Rulers

Countries Pa-Pe

Contents of this page:
Pakistan - Palau - Palestine - Panama - Papua New Guinea - Paraguay - Peru

Pakistan

15 Aug 1947                independence (Dominion of Pakistan)
                           (previously part of British India)
23 Mar 1956                Islamic Republic of Pakistan
 8 Jun 1962                Republic of Pakistan
16 Jan 1964                Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
15 Aug 1947 - 11 Sep 1948  Mohammad Ali Jinnah                (b. 1876 - d. 1948)
14 Sep 1948 - 17 Oct 1951  Khwaja Nazimuddin                  (b. 1894 - d. 1964)
                           (acting to 11 Nov 1948)
17 Oct 1951 -  6 Oct 1955  Ghulam Mohammad                    (b. 1895 - d. 1956)
 7 Aug 1955 - 23 Mar 1956  Iskander Mirza                     (b. 1899 - d. 1969)
                           (acting for Mohammad to 6 Oct 1955)
Presidents
23 Mar 1956 - 27 Oct 1958  Iskander Mirza                     (s.a.)
27 Oct 1958 - 25 Mar 1969  Mohammad Ayub Khan                 (b. 1907 - d. 1974)
25 Mar 1969 - 20 Dec 1971  Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan           (b. 1917 - d. 1980)
                           (chief martial law administrator to 31 Mar 1969)
20 Dec 1971 - 13 Aug 1973  Zulfikar Ali Bhutto                (b. 1928 - d. 1979)
14 Aug 1973 - 16 Sep 1978  Fazal Elahi Chaudhry               (b. 1904 - d. 1982)
16 Sep 1978 - 17 Aug 1988  Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq                (b. 1924 - d. 1988)
17 Aug 1988 - 18 Jul 1993  Ghulam Ishaq Khan                  (b. 1915 - d. 2006)
                           (acting to 12 Dec 1988)
18 Jul 1993 - 14 Nov 1993  Wasim Sajjad (1st time) (acting)   (b. 1941)
14 Nov 1993 -  2 Dec 1997  Farooq Ahmed Leghari               (b. 1940 - d. 2010)
 2 Dec 1997 -  1 Jan 1998  Wasim Sajjad (2nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1998 - 20 Jun 2001  Mohammad Rafiq Tarar               (b. 1929)
20 Jun 2001 - 18 Aug 2008  Pervez Musharraf                   (b. 1943)
18 Aug 2008 -  9 Sep 2008  Mohammadmian Soomro (acting)       (b. 1950)
 9 Sep 2008 -  9 Sep 2013  Asif Ali Zardari                   (b. 1955)
 9 Sep 2013 -              Mamnoon Hussain                    (b. 1940)

Prime ministers 19 Jul 1947 - 16 Oct 1951 Liaquat Ali Khan (b. 1895 - d. 1951) 17 Oct 1951 - 17 Apr 1953 Khwaja Nazimuddin (s.a.) 17 Apr 1953 - 11 Aug 1955 Mohammad Ali Bogra (b. 1909 - d. 1963) 11 Aug 1955 - 12 Sep 1956 Chaudhry Mohammad Ali (b. 1905 - d. 1980) 12 Sep 1956 - 18 Oct 1957 Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy (b. 1893 - d. 1963) 18 Oct 1957 - 16 Dec 1957 Ismail Ibrahim Chundrigar (b. 1897 - d. 1960) 16 Dec 1957 - 7 Oct 1958 Malik Firoz Khan Noon (b. 1893 - d. 1970) 7 Oct 1958 - 28 Oct 1958 Mohammad Ayub Khan (s.a.) (chief martial law administrator to 24 Oct 1958) 7 Dec 1971 - 20 Dec 1971 Nurul Amin (b. 1893 - d. 1974) 14 Aug 1973 - 5 Jul 1977 Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (s.a.) 5 Jul 1977 - 24 Mar 1985 Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq (s.a.) (chief martial law administrator) 24 Mar 1985 - 29 May 1988 Mohammad Khan Junejo (b. 1932 - d. 1993) 9 Jun 1988 - 17 Aug 1988 Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq (s.a.) 2 Dec 1988 - 6 Aug 1990 Benazir Bhutto (f) (1st time) (b. 1953 - d. 2007) 6 Aug 1990 - 6 Nov 1990 Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi (interim) (b. 1931 - d. 2009) 6 Nov 1990 - 18 Apr 1993 Nawaz Sharif (1st time) (b. 1949) 18 Apr 1993 - 26 May 1993 Balakh Sher Mazari (interim) (b. 1928) 26 May 1993 - 18 Jul 1993 Nawaz Sharif (2nd time) (s.a.) 18 Jul 1993 - 19 Oct 1993 Moeen Qureshi (interim) (b. 1930) 19 Oct 1993 - 5 Nov 1996 Benazir Bhutto (f) (2nd time) (s.a.) 5 Nov 1996 - 17 Feb 1997 Miraj Khalid (interim) (b. 1916 - d. 2003) 17 Feb 1997 - 12 Oct 1999 Nawaz Sharif (3rd time) (s.a.) 14 Oct 1999 - 23 Nov 2002 Pervez Musharraf (s.a.) (chief executive) 23 Nov 2002 - 30 Jun 2004 Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali (b. 1944) 30 Jun 2004 - 28 Aug 2004 Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain (b. 1946) 28 Aug 2004 - 16 Nov 2007 Shaukat Aziz (b. 1949) 16 Nov 2007 - 25 Mar 2008 Mohammadmian Soomro (interim) (s.a.) 25 Mar 2008 - 19 Jun 2012 Yousaf Raza Gilani (b. 1952) 22 Jun 2012 - 25 Mar 2013 Raja Pervez Ashraf (b. 1950) 25 Mar 2013 - 5 Jun 2013 Mir Hazar Khan Khoso (interim) (b. 1929) 5 Jun 2013 - Nawaz Sharif (4th time) (s.a.)

