Rulers

Countries Ma

Contents of this page:
Macedonia - Madagascar - Malawi - Malaysia - Maldives - Mali - Malta - Sovereign Military Order of Malta - Marshall Islands - Martinique - Mauritania - Mauritius - Mayotte

Macau: see under China.

Macedonia

 1 Dec 1918                part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes
                           (later Yugoslavia)
30 Apr 1945                People's Republic of Macedonia
 7 Jul 1963                Socialist Republic of Macedonia
15 Apr 1991                Republic of Macedonia
18 Sep 1991                independence declared
 8 Apr 1993                recognized by UN as Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party
(from 1952, League of Communists)
       1941 -    Jul 1963  Lazar Kolisevski                   (b. 1914 - d. 2000)
   Jul 1963 -    Mar 1969  Krste Crvenkovski                  (b. 1921 - d. 2001)
   Mar 1969 -    May 1982  Angel Cemerski                     (b. 1923 - d. 2005)
   May 1982 -  5 May 1984  Krste Markovski                    (b. 1925)
 5 May 1984 -    Jun 1986  Milan Pancevski                    (b. 1935)
   Jun 1986 -        1989  Jakov Lazaroski                    (b. 1936)
       1989 - 21 Apr 1991  Petar Gosev                        (b. 1948)

Presidents of the Presidium of the People's Assembly 2 Aug 1944 - 15 Mar 1946 Metodi Andonov-Cento (b. 1902 - d. 1957) (to 15 Apr 1945 chairman of the Anti-Fascist Assembly of People's Liberation) 15 Mar 1946 - 17 Apr 1946 Dimitar Nestorov (acting) (b. 1890 - d. 1968) 17 Apr 1946 - 4 Jan 1951 Bogoja Fotev (b. 1900 - d. 1993) 4 Jan 1951 - 15 Oct 1951 Vidoe Smilevski (b. 1915 - d. 1979) 15 Oct 1951 - 2 Feb 1953 Strahil Gigov (b. 1909 - d. 1999) Presidents of the People's Assembly 2 Feb 1953 - 19 Dec 1953 Dimce-Mire Stojanov (b. 1910 - d. 1991) 19 Dec 1953 - 26 Jun 1962 Lazar Kolisevski (s.a.) 26 Jun 1962 - 25 Jun 1963 Ljupco Arsov (b. 1910 - d. 1986) 25 Jun 1963 - 12 May 1967 Vidoe Smilevski (s.a.) 12 May 1967 - 1 Aug 1968 Mito Hadzivasilev (b. 1921 - d. 1968) 1 Aug 1968 - 23 Sep 1968 Zlate Biljanovski (acting) (b. 1920 - d. 2009) 23 Sep 1968 - 8 May 1974 Nikola Mincev (b. 1915 - d. 1997) Presidents of the Presidency 8 May 1974 - 9 Sep 1979 Vidoe Smilevski (s.a.) 9 Sep 1979 - 28 Apr 1982 Ljupco Arsov (s.a.) (acting to 31 Oct 1979) 28 Apr 1982 - 4 May 1983 Angel Cemerski (s.a.) 4 May 1983 - 3 May 1984 Blagoja Taleski (b. 1924 - d. 2001) 3 May 1984 - 26 Apr 1985 Tome Bukleski (b. 1921) 26 Apr 1985 - 28 Apr 1986 Vanco Apostolski (b. 1925 - d. 2008) 28 Apr 1986 - 30 Apr 1986 Mateja Matevski (acting) (b. 1929) 30 Apr 1986 - 28 Apr 1988 Dragoljub Stavrev (b. 1932 - d. 2003) 28 Apr 1988 - 28 Apr 1990 Jezdimir Bogdanski (b. 1930 - d. 2007) 28 Apr 1990 - 27 Jan 1991 Vladimir Mitkov (b. 1931) Presidents 27 Jan 1991 - 19 Nov 1999 Kiro Gligorov (b. 1917 - d. 2012) 4 Oct 1995 - 17 Nov 1995 Stojan Andov (b. 1935) (acting for Gligorov) 19 Nov 1999 - 15 Dec 1999 Savo Klimovski (acting) (b. 1947) 15 Dec 1999 - 26 Feb 2004 Boris Trajkovski (b. 1956 - d. 2004) 26 Feb 2004 - 12 May 2004 Ljupco Jordanovski (acting) (b. 1953 - d. 2010) 12 May 2004 - 12 May 2009 Branko Crvenkovski (b. 1962) 12 May 2009 - Gjorge Ivanov (b. 1960)
Prime minister 16 Apr 1945 - 3 Feb 1953 Lazar Kolisevski (s.a.) Chairmen of the Executive Council 3 Feb 1953 - 19 Dec 1953 Lazar Kolisevski (s.a.) 19 Dec 1953 - 21 Dec 1960 Ljupco Arsov (s.a.) 21 Dec 1960 - 11 May 1965 Aleksandar Grlickov (b. 1923 - d. 1989) 11 May 1965 - 23 Sep 1968 Nikola Mincev (s.a.) 23 Sep 1968 - 8 May 1974 Ksente Bogoev (b. 1919 - d. 2008) 8 May 1974 - 28 Apr 1982 Blagoja Popov (b. 1920 - d. 1992) 28 Apr 1982 - 28 Apr 1986 Dragoljub Stavrev (s.a.) 28 Apr 1986 - 27 Jan 1991 Gligorije Gogovski (b. 1943) Prime ministers 27 Jan 1991 - 17 Aug 1992 Nikola Kljusev (b. 1927 - d. 2008) 17 Aug 1992 - 30 Nov 1998 Branko Crvenkovski (1st time) (s.a.) 30 Nov 1998 - 1 Nov 2002 Ljubco Georgievski (b. 1966) 1 Nov 2002 - 12 May 2004 Branko Crvenkovski (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 May 2004 - 2 Jun 2004 Radmila Sekerinska (f) (1st time) (b. 1972) (acting) 2 Jun 2004 - 18 Nov 2004 Hari Kostov (b. 1959) 18 Nov 2004 - 17 Dec 2004 Radmila Sekerinska (f) (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting) 17 Dec 2004 - 27 Aug 2006 Vlado Buckovski (b. 1962) 27 Aug 2006 - Nikola Gruevski (b. 1970)

Macuata: see under Fiji.

Madagascar

23 Oct 1817                King Radama I of Imerina, having conquered practically the
                           whole island, enters into a treaty of friendship and peace
                           with the U.K. in which he is recognized as king of Madagascar
 6 Aug 1896                Kingdom of Imerina under French protectorate
28 Feb 1897                French colony
27 Oct 1946                French overseas territory
14 Oct 1958                autonomy (Malagasy Republic)
26 Jun 1960                independence
30 Dec 1975                Democratic Republic of Madagascar
12 Sep 1992                Republic of Madagascar

Kings/Queens (personal names in parentheses)
23 Oct 1817 - 27 Jul 1828  Radama I (Lehidama)                (b. 1792 - d. 1828)
 1 Aug 1828 - 16 Aug 1861  Ranavalona I
                           Rabodoandrianampoinimerina
                           (Ramavo) (f)                       (b. c.1772 - d. 1861)
16 Aug 1861 - 12 May 1863  Radama II (Rakotosehenondradama)   (b. 1829 - d. 1863)
13 May 1863 -  1 Apr 1868  Rasoherina (Rabodozanakandriana)
                           (f)                                (b. 1814 - d. 1868)
 2 Apr 1868 - 13 Jul 1883  Ranavalona II (Ramoma) (f)         (b. 1829 - d. 1883)
13 Jul 1883 - 28 Feb 1897  Ranavalona III (Razafindrahety)
                           (f)                                (b. 1861 - d. 1917)
Residents-general
28 Apr 1886 -    Mar 1888  Charles Le Myre de Vilers
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1833 - d. 1918)
   Mar 1888 - 12 Dec 1889  Arthur Larrouy (1st time)
12 Dec 1889 - 11 Oct 1890  Maurice Bompard                    (b. 1854 - d. 1935)
11 Oct 1890 -    Oct 1892  Lacoste (acting)
   Oct 1892 -        1894  Arthur Larrouy (2nd time)
       1894 -  1 Dec 1895  Charles Le Myre de Vilers
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
16 Jan 1896 - 28 Sep 1896  Hippolyte Laroche                  (b. 1848 - d. 1914)
28 Sep 1896 - 31 Jul 1897  Joseph Galliéni                    (b. 1849 - d. 1916)
Governors-general
31 Jul 1897 - 11 May 1905  Joseph Galliéni                    (s.a.)
11 May 1905 -  1 Jan 1906  Charles Lepreux (acting)           (b. 1856 - d. 1930)
 1 Jan 1906 - 13 Dec 1909  Victor Augagneur                   (b. 1855 - d. 1931)
13 Dec 1909 - 16 Jan 1910  Hubert Garbit (1st time)           (b. 1869 - d. 1933)
                           (acting)
16 Jan 1910 - 31 Oct 1910  Henri Cor (acting)
31 Oct 1910 - 14 Oct 1914  Albert Picquié                     (b. 1853 - d. 1917)
14 Oct 1914 - 19 Jun 1917  Hubert Garbit (2nd time)           (s.a.)
24 Jul 1917 -  1 Aug 1918  Martial Merlin                     (b. 1860 - d. 1935)
 1 Aug 1918 - 12 Jul 1919  Abraham Schrameck                  (b. 1867 - d. 1948)
12 Jul 1919 - 22 Jun 1920  Joseph Guyon (acting)              (b. 1870 - d. 1942)
22 Jun 1920 - 13 Mar 1923  Hubert Garbit (3rd time)           (s.a.)
13 Mar 1923 - 20 Feb 1924  Auguste Brunet (acting)            (b. 1878 - d. 1957)
20 Feb 1924 - 30 Jan 1929  Marcel Olivier                     (b. 1879 - d. 1945)
30 Jan 1929 -  1 May 1930  Hugues Berthier (acting)           (b. 1869 - d. 1958)
 1 May 1930 - 22 Apr 1939  Léon Cayla (1st time)              (b. 1881 - d. 1965)
22 Apr 1939 - 10 Jun 1939  Léon Réallon (acting)              (b. 1882 - d. 1960)
10 Jun 1939 - 30 Jul 1940  Marcel de Coppet                   (b. 1881 - d. 1968)
30 Jul 1940 - 15 Feb 1941  Léon Cayla (2nd time)              (s.a.)
11 Apr 1941 - 30 Sep 1942  Armand Annet                       (b. 1888 - d. 1973)
30 Sep 1942 -  7 Jan 1943  Victor Marius Bech (acting)        (b. 1891 - d. 1979)
 7 Jan 1943 -  3 May 1943  Paul Legentilhomme                 (b. 1884 - d. 1975)
 3 May 1943 - 27 Mar 1946  Pierre de Saint-Mart               (b. 1885 - d. 1965)
27 Mar 1946 - 19 May 1946  Robert Boudry (acting)             (b. 1893 - d. 1973)
High commissioners
19 May 1946 - 23 Dec 1947  Marcel de Coppet                   (s.a.)
   Feb 1948 -  3 Feb 1950  Pierre de Chevigné                 (b. 1909 - d. 2004)
 3 Feb 1950 -    Oct 1954  Robert Bargues                     (b. 1910 - d. 1989)
   Oct 1954 -  1 May 1959  André Soucadaux                    (b. 1904 - d. 2001)
Presidents
 1 May 1959 - 11 Oct 1972  Philibert Tsiranana                (b. 1912 - d. 1978)
   Jan 1970 - 25 May 1970    Triumvirate
                             (acting for Tsiranana)
                             - André Resampa                  (b. 1934 - d. 1993)
                             - Jacques Rabemananjara          (b. 1913 - d. 2005)
                             - Calvin Tsiebo                  (b. 1902 - d. ...)
11 Oct 1972 -  5 Feb 1975  Gabriel Ramanantsoa                (b. 1906 - d. 1979)
                           (Head of State)
 5 Feb 1975 - 11 Feb 1975  Richard Ratsimandrava              (b. 1931 - d. 1975)
                           (Head of State)
12 Feb 1975 - 15 Jun 1975  Gilles Andriamahazo                (b. 1919 - d. 1989)
                           (chairman National Military Leadership Committee)
15 Jun 1975 - 27 Mar 1993  Didier Ratsiraka (1st time)        (b. 1936)
                           (chairman Supreme Revolutionary Council to 4 Jan 1976)
27 Mar 1993 -  5 Sep 1996  Albert Zafy                        (b. 1927)
 5 Sep 1996 -  9 Feb 1997  Norbert Ratsirahonana (acting)     (b. 1938)
 9 Feb 1997 -  5 Jul 2002  Didier Ratsiraka (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                           (from 25 Feb 2002 in Toamasina)
22 Feb 2002 - 17 Mar 2009  Marc Ravalomanana                  (b. 1949)
                           (in opposition to Ratsiraka to 5 Jul 2002)
17 Mar 2009     (hours)    Hyppolite Ramaroson                (b. 1951)
                           (head of military directorate)
17 Mar 2009 - 25 Jan 2014  Andry Rajoelina                    (b. 1974)
                           (president of High Authority of Transition)
25 Jan 2014 -              Hery Rajaonarimampianina           (b. 1958)

