe
        ... -         ...  Bamba Oma wa Ju Mamba
        ... -         ...  Tambwe wa Hinye
        ... -         ...  Abudu bin Mohamed bin Sultani
                           (jointly with following)
        ... -         ...  Bamba Oma wa Oma

Washili

Sultans (also styled mfalme)
- Inya Maoni Yambao dynasty, later Inya Fu Wemba dynasty -
        ... -         ...  Mohama Mdume wa Beja
        ... -         ...  Fey Zinda wa Mawana
        ... -         ...  Fey Zinda wa Makasara
        ... -         ...  Tambwe Msa Fumu
                           (jointly with following)
        ... -         ...  Tambwe wa Habadi
        ... -         ...  Jumbe Fumu wa Mlala Bwani
     c.1760 -         ...  Tambwe No Fumu wa Mla Nau          (b. 1735 - d. 1815)
        ... -         ...  Ju Mwamba Mwenye Majini
        ... -         ...  Mba Fumu wa Suja Fumu Bamba
                           (jointly with following)
        ... -         ...  Shekhe Salim
        ... -         ...  Mavunzanga
        ... -         ...  Tibe Mle
        ... -         ...  Abudu

Hamahame

Sultans (also styled mfalme)
- Inya Fu Wemba dynasty -
        ... -         ...  Nye Hila
        ... -         ...  Haji wa No Fumu
        ... -         ...  Suja Oma Mshinda Kodo
        ... -         ...  Jumbe Fumu Madi
        ... -         ...  Bwana Haji Musa
        ... -         ...  Simai
        ... -         ...  Dari Oma
        ... -         ...  Fumu Oma wa Nasiri
        ... -         ...  Suja Oma wa Fumu
        ... -         ...  Mba Fumu wa Bwana Haji
        ... -         ...  Suja Oma Bwana

Mbude

Sultans (also styled mfalme)
- Inya Mwatsoa Udhiwa dynasty -
        ... -         ...  Msa Mwinza
        ... -         ...  Bamba
        ... -         ...  Lwali
        ... -         ...  Jumbe Fumu wa Tambwe
        ... -         ...  Dari Mbamba
        ... -         ...  Mwandhi Oma wa Jumbe Fumu
        ... -         ...  Bamba Oma wa Suja Funu
        ... -         ...  Jumbe Fumu Mna Mango
        ... -         ...  Bamba wa Madi Jimba
        ... -         ...  Jumbe Fumu wa Sinai

Hamamvu

Sultans (also styled mfalme)
        ... -         ...  ...

Mbaku

Sultans (also styled mfalme)
        ... -         ...  Bwana Fumu

La Dombe

Sultans (also styled mfalme)
        ... -         ...  Febeja Mambwe

Ngazidja

Sultani tibe
       1886 -        1911  Saidi Ali bin Saidi Omar           (s.a.)
                           (in exile from 19 Sep 1893 [Diégo-Suarez; from 1897, Réunion])
Presidents (from 23 May 2009, governors)
29 May 2002 - 30 May 2007  Abdou Soulé Elbak                  (b. 1954)
30 May 2007 - 30 Jun 2007  Soudjay Hamadi (interim)
30 Jun 2007 - 23 May 2011  Mohamed Abdoulwahab                (b. 1959)
23 May 2011 -              Mouigni Baraka Said Soilihi

French residents (subordinated to the governors etc. of Mayotte)
   Nov 1886 -    Dec 1887  Louis Edmond Weber                 (b. 1855 - d. ...)
   Jan 1888 -    Nov 1888  Jules Lecorney                     (b. 1860 - d. ...)
   Nov 1888 -    Nov 1889  Henri Pupier                       (b. 1860 - d. ...)
   Nov 1889 -    Jun 1896  Léon Humblot                       (b. 1852 - d. 1914)
   Jun 1896 -    Nov 1897  Eugène Decazes                     (b. 1844 - d. 1913)
   Nov 1897 -    Apr 1899  Henri Pobéguin                     (b. 1856 - d. 1951)
   Apr 1899 -    Sep 1899  Nicolas du Plantier                (b. 1871 - d. ...)
   Sep 1899 -    Dec 1899  Jean Louis Edmond Alby             (b. 1865 - d. ...)
   Dec 1899 -    Apr 1900  Bellemar
   Apr 1900 -    Aug 1900  Sallefranque
   Aug 1900 -    Jul 1901  Gratian
   Jul 1901 -    Aug 1902  Veisseyre
   Aug 1902 -    Apr 1903  René Pierre
   May 1903 -    Sep 1903  Mainguy
   Sep 1903 -    Oct 1903  Louis Lemaire
   Oct 1903 -    Apr 1904  Massol
   May 1904 -    Dec 1904  Feuillard
   Jan 1905 -    Jun 1905  Carten
   Jun 1907 -    Jun 1909  Pierre Martin (1st time)
   Jun 1909 -    May 1911  Ernest Lachat                      (b. 1876 - d. 19...)
   May 1911 -        1912  Pierre Martin (2nd time)

Ndzuwani (Anjouan)

       1500                Ndzuwani sultanate founded
21 Apr 1886                French protectorate
25 Jul 1912                annexed by France
 3 Aug 1997                secession from Comoros (not internationally recognized)
10 Mar 2002                new constitution approved by referendum, establishing
                           Anjouan as an autonomous part of the Union of Comoros

Sultans (also styled Phany)
     c.1676 -         ...  Alimah III (f)
        ... -        1741  Salim                              (b. ... - d. 1741)
       1741 -        1782  Saidi Ahmad
       1782 -        1788  Abdallah (1st time)
       1788 -        1792  Halimah (f)
       1792 -        1796  Abdallah (2nd time)
       1796 -        1816  Alawi bin Husain "Mwinye Fani"
       1816 -        1832  Abdallah bin Alawi (1st time)      (b. ... - d. 1836)
       1832 -        1833  Ali bin Salim
       1833 -        1836  Abdallah bin Alawi (2nd time)      (s.a.)
       1836 -        1837  Saidi Alawi bin Abdallah           (b. ... - d. 1842)
       1837 -        1852  Salim bin Alawi
       1852 -  2 Feb 1891  Saidi Abdallah bin Salim           (b. ... - d. 1891)
   Feb 1891 -  2 Apr 1891  Salim bin Abdallah
 2 Apr 1891 - 14 Apr 1892  Saidi Omar bin Saidi Hasan         (b. ... - d. 1892)
14 Apr 1892 - 25 Jul 1912  Saidi Mohamed bin Saidi Omar       (b. 18... - d. 1931)
French residents (subordinated to the governors etc. of Mayotte)
       188. - 30 May 1895  Louis Auguste Bertrand Ormières    (b. 1851 - d. 19...)
       1892 -        189.    Castaing (acting for Ormières)