Palau

       1899                part of German New Guinea (see under Papua New Guinea)
       1914                Japanese occupation
17 Dec 1920                League of Nations mandate
                           (see under Micronesia, Federated States of)
       1944                U.S. occupation
18 Jul 1947                part of the UN Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
                           (see under Micronesia, Federated States of)
 1 Jan 1981                Republic of Palau
10 Jul 1987                trust territory effectively dissolved; Palau remains trusteeship
                           under the administrative responsibility of the U.S. Interior Department
 1 Oct 1994                independence

Resident representative (of the U.S. Interior Department)
16 Dec 1990 -  1 Oct 1994  J. Victor Hobson, Jr.
Presidents
 1 Jan 1981 - 30 Jun 1985  Haruo I. Remeliik                  (b. 1933 - d. 1985)
30 Jun 1985 -  2 Jul 1985  Thomas Remengesau (1st time)       (b. 1929)
                           (acting)
 2 Jul 1985 -  6 Sep 1985  Alfonso Oiterong                   (b. 1924)
 6 Sep 1985 - 20 Aug 1988  Lazarus Salii                      (b. 1936 - d. 1988)
20 Aug 1988 - 31 Dec 1988  Thomas Remengesau (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1989 - 31 Dec 1992  Ngiratkel Etpison                  (b. 1925 - d. 1997)
 1 Jan 1993 - 31 Dec 2000  Kuniwo Nakamura                    (b. 1943)
 1 Jan 2001 - 15 Jan 2009  Tommy Remengesau (1st time)        (b. 1956)
15 Jan 2009 - 17 Jan 2013  Johnson Toribiong                  (b. 1946)
17 Jan 2013 -              Tommy Remengesau (2nd time)        (s.a.)

Traditional chiefs

Note: Palau is divided into two regions, Eoueldaob and Babeldaob (Babelthuap; dominated by one big island). The highest chief in Eoueldaob (and in his own estimation in all Palau) is the Ibedul, the chief of Oreor (Koror) (ritual name Ngerekldeu); the highest chief in Babeldaob is the Reklai, the chief of Melekeok (ritual name Ngetelngal), following an earlier line of chiefs with the style Tmekei.
Chiefs (title Ibedul)
- Idid dynasty -
      *1783 -    Sep 1791  Ngiraidid Chorot "mlad er a burek" (b. 17... - d. 1791)
                           [not the first Ibedul]
       1791 -         ...  Kingsos
        ... -         ...  Ngiratachadong
        ... -         ...  Meang Merikl "meringel a kemedil"
        ... - 12 Apr 1867  Ngirachosarech "mlad er a soldau"  (b. ... - d. 1867)
       1867 -        1872  Meresou
       1872 -        18..  Ngirchokebai
      *1883 -      c.1900  Ilengelekei
        ... -        1911  ...
       1911 -        1917  Louch Semelemoch                   (b. ... - d. 1917)
       1917 - 29 Jan 1939  Tem
       1939 -        19..  Ngiraked
      *1950 -        1956  Mariur                             (b. ... - d. 1956)
       1956 -    Sep 1972  Ngoriakl                           (b. 1917? - d. 1972)
       1972 -              Yutaka Gibbons                     (b. 1944)
       1972 -        1973    Takeo Yano (acting for Gibbons)
       1973                  Gloria Gibbons (f)               (b. 1950)
                             (acting for Gibbons)