Prime ministers 1833 - 1852 Rainiharo (b. 17... - d. 1852) 1852 - Jul 1864 Rainivoninahitriniony (b. 1821 - d. 1869) 14 Jul 1864 - 14 Oct 1895 Rainilaiarivony (b. 1828 - d. 1896) 15 Oct 1895 - Sep 1896 Rainitsimbazafy Sep 1896 - Feb 1897 Ombalahivelo Rasanjy (b. 1851 - d. 1918) (principal governor) 27 May 1957 - 1 May 1959 Philibert Tsiranana (s.a.) (vice president of Executive Council to 14 Oct 1958) 18 May 1972 - 5 Feb 1975 Gabriel Ramanantsoa (s.a.) 11 Jan 1976 - 30 Jul 1976 Joël Rakotomalala (b. 1929 - d. 1976) 12 Aug 1976 - 31 Jul 1977 Justin Rakotoniaina (b. 1933 - d. 2001) 31 Jul 1977 - 12 Feb 1988 Désiré Rakotoarijaona (b. 1934) 12 Feb 1988 - 8 Aug 1991 Victor Ramahatra (b. 1945) 8 Aug 1991 - 9 Aug 1993 Guy Razanamasy (b. 1928 - d. 2011) 9 Aug 1993 - 30 Oct 1995 Francisque Ravony (b. 1942 - d. 2003) 30 Oct 1995 - 28 May 1996 Emmanuel Rakotovahiny (b. 1938) 28 May 1996 - 21 Feb 1997 Norbert Ratsirahonana (s.a.) 21 Feb 1997 - 23 Jul 1998 Pascal Rakotomavo (b. 1934 - d. 2010) 23 Jul 1998 - 31 May 2002 Tantely Andrianarivo (b. 1954) (under house arrest from 27 May 2002) 26 Feb 2002 - 20 Jan 2007 Jacques Sylla (b. 1946 - d. 2009) (appointed by Ravalomanana) 31 May 2002 - 5 Jul 2002 Jean-Jacques Rasolondraibe (b. 1947) (interim; appointed by Ratsiraka) 20 Jan 2007 - 17 Mar 2009 Charles Rabemananjara (b. 1947) 17 Mar 2009 - 10 Oct 2009 Monja Roindefo (b. 1965) (continues in opposition to 13 Nov 2009) 10 Oct 2009 - 18 Dec 2009 Eugène Mangalaza (b. 1950) 18 Dec 2009 - 20 Dec 2009 Cécile Manorohanta (f) 20 Dec 2009 - 2 Nov 2011 Albert Camille Vital (b. 1952) 2 Nov 2011 - 16 Apr 2014 Omer Beriziky (b. 1950) 16 Apr 2014 - Roger Kolo (b. 1943)

Diégo-Suarez

       1886                French colony
 6 Aug 1896                incorporated into Madagascar

Commandants
       1886 -        1887  Henri Caillet
       1887 -  6 Aug 1896  Ernest Emmanuel Froger             (b. 1848 - d. ...)

Nossi-Bé

14 Jul 1840                French colony (subordinated to Île Bourbon [Réunion])
25 Mar 1843                subordinated to Mayotte
       1878                separate colony
 6 Aug 1896                incorporated into Madagascar

Commandants
 3 Feb 1841 -        1842  François Gouhot                    (b. 1802 - d. ...)
       1842                Pierre Passot                      (b. 1806 - d. 1854)
       1842 -        1845  Charles Auguste Morel
       1845 -        1848  Henry Martin Lamy                  (b. 1802 - d. ...)
       1848 -        1851  Jean Ernest Marchaisse             (b. 1814 - d. ...)
       1851                Alexandre Berg
       1851 -        1852  Jean Lapeyre-Bellair
       1852 -        1853  Thomas Dupuis (1st time)           (b. 1813 - d. ...)
       1853 -        1854  André Brisset                      (b. 1808 - d. ...)
       1854 -        1855  Louis Arnoux
       1855 -        1856  Joseph Septans                     (b. 1812 - d. ...)
       1856 -        1858  Thomas Dupuis (2nd time)           (s.a.)
       1858 -        1860  Paul Dupérier
       1860 -        1861  Paul-Gustave Sachet
       1861 -        1865  Vincent Derussat                   (b. 1806 - d. ...)
       1865 -        1866  Pierre Lucas
       1866 -        1868  Joseph Hayes                       (b. 1814 - d. ...)
       1868 -        1869  Louis Chériner
       1869 -        1870  Aimé Champy                        (b. 1837 - d. ...)
       1870 -        1871  Patrice Louis Jules Ventre de la
                           Touloubre                          (b. 1813 - d. ...)
       1871 -        1872  Jean-Baptiste Barnier
       1872 -        1873  Alexandre Marie Le Clos            (b. 1828 - d. ...)
       1873 -        1874  Honoré Léchelle                    (b. 1827 - d. ...)
       1874 -        1875  Claude Fontaine
       1875 -        1876  Joseph Carle                       (b. 1830 - d. ...)
       1876                Arthur Paul Feutray                (b. 1829 - d. ...)
       1876 -        1878  François Ferriez                   (b. 1834 - d. ...)
       1878 -        1883  Alphonse Seignac-Lesseps           (b. c.1829 - d. ...)
       1883 -        1886  Alexandre Le Maitre                (b. 1836 - d. ...)
       1886 -        1888  Léon Émile Clément-Thomas
       1889 -  6 Aug 1896  Joseph François                    (b. 1853 - d. 19...)

Sainte-Marie de Madagascar

30 Jul 1750                French colony
   Jul 1754 - 15 Oct 1818  unoccupied
15 Oct 1818                subordinated to Île Bourbon (Réunion)
 2 Mar 1843                subordinated to Mayotte
       1853                separate colony
27 Oct 1876                subordinated to Réunion
 4 May 1888                subordinated to Diégo-Suarez
28 Jan 1896                incorporated into Madagascar

Administrator
       1750 -        1754  Gosse                              (b. ... - d. 1754)
Commandants
       1819 - 15 Apr 1821  Jean-Louis Carayon (1st time)      (b. 1794 - d. ...)
15 Apr 1821 -  2 Apr 1823  Sylvain Roux                       (b. ... - d. 1823)
 2 Apr 1823 - 29 Apr 1823  François Fortuné Albrand           (b. 1795 - d. 1826)
29 Apr 1823 -    Oct 1826  Hercule Blevec (1st time)          (b. 1792 - d. 1866)
   Oct 1826 -    May 1827  Giraud (acting)
   May 1827 - 24 Oct 1830  Hercule Blevec (2nd time)          (s.a.)
24 Oct 1830 -        1830  Jean-Louis Carayon (2nd time)      (s.a.)
       1830 -        1841  direct rule from Île Bourbon (Réunion)
       1841 -        1849  Raimond Vergés
       1849 -        1850  Pierre Balthasar Mermier
                           (1st time)
       1850 -        1851  André Brisset                      (b. 1808 - d. ...)
       1851 -        1853  Pierre Balthasar Mermier
                           (2nd time)
       1853                Félix Grébert
       1853 -        1855  Jean Pierre Thomas Durand          (b. 1810 - d. ...)
       1855 -        1858  Anne Jean Baptiste Raffenel        (b. 1809 - d. 1858)
       1858 -        1868  Jean-Paul de la Grange
       1868 -        1874  Louis Blandinières                 (b. 1814 - d. ...)
       1874 -        1878  Charles Vassal
       1878 -        1896  direct rule from Réunion/Diégo-Suarez

Madeira: see under Portugal.
Magindanao: see under Philippines.

Malawi

14 May 1891                Nyasaland Districts Protectorate
22 Feb 1893                British Central Africa Protectorate
 6 Jul 1907                Nyasaland
 1 Aug 1953 - 31 Dec 1963  part of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
                           (see under Zimbabwe)
 6 Jul 1964                independence as Malawi
 6 Jul 1966                republic

Commissioners
 1 Feb 1891 - 16 Apr 1896  Sir Harry Hamilton Johnston        (b. 1858 - d. 1927)
16 Apr 1896 -  1 Apr 1907  Alfred Sharpe (from 1903,
                           Sir Alfred Sharpe)                 (b. 1853 - d. 1935)
 1 Apr 1907 -    Sep 1907  Francis Barrow Pearce (acting)     (b. 1866 - d. 1926)
Governors
   Oct 1907 -  1 May 1908  Sir William Henry Manning
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1863 - d. 1932)
 1 May 1908 -  1 Apr 1910  Sir Alfred Sharpe                  (s.a.)
 1 Apr 1910 -  4 Jul 1910  Francis Barrow Pearce (acting)     (s.a.)
 4 Jul 1910 -  6 Feb 1911  Henry Richard Wallis (acting)      (b. 1866 - d. 1946)
 6 Feb 1911 - 23 Sep 1913  Sir William Henry Manning
                           (2nd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
23 Sep 1913 - 12 Apr 1923  George Smith (from 1914,
                           Sir George Smith)                  (b. 1858 - d. 1938)
12 Apr 1923 - 27 Mar 1924  Richard Sims Donkin Rankine        (b. 1875 - d. 1961)
                           (acting)
27 Mar 1924 - 30 May 1929  Sir Charles Bowring                (b. 1872 - d. 1945)
30 May 1929 -  7 Nov 1929  Wilfred Bennett Davidson-Houston   (b. 1870 - d. 1960)
                           (acting)
 7 Nov 1929 - 22 Nov 1932  Shenton Thomas (from 1 Jan 1931,
                           Sir Shenton Thomas)                (b. 1879 - d. 1962)
22 Nov 1932 -  9 Apr 1934  Sir Hubert Winthrop Young          (b. 1885 - d. 1950)
 9 Apr 1934 - 21 Sep 1934  Kenneth Lambert Hall (acting)      (b. 1887 - d. 1979)
21 Sep 1934 - 20 Mar 1939  Sir Harold Baxter Kittermaster     (b. 1879 - d. 1939)
20 Mar 1939 -  8 Aug 1942  Sir Donald Mackenzie-Kennedy       (b. 1889 - d. 1965)
 8 Aug 1942 - 27 Mar 1947  Sir Edmund Charles Smith Richards  (b. 1889 - d. 1955)
30 Mar 1947 - 10 Apr 1956  Geoffrey Francis Taylor Colby
                           (from 1949, Sir Geoffrey Francis
                           Taylor Colby)                      (b. 1901 - d. 1958)
10 Apr 1956 - 10 Apr 1961  Sir Robert Perceval Armitage       (b. 1906 - d. 1990)
10 Apr 1961 -  6 Jul 1964  Sir Glyn Smallwood Jones           (b. 1908 - d. 1992)
Governor-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
 6 Jul 1964 -  6 Jul 1966  Sir Glyn Smallwood Jones           (s.a.)
Presidents
 6 Jul 1966 - 21 May 1994  Hastings Kamuzu Banda              (b. 1898? - d. 1997)
21 May 1994 - 24 May 2004  Bakili Muluzi                      (b. 1943)
24 May 2004 -  5 Apr 2012  Bingu wa Mutharika                 (b. 1934 - d. 2012)
 7 Apr 2012 - 31 May 2014  Joyce Banda (f)                    (b. 1950)
31 May 2014 -              Peter Mutharika                    (b. 1940)

Prime minister 1 Feb 1963 - 6 Jul 1966 Hastings Kamuzu Banda (s.a.)

Malaysia

 1 Jul 1896                Federated Malay States (Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak,
                           Selangor)
   Jan 1942 -    Sep 1945  occupied by Japan
 1 Apr 1946                Malayan Union (federated and unfederated Malay states plus
                           Malacca and Penang)
 1 Feb 1948                Federation of Malaya
31 Aug 1957                independence
16 Sep 1963                Malaysia (accession of Sabah [formerly North Borneo],
                           Sarawak, and Singapore)
 9 Aug 1965                withdrawal of Singapore

High commissioners
 1 Jul 1896 -  1 Apr 1946  the governors of the Straits
                           Settlements (see Singapore)
Residents-general
       1896 -        1901  Frank Athelstane Swettenham
                           (from 1897, Sir Frank Athelstane
                           Swettenham)                        (b. 1850 - d. 1946)
       1901 -        1904  William Hood Treacher              (b. 1849 - d. 1919)
       1905 -        1910  Sir William Thomas Taylor          (b. 1848 - d. 1931)
       1910 -        1911  Arthur Henderson Young             (b. 1854 - d. 1938)
Chief secretaries
       1911 -        1920  Edward Lewis Brockman              (b. 1865 - d. 1943)
       1920 -        1926  George Maxwell (from 1924,
                           Sir George Maxwell)                (b. 1871 - d. 1959)
       1926 -        1930  William Peel (from 1928,
                           Sir William Peel)                  (b. 1875 - d. 1945)
       1930 -        1932  Charles Walter Hamilton Cochrane   (b. 1876 - d. 1932)
       1932 -        1934  Andrew Caldecott                   (b. 1884 - d. 1951)
       1934 -        1935  Malcolm Bond Shelley               (b. 1879 - d. 1968)
       1935 -        1936  Marcus Rex                         (b. 1886 - d. 1971)
Federal secretaries
       1936 -        1939  Christopher Dominic Ahearne        (b. 1886 - d. 1964)
       1939 -    Jan 1942  Hugh Fraser
Governor-general (of the Malayan Union and Singapore)
22 May 1946 -  1 May 1948  Malcolm John MacDonald             (b. 1901 - d. 1981)
Governor
 1 Apr 1946 -  1 Feb 1948  Sir Gerard Edward James Gent       (b. 1895 - d. 1948)
High commissioners
 1 Feb 1948 -  4 Jul 1948  Sir Gerard Edward James Gent       (s.a.)
 1 Oct 1948 -  6 Oct 1951  Sir Henry Lovell Goldworthy Gurney (b. 1898 - d. 1951)
15 Jan 1952 - 31 May 1954  Sir Gerald Walter Robert Templer   (b. 1898 - d. 1979)
31 May 1954 - 31 Aug 1957  Sir Donald Charles MacGillivray    (b. 1906 - d. 1966)
Paramount rulers, with the title of yang di-pertuan agong
31 Aug 1957 -  1 Apr 1960  Tuanku Abdul Rahman ibni
                           al-Marhum Yamtuan Muhammad         (b. 1895 - d. 1960)
 1 Apr 1960 -  1 Sep 1960  Tuanku Hisamuddin Alam Shah
                           ibni al-Marhum Sultan Alaeddin
                           Sulaiman Shah                      (b. 1898 - d. 1960)
                           (acting to 14 Apr 1960)
 1 Sep 1960 - 20 Sep 1965  Syed Harun Putra ibni al-Marhum
                           Syed Hasan Jamalullail             (b. 1920 - d. 2000)
                           (acting to 21 Sep 1960)
21 Sep 1965 - 20 Sep 1970  Tuanku Ismail Nasiruddin Shah
                           ibni al-Marhum Sultan Zainal
                           Abidin Muadzam Shah                (b. 1907 - d. 1979)
21 Sep 1970 - 20 Sep 1975  Tuanku Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah
                           ibni al-Marhum Sultan Badlishah
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1927)
21 Sep 1975 - 29 Mar 1979  Tuanku Yahya Petra ibni al-Marhum
                           Sultan Ibrahim                     (b. 1917 - d. 1979)
29 Mar 1979 - 25 Apr 1984  Tuanku Ahmad Shah al-Mustain
                           Billah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Abu
                           Bakar Riayatuddin al-Muadzam Shah  (b. 1930)
                           (acting to 26 Apr 1979)
26 Apr 1984 - 25 Apr 1989  Tuanku Mahmud Iskandar ibni
                           al-Marhum Sultan Ismail            (b. 1932 - d. 2010)
26 Apr 1989 - 25 Apr 1994  Tuanku Azlan Muhibuddin Shah ibni
                           al-Marhum Sultan Yusuf Izzuddin
                           Shah Ghafarullahu-Lah              (b. 1928 - d. 2014)
26 Apr 1994 - 25 Apr 1999  Tuanku Jaafar ibni al-Marhum
                           Yamtuan Abdul Rahman               (b. 1922 - d. 2008)
26 Apr 1999 - 21 Nov 2001  Tuanku Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah
                           ibni al-Marhum Sultan Hisamuddin
                           Alam Shah                          (b. 1926 - d. 2001)
21 Nov 2001 - 13 Dec 2001  Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin ibni
                           al-Marhum Sultan Mahmud (1st time) (b. 1962)
                           (acting [for Salahuddin from 8 Oct 2001])
13 Dec 2001 - 12 Dec 2006  Syed Sirajuddin ibni al-Marhum
                           Syed Putra Jamalullail             (b. 1943)
13 Dec 2006 - 12 Dec 2011  Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin ibni
                           al-Marhum Sultan Mahmud (2nd time) (s.a.)
13 Dec 2011 -              Tuanku Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah
                           ibni al-Marhum Sultan Badlishah
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)