President
 5 Aug 1997 -  1 Aug 1999  Foundi Abdallah Ibrahim            (b. 1922?)
Heads of state
 1 Aug 1999 -  9 Aug 2001  Said Abeid                         (b. 1941)
                           (National Coordinator to 25 Nov 1999)
10 Aug 2001 - 25 Aug 2001  Presidium
                           - Halidi Charif
                           - Mohamed Bacar                    (b. 1962)
                           - Hassan Ali Toilha
25 Aug 2001 - 14 Apr 2002  Mohamed Bacar                      (s.a.)
24 Sep 2001 - 25 Sep 2001    Ahmed Aboubacar Foundi
                             (premier chef d'autorité de l'île, in rebellion)
Presidents (from 23 May 2009, governors)
14 Apr 2002 - 26 Apr 2007  Mohamed Bacar (1st time)           (s.a.)
28 Apr 2007 - 11 May 2007  Kaambi Houmadi (interim)
11 May 2007 - 14 Jun 2007  Dhoihirou Halidi (interim)         (b. 1964?)
14 Jun 2007 - 25 Mar 2008  Mohamed Bacar (2nd time)           (s.a.)
26 Mar 2008 - 31 Mar 2008  Ikililou Dhoinine (provisional)    (b. 1962)
31 Mar 2008 -  7 Jul 2008  Lailizamane Abdou Cheik (interim)  (b. 1959?)
 7 Jul 2008 - 23 May 2011  Moussa Toybou                      (b. 1962)
23 May 2011 -              Anissi Chamsidine

Prime ministers 8 Mar 1998 - 7 Jul 1998 Chamasse Said Omar (b. 1935?) 19 Jul 1998 - Dec 1998 Abdou Mohamed Mhindi

Mwali (Mohéli)

       1830                migrants from Madagascar establish Mwali as a separate
                           sultanate
26 Apr 1886                French protectorate
       1909                annexed by France
11 Aug 1997 -        1998  secession from Comoros (not internationally recognized)
10 Mar 2002                new constitution approved by referendum, establishing
                           Mohéli as an autonomous part of the Union of Comoros

Sultans
       1830 -        1842  Abderremane                        (b. ... - d. 1842)
       1842 -        1865  Raketaka Jombe Sudy (from 1851,
                           Jumbe Fatima bint Abderremane) (f)
                           (1st time)                         (b. c.1836 - d. 1878)
       1842 - 26 May 1849    Regency
                             - Rovao (f)
                             - Tsivandini (to 1847)
   Sep 1865 -        1874  Mohamed bin Saidi Hamadi Makadara  (b. c.1859 - d. 1874)
   Sep 1865 -        1868    Jumbe Fatima bint Abderremane
                             (f) (regent)                     (s.a.)
       1868 -    Jan 1871    Joseph Lambert (regent)          (b. 1824 - d. 1873)
   Jan 1871 -        1874    Jumbe Fatima bint Abderremane
                             (f) (regent)                     (s.a.)
       1874 -        1878  Jumbe Fatima bint Abderremane (f)
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1878 -        1885  Abderremane bin Saidi Hamadi
                           Makadara                           (b. c.1860 - d. 1885)
       1885 -        1886  Mohammed Shekhe                    (b. c.1830 - d. ...)
       1886 -        1888  Marjani bin Abudu Shekhe           (b. c.1851 - d. ...)
       1888 -        1909  Salima Machamba (f)                (b. 1874 - d. 1964)
                           (never takes office)
       1888 -        1889    Fadeli bin Othman
                             + Balia Juma (f)
                             + Abudu Tsivandini
                             (regents)
       1889 -        1897    Mahmudu bin Mohamed Makadara     (b. 1863 - d. 1898)
                             (regent)
French residents (subordinated to the governors etc. of Mayotte)
       1886 -        1887  Louis Hyacinthe Désiré Jules
                           Vincent                            (b. 1846 - d. 1894)
       1887 -        1888  Barneaud (1st time) (acting)
       1888 -        1889  Edmond Édouard Regnot              (b. 1850 - d. 1891)
       1889                Barneaud (2nd time) (acting)
       1889 -        1912  the residents of Anjouan

Presidents (from 23 May 2009, governor)
11 Aug 1997 -        1998  Said Mohamed Souef
19 May 2002 - 19 May 2007  Mohamed Said Fazul                 (b. 1960)
22 May 2007 -  1 Jul 2007  Youssouf El-Farouk (interim)
 1 Jul 2007 -              Mohamed Ali Said

Prime minister 11 Aug 1997 - 1998 Soidri Ahmed

Comtat Venaissin: see under France.

Congo (Brazzaville)

 1 Aug 1886                Colony of Gabon and Congo
30 Apr 1891                Colony of French Congo (Middle Congo and Gabon)
15 Jan 1910                Middle Congo, Gabon, and Oubangui-Chari-Tchad (from 1916
                           Oubangui-Chari and Chad) form French Equatorial Africa (AEF)
30 Jun 1934 - 31 Dec 1937  region within unitary AEF colony
28 Nov 1958                autonomy
15 Aug 1960                independence (Republic of the Congo)
 3 Jan 1970                People's Republic of the Congo
15 Mar 1992                Republic of the Congo