Chiefs (title Reklai)
- Udes dynasty -
       17.. -         ...  Tangesechel
        ... -         ...  Orakiruu
        ... -         ...  Omekerall
        ... -         ...  Busechesuch
       18.. -        18..  Cheltuk
       18.. -        1862  Okerangel                          (b. ... - d. 1862)
      *1880 -        1890* Temol
        ... -         ...  Ngirachermang
        ... -         ...  Soilokel
        ... -         ...  Ngiratrang
        ... -        1914  Ruluked = Rrull
       1914 -        1934  Tellei
       1934 -        1960* Rekewis Brel
       1968 -        1973* Ngiratelbadel Lomisang             (b. 18... - d. 197...)
      *1974 -        1980* Eusevio Nguakl Termeteet (acting)  (b. 1914? - d. 1989)
      *1983 -        1992  Siangeldeb Basilius                (b. 1918 - d. 1992)
17 Nov 1993 -              Raphael Bao Ngirmang               (b. 1932)

Palestine

       1949                following establishment of Israel in most of historic
                           Palestine and subsequent Arab-Israeli war, the remaining
                           territory is taken over by Jordan (which annexes the West Bank
                           Apr 1950) and Egypt (which administers the Gaza Strip)
 2 Nov 1956 -  7 Mar 1957  Gaza Strip occupied by Israel
   Jun 1967                West Bank and Gaza Strip seized by Israel
31 Jul 1988                Jordan abandons claims to West Bank
15 Nov 1988                Palestine Liberation Organization proclaims State of Palestine
                           (remains ineffective but receives wide diplomatic recognition,
                           including UN observer state status 29 Nov 2012)
 4 May 1994                Palestinian Authority created to administer most of Gaza
                           Strip and parts of West Bank (Jericho area handed over 13
                           May 1994, Gaza Strip 18 May 1994, Jenin 13 Nov 1995,
                           Tulkarem 10 Dec 1995, Nablus 11 Dec 1995, Qalqilya 16 Dec
                           1995, Bethlehem 21 Dec 1995, Ramallah 27 Dec 1995, 80% of
                           Hebron 17 Jan 1997)
 3 Jan 2013                Palestinian Authority renamed State of Palestine (not
                           recognized by Israel)

Coordinators of Government Activities in the Territories (Israeli military administrators)
   Aug 1967 -    Apr 1974  Shlomo Gazit                       (b. 1926)
   Apr 1974 -    Feb 1976  Rafael Vardi
   Feb 1976 -    Feb 1979  Avraham Orly                       (b. 1930? - d. 1981)
   Feb 1979 -    Jan 1982  Danny Matt                         (b. 1927 - d. 2013)
   Jan 1982 -    Aug 1983  Rehavia Vardi                      (b. ... - d. 2006)
   Aug 1983 -    Apr 1984  Binyamin Ben-Eliezer               (b. 1936)
   Apr 1984 -    Feb 1991  Shmuel Goren
   Feb 1991 -    Feb 1995  Danny Rothschild
   Feb 1995 -    Feb 1997  Oren Shachor                       (b. 1946)
   Feb 1997 -    Jul 2001  Yaakov Or
   Jul 2001 -    Jul 2003  Amos Gilad (1st time)
   Jul 2003 -    Sep 2008  Yosef Mishlav
   Sep 2008 -  6 Dec 2009  Amos Gilad (2nd time)
 6 Dec 2009 -    Feb 2014  Eitan Dangot
   Feb 2014 -              Yoav Mordechai                     (b. 1964)

Palestinian Authority

Presidents
 5 Jul 1994 - 11 Nov 2004  Yasir Arafat                       (b. 1929 - d. 2004)
                           (Israeli detainee in Ramallah 29 Mar - 1 May 2002)
29 Oct 2004 - 11 Nov 2004    Ahmed Qureia (acting for Arafat) (b. 1937)
11 Nov 2004 - 15 Jan 2005  Rauhi Fattouh (acting)             (b. 1953)
15 Jan 2005 -              Mahmoud Abbas                      (b. 1935)

Prime ministers 30 Apr 2003 - 7 Oct 2003 Mahmoud Abbas (s.a.) 7 Oct 2003 - 15 Dec 2005 Ahmed Qureia (1st time) (s.a.) 15 Dec 2005 - 24 Dec 2005 Nabil Shaath (acting) (b. 1938) 24 Dec 2005 - 29 Mar 2006 Ahmed Qureia (2nd time) (s.a.) 29 Mar 2006 - 14 Jun 2007 Ismail Haniya (b. 1963) (continues in rebellion in Gaza Strip to 2 Jun 2014) 17 Jun 2007 - 6 Jun 2013 Salam Fayyad (b. 1952) 6 Jun 2013 - Rami Hamdallah (b. 1958)