Chief minister 4 Aug 1955 - 28 Aug 1957 Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Alhaj (b. 1903 - d. 1990) Prime ministers 28 Aug 1957 - 15 Apr 1959 Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Alhaj (1st time) (s.a.) 16 Apr 1959 - 21 Aug 1959 Dato' Abdul Razak bin Hussein (1st time) (b. 1922 - d. 1976) 21 Aug 1959 - 22 Sep 1970 Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Alhaj (2nd time) (s.a.) 22 Sep 1970 - 14 Jan 1976 Tun Abdul Razak bin Hussein (2nd time) (s.a.) 15 Jan 1976 - 16 Jul 1981 Datuk Hussein bin Onn (b. 1922 - d. 1990) 16 Jul 1981 - 31 Oct 2003 Dato' Seri Mahathir bin Mohamad (b. 1925) 31 Oct 2003 - 3 Apr 2009 Datuk Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi (b. 1939) 3 Apr 2009 - Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak (b. 1953)

Maldives

 7 Jul 1153                sultanate
16 Dec 1887 - 26 Jul 1965  British protectorate
 1 Jan 1953                republic
 7 Mar 1954                sultanate
11 Nov 1968                republic
14 Apr 1969                name changed from Maldive Islands to Maldives

Sultans¹
- Uteem dynasty -
   Jul 1692 -    Jan 1701  Muhammad                           (b. 16... - d. 1701)
- Isdoo dynasty -
   Jan 1701 -    Oct 1701  `Ali VI                            (b. 16... - d. 1701)
   Oct 1701 -        1701  al-Hasan X                         (b. 1688 - d. 1765)
       1701 -    Dec 1704  Muzhir ad-Din Ibrahim
- Diyamigili dynasty -
   Dec 1704 -    Oct 1721  `Imad ad-Din II Muhammad
                           al-Muzaffar                        (b. 1661 - d. 1721)
   Oct 1721 -    Feb 1750  Ibrahim Iskandar II                (b. 1708 - d. 1750)
   Feb 1750 - 25 Jun 1757  `Imad ad-Din III Muhammad
                           al-Mukarram                        (b. 1717 - d. 1757)
       1757 -        1759  Amina Rani Kilagefanu (f) (rani)
- Huraage dynasty -
 6 Dec 1759 -  2 Feb 1767  `Izz ad-Din al-Hasan Badeiri
                           al-Ghazi                           (b. ... - d. 1767)
- Diyamigili dynasty -
       1767 -    Dec 1773  Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad            (b. ... - d. 1774)
- Huraage dynasty -
   Dec 1773 -    May 1774  Shams ad-Din II Muhammad Iskandar  (b. ... - d. 1779)
   May 1774 - 13 Sep 1779  Mu`izz ad-Din Muhammad Iskandar    (b. ... - d. 1779)
13 Sep 1779 -  2 Jun 1799  Nur ad-Din I al-Hasan              (b. af.1751 - d. 1799)
 2 Jun 1799 - 22 Jan 1835  Mu`in ad-Din I Muhammad            (b. ... - d. 1835)
22 Jan 1835 - 10 Jan 1882  `Imad ad-Din IV Muhammad           (b. 1818 - d. 1882)
10 Jan 1882 - 18 Dec 1886  Nur ad-Din II Ibrahim (1st time)   (b. ... - d. 1892)
18 Dec 1886 -        1888  Mu`in ad-Din II Muhammad           (b. ... - d. 1892)
       1888 - 29 Nov 1892  Nur ad-Din II Ibrahim (2nd time)   (s.a.)
   Dec 1892 -    May 1893  `Imad ad-Din V Muhammad            (b. 1884 - d. 1920)
   May 1893 -  3 Aug 1893  Shams ad-Din III Muhammad
                           Iskandar (1st time)                (b. 1879 - d. 1935)
 3 Aug 1893 - 12 Mar 1903  `Imad ad-Din VI Muhammad           (b. c.1863 - d. 19...)
12 Mar 1903 -  2 Oct 1934  Shams ad-Din III Muhammad
                           Iskandar (2nd time)                (s.a.)
 2 Oct 1934 - 12 Mar 1935  Amir `Ali Muhammad Farid
                           (1st time)
                           (chairman Council of Regency)
12 Mar 1935 -  8 Apr 1943  Nur ad-Din al-Hasan                (b. 1902 - d. ...)
 8 Apr 1943 -  3 Oct 1945  Amir `Ali Muhammad Farid
                           (2nd time)
                           (chairman Council of Regency)
 3 Oct 1945 - 21 Feb 1952  Amin Abdul Majid Didi              (b. 1873 - d. 1952)
                           (elected but remained in Ceylon; never installed)
21 Feb 1952 -  1 Jan 1953  Amir Ahmad Muhammad Amin Didi      (b. 1910 - d. 1954)
                           (chairman Council of Regency)
Presidents
 1 Jan 1953 -  2 Sep 1953  Amir Ahmad Muhammad Amin Didi      (s.a.)
 2 Sep 1953 -  7 Mar 1954  Ibrahim Muhammad Didi (acting)     (b. ... - d. 198...)
Sultan¹
 7 Mar 1954 - 11 Nov 1968  Muhammad Farid Didi                (b. 1901 - d. 1969)
Presidents
11 Nov 1968 - 11 Nov 1978  Ibrahim Nasir                      (b. 1926 - d. 2008)
11 Nov 1978 - 11 Nov 2008  Maumoon Abdul Gayoom               (b. 1937)
11 Nov 2008 -  7 Feb 2012  Mohamed Nasheed                    (b. 1967)
 7 Feb 2012 - 17 Nov 2013  Mohamed Waheed Hassan              (b. 1953)
17 Nov 2013 -              Abdulla Yameen                     (b. 1959)

Prime ministers 1883 - 1887 Ibrahim Dhoshimeyna Kilegefaanu (1st time) (b. 1845 - d. 1925) 1887 - 1888 ... 1888 - 1899 Ibrahim Dhoshimeyna Kilegefaanu (2nd time) (s.a.) 1899 - 1904 ... 1904 - 1925 Ibrahim Dhoshimeyna Kilegefaanu (3rd time) (s.a.) 1925 - 1932 ... 1932 - 1933 Muhammad Farid Didi (s.a.) 1933 - 1935 Amin Abdul Majid Didi (s.a.) 1935 - 1944 ... 29 Oct 1944 - 2 Sep 1953 Amir Ahmad Muhammad Amin Didi (s.a.) 2 Sep 1953 - 12 Dec 1957 Ibrahim Ali Didi (b. ... - d. 1975) 12 Dec 1957 - 11 Nov 1968 Ibrahim Nasir (s.a.) Aug 1972 - 6 Mar 1975 Ahmed Zaki (b. 1931 - d. 1996)
¹Full title: Sultan of Land and Sea, Lord of the Thousand Islands and Sultan of the Maldive Islands.

United Suvadiva Republic

 3 Jan 1959                independence of Addu Atoll declared
13 Mar 1959                Fua Mulaku and Huvadu Atoll join Addu to form the United
                           Suvadiva Republic
   Jul 1959                Huvadu retaken by Maldives government
30 Sep 1963                republic extinguished

President
   Jan 1959 - 30 Sep 1963  Abdullah Afif Didi                 (b. 1916 - d. 1993)

Mali

 6 Sep 1880                French territory of Haut-Sénégal created
                           (subordinated to Senegal)
18 Aug 1890                renamed French Sudan
27 Aug 1892                separate colony
16 Jun 1895                part of French West Africa (see under Senegal)
17 Oct 1899                French Sudan broke up; part becomes territory of
                           Haut-Sénégal-Niger
10 Oct 1902                becomes colony of Senegambia and Niger
18 Oct 1904                renamed Haut-Sénégal-Niger
 4 Dec 1920                renamed French Sudan
27 Oct 1946                French overseas territory
24 Nov 1958                autonomy (Sudanese Republic)
 4 Apr 1959                Sudan and Senegal form Mali Federation
20 Jun 1960                independence of Mali Federation
20 Aug 1960                Senegal withdraws from Mali Federation
22 Sep 1960                Sudanese Republic becomes Republic of Mali

Commandants-superior
27 Feb 1880 - 29 Jul 1880  Charles Boilève (1st time)         (b. 1837 - d. 1899)
 6 Sep 1880 -  3 Sep 1883  Gustave Borgnis-Desbordes          (b. 1839 - d. 1900)
 3 Sep 1883 - 18 Jun 1884  Charles Boilève (2nd time)         (s.a.)
18 Jun 1884 -    Sep 1885  Antoine Combes
                           (acting to 4 Sep 1884)
   Sep 1885 -    Aug 1886  Henri Frey
   Aug 1886 - 10 Sep 1888  Joseph Galliéni                    (b. 1849 - d. 1916)
10 Sep 1888 -        1891  Louis Archinard (1st time)         (b. 1850 - d. 1932)
       1891 - 27 Aug 1892  Pierre Humbert
27 Aug 1892 -  2 Aug 1893  Louis Archinard (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 2 Aug 1893 - 26 Dec 1893  François Bonnier (acting)
Governors
26 Dec 1893 - 16 Jun 1895  Albert Grodet                      (b. 1853 - d. 1933)
16 Jun 1895 - 17 Oct 1899  Edgard de Trentinian               (b. 1851 - d. 1942)
 1 Jan 1898 - 19 Nov 1898    René Audéoud                     (b. 1854 - d. 1909)
                             (acting for Trentinian)
Delegate
17 Oct 1899 - 20 Oct 1904  William Ponty                      (b. 1866 - d. 1915)
Lieutenant governors
20 Oct 1904 - 18 Feb 1908  William Ponty                      (s.a.)
18 Feb 1908 - 16 Jun 1915  François Joseph Clozel             (b. 1860 - d. 1918)
16 Jun 1915 -  1 Jul 1915  Philippe Henry (acting)
 1 Jul 1915 - 28 Jul 1916  Louis Digue (acting)
23 Sep 1916 - 20 Apr 1917  Raphaël Antonetti (acting)         (b. 1872 - d. 1938)
20 Apr 1917 - 21 May 1917  Albert Nebout (acting)             (b. 1862 - d. 1939)
21 May 1917 -  2 Feb 1918  Louis Periquet (acting)
 2 Feb 1918 - 16 May 1919  Auguste Brunet                     (b. 1878 - d. 1957)
16 May 1919 - 21 Aug 1921  Marcel Olivier                     (b. 1879 - d. 1945)
Governors
21 Aug 1921 - 31 Dec 1930  Jean Henri Terrasson de Fougères   (b. ... - d. 1930)
                           (acting to 26 Feb 1924)
31 Dec 1930 -  4 Apr 1931  Joseph Court (acting)              (b. 1881 - d. 1948)
 4 Apr 1931 - 11 Jun 1931  Gabriel Descemet (acting)          (b. 1879 - d. 1961)
11 Jun 1931 - 19 Feb 1935  Louis Jacques Fousset              (b. 1882 - d. 1949)
19 Feb 1935 - 22 Nov 1935  Félix Éboué (acting)               (b. 1884 - d. 1944)
22 Nov 1935 -  9 Nov 1936  Matteo Alfassa                     (b. 1876 - d. 1942)
 9 Nov 1936 - 28 Mar 1938  Ferdinand Jacques Louis Rougier
                           (acting to 4 Dec 1936)
28 Mar 1938 - 17 Apr 1942  Jean Desanti                       (b. 1899 - d. 1944)
                           (acting to 15 Nov 1940)
17 Apr 1942 - 15 May 1946  Auguste Calvel                     (b. 1892 - d. 1981)
                           (acting to 29 Dec 1942)
15 May 1946 -    Apr 1952  Edmond Louveau                     (b. 1895 - d. 1973)
   Apr 1952 - 10 Jul 1952  Camille Bailly                     (b. 1907 - d. 1984)
10 Jul 1952 - 23 Feb 1953  Jean Étcheber (acting)             (b. 1901 - d. 1967)
23 Feb 1953 -  2 Dec 1953  Albert Mouragues                   (b. 1908 - d. 1976)
 2 Dec 1953 -  3 Nov 1956  Lucien Eugène Geay                 (b. 1900 - d. 1976)
                           (acting to 10 Feb 1954)
High commissioners
 3 Nov 1956 - 24 Nov 1958  Henri Victor Gipoulon              (b. 1913 - d. 1989)
24 Nov 1958 - 20 Jun 1960  Jean Sicurani                      (b. 1915 - d. 1977)
Presidents
20 Jun 1960 - 19 Nov 1968  Modibo Keita                       (b. 1915 - d. 1977)
                           (Chief of State to 1965)
19 Nov 1968 - 26 Mar 1991  Moussa Traoré                      (b. 1936)
                           (chairman Military National Liberation Committee to 19 Sep
                           1969; Head of State 19 Sep 1969 - Jun 1979)
26 Mar 1991 -  8 Jun 1992  Amadou Toumani Touré (1st time)    (b. 1948)
                           (chairman National Reconciliation Council to 31 Mar 1991,
                           then chairman Transitional Committee for the Salvation
                           of the People)
 8 Jun 1992 -  8 Jun 2002  Alpha Oumar Konaré                 (b. 1946)
 8 Jun 2002 - 22 Mar 2012  Amadou Toumani Touré (2nd time)    (s.a.)
22 Mar 2012 - 12 Apr 2012  Amadou Haya Sanogo                 (b. 1972?)
                           (chairman National Committee for the Restoration of
                           Democracy and State)
12 Apr 2012 -  4 Sep 2013  Dioncounda Traoré (interim)        (b. 1942)
 4 Sep 2013 -              Ibrahim Boubacar Keita             (b. 1945)