French Congo and French Equatorial Africa

Commissioners-general
 1 Aug 1886 - 28 Sep 1897  Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza         (b. 1852 - d. 1905)
                             Acting for Brazza:
 1 Aug 1886 -  1 Oct 1886    Georges Émile Pradier
 1 Oct 1886 -    Mar 1887    Charles de Chavannes (1st time)  (b. 1853 - d. 1940)
16 Jan 1888 -    May 1890    Noël Ballay                      (b. 1847 - d. 1902)
25 Nov 1891 -    Mar 1892    Charles de Chavannes (2nd time)  (s.a.)
   Apr 1892 -    May 1892    Charles de Chavannes (3rd time)  (s.a.)
   Jun 1892 -    Mar 1893    Charles de Chavannes (4th time)  (s.a.)
17 Mar 1893 -  6 Oct 1893    Alphonse Édouard Lippmann        (b. 1851 - d. 1893)
   Oct 1893 -    Nov 1893    E. Gervais
   Dec 1893 -    May 1894    Charles de Chavannes (5th time)  (s.a.)
   May 1894 -  1 Jun 1894    Jean-Marie Le Divellec           (b. ... - d. 1896)
 1 Jun 1894 -    Nov 1894    Albert Dolisie (1st time)        (b. 1856 - d. 1899)
   Jan 1895 -    Jan 1896    Albert Dolisie (2nd time)        (s.a.)
   Mar 1897 - 28 Sep 1897    Albert Dolisie (3rd time)        (s.a.)
28 Sep 1897 - 28 Apr 1900  Henri de Lamothe                   (b. 1843 - d. 1926)
                             Acting for Lamothe:
   Jun 1898 -    Oct 1898    Albert Dolisie (4th time)        (s.a.)
   Oct 1898 -    Apr 1899    Martial Merlin                   (b. 1860 - d. 1935)
   Oct 1899 -    Mar 1900    Philema Lemaire                  (b. 1856 - d. 1932)
28 Apr 1900 -    Dec 1900  Philema Lemaire (acting)           (s.a.)
   Dec 1900 -        1902  Albert Grodet (acting)             (b. 1853 - d. 1933)
12 May 1903 -        1903  Charles Henri Adrien Noufflard     (b. 1872 - d. 1952)
                           (acting)
       1903 - 21 Jan 1904  Arnaud (acting)
21 Jan 1904 - 13 Feb 1908  Émile Gentil                       (b. 1866 - d. 1914)
                             Acting for Gentil:
17 Aug 1905 - 11 May 1906    Édouard Telle                    (b. 1859 - d. 19...)
25 Sep 1906 -  5 Apr 1907    Alfred Fourneau                  (b. 1860 - d. 1930)
26 Apr 1907 -    Oct 1907    Alfred Martineau                 (b. 1859 - d. 1945)
Governors-general
28 Jun 1908 - 15 May 1917  Martial Merlin                     (s.a.)
                             Acting for Merlin:
28 Jun 1908 - 16 Feb 1909    Alfred Martineau                 (s.a.)
18 Oct 1909 -        1910    Charles Amédée Rognon (1st time) (b. 1861 - d. 1911)
       1910                  Adolphe Cureau                   (b. 1864 - d. 1913)
       1910 -  6 Mar 1911    Charles Amédée Rognon (2nd time) (s.a.)
 6 Mar 1911 -        1911    Roger Dubosc-Taret               (b. 1886 - d. 19...)
       1911 - 11 May 1911    Charles Vergnes (1st time)       (b. 1863 - d. 1935)
17 Oct 1912 -  c.May 1913    Charles Vergnes (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 c.May 1913 - 17 Nov 1913    Georges Poulet
17 Nov 1913 - 14 Sep 1914    Frédéric Estèbe (1st time)       (b. 1863 - d. 1936)
15 May 1917 - 16 May 1920  Gabriel Angoulvant                 (b. 1872 - d. 1932)
                             Acting for Angoulvant:
17 Jun 1917 - 23 Jul 1918    Frédéric Estèbe (2nd time)       (s.a.)
   Aug 1918 - 16 May 1920    Frédéric Estèbe (3rd time)       (s.a.)
16 May 1920 -  5 Sep 1920  Maurice Pierre Lapalud (acting)
 5 Sep 1920 - 21 Aug 1923  Victor Augagneur                   (b. 1855 - d. 1931)
21 Aug 1923 -  8 Jul 1924  Robert de Guise (1st time)
                           (acting)
 8 Jul 1924 -        1924  Matteo Alfassa (1st time) (acting) (b. 1876 - d. 1942)
       1924 -  1 Oct 1924  Robert de Guise (2nd time)
                           (acting)
 1 Oct 1924 - 16 Oct 1924  Matteo Alfassa (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.)
16 Oct 1924 - 20 Sep 1934  Raphaël Antonetti                  (b. 1872 - d. 1938)
                             Acting for Antonetti:
11 May 1925 -    Dec 1925    Matteo Alfassa (3rd time)        (s.a.)
22 Jan 1927 -        1927    Jean Marchessou (1st time)       (b. 1879 - d. 1964)
       1927 - 17 Oct 1927    François Joseph Reste (1st time) (b. 1879 - d. 1976)
   Nov 1929 -    Aug 1930    Matteo Alfassa (4th time)        (s.a.)
27 Nov 1930 - 11 Mar 1931    Adolphe Deitte
   Dec 1932 - 11 Dec 1933    Matteo Alfassa (5th time)        (s.a.)
20 Sep 1934 - 16 Oct 1934  Jean Marchessou (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                           (acting)
16 Oct 1934 - 15 Mar 1935  Édouard Renard                     (b. 1883 - d. 1935)
20 Mar 1935 -  5 Apr 1936  Jean Marchessou (3rd time)         (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 5 Apr 1936 - 21 Apr 1939  François Joseph Reste (2nd time)   (s.a.)
21 Apr 1939 -  3 Sep 1939  Léon Solomiac (acting)             (b. 1873 - d. 1960)
 3 Sep 1939 - 28 Aug 1940  Pierre Boisson                     (b. 1894 - d. 1948)
17 Jul 1940 - 28 Aug 1940    Louis Husson                     (b. 1878 - d. 1963)
                             (acting for Boisson)
28 Aug 1940 - 12 Nov 1940  Edgard de Larminat (acting)        (b. 1895 - d. 1962)
12 Nov 1940 - 30 Dec 1940  Adolphe Sicé (acting)              (b. 1885 - d. 1957)
30 Dec 1940 - 17 May 1944  Félix Éboué                        (b. 1884 - d. 1944)
                           (acting to 15 Jul 1941)
15 Feb 1944 -  3 Aug 1946  André Bayardelle                   (b. 1896 - d. 1947)
                           (acting to 2 Oct 1944 [for Éboué to 17 May 1944])
 3 Aug 1946 -  5 Jun 1947  André Soucadaux (1st time)         (b. 1904 - d. 2001)
                           (acting)
 5 Jun 1947 -  5 Jul 1947  Laurent Péchoux (acting)           (b. 1904 - d. 2000)
 5 Jul 1947 - 21 Aug 1947  Charles Luizet                     (b. 1903 - d. 1947)
15 Nov 1947 - 26 Mar 1948  André Soucadaux (2nd time)         (s.a.)
26 Mar 1948 - 21 Sep 1951  Bernard Cornut-Gentille            (b. 1909 - d. 1992)
21 Sep 1951 -  4 Apr 1957  Paul Chauvet                       (b. 1904 - d. 2007)
High commissioners
 4 Apr 1957 - 29 Jan 1958  Paul Chauvet                       (s.a.)
29 Jan 1958 - 15 Jul 1958  Pierre Messmer                     (b. 1916 - d. 2007)
15 Jul 1958 - 15 Aug 1960  Yvon Bourges                       (b. 1921 - d. 2009)

Middle Congo and Congo (Brazzaville)