State of Palestine

Presidents
 2 Apr 1989 - 11 Nov 2004  Yasir Arafat                       (s.a.)
 8 May 2005 -              Mahmoud Abbas                      (s.a.)
                           (acting to 23 Nov 2008)

Panama

18 Nov 1840                State of Panama (secession from Colombia)
20 Mar 1841                State of the Isthmus
31 Dec 1841                reincorporation into Colombia
                           (see also Colombian states 1855-86)
 3 Nov 1903                independence (Republic of Panama)

De facto rulers
11 Oct 1968 - 31 Jul 1981  Omar Torrijos Herrera              (b. 1929 - d. 1981)
                           (commander National Guard)
 3 Mar 1982 - 12 Aug 1983  Rubén Darío Paredes                (b. 1933)
                           (commander National Guard)
12 Aug 1983 - 20 Dec 1989  Manuel Noriega                     (b. 1936)
                           (commander National Guard [from 29 Sep 1983
                           Panama Defense Forces])

Superior Civil Chief 18 Nov 1840 - 20 Mar 1841 Tomás de Herrera (b. 1804 - d. 1854) Superior Chief of State 20 Mar 1841 - 8 Jun 1841 Tomás de Herrera (s.a.) President 8 Jun 1841 - 31 Dec 1841 Tomás de Herrera (s.a.) President of the Municipal Council of the District of Panama 3 Nov 1903 - 4 Nov 1903 Demetrio H. Brid (b. 1859 - d. 1917) Chairman of the Provisional Government Junta 4 Nov 1903 - 20 Feb 1904 José Agustín Arango (b. 1841 - d. 1909) Presidents 20 Feb 1904 - 1 Oct 1908 Manuel Amador Guerrero (b. 1833 - d. 1909) 1 Oct 1908 - 1 Mar 1910 José Domingo de Obaldía (b. 1845 - d. 1910) 1 Mar 1910 - 1 Oct 1910 Carlos Antonio Mendoza (acting) (b. 1856 - d. 1916) 1 Oct 1910 - 5 Oct 1910 Federico Boyd (acting) (b. 1851 - d. 1924) 5 Oct 1910 - 1 Oct 1912 Pablo Arosemena Alba (acting) (b. 1836 - d. 1920) 1 Oct 1912 - 1 Oct 1916 Belisario Porras Barahona (1st time) (b. 1856 - d. 1942) 1 Oct 1916 - 3 Jun 1918 Ramón Maximiliano Valdés (b. 1867 - d. 1918) 3 Jun 1918 - 1 Oct 1918 Ciro Luis Urriola (acting) (b. 1863 - d. 1922) 1 Oct 1918 - 12 Oct 1918 Pedro Antonio Díaz (acting) (b. 1854 - d. 1919) 12 Oct 1918 - 30 Jan 1920 Belisario Porras Barahona (2nd time) (s.a.) 30 Jan 1920 - 1 Oct 1920 Ernesto Tisdel Lefevre (acting) (b. 1876 - d. 1922) 1 Oct 1920 - 1 Oct 1924 Belisario Porras Barahona (3rd time) (s.a.) 1 Oct 1924 - 1 Oct 1928 Rodolfo Chiari (b. 1869 - d. 1937) 1 Oct 1928 - 3 Jan 1931 Florencio Harmodio Arosemena (b. 1872 - d. 1945) 16 Jan 1931 - 5 Jun 1932 Ricardo Joaquín Alfaro Jované (b. 1882 - d. 1971) (acting) 5 Jun 1932 - 1 Oct 1936 Harmodio Arias Madrid (b. 1886 - d. 1962) 1 Oct 1936 - 16 Dec 1939 Juan Demóstenes Arosemena (b. 1879 - d. 1939) 16 Dec 1939 - 18 Dec 1939 Ezequiel Fernández Jaén (acting) (b. 1886 - d. 1946) 18 Dec 1939 - 1 Oct 1940 Augusto Samuel Boyd (acting) (b. 1879 - d. 1957) 1 Oct 1940 - 9 Oct 1941 Arnulfo Arias Madrid (1st time) (b. 1901 - d. 1988) 9 Oct 1941 (hours) Ernesto