Prime ministers 24 May 1957 - 5 Apr 1959 Jean-Marie Koné (b. 1913 - d. 1988) (vice president of the Government Council to 26 Jul 1958, president of the Government Council 26 Jul - 24 Nov 1958, president of the provisional government from 24 Nov 1958) 5 Apr 1959 - 1965 Modibo Keita (s.a.) 23 Nov 1968 - 19 Sep 1969 Yoro Diakité (b. 1932 - d. 1973) 6 Jun 1986 - 6 Jun 1988 Mamadou Dembélé (b. 1936) 2 Apr 1991 - 9 Jun 1992 Soumana Sacko (interim) (b. 1949) 9 Jun 1992 - 12 Apr 1993 Younoussi Touré (b. 1941) 12 Apr 1993 - 4 Feb 1994 Abdoulaye Sékou Sow (b. 1931 - d. 2013) 4 Feb 1994 - 15 Feb 2000 Ibrahim Boubacar Keita (s.a.) 15 Feb 2000 - 18 Mar 2002 Mandé Sidibé (b. 1940 - d. 2009) 18 Mar 2002 - 9 Jun 2002 Modibo Keita (b. 1942) 9 Jun 2002 - 30 Apr 2004 Ahmed Mohamed Ag Hamani (b. 1942) 30 Apr 2004 - 28 Sep 2007 Ousmane Issoufi Maïga (b. 1946) 28 Sep 2007 - 3 Apr 2011 Modibo Sidibé (b. 1952) 3 Apr 2011 - 22 Mar 2012 Cissé Mariam Kaïdama Sidibé (f) (b. 1948) 17 Apr 2012 - 11 Dec 2012 Cheick Modibo Diarra (interim) (b. 1952) 11 Dec 2012 - 5 Sep 2013 Diango Cissoko (interim) (b. 1948?) 5 Sep 2013 - 9 Apr 2014 Oumar Tatam Ly (b. 1963) 9 Apr 2014 - Moussa Mara (b. 1975)

Malta

26 Oct 1530                ruled by the Sovereign Military Order of Malta
12 Jun 1798                French rule
 5 Sep 1800                British rule (from 30 May 1814 crown colony)
 3 Mar 1962                State of Malta
21 Sep 1964                independence
13 Dec 1974                Republic of Malta

Commandant
12 Jun 1798 -  5 Sep 1800  Claude Henri Belgrand de Vaubois   (b. 1748 - d. 1839)
Commissioners
   Jun 1798 -  9 Nov 1799  Michel Louis Étienne Regnaud de
                           Saint-Jean d'Angély                (b. 1760 - d. 1819)
   Nov 1799 -    Sep 1800  Pierre Jean Louis Ovide Doublet    (b. 1754 - d. 1824)
Presidents of the Provisional Government (in rebellion)
       1798 -    Feb 1799    Emanuele Vitale                  (b. 1759 - d. 1802)
                             + Francesco Saverio Caruana      (b. 1759 - d. 1847)
   Feb 1799 -    Sep 1800    Alexander John Ball              (b. 1756 - d. 1809)
British representatives
 8 Sep 1800 - 19 Feb 1801  Alexander John Ball                (s.a.)
19 Feb 1801 -    Jul 1801  Henry Pigot                        (b. 1750 - d. 1840)
Civil commissioners
   Jul 1801 -    May 1803  Charles Cameron                    (b. 1766? - d. 1828)
   May 1803 - 25 Oct 1809  Sir Alexander John Ball            (s.a.)
25 Oct 1809 -        1813  Sir Hildebrand Oakes               (b. 1754 - d. 1822)
                           (acting to 30 Apr 1810)
Governors
       1813 - 17 Jan 1824  Sir Thomas Maitland                (b. 1759 - d. 1824)
       1824 -        1826  Francis Rawdon-Hastings,
                           Marquess of Hastings               (b. 1754 - d. 1826)
 2 Dec 1827 -    May 1835  Sir Frederic Cavendish Ponsonby    (b. 1783 - d. 1837)
 1 Oct 1836 -        1843  Sir Henry Frederic Bouverie        (b. 1783 - d. 1852)
       1843 -        1847  Sir Patrick Stuart                 (b. 1787 - d. 1855)
   Oct 1847 -        1851  Richard More O'Ferrall             (b. 1797 - d. 1880)
27 Oct 1851 -        1858  Sir William Reid                   (b. 1791 - d. 1858)
       1858 -        1864  Sir John Gaspard Le Marchant       (b. 1803 - d. 1874)
15 Nov 1864 -        1867  Sir Henry Knight Storks            (b. 1811 - d. 1874)
15 May 1867 -        1872  Sir Patrick Grant                  (b. 1804 - d. 1895)
 3 Jun 1872 -        1878  Sir Charles Thomas Van Straubenzee (b. 1812 - d. 1892)
13 May 1878 -        1884  Sir Arthur Borton                  (b. 1814 - d. 1893)
   Apr 1884 - 28 Sep 1888  Sir John Lintorn Arabin Simmons    (b. 1821 - d. 1903)
28 Sep 1888 -  1 Dec 1889  Sir Henry D'Oyley Torrens          (b. 1823 - d. 1889)
       1890 -        1893  Sir Henry Augustus Smyth           (b. 1825 - d. 1906)
       1893 -  6 Jan 1899  Sir Arthur James Lyon Fremantle    (b. 1835 - d. 1901)
 6 Jan 1899 -        1903  Sir Francis Wallace Grenfell (from
                           18 Jul 1902, Francis Wallace
                           Grenfell, Baron Grenfell)          (b. 1841 - d. 1925)
       1903 -        1907  Sir Charles Mansfield Clarke       (b. 1839 - d. 1932)
       1907 -        1909  Sir Henry Eugene Walter Grant      (b. 1855 - d. 1934)
       1909 -        1915  Sir Henry Macleod Leslie Rundle    (b. 1856 - d. 1934)
   Feb 1915 -    May 1919  Paul Sanford, Baron Methuen of
                           Corsham                            (b. 1845 - d. 1932)
       1919 -        1924  Herbert Charles Onslow Plumer,
                           Baron Plumer                       (b. 1857 - d. 1932)
       1924 - 28 Feb 1927  Sir Walter Norris Congreve         (b. 1862 - d. 1927)
       1927 -        1931  Sir John Philip du Cane            (b. 1865 - d. 1947)
   Jun 1931 -        1936  Sir David Graham Muschet Campbell  (b. 1869 - d. 1936)
       1936 -        1940  Sir Charles Bonham-Carter          (b. 1876 - d. 1955)
   Apr 1940 -        1942  Sir William Dobbie                 (b. 1879 - d. 1964)
       1942 - 26 Sep 1944  John Standish Surtees Prendergast
                           Vereker, Viscount Gort             (b. 1886 - d. 1946)
26 Sep 1944 - 10 Jul 1946  Sir Edmond Charles Acton Schreiber (b. 1890 - d. 1972)
10 Jul 1946 - 16 Sep 1949  Francis Campbell Ross Douglas
                           (from 1947, Sir Francis Campbell
                           Ross Douglas)                      (b. 1889 - d. 1980)
16 Sep 1949 -  3 Aug 1954  Sir Gerald Hallen Creasy           (b. 1897 - d. 1983)
 3 Aug 1954 - 13 Feb 1959  Sir Robert Edward Laycock          (b. 1907 - d. 1968)
13 Feb 1959 - 27 Jun 1962  Sir Guy Grantham                   (b. 1900 - d. 1992)
27 Jun 1962 -  2 Jul 1962  Sir Anthony Mamo (acting)          (b. 1909 - d. 2008)
 2 Jul 1962 - 21 Sep 1964  Sir Maurice Henry Dorman           (b. 1902 - d. 1993)
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
21 Sep 1964 - 21 Jun 1971  Sir Maurice Henry Dorman           (s.a.)
21 Jun 1971 - 13 Dec 1974  Sir Anthony Mamo                   (s.a.)
                           (acting to 5 Jul 1971)
Presidents
13 Dec 1974 - 27 Dec 1976  Sir Anthony Mamo                   (s.a.)
27 Dec 1976 - 27 Dec 1981  Anton Buttigieg                    (b. 1912 - d. 1983)
27 Dec 1981 - 15 Feb 1982  Albert V. Hyzler (acting)          (b. 1916 - d. 1993)
15 Feb 1982 - 15 Feb 1987  Agatha Barbara (f)                 (b. 1923 - d. 2002)
15 Feb 1987 -  4 Apr 1989  Paul Xuereb (acting)               (b. 1923 - d. 1994)
 4 Apr 1989 -  4 Apr 1994  Censu Tabone                       (b. 1913 - d. 2012)
 4 Apr 1994 -  4 Apr 1999  Ugo Mifsud Bonnici                 (b. 1932)
 4 Apr 1999 -  4 Apr 2004  Guido de Marco                     (b. 1931 - d. 2010)
 4 Apr 2004 -  4 Apr 2009  Eddie Fenech Adami                 (b. 1934)
 4 Apr 2009 -  4 Apr 2014  George Abela                       (b. 1948)
 4 Apr 2014 -              Marie-Louise Coleiro Preca (f)     (b. 1958)

Prime ministers 26 Oct 1921 - 13 Oct 1923 Joseph Howard (b. 1862 - d. 1925) 13 Oct 1923 - 22 Sep 1924 Francesco Buhagiar (b. 1876 - d. 1934) Sep 1924 - Aug 1927 Ugo Pasquale Mifsud (1st time) (b. 1889 - d. 1942) Aug 1927 - 21 Jun 1932 Gerald Strickland, Count Della Catena, (from 1928) Baron Strickland (b. 1861 - d. 1940) 21 Jun 1932 - 2 Nov 1933 Sir Ugo Pasquale Mifsud (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Nov 1947 - 26 Sep 1950 Paul Boffa (b. 1890 - d. 1962) 26 Sep 1950 - 20 Dec 1950 Enrico Mizzi (b. 1885 - d. 1950) 20 Dec 1950 - 11 Mar 1955 Giorgio Borg Olivier (1st time) (b. 1911 - d. 1980) 11 Mar 1955 - 26 Apr 1958 Dom Mintoff (1st time) (b. 1916 - d. 2012) 3 Mar 1962 - 21 Jun 1971 Giorgio Borg Olivier (2nd time) (s.a.) 21 Jun 1971 - 22 Dec 1984 Dom Mintoff (2nd time) (s.a.) 22 Dec 1984 - 12 May 1987 Carmelo Mifsud Bonnici (b. 1933) 12 May 1987 - 28 Oct 1996 Eddie Fenech Adami (1st time) (s.a.) 28 Oct 1996 - 6 Sep 1998 Alfred Sant (b. 1948) 6 Sep 1998 - 23 Mar 2004 Eddie Fenech Adami (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Mar 2004 - 11 Mar 2013 Lawrence Gonzi (b. 1953) 11 Mar 2013 - Joseph Muscat (b. 1974)

Malta, Sovereign Military Order of

Note: Though without a territory since 1798, the Sovereign Military Order of Malta still regards itself, and is regarded by several states that give it diplomatic recognition, as a sovereign state.
       1530                Sovereign and Military Order of the Knights of Malta
       1834                Knights Hospitaller of St. John of Jerusalem
24 Jun 1961                Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of
                           Jerusalem, of Rhodes, and of Malta