Resident
20 Aug 1886 - 12 Mar 1889  Charles de Chavannes               (b. 1853 - d. 1940)
Chief administrators (from 12 Mar 1909, lieutenant governors)
12 Mar 1889 - 27 Apr 1894  Charles de Chavannes               (s.a.)
27 Apr 1894 - 22 Jan 1899  Albert Dolisie                     (s.a.)
 1 May 1899 - 11 Jul 1902  Philema Lemaire                    (s.a.)
11 Jul 1902 -  5 Apr 1906  Émile Gentil                       (s.a.)
 5 Apr 1906 - 27 Jun 1910  Adolphe Cureau                     (b. 1864 - d. 1913)
27 Jun 1910 - 28 Jul 1911  Roger Dubosc-Taret (acting)        (b. 1886 - d. 19...)
28 Jul 1911 - 16 Apr 1916  Lucien Fourneau                    (b. 1867 - d. 1930)
                           (acting to 17 Oct 1912)
16 Apr 1916 - 17 Jul 1917  Jules Carde                        (b. 1874 - d. 1949)
                           (acting to 12 Oct 1916)
17 Jul 1917 -  2 Apr 1919  Jules Guy Le Prince (acting)
 2 Apr 1919 - 16 May 1919  Edmond Émilien Cadier
16 May 1919 - 21 Aug 1919  Jean Henri Marchand (1st time)
                           (acting)
21 Aug 1919 - 16 Aug 1922  Matteo Alfassa                     (s.a.)
16 Aug 1922 - 20 Apr 1923  Georges Thomann (acting)           (b. 1872 - d. 1943)
24 Apr 1923 - 21 Jul 1925  Jean Henri Marchand (2nd time)
                           (acting)
21 Jul 1925 -  1 Dec 1929  administration by AEF gov.-gen.
 1 Dec 1929 -  4 Dec 1930  Jean Marchessou (acting)           (b. 1879 - d. 1964)
 4 Dec 1930 -    May 1931  Pierre Simon Antonin Bonnefont
                           (acting)
   May 1931 -        1932  Max de Masson de Saint-Félix       (b. ... - d. 1939)
       1932 - 21 Nov 1932  Émile Buhot-Launay (acting)        (b. 1881 - d. 1970)
21 Nov 1932 - 10 Feb 1941  administration by AEF gov.-gen.
10 Feb 1941 - 20 Aug 1945  Gabriel Fortune                    (b. 1897 - d. 1971)
20 Aug 1945 - 30 Apr 1946  administration by AEF gov.-gen.
30 Apr 1946 -        1946  Christian Laigret (acting)         (b. 1903 - d. 1977)
       1946 -  6 Nov 1946  administration by AEF gov.-gen.
 6 Nov 1946 - 31 Dec 1947  Numa Sadoul                        (b. 1906 - d. 1990)
31 Dec 1947 -  1 Mar 1950  Jacques Fourneau                   (b. 1901 - d. 1956)
 1 Mar 1950 - 25 Apr 1952  Paul Le Layec                      (b. 1901 - d. 1965)
25 Apr 1952 - 15 Jul 1953  Jean Chambon                       (b. 1896 - d. 1965)
15 Jul 1953 -  2 Nov 1956  Ernest Eugène Rouys
                           (acting to 19 Feb 1954)
 2 Nov 1956 - 29 Jan 1958  Jean-Michel Soupault               (b. 1918 - d. 1993)
29 Jan 1958 -  7 Jan 1959  Charles Paul Dériaud (acting)      (b. 1911 - d. 1964)
High commissioner
 7 Jan 1959 - 15 Aug 1960  Guy Georgy                         (b. 1918 - d. 2003)
Presidents
21 Nov 1959 - 15 Aug 1963  Fulbert Youlou                     (b. 1917 - d. 1972)
15 Aug 1963 - 16 Aug 1963  David Mountsaka                    (b. 1932 - d. 2010)
                           + Félix Mouzabakani
                           (officers in charge of the Provisional Government)
16 Aug 1963 -  4 Sep 1968  Alphonse Massamba-Débat            (b. 1921 - d. 1977)
                           (chairman National Council of the Revolution to
                           19 Dec 1963)
 3 Aug 1968 -  4 Aug 1968    Augustin Poignet                 (b. 1928 - d. 2008)
                             (acting for Massamba-Débat)
 4 Sep 1968 -  5 Sep 1968  Marien Ngouabi (1st time)          (b. 1938 - d. 1977)
                           (chairman National Council of the Revolution)
 5 Sep 1968 -  1 Jan 1969  Alfred Raoul                       (b. 1938 - d. 1999)
                           (acting head of state)
 1 Jan 1969 - 18 Mar 1977  Marien Ngouabi (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                           (Head of State to 3 Jan 1970)
18 Mar 1977 -  3 Apr 1977  Military Committee of the
                           Congolese Labour Party¹
                           - Joachim Yhombi-Opango            (b. 1939)
                           - Denis Sassou-Nguesso             (b. 1943)
                           - Louis Sylvain Goma               (b. 1941)
                           - Jean-Michel Ebaka
                           - Raymond Damase Ngollo
                           - Martin Mbia
                           - Pascal Bima                      (b. c.1930 - d. 2003)
                           - Nicolas Okongo
                           - Xavier Katali                    (b. 1941 - d. 1986)
                           - Florent Ntsiba                   (b. 1949)
                           - Pierre Anga                      (b. 1940 - d. 1988)
 3 Apr 1977 -  5 Feb 1979  Joachim Yhombi-Opango              (s.a.)
                           (Head of State)
 5 Feb 1979 -  8 Feb 1979  Jean-Pierre Thystère Tchicaya      (b. 1936 - d. 2008)
                           (chairman Presidium of the Central Committee of the
                           Congolese Labour Party)
 8 Feb 1979 - 31 Aug 1992  Denis Sassou-Nguesso (1st time)    (s.a.)
                           (Head of State to 14 Aug 1979)
31 Aug 1992 - 15 Oct 1997  Pascal Lissouba                    (b. 1931)
25 Oct 1997 -              Denis Sassou-Nguesso (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                           (de facto in control from 15 Oct 1997)

Prime ministers 15 May 1957 - 8 Dec 1958 Jacques Opangault (b. 1907 - d. 1978) (vice president of the Government Council to 26 Jul 1958, then president of the Government Council) 8 Dec 1958 - 21 Nov 1959 Fulbert Youlou (s.a.) 16 Aug 1963 - 19 Dec 1963 Alphonse Massamba-Débat (s.a.) 24 Dec 1963 - 15 Apr 1966 Pascal Lissouba (s.a.) 6 May 1966 - 12 Jan 1968 Ambroise Noumazalaye (b. 1933 - d. 2007) 20 Aug 1968 - 3 Jan 1970 Alfred Raoul (s.a.) 25 Aug 1973 - 18 Dec 1975 Henri Lopès (b. 1937) 18 Dec 1975 - 7 Aug 1984 Louis Sylvain Goma (1st time) (s.a.) 7 Aug 1984 - 7 Aug 1989 Ange Édouard Poungui (b. 1942) 7 Aug 1989 - 3 Dec 1990 Alphonse Poaty-Souchlaty (b. 1941) 3 Dec 1990 - 8 Jan 1991 Pierre Moussa (acting) (b. 1941) 8 Jan 1991 - 8 Jun 1991 Louis Sylvain Goma (2nd time) (s.a.) 8 Jun 1991 - 2 Sep 1992 André Milongo (b. 1935 - d. 2007) 2 Sep 1992 - 6 Dec 1992 Stéphane Maurice Bongho-Nouarra (b. 1937 - d. 2007) 6 Dec 1992 - 23 Jun 1993 Claude Antoine Dacosta (b. 1931 - d. 2007) 23 Jun 1993 - 27 Aug 1996 Joachim Yhombi-Opango (s.a.) 27 Aug 1996 - 8 Sep 1997 David Charles Ganao (b. 1926 - d. 2012) 8 Sep 1997 - 15 Oct 1997 Bernard Kolélas (b. 1933 - d. 2009) 7 Jan 2005 - 15 Sep 2009 Isidore Mvouba (b. 1954)
¹The membership of the committee was only announced on 3 Apr 1977; in the same communiqué it was said that Yhombi-Opango had been chosen chairman of the committee on 19 Mar 1977.

Congo (Kinshasa)

23 Feb 1885                sovereign status of the International Association
                           of the Congo recognized by Berlin Conference
 1 Jul 1885                Independent State of the Congo ("Congo Free State")
                           (with Belgian King Léopold II as sovereign)
15 Nov 1908                annexation by Belgium (Belgian Congo)
30 Jun 1960                independence (Republic of the Congo)
 1 Aug 1964                Democratic Republic of the Congo
27 Oct 1971                Republic of Zaire
17 May 1997                Democratic Republic of the Congo