Grand masters
 5 Feb 1697 - 10 Jan 1720  Ramon Perellós i de Rocafull       (b. 1637 - d. 1720)
14 Jan 1720 - 16 Jun 1722  Marc'Antonio Chigi Zondadari dei
                           marchesi di San Quirico            (b. 1658 - d. 1722)
19 Jun 1722 - 12 Dec 1736  António Manuel de Vilhena          (b. 1663 - d. 1736)
16 Dec 1736 - 15 Jan 1741  Ramon Despuig y Martínez de
                           Marcilla de los condes de
                           Montealegre                        (b. 1670 - d. 1741)
18 Jan 1741 - 24 Jan 1773  Manuel Pinto da Fonseca            (b. 1681 - d. 1773)
28 Jan 1773 -  9 Nov 1775  Francisco Ximénez de Tejada de
                           los señores de Sobrarbe y condes
                           de Aragón                          (b. 1703 - d. 1775)
12 Nov 1775 - 13 Jul 1797  François-Marie-des-Neiges-Emmanuel
                           de Rohan, comte du Polduc,
                           seigneur de Henleix                (b. 1725 - d. 1797)
17 Jul 1797 - 26 Aug 1798  Ferdinand Joseph Freiherr von
                           Hompesch zu Bollheim               (b. 1744 - d. 1805)
                           (abandons Malta 22 Jun 1798, abdicates 6 Jul 1799)
10 Sep 1798-23/24Mar 1801  Pavel Petrovich
                           (= Emperor Pavel I of Russia)      (b. 1754 - d. 1801)
                           (to 7 Nov 1798 Protector of the Order
                           and acting Grand Master)
27 Mar 1801 -  9 Feb 1803  Knyaz Nikolay Ivanovich Saltykov   (b. 1736 - d. 1816)
                           (acting)
       1802 -  9 Feb 1803    Giuseppe Caracciolo dei marchesi
                             di Sant'Eramo (1st time)         (b. ... - d. 1839)
                             (acting, in opposition)
 9 Feb 1803 - 13 Jun 1805  Giovanni Battista Tommasi
                           de Cortona                         (b. 1731 - d. 1805)
29 Nov 1805 - 25 Apr 1814  Innico Maria Guevara Suardo        (b. 1744 - d. 1814)
                           (acting)
17 Jun 1805 - 10 Feb 1809    Giuseppe Caracciolo dei marchesi
                             di Sant'Eramo (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                             (in opposition)
26 Apr 1814 - 10 Jun 1821  Andrea Di Giovanni e Centelles     (b. 1742 - d. 1821)
                           (acting)
11 Jun 1821 - 19 May 1834  Antonio Busca (acting)             (b. 1767 - d. 1834)
23 May 1834 - 12 Jul 1845  Carlo Candida (acting)             (b. 1762 - d. 1845)
15 Sep 1845 -  9 Oct 1864  Philipp Graf von Colloredo-Mels
                           und -Waldsee (acting)              (b. 1779 - d. 1864)
26 Feb 1865 - 13 Jan 1872  Alessandro Borgia (acting)         (b. 1783 - d. 1872)
14 Feb 1872 - 24 Jan 1905  Giovanni Battista Ceschi
                           a Santa Croce                      (b. 1827 - d. 1905)
                           (acting to 28 Mar 1879)
 6 Mar 1905 - 26 Mar 1931  Galeazzo Graf von Thun und
                           Hohenstein                         (b. 1850 - d. 1931)
26 Mar 1931 - 30 May 1931  Pio Franchi de' Cavalieri (acting) (b. 1869 - d. 1960)
30 May 1931 - 14 Nov 1951  Ludovico Chigi Della Rovere Albani,
                           principe di Farnese, di Campagnano
                           e di Soriano                       (b. 1866 - d. 1951)
14 Nov 1951 - 25 Apr 1955  Conte Palatino Antonio Hercolani
                           Fava Simonetti (acting)            (b. 1883 - d. 1962)
25 Apr 1955 - 11 May 1962  Ernesto Paternò Castello (acting)  (b. 1882 - d. 1971)
11 May 1962 - 17 Jan 1988  Angelo di Mojana dei signori
                           di Cologna                         (b. 1905 - d. 1988)
17 Jan 1988 - 11 Apr 1988  Giancarlo Pallavicini (acting)     (b. 1911 - d. 1999)
11 Apr 1988 -  7 Feb 2008  Andrew Willoughby Ninian Bertie    (b. 1929 - d. 2008)
 7 Feb 2008 - 11 Mar 2008  Giacomo Dalla Torre del Tempio di
                           Sanguinetto (acting)               (b. 1944)
11 Mar 2008 -              Matthew Festing                    (b. 1949)

Manchukuo: see under China.

Marshall Islands

22 Oct 1885                German rule
13 Sep 1886                protectorate declared
 1 Apr 1906                part of German New Guinea (see under Papua New Guinea)
 3 Oct 1914                Japanese occupation
17 Dec 1920                League of Nations mandate
                           (see under Micronesia, Federated States of)
       1944                U.S. occupation
18 Jul 1947                part of the UN Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
                           (see under Micronesia, Federated States of)
 1 May 1979                autonomy (Republic of the Marshall Islands)
21 Oct 1986                Compact of Free Association with the U.S. effective
10 Jul 1987                trust territory effectively dissolved
22 Dec 1990                final independence (Security Council ratifies termination
                           of trusteeship)

Commissioners
       1885 -        1886  Gustav von Oertzen                 (b. 1836 - d. 1911)
       1886 -  5 Oct 1887  Wilhelm Knappe                     (b. 1855 - d. 1910)
14 Apr 1888 - 29 Mar 1889  Franz Leopold Sonnenschein         (b. 1857 - d. 1897)
14 Apr 1890 -    Feb 1892  Friedrich Louis Max Biermann       (b. 1856 - d. 1929)
       1893 -        1894  Ernst Schmidt-Dargitz              (b. 1859 - d. 1924)
Landeshauptleute
11 May 1894 -    Mar 1898  Georg Irmer                        (b. 1853 - d. 1931)
24 Mar 1898 - 18 Jan 1906  Eugen Brandeis                     (b. 1846 - d. 1919)
                           (acting to 22 Feb 1900)
Presidents
17 Nov 1979 - 20 Dec 1996  Amata Kabua                        (b. 1928 - d. 1996)
20 Dec 1996 - 14 Jan 1997  Kunio Lemari (acting)              (b. 1942 - d. 2008)
14 Jan 1997 - 10 Jan 2000  Imata Kabua                        (b. 1943)
10 Jan 2000 - 14 Jan 2008  Kessai H. Note                     (b. 1950)
14 Jan 2008 - 21 Oct 2009  Litokwa Tomeing                    (b. 1939)
21 Oct 2009 -  2 Nov 2009  Ruben Zackhras (acting)            (b. 1947)
 2 Nov 2009 - 10 Jan 2012  Jurelang Zedkaia                   (b. 1950)
10 Jan 2012 -              Christopher Loeak                  (b. 1952)

Martinique

15 Sep 1635                French colony
 1 Mar 1762 -        1763  British occupation
22 May 1794 -        1802  British occupation
       1809 -        1814  British occupation
19 Mar 1946                French overseas département

Governors (26 May 1802 - 10 Sep 1817, captains-general)
       1689 -        1711  Nicolas de Gabaret                 (b. 16... - d. 1712)
       1711 -        1716  Jean-Pierre de Charritte           (b. 1658 - d. 1723)
       1716                ..., marquis du Quesne
 7 Jan 1717 - 23 May 1717  Antoine d'Arcy de la Varenne       (b. 16... - d. 1732)
       1717 -        1721  De Hurault
       1721 -        1728  Jean-Charles de Bochart, sieur
                           de Champigny                       (b. ... - d. 1754)
       1728 -        1737  François Louis de Brach            (b. 1668 - d. 1737)
       1737 -        1742  ...
       1742 -        1744  André Martin, sieur de Pointesable (b. ... - d. 1750)
       1744 - 12 May 1750  Charles de Thubières, marquis de
                           Caylus                             (b. 1698 - d. 1750?)
       1750 -        1752  ...
       1752                Maximin, marquis de Bompar         (b. 1698 - d. 1773)
       1752 -        1757  Rouillé de Rocourt
       1757 -  7 Feb 1761  François, marquis de La Ferté
                           Beauharnais                        (b. 1714 - d. 1800)
       1761 -  1 Mar 1762  Louis Le Vassor de La Touche
                           de Tréville                        (b. 1710 - d. 1781)
       1762 -        1763  William Rufane
   Jul 1763 -    Apr 1764  François Louis de Salignac,
                           marquis de Fénelon                 (b. 1722 - d. 1764)
25 Jan 1765 -        1772  Victor Thérèse Charpentier,
                           comte d'Ennery                     (b. 1731 - d. 1776)
 9 Mar 1772 - 15 Mar 1776  Vital Auguste, marquis de
                           Grégoire, comte de Nozières        (b. 1715 - d. ...)
15 Mar 1776 -    May 1777  Robert d'Argout                    (b. 1724 - d. 1780)
   May 1777 -    Mar 1783  François Claude Amour du Chariol,
                           marquis de Bouillé                 (b. 1739 - d. 1800)
   Mar 1783 -    Mar 1791  Claude Charles de Marillac,
                           vicomte de Damas                   (b. 1731 - d. ...)
   Jul 1789 -    Apr 1790    Charles Joseph Hyacinthe du
                             Houx (acting for Damas)          (b. 1734 - d. 1827)
12 Mar 1791 -  3 Jul 1792  Jean Pierre Antoine, comte de
                           Béhague                            (b. 1727 - d. 1813)
   Jan 1793 - 22 May 1794  Donatien Marie Joseph de Vimeur,
                           vicomte de Rochambeau              (b. 1755 - d. 1813)
       1794                Robert Prescott                    (b. 1725 - d. 1816)
       1794 -        1795  John Vaughan                       (b. 1731 - d. 1795)
       1795 -        1796  Sir Robert Shore Milnes            (b. 1746 - d. 1837)
       1796 -        1802  William Keppel                     (b. 17... - d. 1834)
       1802 -        1809  Louis Thomas Villaret de Joyeuse   (b. 1747 - d. 1812)
24 Feb 1809 -        1809  George Beckwith                    (b. 1753 - d. 1823)
10 Jun 1809 -        1812  John Broderick                     (b. 1765 - d. 1842)
       1812 -        1814  Charles Wale                       (b. 1763 - d. 1845)
       1814                Lindsay
       1814 -        1818  Pierre René Marie, comte de
                           Vaugiraud de Rosnay                (b. 1741 - d. 1819)
       1818 -        1826  François Xavier, comte de Donzelot (b. 1764 - d. 1843)
       1826 -        1829  François Marie Michel de Bouillé   (b. 1779 - d. 1853)
       1829 -        1830  Louis Henri de Saulces de
                           Freycinet                          (b. 1777 - d. 1840)
       1830 -        1834  Jean Henri Joseph Dupôtet          (b. 1777 - d. 1852)
       1834 -        1836  Emmanuel Halgan                    (b. 1771 - d. 1852)
       1836 -    Jan 1838  Ange René Armand, baron de Mackau  (b. 1788 - d. 1855)
   Jan 1838 -    Jul 1838  Claude Rostoland (1st time)        (b. 1790 - d. 1848)
                           (acting)
       1838 -        1840  Alphonse Louis Théodore de Mogès   (b. 1796 - d. 1850)
       1840 -        1844  Étienne Henri Mengin du Valdailly  (b. 1778 - d. 1865)
       1844 -    Mar 1848  Pierre Louis Aimé Mathieu
   Mar 1848 -  3 Jun 1848  Claude Rostoland (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 3 Jun 1848 -    Nov 1848  François Auguste Perrinon          (b. 1812 - d. 1861)
       1848 -        1851  Armand Joseph Bruat                (b. 1796 - d. 1855)
11 Apr 1851 -        1853  Auguste Napoléon Vaillant
       1853                Jacques Brunot (acting)
15 Jun 1853 -    Sep 1856  Louis Henri de Gueydon             (b. 1809 - d. 1886)
       1856                Louis André Lagrange (1st time)    (b. ... - d. 1861)
                           (acting)
       1856 -        1859  Armand Louis Joseph Denis, comte
                           Fitte de Soucy
       1859                Louis André Lagrange (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                           (acting)
       1859 -        1864  Antoine Marie Ferdinand de
                           Maussion de Candé                  (b. 1801 - d. 1867)
       1864 -        1867  François Théodore de Lapelin       (b. 1812 - d. 1888)
       1867                André César Vérand (acting)        (b. 1805 - d. 1870)
       1867 -        1869  Louis Auguste Bertier
       1869 -        1870  Marie Gabriel Couturier (acting)
       1870 -        1871  Charles Menche de Loisne
       1871                Octave Bernard Gilbert-Pierre      (b. 1817 - d. ...)
                           (acting)
       1871 -        1874  Georges Charles Cloué              (b. 1817 - d. 1889)
       1874                François Charles Michaux (acting)
       1875 -        1877  Thomas Louis Kirkland Le Normant
                           de Kergrist                        (b. 1813 - d. 1895)
       1877 -        1879  Marie Bruno Ferdinand Grasset      (b. 1817 - d. ...)
       1879                Charles Alexandre Lacouture        (b. 1829 - d. 1917)
                           (acting)
       1879 -        1881  Théophile Aube                     (b. 1826 - d. 1890)
       1881                Moreau (acting)
       1881 -        1887  Vincent Gaëtan Allègre             (b. 1835 - d. 1899)
       1887                Coridon (acting)
       1887 -        1889  Albert Grodet                      (b. 1853 - d. 1933)
       1889 -        1892  Germain Casse                      (b. 1837 - d. 1900)
       1892 -        1895  Delphino Moracchini                (b. 1846 - d. 1903)
       1895 -        1898  Noël Pardon
       1898 -        1901  Marie Louis Gustave Gabrié         (b. 1852 - d. 19...)
16 Jul 1901 -  8 May 1902  Louis Mouttet                      (b. 1857 - d. 1902)
   May 1902 -        1902  Georges Lhuerre (acting)
       1902 -        1904  Philema Lemaire                    (b. 1856 - d. 1932)
       1904 -        1906  Louis Alphonse Bonhoure            (b. 1864 - d. 1909)
10 Mar 1906 -        1908  Charles Lepreux                    (b. 1856 - d. 1930)
       1908 -        1913  Fernand Foureau                    (b. 1850 - d. 1914)
       1913 -        1914  Joseph Henri Alfred Vacher         (b. 1862 - d. 19...)
       1914 -        1915  Georges Poulet
       1915 -        1920  Camille Guy                        (b. 1860 - d. 1929)
       1920 -        1921  Maurice Gourbeil
       1921 -        1923  Fernand Levecque                   (b. 1852 - d. 19...)
       1923 -        1926  Henri Marius Richard
       1926 -        1928  Robert de Guise
14 Feb 1928 - 23 Jul 1933  Louis Gerbinis                     (b. 1871 - d. 1954)
       1933 -        1934  Félix Éboué (acting)               (b. 1884 - d. 1944)
       1934                René Veber
       1934 -        1935  Matteo Alfassa                     (b. 1876 - d. 1942)
       1935 -        1936  Louis Jacques Fousset              (b. 1882 - d. 1949)
       1936                Marie Marc Georges Pelicier
22 Oct 1936 -  7 Jan 1938  Jean-Baptiste Alberti              (b. 1881 - d. 1938)
       1938                André Allys (acting)               (b. 1888 - d. 1968)
 5 Apr 1938 -        1939  Maurice Xavier Joseph Decharte     (b. 1882 - d. 1939)
       1939 -        1940  Georges Spitz                      (b. 1881 - d. 1959)
       1940 -    Mar 1941  Louis Bressolles
   Mar 1941 -        1943  Yves Nicol                         (b. 1887 - d. 1954)
14 Jul 1943 - 31 Jul 1944  Louis Ponton                       (b. 1906 - d. 1944)
                           (acting to 17 Sep 1943)
       1944 -    Jan 1945  Antoine Marie Angelini
14 Jan 1945 -        1946  Georges Parisot                    (b. 1887 - d. 1969)
       1946 -        1947  Georges Orselli
Prefects (10 May 1982 - 24 Feb 1988, commissioners of the republic)
16 Aug 1947 - 27 Jul 1950  Pierre Trouillé                    (b. 1907 - d. 1986)
25 Aug 1950 -  1 Nov 1954  Christian Laigret                  (b. 1903 - d. 1977)
 1 Nov 1954 - 16 Jun 1957  Gaston Villéger                    (b. 1904 - d. ...)
 1 Aug 1957 -  1 Jan 1960  Jacques Boissier                   (b. 1910 - d. 1967)
 1 Jan 1960 - 25 Apr 1961  Jean Parsi                         (b. 1905 - d. 1994)
25 Apr 1961 -  8 Nov 1963  Michel Grollemund                  (b. 1914 - d. 2001)
21 Nov 1963 - 16 Sep 1966  Raphaël Petit                      (b. 1916 - d. 2010)
16 Sep 1966 -  1 Aug 1967  Pierre Lambertin                   (b. 1921 - d. 2010)
 7 Aug 1967 - 20 Jun 1969  Jean Deliau                        (b. 1913)
 1 Sep 1969 - 15 Jun 1970  Pierre Béziau                      (b. 1920 - d. 1996)
 1 Jul 1970 -  1 Jul 1973  Jean Terrade                       (b. 1920 - d. 1996)
 1 Jul 1973 - 15 Nov 1975  Christian Orsetti                  (b. 1923)
15 Nov 1975 - 20 May 1978  Paul Noirot-Cosson                 (b. 1924 - d. 1997)
20 May 1978 -  3 May 1979  Raymond Heim                       (b. 1920 - d. 2010)
 3 May 1979 - 27 Jul 1981  Marcel Julia                       (b. 1930)
27 Jul 1981 -  6 Mar 1985  Jean Chevance                      (b. 1929)
 6 Mar 1985 -  4 Nov 1987  Édouard Lacroix                    (b. 1936 - d. 2012)
 4 Nov 1987 - 12 Apr 1989  Jean Jouandet                      (b. 1938)
12 Apr 1989 -  4 Sep 1991  Jean-Claude Roure                  (b. 1938)
 4 Sep 1991 -  6 Jan 1995  Michel Morin                       (b. 1945)
 6 Jan 1995 - 24 Aug 1998  Jean-François Cordet               (b. 1951)
31 Aug 1998 - 21 Jun 2000  Dominique Bellion                  (b. 1948)
24 Jul 2000 -  9 Feb 2004  Michel Cadot                       (b. 1954)
 9 Feb 2004 - 20 Jun 2007  Yves Dassonville                   (b. 1948)
20 Jun 2007 -  2 Aug 2007  Patrice Latron (interim)           (b. 1961)
 2 Aug 2007 -    Mar 2011  Ange Mancini                       (b. 1944)
30 Mar 2011 -              Laurent Prévost                    (b. 1967)

Presidents of the General Council (holding executive power from 2 Mar 1982) 1970 - Apr 1992 Émile Maurice (b. 1910 - d. 1993) Apr 1992 - 31 Mar 2011 Claude Lise (b. 1941) 31 Mar 2011 - Josette Manin (f) (b. 1950)

French possessions in the Americas

14 Sep 1939 -    Sep 1943  French possessions in the Americas (French Guiana,
                           Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Saint-Pierre and Miquelon)
                           grouped together

High commissioners in the Antilles
14 Sep 1939 - 14 Jul 1943  Georges Robert                     (b. 1875 - d. 1965)
14 Jul 1943 -    Sep 1943  Henri Hoppenot                     (b. 1891 - d. 1977)

Maryland (Africa): see under Liberia.
Massa and Carrara: see under Italian states.

Mauritania

   Oct 1904                French territory (part of French West Africa; see under
                           Senegal)
12 Jan 1920                French colony
27 Oct 1946                French overseas territory
28 Nov 1958                autonomy (Islamic Republic of Mauritania)
28 Nov 1960                independence

Commissioners (from 11 Dec 1920, lieutenant governors)
   Nov 1904 - 12 May 1905  Xavier Coppolani                   (b. 1866 - d. 1905)
12 May 1905 - 27 May 1905  Louis Frèrejean (acting)           (b. 1862 - d. 19...)
27 May 1905 -    Nov 1907  Bernard Laurent Montané-Capdebosq  (b. 1862 - d. 19...)
   Nov 1907 -        1909  Henri Gouraud                      (b. 1867 - d. 1946)
       1909                Claudel (acting)
       1909                Aubert (acting)
 1 Jan 1910 -  1 Mar 1912  Henri Hippolyte Patey
 1 Mar 1912 - 25 May 1914  Charles Mouret                     (b. 1871 - d. 1914)
   May 1914 - 20 Nov 1916  Louis Jules Albert Obissier        (b. 1868 - d. 19...)
20 Nov 1916 -  9 Nov 1926  Henri Gaden                        (b. 1867 - d. 1939)
 9 Nov 1926 - 13 Jan 1928  Albéric Fournier
13 Jan 1928 - 21 Nov 1929  Alphonse Choteau                   (b. ... - d. 1936)
21 Nov 1929 - 19 Jun 1931  René Héctor Émile Chazal
19 Jun 1931 - 22 Jun 1933  Gabriel Descemet (1st time)        (b. 1879 - d. 1961)
                           (acting)
22 Jun 1933 -  7 Apr 1934  Louis François Antonin (acting)
 7 Apr 1934 -  5 Jul 1934  Gabriel Descemet (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 5 Jul 1934 -    Aug 1934  Adolphe Deitte                     (b. 1879 - d. 1949)
   Aug 1934 -  1 Nov 1934  Jean-Baptiste Victor Chazelas
                           (1st time) (acting)
 1 Nov 1934 - 15 Apr 1935  Richard Brunot                     (b. 1883 - d. 1958)
15 Apr 1935 - 10 Nov 1935  Jean-Baptiste Victor Chazelas
                           (2nd time) (acting)
10 Nov 1935 -  1 Sep 1936  Marcel de Coppet                   (b. 1881 - d. 1968)
 1 Sep 1936 - 24 Oct 1936  Jean Louis Beyriès (1st time)      (b. 1887 - d. 1974)
                           (acting)
24 Oct 1936 -  7 Aug 1938  Oswald Durand                      (b. 1888 - d. 1982)
 7 Aug 1938 -    Nov 1938  Charles André Dumas (acting)
   Nov 1938 -  4 May 1944  Jean Louis Beyriès (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                           (acting to 28 Aug 1941)
   Apr 1942 -    May 1944    Jean Chalvet                     (b. 1893 - d. 1975)
                             (acting for Beyriès)
 4 May 1944 - 31 Jul 1945  Christian Laigret                  (b. 1903 - d. 1977)
31 Jul 1945 - 30 Apr 1946  René Babin (acting)
30 Apr 1946 - 19 Jul 1947  Georges Poirier (acting)
19 Jul 1947 - 31 Dec 1947  Lucien Eugène Geay (acting)        (b. 1900 - d. 1976)
31 Dec 1947 -  7 Aug 1949  Henry de Mauduit                   (b. 1897 - d. 1975)
 7 Aug 1949 - 27 Sep 1950  Édouard Louis Terrac (acting)      (b. 1900 - d. 1956)
27 Sep 1950 - 25 Apr 1952  Jacques Rogué                      (b. 1898 - d. 1980)
25 Apr 1952 -  6 Apr 1954  Pierre Messmer                     (b. 1916 - d. 2007)
                           (acting to 23 Feb 1953)
 6 Apr 1954 - 23 Jun 1955  Albert Mouragues (1st time)        (b. 1908 - d. 1976)
23 Jun 1955 - 14 May 1956  Jean Paul Parisot
14 May 1956 -  5 Oct 1958  Albert Mouragues (2nd time)        (s.a.)
High commissioners
 5 Oct 1958 -    Feb 1959  Henri Bernard                      (b. 1920 - d. 2000)
   Feb 1959 - 28 Nov 1960  Pierre Anthonioz                   (b. 1913 - d. 1996)
President
28 Nov 1960 - 10 Jul 1978  Moktar Ould Daddah                 (b. 1924 - d. 2003)
                           (acting head of state to 20 Aug 1961)
Chairmen of the Military Committee for National Recovery (from 6 Apr 1979, Military
Committee for National Salvation) (from 20 Mar 1979 also styled Heads of State)
10 Jul 1978 -  3 Jun 1979  Mustafa Ould Salek                 (b. 1936 - d. 2012)
 3 Jun 1979 -  4 Jan 1980  Mohamed Mahmoud Ould Louly         (b. 1943)
 4 Jan 1980 - 12 Dec 1984  Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidalla       (b. 1940)
12 Dec 1984 - 18 Apr 1992  Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya        (b. 1941)
President
18 Apr 1992 -  3 Aug 2005  Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya        (s.a.)
Chairman of the Military Council for Justice and Democracy
 3 Aug 2005 - 19 Apr 2007  Ely Ould Mohamed Vall              (b. 1953)
President
19 Apr 2007 -  6 Aug 2008  Sidi Mohamed Ould Cheikh Abdallahi (b. 1938)
Chairman of the High Council of State
 6 Aug 2008 - 15 Apr 2009  Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz            (b. 1956)
Presidents
15 Apr 2009 -  5 Aug 2009  Ba Mamadou dit M'Baré (interim)    (b. 1946 - d. 2013)
 5 Aug 2009 -              Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz            (s.a.)

Prime ministers 21 May 1957 - 20 Aug 1961 Moktar Ould Daddah (s.a.) (vice president of the Government Council to 26 Jul 1958, president of the Government Council 26 Jul - 28 Nov 1958, president of the provisional government 28 Nov 1958 - 26 Jun 1959) 6 Apr 1979 - 27 May 1979 Ahmed Ould Bouceif (b. 1934 - d. 1979) 28 May 1979 - 31 May 1979 Ahmed Salem Ould Sidi (acting) (b. 1939 - d. 1981) 31 May 1979 - 12 Dec 1980 Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidalla (1st time) (s.a.) 12 Dec 1980 - 25 Apr 1981 Sid Ahmed Ould Bneijara (b. 1947) 25 Apr 1981 - 8 Mar 1984 Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya (1st time) (s.a.) 8 Mar 1984 - 12 Dec 1984 Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidalla (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Dec 1984 - 18 Apr 1992 Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya (2nd time) (s.a.) 18 Apr 1992 - 2 Jan 1996 Sidi Mohamed Ould Boubacar (1st time) (b. 1957) 2 Jan 1996 - 18 Dec 1997 Cheikh El Avia Ould Mohamed Khouna (1st time) (b. 1956) 18 Dec 1997 - 16 Nov 1998 Mohamed Lemine Ould Guig (b. 1959) 16 Nov 1998 - 6 Jul 2003 Cheikh El Avia Ould Mohamed Khouna (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Jul 2003 - 7 Aug 2005 Sghair Ould M'Bareck (b. 1954) 7 Aug 2005 - 20 Apr 2007 Sidi Mohamed Ould Boubacar (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Apr 2007 - 6 May 2008 Zeine Ould Zeidane (b. 1966) 6 May 2008 - 6 Aug 2008 Yahya Ould Ahmed El Waghef (b. 1960) 14 Aug 2008 - Moulaye Ould Mohamed Laghdaf (b. 1957)

Mauritius

       1638                Dutch colony
17 Feb 1710                abandoned
23 Sep 1721                French colony (Île de France)
 3 Dec 1810                British colony (Mauritius)
                           (confirmed by Treaty of Paris 1814)
12 Mar 1968                independence
12 Mar 1992                Republic of Mauritius