President of the International Association of the Congo
23 Feb 1885 -  1 Jul 1885  Maximilien Strauch                 (b. 1819 - d. 1911)
Administrators-general
 1 Jul 1885 -        1886  Sir Francis Walter de Winton       (b. 1835 - d. 1901)
       1886 -        1887  Camille Janssen                    (b. 1837 - d. 1926)
Governors-general
       1887 -        1890  Camille Janssen                    (s.a.)
 1 Dec 1890 - 24 Mar 1891  Camille Coquilhat (acting)         (b. 1853 - d. 1891)
       1891 -        1892  Félix Fuchs (1st time) (acting)    (b. 1858 - d. 1928)
 1 Jul 1892 -        1896  Théophile Wahis (1st time)         (b. 1844 - d. 1921)
       1896 -        1900  Émile Wangermée (acting)           (b. 1855 - d. 1924)
       1900 -        1912  Théophile, baron Wahis (2nd time)  (s.a.)
20 May 1912 -  5 Jan 1916  Félix Fuchs (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 5 Jan 1916 - 30 Jan 1921  Eugène Henry                       (b. 1862 - d. 1930)
30 Jan 1921 - 24 Jan 1923  Maurice Lippens                    (b. 1875 - d. 1956)
24 Jan 1923 - 27 Dec 1927  Martin Rutten                      (b. 1876 - d. 1944)
27 Dec 1927 - 14 Sep 1934  Auguste Tilkens                    (b. 1869 - d. 1949)
       1929 -        1930    Charles Duchesne                 (b. 1881 - d. 1945)
                             (acting for Tilkens)
14 Sep 1934 -    Jul 1946  Pierre Ryckmans                    (b. 1891 - d. 1959)
31 Dec 1946 -  1 Jan 1952  Eugène Jungers                     (b. 1888 - d. 1958)
 1 Jan 1952 - 12 Jul 1958  Léon Pétillon                      (b. 1903 - d. 1996)
12 Jul 1958 - 30 Jun 1960  Henri Cornélis                     (b. 1910 - d. 1999)
Presidents
30 Jun 1960 - 25 Nov 1965  Joseph Kasavubu                    (b. 1910? - d. 1969)
                           (Head of State to 1 Aug 1964)
31 Mar 1961 -  5 Aug 1961    Antoine Gizenga                  (b. 1925)
                             (Head of State, in rebellion, at Stanleyville)
25 Nov 1965 - 16 May 1997  Joseph-Désiré Mobutu (from 10 Jan
                           1972, Mobutu Sese Seko)            (b. 1930 - d. 1997)
17 May 1997 - 16 Jan 2001  Laurent Kabila                     (b. 1939 - d. 2001)
                           (Head of State to 29 May 1997)
17 Jan 2001 -              Joseph Kabila                      (b. 1971)
                           (interim to 26 Jan 2001)

Prime ministers 24 Jun 1960 - 5 Sep 1960¹ Patrice Lumumba (b. 1925 - d. 1961) 5 Sep 1960 - 20 Sep 1960 Joseph Iléo (1st time) (b. 1921 - d. 1994) Chairmen of the board of commissioners-general 20 Sep 1960 - 3 Oct 1960 Albert Ndele (b. 1930) 4 Oct 1960 - 9 Feb 1961 Justin Marie Bomboko (b. 1928 - d. 2014) Prime ministers 13 Dec 1960 - 5 Aug 1961 Antoine Gizenga (s.a.) (in rebellion, at Stanleyville) 9 Feb 1961 - 2 Aug 1961 Joseph Iléo (2nd time) (s.a.) 2 Aug 1961 - 10 Jul 1964 Cyrille Adoula (b. 1921 - d. 1978) 10 Jul 1964 - 13 Oct 1965 Moise Tshombe (b. 1919 - d. 1969) 18 Oct 1965 - 25 Nov 1965 Évariste Kimba (b. 1926 - d. 1966) 28 Nov 1965 - 26 Oct 1966 Léonard Mulamba (b. 1928 - d. 1986) First state commissioners (prime ministers) 6 Jul 1977 - 6 Mar 1979 Mpinga Kasenda (b. 1937 - d. 1994) 6 Mar 1979 - 27 Aug 1980 Bo-Boliko Lokonga Monse Mihambo (b. 1934) 27 Aug 1980 - 23 Apr 1981 Nguza Karl-I-Bond (1st time) (b. 1938 - d. 2003) 23 Apr 1981 - 5 Nov 1982 N'singa Udjuu Ongwankebi Untube (b. 1934) 5 Nov 1982 - 31 Oct 1986 Kengo Wa Dondo (1st time) (b. 1935) 22 Jan 1987 - 7 Mar 1988 Mabi Mulumba (b. 1941) 7 Mar 1988 - 26 Nov 1988 Sambwa Pida Nbagui (b. 1940 - d. 1998) 26 Nov 1988 - 4 May 1990 Kengo Wa Dondo (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 May 1990 - 1 Apr 1991 Lunda Bululu (b. 1942) 1 Apr 1991 - 29 Sep 1991 Mulumba Lukoji (b. 1943 - d. 1997) 29 Sep 1991 - 1 Nov 1991 Étienne Tshisekedi (1st time) (b. 1932) 1 Nov 1991 - 25 Nov 1991 Bernardin Mungul Diaka (b. 1933 - d. 1999) 25 Nov 1991 - 15 Aug 1992 Nguza Karl-I-Bond (2nd time) (s.a.) 15 Aug 1992 - 18 Mar 1993² Étienne Tshisekedi (2nd time) (s.a.) 18 Mar 1993 - 14 Jan 1994 Faustin Birindwa (b. 1943 - d. 1999) 6 Jul 1994 - 2 Apr 1997 Kengo Wa Dondo (3rd time) (s.a.) 2 Apr 1997 - 9 Apr 1997 Étienne Tshisekedi (3rd time) (s.a.) 9 Apr 1997 - 16 May 1997 Likulia Bolongo (b. 1939) Prime ministers 30 Dec 2006 - 10 Oct 2008 Antoine Gizenga (s.a.) 10 Oct 2008 - 6 Mar 2012 Adolphe Muzito (b. 1957) 6 Mar 2012 - 18 Apr 2012 Louis Koyagialo (acting) (b. 1947) 18 Apr 2012 - Augustin Matata Ponyo Mapon (b. 1964)

Rebel government (People's Republic of the Congo) (at Stanleyville; from Nov 1964 in exile)

President
 7 Sep 1964 - 27 May 1965  Christophe Gbenye                  (b. 1927)
President of the Supreme Council of the Congolese Revolution
27 May 1965 -         ...  Gaston Soumialot                   (b. 1922 - d. 2007)

Chairman of the Revolutionary Government 27 May 1965 - 5 Aug 1965 Christophe Gbenye (s.a.) Chairman of the Executive Council 6 Aug 1965 - ... Abdoulaye Yerodia (b. 1933)
¹President Kasavubu dismissed Prime Minister Lumumba on 5 Sep 1960 and appointed Iléo in his place, but this was not recognized by parliament and Lumumba continued as prime minister of a rival government until 14 Sep 1960.
²Regarding the appointment of Birindwa as illegal, Tshisekedi continued as prime minister of a rival government into 1994. Tshisekedi had already been effectively suspended on 11 Dec 1992, when President Mobutu named Nicolas Zushi Mupiemina as chairman of a Board of Secretaries-General to take over coordination of the government.

Cook Islands

 5 Jun 1891                Cook Islands Federation
11 Jun 1901                incorporation into New Zealand

President of the Executive Council
 5 Jun 1891 - 11 Jun 1901  Makea Takau Ariki (f)              (b. 1845 - d. 1911)
Residents
       1888 -        1891  Richard Exham                      (b. 1848 - d. 1915)
       1891 -        1898  Frederick Joseph Moss              (b. 1827 - d. 1904)
       1898 -        1901  Walter Edward Gudgeon              (b. 1842 - d. 1920)
Resident commissioners
       1901 -        1909  Walter Edward Gudgeon              (s.a.)
       1909 -        1913  James Euan-Smith
       1913 -        1916  Henry William Northcroft           (b. 1844 - d. 1923)
       1916 -        1921  Frederick William Platts           (b. 1865 - d. 1941)
       1921 -        1922  John George Lewis Hewitt
       1922 -        1937  Hugh Fraser Ayson (1st time)       (b. 1884 - d. 1948)
       1937 -        1938  Stephan John Smith                 (b. 1887 - d. 1948)
       1938 -        1943  Hugh Fraser Ayson (2nd time)       (s.a.)
       1943 -        1951  William Tailby
       1951 -        1960  Geoffrey Nevill                    (b. 1901 - d. 1972)
       1961 -        1965  Albert Oliver Dare                 (b. 1917)
High commissioners
 4 Aug 1965 - 18 Nov 1965  Albert Oliver Dare                 (s.a.)
18 Nov 1965 - 16 Nov 1972  Leslie James Davis                 (b. 1925)
16 Nov 1972 - 16 Dec 1974  George James Brocklehurst          (b. 1906 - d. 1987)
16 Dec 1974 - 15 Oct 1975  James Joseph Warnell Little        (b. 1931)
                           (acting)
New Zealand Representatives
15 Oct 1975 - 10 Feb 1976  J. Graeme Ammundsen (acting)
10 Feb 1976 -        1978  Terence C. O'Brien
21 May 1978 -        1980  Brian Absolum
16 Feb 1980 -        1982  Lindsay Watt
 7 Mar 1982 -        1985  Paul A.J. Tipping
 1 Apr 1985 -        1987  Lance A. Beath
12 Dec 1987 -        1990  Adrian George Simcock
22 Nov 1990 -        1993  Tim Caughley
High commissioners
       1993 -        1994  Tim Caughley
16 Feb 1994 -        1997  Darryl Dunn
   Feb 1997 -        1998  James Kember
   Jul 1998 -    Jul 2001  Rob Moore-Jones
 6 Jul 2001 - 29 Aug 2005  Kurt Meyer
 6 Sep 2005 -    Feb 2008  John Bryan
21 Feb 2008 -    Aug 2008  Brian Donnelly                     (b. 1949 - d. 2008)
   Aug 2008 -    Jan 2009  Sophie Vickers (f) (acting)
   Jan 2009 - 15 Nov 2009  Tia Barrett                        (b. 1947 - d. 2009)
   Nov 2009 -    Mar 2010  Nicola Ngawati (f) (acting)
   Mar 2010 -    Aug 2011  Linda Te Puni (f)
                           (acting to 14 Jul 2010)
   Aug 2011 -    Jul 2013  John Carter                        (b. 1950)
   Jul 2013 -              Joanna Kempkers (f)
Queen's Representatives
15 Oct 1975 - 18 Sep 1984  Gaven Donne (from 30 Dec 1978,
                           Sir Gaven Donne)                   (b. 1914 - d. 2010)
                           (acting to 26 Jun 1982)
18 Sep 1984 - 19 Dec 1984  Sir Graham Speight (acting)        (b. 1921 - d. 2008)
19 Dec 1984 - 19 Dec 1990  Tangaroa Tangaroa (from 4 Mar
                           1987, Sir Tangaroa Tangaroa)       (b. 1921 - d. 2009)
19 Dec 1990 - 14 Nov 2000  Apenera Short (from 14 Jun 1997,
                           Sir Apenera Short)                 (b. 1916 - d. 2011)
14 Nov 2000 -  9 Feb 2001  Lawrence Murray Greig (acting)
 9 Feb 2001 - 27 Jul 2013  Fred Goodwin (from 12 Jun 2004,
                           Sir Fred Goodwin)
27 Jul 2013 -              Tom Marsters                       (b. 1945)

Premiers (from 1981, prime ministers) 4 Aug 1965 - 25 Jul 1978 Albert Henry (from 1 Jan 1974, Sir Albert Henry) (b. 1907 - d. 1981) 25 Jul 1978 - 13 Apr 1983 Tom Davis (from 31 Dec 1980, Sir Tom Davis) (1st time) (b. 1917 - d. 2007) 13 Apr 1983 - 2 Aug 1983 Geoffrey Henry (1st time) (b. 1940 - d. 2012) 19 Aug 1983 - 16 Nov 1983 Geoffrey Henry (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 Nov 1983 - 29 Jul 1987 Sir Tom Davis (2nd time) (s.a.) 29 Jul 1987 - 1 Feb 1989 Pupuke Robati (b. 1925 - d. 2009) 1 Feb 1989 - 29 Jul 1999 Geoffrey Henry (from 13 Jun 1992, Sir Geoffrey Henry) (3rd time) (s.a.) 29 Jul 1999 - 18 Nov 1999 Joe Williams 18 Nov 1999 - 11 Feb 2002 Terepai Maoate (b. 1934 - d. 2012) 11 Feb 2002 - 11 Dec 2004 Robert Woonton (b. 1949) 14 Dec 2004 - 30 Nov 2010 Jim Marurai (b. 1947) 30 Nov 2010 - Henry Puna (b. 1949)

Avarua

High chiefs (title Ariki)
        ... -         ...  Makea Te Rangi Tukivao
        ... -         ...  Rangi Makea
        ... -         ...  Makea Te Patuakino
        ... -         ...  Makea Pini + Makea Ken
        ... -        1823  Makea Tinirau + Makea Tekao
       1823 -      c.1827  Makea Pori + Makea Karika II
     c.1827 -        18..  Makea Davida + Makea Pa
      *1852*               Makea Te Vairua + Makea Tuaivi
       18.. -      c.1864  Makea Daniela
                           + Makea Tavake (1st time)          (b. ... - d. 189...)
     c.1864 -        1868  Makea Abela
                           + Makea Tavake (2nd time)          (s.a.)
       1868 -        1901  Makea Takau (f)                    (b. 1845 - d. 1911)
                           + Makea Tavake (3rd time)          (s.a.)
                           (to 189...)
       1901 -        1950  Makea Mana                         (b. 1889 - d. 1950)
       1950 -        1975  Makea Nui Teremona (f)             (b. c.1910 - d. 1975)
       1975 -      c.1988  Makea Karika III (f)               (b. c.1930 - d. c.1988)
     c.1988 -        19..  Makea Tupou Fairoa
       19.. - 19 Oct 1996  Makea Inanui Love-Nia (f)          (b. ... - d. 1996)
       1996 -              Makea Karika Margaret (from 31 Dec
                           2011, Dame Makea Karika Margaret)
                           (f)                                (b. 1919)

Corsica: see under France.

Costa Rica

12 Nov 1821                independence (Province of Costa Rica)
 4 Mar 1824 - 15 Nov 1838  constituent state of Central American Federation
                           (see under Guatemala)
 8 Sep 1824                State of Costa Rica
14 Apr 1825                Free State of Costa Rica
10 Feb 1847                State of Costa Rica
31 Aug 1848                Republic of Costa Rica