Governors
22 Oct 1692 - 25 Nov 1703  Roelof Diodati
25 Nov 1703 - 17 Feb 1710  Adriaan Momber van der Velde
Governors (of the Compagnie des Indes)
24 Dec 1721 -  7 Apr 1722  Julien Duronguet le Toullec
                           (acting)
 7 Apr 1722 - 16 Dec 1725  Denis, chevalier de Nyon
 4 May 1722 - 13 Jun 1722    Duval de Hauville
                             (acting for Nyon)
13 Jul 1722 -  3 Dec 1722    Jacques Gast d'Hauterive         (b. 1680 - d. 1762)
                             (acting for Nyon)
16 Dec 1725 - 13 Mar 1729  Denis de Brousse (acting)
13 Mar 1729 - 20 Aug 1729  Pierre Benoît Dumas                (b. 1668 - d. 1745)
20 Aug 1729 -  4 Jun 1735  Nicolas de Maupin
Governors-general of the Mascarene Islands (of the Compagnie des Indes to 14 Jul 1767)
 4 Jun 1735 - 23 Mar 1746  Bertrand François Mahé,
                           comte de La Bourdonnais            (b. 1699 - d. 1753)
20 Mar 1740 - 14 Aug 1741    Didier de Saint-Martin
                             (1st time)
                             (acting for La Bourdonnais)
       1741 - 18 Dec 1742    Didier de Saint-Martin
                             (2nd time)
                             (acting for La Bourdonnais)
23 Mar 1746 -  6 Oct 1746  Didier de Saint-Martin (3rd time)
                           (acting)
 6 Oct 1746 - 10 Feb 1753  Pierre Félix Barthélemy David      (b. 1711 - d. 1795)
10 Feb 1753 -  3 Dec 1755  Jean Baptiste Charles Bouvet de
                           Lozier                             (b. 1705 - d. 1786)
 3 Dec 1755 -  4 Nov 1759  René Magon de la Villebague        (b. 1722 - d. 1778)
 4 Nov 1759 - 14 Jul 1767  Antoine Marie Desforges-Boucher    (b. 1713 - d. 1790)
14 Jul 1767 - 27 Nov 1768  Jean Daniel Dumas                  (b. 1721 - d. 1794)
27 Nov 1768 -  6 Jun 1769  Jean-Guillaume Steinauer (acting)
 6 Jun 1769 - 23 Aug 1772  François Julien du Dresnay,
                           chevalier Desroches                (b. 1719 - d. 1784)
23 Aug 1772 -  2 Dec 1776  Charles Louis d'Arsac, chevalier
                           de Ternay                          (b. 1723 - d. 1780)
 2 Dec 1776 - 28 Apr 1779  Antoine de Guiran, chevalier de
                           La Brillanne                       (b. 1724? - d. 1779)
28 Apr 1779 - 30 Apr 1779  Joseph Murinais, comte de
                           Saint-Maurice (acting)
 1 May 1779 -  3 Nov 1787  François, vicomte de Souillac      (b. 1732 - d. 1803)
                           (acting to 30 Jan 1780)
 5 Apr 1785 - 28 Jun 1785    Camille Charles Leclerc,
                             chevalier de Fresne
                             (acting for Souillac)
28 Jun 1785 -  7 Nov 1785    Chevalier de Fleury
                             (acting for Souillac)
 5 Nov 1787 - 14 Nov 1789  Antoine Raymond Joseph de Bruni,
                           chevalier d'Entrecasteaux          (b. 1737 - d. 1793)
14 Nov 1789 - 29 Jul 1790  Thomas, comte de Conway            (b. 1733 - d. c.1800)
29 Jul 1790 - 19 Aug 1790  Prosper de Chermont (acting)       (b. 1741 - d. 1798)
19 Aug 1790 - 18 Jun 1792  David Charpentier de Cossigny      (b. 1740 - d. 1801)
                           (acting)
18 Jun 1792 - 28 Jul 1800  Anne Joseph Hippolyte de Maurès,
                           comte de Malartic                  (b. 1730 - d. 1800)
28 Jul 1800 - 25 Sep 1803  François Louis Magallon de la
                           Morlière                           (b. 1754 - d. 1825)
26 Sep 1803 -  3 Dec 1810  Charles Mathieu Isidore, comte
                           Decaen                             (b. 1769 - d. 1832)
Governors
 4 Dec 1810 - 20 May 1823  Robert Townsend Farquhar
                           (from 1821, Sir Robert Townsend
                           Farquhar)                          (b. 1776 - d. 1830)
                             Acting for Farquhar:
 9 Apr 1811 - 11 Jul 1811    Henry Warde                      (b. 1766 - d. 1834)
10 Nov 1817 - 10 Dec 1818    Gage Hall
10 Dec 1818 -  6 Feb 1819    John Dalrymple
 6 Feb 1819 -  6 Jul 1820    Ralph Darling                    (b. 1772 - d. 1858)
20 May 1823 - 12 Jun 1823  Ralph Darling (acting)             (s.a.)
12 Jun 1823 - 17 Jun 1828  Sir Galbraith Lowry Cole           (b. 1772 - d. 1842)
17 Jun 1828 -  3 Feb 1833  Sir Charles Colville               (b. 1770 - d. 1843)
 4 Feb 1833 - 20 Feb 1840  Sir William Nicolay                (b. 1771 - d. 1842)
20 Feb 1840 - 16 Jul 1840  James Power (acting)
16 Jul 1840 -  2 Jan 1842  Sir Lionel Smith                   (b. 1778 - d. 1842)
 3 Jan 1842 - 21 Nov 1842  William Staveley (acting)          (b. 1784 - d. 1854)
21 Nov 1842 -  5 May 1849  Sir William Maynard Gomm           (b. 1784 - d. 1875)
 5 May 1849 -  8 Jun 1849  Thomas Blanshard (acting)
 8 Jun 1849 - 19 Oct 1850  Sir George William Anderson        (b. 1791 - d. 1857)
19 Oct 1850 -  8 Jan 1851  William Sutherland (acting)
 8 Jan 1851 - 20 Sep 1857  Sir James Macaulay Higginson       (b. 1805 - d. 1885)
14 Apr 1854 - 18 Jan 1855    William Sutherland
                             (acting for Higginson)
18 Jan 1855 - 12 Jun 1855    C.M. Hay (acting for Higginson)
20 Sep 1857 -  9 Jan 1863  Sir William Stevenson              (b. 1805 - d. 1863)
10 Jan 1863 - 21 Aug 1863  M.G. Johnstone (acting)
21 Aug 1863 -  3 Jun 1870  Sir Henry Barkly                   (b. 1815 - d. 1898)
 4 Jun 1870 - 21 Feb 1871  Selby Smith (acting)
21 Feb 1871 - 18 Aug 1874  Sir Arthur Charles Hamilton-Gordon (b. 1829 - d. 1912)
21 Oct 1871 - 28 Oct 1872    Edward Norton (1st time)         (b. 1832 - d. 1897)
                             (acting for Hamilton-Gordon)
20 Jan 1873 - 20 Oct 1873    Edward Norton (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                             (acting for Hamilton-Gordon)
18 Aug 1874 - 21 Sep 1874  Edward Norton (3rd time) (acting)  (s.a.)
21 Sep 1874 - 31 Dec 1878  Sir Arthur Purves Phayre           (b. 1812 - d. 1885)
31 Dec 1878 -  4 Apr 1879  Frederick Napier Broome (1st time) (b. 1842 - d. 1896)
                           (acting)
 4 Apr 1879 -  9 Dec 1880  Sir George Ferguson Bowen          (b. 1821 - d. 1899)
 9 Dec 1880 -  5 May 1883  Sir Frederick Napier Broome
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 5 May 1883 -  1 Jun 1883  Charles Bruce (acting)             (b. 1836 - d. 1920)
 1 Jun 1883 - 11 Dec 1889  Sir John Pope Hennessy             (b. 1834 - d. 1891)
                           (suspended 14 Dec 1886 - 12 Jul 1887)
                             Acting for Hennessy:
24 Sep 1884 - 15 Oct 1884    Henry Nicholas Duverger-Beyts
                             (1st time)
29 Sep 1886 - 12 Dec 1886    Henry Nicholas Duverger-Beyts
                             (2nd time)
15 Dec 1886 - 18 Dec 1886    Sir Hercules George Robert
                             Robinson                         (b. 1824 - d. 1897)
18 Dec 1886 -  2 Jul 1887    William Hanbury Hawley           (b. 1829 - d. 1917)
 2 Jul 1887 - 11 Dec 1888    Francis Fleming                  (b. 1842 - d. 1922)
11 Dec 1888 - 22 Dec 1888    T.E.A. Hall
11 Dec 1889 - 17 Dec 1889  Francis Fleming (acting)           (s.a.)
17 Dec 1889 - 20 Dec 1889  T.E.A. Hall (acting)
21 Dec 1889 - 12 Mar 1892  Sir Charles Cameron Lees           (b. 1837 - d. 1898)
12 Mar 1892 - 15 Jan 1897  Hubert Edward Henry Jerningham
                           (from 1893, Sir Hubert Edward
                           Henry Jerningham)                  (b. 1842 - d. 1914)
                           (acting to 20 Sep 1892)
17 Jan 1894 - 24 Jul 1894    Charles Anthony King-Harman
                             (1st time)                       (b. 1851 - d. 1939)
                             (acting for Jerningham)
 2 Mar 1896 - 19 Sep 1896    Charles Anthony King-Harman
                             (2nd time)                       (s.a.)
                             (acting for Jerningham)
15 Jan 1897 - 11 May 1897  Charles Anthony King-Harman
                           (3rd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
11 May 1897 - 30 Oct 1903  Sir Charles Bruce                  (b. 1836 - d. 1920)
12 Jul 1900 - 11 May 1901    Graham John Bower (1st time)     (b. 1848 - d. 1933)
                             (acting for Bruce)
30 Oct 1903 - 20 Aug 1904  Graham John Bower (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                           (acting)
20 Aug 1904 - 10 Apr 1911  Sir Cavendish Boyle                (b. 1849 - d. 1916)
14 Apr 1906 - 14 Sep 1906    Graham John Bower (3rd time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting for Boyle)
17 Oct 1908 - 23 Apr 1909    Graham John Bower (4th time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting for Boyle)
10 Apr 1911 - 13 Sep 1911  George Smith (acting)              (b. 1858 - d. 1938)
13 Sep 1911 - 28 Jan 1916  John Robert Chancellor (from
                           1913, Sir John Robert Chancellor)  (b. 1870 - d. 1952)
10 Mar 1914 - 22 Sep 1914    John Middleton (1st time)        (b. 1870 - d. 1954)
                             (acting for Chancellor)
28 Jan 1916 - 18 May 1916  John Middleton (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.)
18 May 1916 - 16 Aug 1924  Sir Hesketh Bell                   (b. 1864 - d. 1952)
 8 Feb 1919 - 17 Nov 1919    John Middleton (3rd time)        (s.a.)
                             (acting for Bell)
 2 Feb 1921 -  3 Apr 1921    Edward Brandis Denham (1st time) (b. 1876 - d. 1938)
                             (acting for Bell)
 8 May 1922 -  3 Mar 1923    Edward Brandis Denham (2nd time) (s.a.)
                             (acting for Bell)
16 Aug 1924 - 19 Feb 1925  Edward Allan Grannum (1st time)    (b. 1869 - d. 1956)
                           (acting)
19 Feb 1925 -  9 Dec 1929  Sir Herbert James Read             (b. 1863 - d. 1949)
 2 Sep 1926 - 17 Oct 1926    Edward Allan Grannum (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                             (acting for Read)
 3 Aug 1927 - 17 May 1928    Edward Allan Grannum (3rd time)  (s.a.)
                             (acting for Read)
 9 Dec 1929 - 30 Aug 1930  Sir Edward Allan Grannum
                           (4th time) (acting)                (s.a.)
30 Aug 1930 -  7 Jun 1937  Wilfrid Edward Francis Jackson
                           (from 1931, Sir Wilfrid
                           Edward Francis Jackson)            (b. 1883 - d. 1971)
24 Aug 1932 - 29 Apr 1933    Edward Walter Evans (1st time)   (b. 1890 - d. 1985)
                             (acting for Jackson)
 3 Sep 1934 - 26 Oct 1934    Edward Walter Evans (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             (acting for Jackson)
 7 Apr 1936 -  4 Dec 1936    Edward Walter Evans (3rd time)   (s.a.)
                             (acting for Jackson)
 7 Jun 1937 - 23 Oct 1937  Edward Walter Evans (4th time)     (s.a.)
                           (acting)
23 Oct 1937 - 16 Apr 1942  Sir Bede Edward Hugh Clifford      (b. 1890 - d. 1969)
29 Jan 1940 - 10 Sep 1940    Sydney Moody (1st time)          (b. 1889 - d. 1979)
                             (acting for Clifford)
16 Apr 1942 -  5 Jul 1942  Sydney Moody (2nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)
 5 Jul 1942 -  5 Dec 1948  Sir Donald Mackenzie-Kennedy       (b. 1889 - d. 1965)
23 May 1945 -  3 Jan 1946    Sydney Moody (3rd time)          (s.a.)
                             (acting for Mackenzie-Kennedy)
 8 May 1947 - 10 Jan 1948    Sydney Moody (4th time)          (s.a.)
                             (acting for Mackenzie-Kennedy)
 5 Dec 1948 - 26 Sep 1949  James Dundas Harford (1st time)    (b. 1899 - d. 1993)
                           (acting)
26 Sep 1949 - 11 Jan 1954  Sir Hilary Rudolph Robert Blood    (b. 1893 - d. 1967)
26 Jun 1950 - 17 Nov 1950    James Dundas Harford (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                             (acting for Blood)
22 May 1952 - 14 Oct 1952    James Dundas Harford (3rd time)  (s.a.)
                             (acting for Blood)
11 Jan 1954 - 22 Mar 1954  Robert Newton (1st time) (acting)  (b. 1908 - d. 1983)
22 Mar 1954 - 10 Jul 1959  Sir Robert Scott                   (b. 1903 - d. 1968)
 8 Nov 1956 - 18 Apr 1957    Robert Newton (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                             (acting for Scott)
10 Jul 1959 -  2 Nov 1959  Robert Newton (3rd time) (acting)  (s.a.)
 2 Nov 1959 - 10 Jul 1962  Sir Colville Montgomery Deverell   (b. 1907 - d. 1995)
11 Jun 1961 - 20 Jul 1961    Thomas Douglas Vickers
                             (1st time) (acting for Deverell) (b. 1916 - d. 1999)
10 Jul 1962 - 17 Sep 1962  Thomas Douglas Vickers (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                           (acting)
17 Sep 1962 - 12 Mar 1968  Sir John Shaw Rennie               (b. 1917 - d. 1981)
24 Aug 1964 - 30 Nov 1964    Thomas Douglas Vickers
                             (3rd time) (acting for Rennie)   (s.a.)
11 Oct 1966 - 28 Dec 1966    Thomas Douglas Vickers
                             (4th time) (acting for Rennie)   (s.a.)
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
12 Mar 1968 - 27 Aug 1968  Sir John Shaw Rennie               (s.a.)
27 Aug 1968 -  3 Sep 1968  Sir Michel Rivalland (acting)      (b. 1910 - d. 1970)
 3 Sep 1968 - 27 Dec 1972  Sir Arthur Leonard Williams        (b. 1904 - d. 1972)
27 Dec 1972 - 31 Oct 1977  Raman Osman (from Feb 1973,
                           Sir Raman Osman)                   (b. 1902 - d. 1992)
                           (acting to Feb 1973)
31 Oct 1977 - 23 Mar 1978  Henry Garrioch (from 31 Dec 1977,
                           Sir Henry Garrioch) (acting)       (b. 1916 - d. 2008)
23 Mar 1978 - 28 Dec 1983  Dayendranath Burrenchobay (from
                           30 Dec 1978, Sir Dayendranath
                           Burrenchobay)                      (b. 1919 - d. 1999)
                           (acting to 26 Apr 1979)
28 Dec 1983 - 15 Dec 1985  Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam          (b. 1900 - d. 1985)
15 Dec 1985 - 17 Jan 1986  Sir Cassam Moollan (acting)        (b. 1927 - d. 2010)
17 Jan 1986 - 12 Mar 1992  Sir Veerasamy Ringadoo             (b. 1920 - d. 2000)
Presidents
12 Mar 1992 - 30 Jun 1992  Sir Veerasamy Ringadoo             (s.a.)
30 Jun 1992 - 15 Feb 2002  Cassam Uteem                       (b. 1941)
15 Feb 2002 - 18 Feb 2002  Angidi Chettiar (acting)           (b. 1928 - d. 2010)
18 Feb 2002 - 25 Feb 2002  Ariranga Pillay (acting)           (b. 1945)
25 Feb 2002 -  1 Oct 2003  Karl Offmann                       (b. 1940)
 1 Oct 2003 -  7 Oct 2003  Raouf Bundhun (acting)             (b. 1937)
 7 Oct 2003 - 31 Mar 2012  Sir Anerood Jugnauth               (b. 1930)
31 Mar 2012 - 21 Jul 2012  Monique Ohsan-Bellepeau (f)        (b. 1942)
                           (acting)
21 Jul 2012 -              Rajkeswur Purryag                  (b. 1947)

Chief minister (from 12 Aug 1967, premier) 26 Sep 1961 - 12 Mar 1968 Seewoosagur Ramgoolam (from 1965, Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam) (s.a.) Prime ministers 12 Mar 1968 - 16 Jun 1982 Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam (s.a.) 16 Jun 1982 - 22 Dec 1995 Anerood Jugnauth (from 1988, Sir Anerood Jugnauth) (1st time) (s.a.) 22 Dec 1995 - 17 Sep 2000 Navin Ramgoolam (1st time) (b. 1947) 17 Sep 2000 - 30 Sep 2003 Sir Anerood Jugnauth (2nd time) (s.a.) 30 Sep 2003 - 5 Jul 2005 Paul Bérenger (b. 1945) 5 Jul 2005 - Navin Ramgoolam (2nd time) (s.a.)

Rodrigues

12 Oct 2002                autonomy

Chief commissioners
12 Oct 2002 -  4 Feb 2003  Jean Daniel Spéville               (b. 1971)
 4 Feb 2003 -  4 Aug 2006  Serge Clair (1st time)             (b. 1940)
 4 Aug 2006 - 12 Jan 2011  Johnson Roussety                   (b. 1975)
12 Jan 2011 - 11 Feb 2012  Gaëtan Jhabeemissur                (b. 1955)
11 Feb 2012 -              Serge Clair (2nd time)             (s.a.)

Chief executives 24 Oct 2002 - 23 Oct 2004 Claude Wong So 24 Oct 2004 - 5 Mar 2010 Jean-Claude Pierre-Louis Mar 2010 - 24 Aug 2010 Pritam Singh Mattan 24 Aug 2010 - 13 Feb 2012 Joseph Ah-Leong Chang-Siow 13 Feb 2012 - Jacques Davis Hee Hong Wye (b. 1968)

Mayotte

     c.1500                Maore or Mawuti sultanate established
       1832                conquered by Andriantsoly, former king of Iboina
                           on Madagascar
       1833                conquered by Mwali (Mohéli)
19 Nov 1835                conquered by Ndzuwani (Anjouan)
       1836                independent
25 Apr 1841                annexed by France (annexation ratified 13 Jun 1843)
25 Jul 1912 -  6 Jul 1975  part of the French territory of the Comoros
24 Dec 1976                French collectivité territoriale
11 Jul 2001                status changed to collectivité départementale
31 Mar 2011                status changed to overseas département

Sultans
     c.1700 -        17..  Aisa (f) (regent)
       17.. -        17..  Monavo bint Mwinye Fani (f)
                           (regent)
       17.. -        1727  Abu Bakr bin Omar
       1727 -        1752  Salim bin Abi Bakr
       1752 -        1790  Boina Kombo
       1790 -        1807  Salim                              (b. ... - d. 1807)
       1807 -        1817  Suhali bin Salim                   (b. ... - d. 1817)
       1817 -        1829  Mawana Amadi bin Boina Kombo       (b. ... - d. 1829)
       1829                Moge Muku
       1829 -        1832  Boina Kombo bin Amadi
       1832 -        1833  Andriantsoly (1st time)            (b. ... - d. 1845)
       1836 - 25 Mar 1841  Andriantsoly (2nd time)            (s.a.)
Commandants-superior (subordinated to the governors of Île Bourbon/Réunion)
13 Jun 1843 - 11 Mar 1844  Pierre Passot (1st time)           (b. 1806 - d. 1854)
                           (French representative in Mayotte from 1841)
11 Mar 1844 - 17 Jun 1844  Paul Charles Rang                  (b. 1793 - d. 1844)
17 Jun 1844 - 22 Oct 1844  Charles Louis Thiebault (acting)   (b. 1808 - d. 1850)
22 Oct 1844 -    Jan 1846  Auguste Le Brun (acting)           (b. 1793 - d. ...)
   Jan 1846 -    Aug 1849  Pierre Passot (2nd time)           (s.a.)
11 Aug 1849 - 13 Jun 1851  Stanislas Fortunat Livet           (b. 1808 - d. 1860)
13 Jun 1851 - 18 Oct 1853  Philibert Bonfils                  (b. 1809 - d. 1871)
18 Oct 1853 - 13 Dec 1854  André Brisset (acting)             (b. 1808 - d. ...)
13 Dec 1854 - 15 Aug 1857  Auguste Joseph Verand
15 Aug 1857 - 14 Aug 1860  Charles Auguste Morel
14 Aug 1860 - 14 Dec 1864  Charles Gabrié
14 Dec 1864 -  8 Jul 1868  Joseph Vincent Christophe Colomb
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1814 - d. 1887)
 8 Jul 1868 - 15 Apr 1869  Joseph Hayes (acting)              (b. 1814 - d. ...)
15 Apr 1869 - 21 May 1869  L.J. Leguay (acting)
21 May 1869 -  4 Mar 1871  Joseph Vincent Christophe Colomb
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 4 Mar 1871 -  1 Mar 1875  Patrice Louis Jules Ventre de la
                           Touloubre (1st time)               (b. 1813 - d. ...)
                           (acting to 19 Dec 1871)
 1 Mar 1875 - 16 Sep 1875  Claude Fontaine (acting)
16 Sep 1875 - 26 Dec 1875  François Ferriez (acting)          (b. 1834 - d. ...)
26 Dec 1875 -  2 Jan 1878  Patrice Louis Jules Ventre de la
                           Touloubre (2nd time)               (s.a.)
Commandants (subordinated to the governors of Réunion)
 2 Jan 1878 -  9 Dec 1878  Jean Roblin (acting)
 9 Dec 1878 -  7 Sep 1879  Charles Vassal (acting)
 7 Sep 1879 - 16 Dec 1879  Charles Bayet (acting)
16 Dec 1879 - 31 Dec 1879  Edouard Sasias (acting)
31 Dec 1879 -  3 Mar 1885  François Ferriez                   (s.a.)
 3 Mar 1885 -    Aug 1887  Anne Léodor Philotée Metellus
                           Gerville-Réache                    (b. 1849 - d. ...)
19 Aug 1887 -  5 Sep 1887  Paul Louis Maxime Celoron de
                           Blainville                         (b. 1831 - d. 1889)
Governors
 5 Sep 1887 -        1888  Paul Louis Maxime Celoron de
                           Blainville                         (s.a.)
 4 May 1888 -        1893  Clovis Papinaud                    (b. 1844 - d. 1900)
25 Apr 1893 -  1 Sep 1896  Étienne Théodore Lacascade         (b. 1841 - d. 1906)
Administrators-superior (subordinated to the governors-general of Madagascar)
30 Mar 1896 -        1897  Auguste Pereton (acting)
 5 Aug 1897 - 11 Mar 1899  Louis Mizon                        (b. 1853 - d. 1899)
Governors
   Mar 1899 -  8 Jul 1900  Clovis Papinaud                    (s.a.)
18 Sep 1900 -        1902  Pierre Pascal
       1902                Louis Lemaire (acting)
15 Oct 1902 -    May 1904  Alfred Martineau                   (b. 1859 - d. 1945)
 1 Jun 1904 -        1905  Jules Martin (acting)              (b. 1855 - d. 19...)
       1905 -        1906  Gaston Joliet                      (b. 1842 - d. bf.1912)
 3 Mar 1906 -        1907  Fernand Foureau                    (b. 1850 - d. 1914)
26 Dec 1907 -        1908  Paul Patté (acting)
Administrators (subordinated to the governors-general of Madagascar)
 8 Sep 1908 -        1909  Charles Vergnes                    (b. 1863 - d. 1935)
31 Mar 1909 -        1910  Ernest Bonneval
24 Feb 1910 -        1911  Michel Astor
 1 May 1911 - 28 Sep 1911  Frédéric Estèbe                    (b. 1863 - d. 1936)
28 Sep 1911 - 25 Jul 1912  Gabriel Samuel Garnier-Mouton      (b. 1864 - d. 19...)
Prefects (10 May 1982 - 24 Feb 1988, commissioners of the republic)
21 Jul 1975 -        1976  Younoussa Bamana                   (b. 1935 - d. 2007)
                           (proclaimed by pro-French demonstrators)
23 Jun 1976 - 30 Apr 1978  Jean Coussirou                     (b. 1930 - d. 2006)
30 Apr 1978 - 15 Apr 1980  Jean Rigotard                      (b. 1925)
15 Apr 1980 - 24 Jan 1981  Philippe Jacques Nicolas Kessler   (b. 1927)
24 Feb 1980 - 25 Jan 1982  Pierre Sevellec                    (b. 1921)
25 Jan 1982 - 25 Nov 1982  Yves Bonnet                        (b. 1935)
 5 Jan 1983 -        1984  Christian Pellerin                 (b. 1933)
       1984 -        1986  François Bonnelle                  (b. 1933)
       1986                Guy Dupuis                         (b. 1937)
       1986 - 23 Nov 1988  Akli Khider
23 Nov 1988 - 17 Oct 1990  Daniel Limodin                     (b. 1944)
17 Oct 1990 - 24 Feb 1993  Jean-Paul Coste                    (b. 1943)
 9 Mar 1993 - 17 Jan 1994  Jean-Jacques Debacq                (b. 1952)
17 Jan 1994 - 20 Feb 1996  Alain Weil                         (b. 1945)
20 Feb 1996 - 15 Jul 1998  Philippe Boisadam                  (b. 1941)
31 Aug 1998 -  8 Oct 2001  Pierre Bayle                       (b. 1952)
 8 Oct 2001 -  4 Jul 2002  Philippe de Mester                 (b. 1955)
 4 Jul 2002 - 17 Jan 2005  Jean-Jacques Brot                  (b. 1956)
17 Jan 2005 -  1 Feb 2007  Jean-Paul Kihl                     (b. 1950)
 1 Feb 2007 -    Sep 2008  Vincent Bouvier                    (b. 1952)
12 Sep 2008 - 13 Jul 2009  Denis Robin                        (b. 1962)
13 Jul 2009 - 17 Aug 2009  Christophe Peyrel (acting)         (b. 1970)
17 Aug 2009 -  4 Jul 2011  Hubert Derache                     (b. 1953)
 4 Jul 2011 - 26 Jul 2011  Patrick Duprat (acting)            (b. 1960)
26 Jul 2011 - 14 Feb 2013  Thomas Degos                       (b. 1971)
14 Feb 2013 - 18 Feb 2013  François Chauvin (acting)          (b. 1960)
18 Feb 2013 -              Jacques Witkowski                  (b. 1963)

Presidents of the General Council 2 Apr 2004 - 20 Mar 2008 Said Omar Oili (b. 1956?) 20 Mar 2008 - 3 Apr 2011 Ahmed Attoumani Douchina (b. 1955) 3 Apr 2011 - Daniel Zaïdani (b. 1975)