Political Chief
11 Oct 1821 - 12 Nov 1821  Juan Manuel de Cañas-Trujillo
Chairman of the Board of Peoples' Delegates
12 Nov 1821 -  1 Dec 1821  Nicolás Carrillo                   (b. 1751 - d. 1845)
President of the Interim Junta
 1 Dec 1821 - 12 Jan 1822  Pedro José de Alvarado
Presidents of the Superior Governing Junta
12 Jan 1822 - 13 Apr 1822  Rafael Barroeta                    (b. 1766 - d. 1826)
13 Apr 1822 - 14 Jul 1822  Santiago Bonilla                   (b. 1756 - d. 1824)
15 Jul 1822 - 17 Oct 1822  José María de Peralta              (b. 1763 - d. 1826)
17 Oct 1822 - 31 Dec 1822  Rafael José de Gallegos            (b. 1784 - d. 1850)
 1 Jan 1823 - 20 Mar 1823  José Santos Lombardo               (b. 1775 - d. 1831)
President of the Standing Commission
20 Mar 1823 - 29 Mar 1823  Rafael Francisco Osejo             (b. 1790? - d. 1848?)
General Commandants
29 Mar 1823 -  5 Apr 1823  Joaquín de Oreamuno (in Cartago)
 2 Apr 1823 - 16 Apr 1823  Gregorio José Ramírez              (b. 1796 - d. 1823)
                           (in Alajuela and San José)
President of the Constituent Congress
16 Apr 1823 - 10 May 1823  José María de Peralta              (s.a.)
Presidents of the Superior Governing Junta
10 May 1823 -  8 Jan 1824  Manuel Alvarado (1st time)         (b. 1775 - d. 1836)
 8 Jan 1824 - 12 Feb 1824  Eusebio Rodríguez                  (b. 1778 - d. 1858)
12 Feb 1824 -  8 Sep 1824  Manuel Alvarado (2nd time)         (s.a.)
Supreme Chiefs¹
 8 Sep 1824 -  8 Mar 1833  Juan Mora                          (b. 1784 - d. 1854)
                           (interim to 14 Apr 1825)
 9 Mar 1833 -  4 Mar 1835  Rafael José de Gallegos            (s.a.)
 4 Mar 1835 - 18 Mar 1835  Juan José Lara (acting)            (b. 1780 - d. 18...)
18 Mar 1835 -  5 May 1835  Manuel Fernández (acting)          (b. 1786 - d. 1840)
 5 May 1835 - 28 Feb 1837  Braulio Carrillo (1st time)        (b. 1800 - d. 1845)
 1 Mar 1837 - 17 Apr 1837  Joaquín Mora (provisional)
17 Apr 1837 - 27 May 1838  Manuel Aguilar                     (b. 1797 - d. 1846)
27 May 1838 - 12 Apr 1842  Braulio Carrillo (2nd time)        (s.a.)
12 Apr 1842 - 11 Sep 1842  Francisco Morazán                  (b. 1792 - d. 1842)
                           (provisional to 15 Jul 1842)
11 Sep 1842 - 27 Sep 1842  Antonio Pinto (Supreme Commander)  (b. 1780 - d. 1865)
27 Sep 1842 - 29 Nov 1844  José María Alfaro (1st time)       (b. 1799 - d. 1856)
                           (provisional)
29 Nov 1844 -  7 Jun 1846  Francisco María Oreamuno           (b. 1801 - d. 1856)
 7 Jun 1846 - 10 Feb 1847  José María Alfaro (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                           (provisional)
Presidents
10 Feb 1847 -  8 May 1847  José María Alfaro (provisional)    (s.a.)
 8 May 1847 - 16 Nov 1849  José María Castro (1st time)       (b. 1818 - d. 1892)
16 Nov 1849 - 26 Nov 1849  Miguel Mora (acting)               (b. 1816 - d. 1887)
26 Nov 1849 - 14 Aug 1859  Juan Rafael Mora                   (b. 1814 - d. 1860)
                           (acting to 30 Dec 1849)
14 Aug 1859 -  8 May 1863  José María Montealegre             (b. 1815 - d. 1887)
                           (acting to 29 Apr 1860)
 8 May 1863 -  8 May 1866  Jesús Jiménez Zamora (1st time)    (b. 1823 - d. 1897)
 8 May 1866 -  1 Nov 1868  José María Castro (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 1 Nov 1868 - 27 Apr 1870  Jesús Jiménez Zamora (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                           (provisional to 8 May 1869)
27 Apr 1870 -  9 Aug 1870  Bruno Carranza                     (b. 1822 - d. 1891)
                           (Provisional Chief)
10 Aug 1870 -  8 May 1876  Tomás Guardia (1st time)           (b. 1831 - d. 1882)
                           (provisional to 8 May 1872, initially styled Provisional Chief)
 8 May 1876 - 30 Jul 1876  Aniceto Esquivel                   (b. 1824 - d. 1898)
30 Jul 1876 - 11 Sep 1877  Vicente Herrera (acting)           (b. 1821 - d. 1888)
11 Sep 1877 -  6 Jul 1882  Tomás Guardia (2nd time)           (s.a.)
                           (acting to 8 May 1880)
 6 Jul 1882 - 20 Jul 1882  Saturnino Lizano (acting)          (b. 1826 - d. 1905)
20 Jul 1882 - 12 Mar 1885  Próspero Fernández Oreamuno        (b. 1834 - d. 1885)
                           (acting to 10 Aug 1882)
12 Mar 1885 -  8 May 1890  Bernardo Soto Alfaro               (b. 1854 - d. 1931)
                           (acting to 8 May 1886)
 8 May 1890 -  8 May 1894  José Joaquín Rodríguez             (b. 1838 - d. 1917)
 8 May 1894 -  8 May 1902  Rafael Iglesias Castro             (b. 1861 - d. 1924)
 8 May 1902 -  8 May 1906  Ascensión Esquivel Ibarra          (b. 1848 - d. 1927)
 8 May 1906 -  8 May 1910  Cleto González Víquez (1st time)   (b. 1858 - d. 1937)
 8 May 1910 -  8 May 1914  Ricardo Jiménez Oreamuno
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1859 - d. 1945)
 8 May 1914 - 27 Jan 1917  Alfredo González Flores            (b. 1877 - d. 1962)
27 Jan 1917 - 20 Aug 1919  Federico Tinoco Granados           (b. 1868 - d. 1931)
                           (Provisional Head of Government to 11 Apr 1917)
20 Aug 1919 -  2 Sep 1919  Juan Bautista Quirós Segura        (b. 1853 - d. 1934)
                           (acting)
 2 Sep 1919 -  8 May 1920  Francisco Aguilar Barquero         (b. 1857 - d. 1924)
                           (provisional)
 8 May 1920 -  8 May 1924  Julio Acosta García                (b. 1876 - d. 1954)
 8 May 1924 -  8 May 1928  Ricardo Jiménez Oreamuno
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 8 May 1928 -  8 May 1932  Cleto González Víquez (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 8 May 1932 -  8 May 1936  Ricardo Jiménez Oreamuno
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
 8 May 1936 -  8 May 1940  León Cortés Castro                 (b. 1882 - d. 1946)
 8 May 1940 -  8 May 1944  Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia      (b. 1900 - d. 1970)
 8 May 1944 -  8 May 1948  Teodoro Picado Michalski           (b. 1900 - d. 1960)
 8 May 1948 -  8 Nov 1949  José Figueres Ferrer (1st time)    (b. 1906 - d. 1990)
                           (chairman Founding Junta of the Second Republic)
 8 Nov 1949 -  8 Nov 1953  Otilio Ulate Blanco                (b. 1891 - d. 1973)
 8 Nov 1953 -  8 May 1958  José Figueres Ferrer (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 8 May 1958 -  8 May 1962  Mario Echandi Jiménez              (b. 1915 - d. 2011)
 8 May 1962 -  8 May 1966  Francisco José Orlich Bolmarcich   (b. 1907 - d. 1969)
 8 May 1966 -  8 May 1970  José Joaquín Trejos Fernández      (b. 1916 - d. 2010)
 8 May 1970 -  8 May 1974  José Figueres Ferrer (3rd time)    (s.a.)
 8 May 1974 -  8 May 1978  Daniel Oduber Quirós               (b. 1921 - d. 1991)
 8 May 1978 -  8 May 1982  Rodrigo Carazo Odio                (b. 1926 - d. 2009)
 8 May 1982 -  8 May 1986  Luis Alberto Monge Álvarez         (b. 1925)
 8 May 1986 -  8 May 1990  Óscar Arias Sánchez (1st time)     (b. 1941)
 8 May 1990 -  8 May 1994  Rafael Ángel Calderón Fournier     (b. 1949)
 8 May 1994 -  8 May 1998  José María Figueres Olsen          (b. 1954)
 8 May 1998 -  8 May 2002  Miguel Ángel Rodríguez Echeverría  (b. 1940)
 8 May 2002 -  8 May 2006  Abel Pacheco de la Espriella       (b. 1933)
 8 May 2006 -  8 May 2010  Óscar Arias Sánchez (2nd time)     (s.a.)
 8 May 2010 -              Laura Chinchilla (f)               (b. 1959)
¹In some constitutional use the Supreme Chief (Jefe Supremo) was alternatively styled First Chief (Primer Jefe). This style became the only constitutional one from 27 May 1841 to 6 Jun 1842.

Côte d'Ivoire

10 Mar 1893                French colony
16 Jun 1895                part of French West Africa (see under Senegal)
27 Oct 1946                French overseas territory
 4 Dec 1958                autonomy (Republic of Ivory Coast)
 7 Aug 1960                independence
14 Oct 1985                Republic of Côte d'Ivoire (French name no longer translated)

Governors (from 1958, high commissioners)
20 Mar 1893 - 28 Aug 1895  Louis Gustave Binger               (b. 1856 - d. 1936)
25 Feb 1896 - 13 May 1896  Eugène Bertin (acting)             (b. 18... - d. 1896)
14 May 1896 - 11 Sep 1898  Louis Mouttet                      (b. 1857 - d. 1902)
                           (acting to 19 Mar 1897)
11 Sep 1898 -  5 Nov 1902  Henri Charles Roberdeau            (b. 1849 - d. 1916)
 5 Nov 1902 - 25 Nov 1902  Albert Nebout (1st time) (acting)  (b. 1862 - d. 1939)
25 Nov 1902 - 25 Aug 1907  François Joseph Clozel             (b. 1860 - d. 1918)
                           (acting to 4 May 1903)
25 Aug 1907 - 25 Apr 1908  Albert Nebout (2nd time) (acting)  (s.a.)
25 Apr 1908 - 27 Dec 1916  Gabriel Angoulvant                 (b. 1872 - d. 1932)
27 Dec 1916 -    Jan 1918  Maurice Pierre Lapalud (1st time)
                           (acting)
   Jan 1918 -  2 Apr 1924  Raphaël Antonetti                  (b. 1872 - d. 1938)
 2 Apr 1924 -  2 Jul 1925  Richard Brunot (acting)            (b. 1883 - d. 1958)
 2 Jul 1925 - 25 Aug 1930  Maurice Pierre Lapalud (2nd time)
25 Aug 1930 - 28 Oct 1930  Jules Brévié                       (b. 1880 - d. 1964)
28 Oct 1930 - 16 Jan 1931  Jean Paul Boutonnet (acting)
16 Jan 1931 -  7 May 1935  François Joseph Reste              (b. 1879 - d. 1976)
 7 May 1935 - 28 Jun 1935  Marie Alphonse Flottes de Pouzols  (b. 1884 - d. 1935)
                           (acting)
28 Jun 1935 -  7 Mar 1936  Adolphe Deitte                     (b. 1879 - d. 1949)
 7 Mar 1936 - 28 Nov 1936  Julien Georges Lamy (acting)       (b. 1878 - d. 1940)
28 Nov 1936 - 16 Jul 1938  Gaston Charles Julien Mondon
16 Jul 1938 - 27 Jan 1939  Louis Bressolles (acting)
27 Jan 1939 -  1 Jan 1941  Horace Valentin Crocicchia
                           (acting to 5 Mar 1940)
 1 Jan 1941 - 29 Sep 1942  Hubert Deschamps                   (b. 1900 - d. 1979)
29 Sep 1942 -  3 Aug 1943  Georges Pierre Rey
 3 Aug 1943 - 26 Aug 1943  Jean Toby                          (b. 1900 - d. 1964)
26 Aug 1943 - 16 Aug 1945  André Latrille (1st time)          (b. 1894 - d. 1987)
16 Aug 1945 -    Apr 1946  Henry de Mauduit                   (b. 1897 - d. 1975)
   Apr 1946 - 20 Feb 1947  André Latrille (2nd time)          (s.a.)
20 Feb 1947 - 29 Jan 1948  Oswald Durand                      (b. 1888 - d. 1982)
                           (acting to 20 May 1947)
29 Jan 1948 - 10 Nov 1948  Georges Orselli
10 Nov 1948 - 25 Apr 1952  Laurent Péchoux                    (b. 1904 - d. 2000)
25 Apr 1952 - 27 Jun 1952  Pierre François Pélieu             (b. 1906 - d. 1952)
10 Jul 1952 - 19 Feb 1954  Camille Bailly                     (b. 1907 - d. 1984)
19 Feb 1954 - 18 Feb 1956  Pierre Messmer                     (b. 1916 - d. 2007)
18 Feb 1956 - 23 Feb 1957  Pierre Lami                        (b. 1909 - d. 1994)
                           (acting to 28 May 1956)
23 Feb 1957 - 15 Jul 1959  Ernest de Nattes                   (b. 1908)
15 Jul 1959 -  7 Aug 1960  Yves Guéna                         (b. 1922)
Presidents
 7 Aug 1960 -  7 Dec 1993  Félix Houphouët-Boigny             (b. 1905 - d. 1993)
                           (Head of State to 3 Nov 1960)
 7 Dec 1993 - 24 Dec 1999  Henri Konan Bédié                  (b. 1934)
25 Dec 1999 - 25 Oct 2000  Robert Guéi                        (b. 1941 - d. 2002)
                           (president of National Public Salvation Committee
                           to 4 Jan 2000)
26 Oct 2000 - 11 Apr 2011  Laurent Gbagbo                     (b. 1945)
 4 Dec 2010 -              Alassane Ouattara                  (b. 1942)
                           (in opposition to 11 Apr 2011)

Prime ministers 15 May 1957 - 30 Apr 1959 Auguste Denise (b. 1906 - d. 1991) (vice president of the Government Council to 26 Jul 1958, president of the Government Council 26 Jul - 4 Dec 1958, president of the provisional government from 4 Dec 1958) 1 May 1959 - 3 Nov 1960 Félix Houphouët-Boigny (s.a.) 7 Nov 1990 - 11 Dec 1993 Alassane Ouattara (s.a.) 11 Dec 1993 - 24 Dec 1999 Daniel Kablan Duncan (1st time) (b. 1943) 18 May 2000 - 27 Oct 2000 Seydou Diarra (1st time) (b. 1933) 27 Oct 2000 - 10 Feb 2003 Affi N'Guessan (b. 1953) 10 Feb 2003 - 7 Dec 2005 Seydou Diarra (2nd time) (s.a.) 7 Dec 2005 - 4 Apr 2007 Charles Konan Banny (b. 1942) 4 Apr 2007 - 13 Mar 2012 Guillaume Soro (b. 1972) (from 4 Dec 2010 under President Ouattara) 7 Dec 2010 - 11 Apr 2011 Gilbert Marie N'gbo Aké (b. 1955) (under President Gbagbo) 13 Mar 2012 - 21 Nov 2012 Jeannot Kouadio-Ahoussou (b. 1951) 21 Nov 2012 - Daniel Kablan Duncan (2nd time) (s.a.)