Jaén Guardia (acting) (b. 1895 - d. 1961) 9 Oct 1941 - 15 Jun 1945 Ricardo Adolfo de la Guardia Arango (acting to 21 Oct 1941) (b. 1899 - d. 1969) 15 Feb 1945 - 15 Jun 1945 Jeptha B. Duncan (b. 1885 - d. 1977) (acting, in rebellion) 15 Jun 1945 - 1 Oct 1948 Enrique Adolfo Jiménez Brin (b. 1888 - d. 1970) (provisional) 12 Jul 1948 - 13 Jul 1948 Henrique de Obarrio (b. 1898 - d. 1978) (in rebellion) 1 Oct 1948 - 28 Jul 1949 Domingo Díaz Arosemena (b. 1875 - d. 1949) 28 Jul 1949 - 20 Nov 1949 Daniel Chanis Pinzón (b. 1891 - d. 1961) 20 Nov 1949 - 24 Nov 1949 Roberto F. Chiari (1st time) (b. 1905 - d. 1981) 24 Nov 1949 - 9 May 1951 Arnulfo Arias Madrid (2nd time) (s.a.) 9 May 1951 - 1 Oct 1952 Alcibíades Arosemena (b. 1883 - d. 1958) 1 Oct 1952 - 2 Jan 1955 José Antonio Remón Cantera (b. 1908 - d. 1955) 2 Jan 1955 - 29 Mar 1955 José Ramón Guizado Valdés (b. 1899 - d. 1964) 15 Jan 1955 - 1 Oct 1956 Ricardo Arias Espinosa (b. 1912 - d. 1993) (acting for impeached Guizado to 29 Mar 1955) 1 Oct 1956 - 1 Oct 1960 Ernesto de la Guardia Navarro (b. 1904 - d. 1983) 1 Oct 1960 - 1 Oct 1964 Roberto F. Chiari (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Oct 1964 - 1 Oct 1968 Marco Aurelio Robles Méndez (b. 1905 - d. 1990) 24 Mar 1968 - 5 Apr 1968 Max Delvalle (in rebellion) (b. 1911 - d. 1979) 1 Oct 1968 - 11 Oct 1968 Arnulfo Arias Madrid (3rd time) (s.a.) 12 Oct 1968 - 13 Oct 1968 Military junta - José M. Pinilla (b. 1915 - d. 1979) - Bolívar Urrutia (b. 1918 - d. 2005) 13 Oct 1968 - 18 Dec 1969 José M. Pinilla (s.a.) (chairman Provisional Junta) 19 Dec 1969 - 11 Oct 1978 Demetrio Lakas Bahas (b. 1925 - d. 1999) (chairman Provisional Junta to 11 Oct 1972) 11 Oct 1978 - 31 Jul 1982 Aristides Royo (b. 1940) 31 Jul 1982 - 13 Feb 1984 Ricardo de la Espriella (b. 1934) 13 Feb 1984 - 11 Oct 1984 Jorge Illueca (b. 1918 - d. 2012) 11 Oct 1984 - 28 Sep 1985 Nicolás Ardito Barletta Vallarino (b. 1938) 28 Sep 1985 - 26 Feb 1988 Eric Arturo Delvalle (b. 1937) (continues in rebellion to 1 Sep 1989) 26 Feb 1988 - 1 Sep 1989 Manuel Solís Palma (acting) (b. 1917 - d. 2009) 1 Sep 1989 - 20 Dec 1989 Francisco Rodríguez (provisional) (b. 1938) 20 Dec 1989 - 1 Sep 1994 Guillermo Endara (b. 1936 - d. 2009) 1 Sep 1994 - 1 Sep 1999 Ernesto Pérez Balladares (b. 1946) 1 Sep 1999 - 1 Sep 2004 Mireya Moscoso (f) (b. 1946) 1 Sep 2004 - 1 Jul 2009 Martín Torrijos (b. 1963) 1 Jul 2009 - 1 Jul 2014 Ricardo Martinelli (b. 1952) 1 Jul 2014 - Juan Carlos Varela (b. 1963)
Chiefs of Government 11 Oct 1972 - 11 Oct 1978 Omar Torrijos Herrera (s.a.) (formally Supreme Leader of the Panamanian Revolution) 15 Dec 1989 - 20 Dec 1989 Manuel Noriega (s.a.)

Canal Zone

18 Nov 1903                administered by U.S. War (later Defense) Department
30 Sep 1979                U.S. cedes Canal Zone to Panama

Governors
14 May 1904 - 24 May 1905  George W. Davis                    (b. 1839 - d. 1913)
25 May 1905 - 12 Oct 1906  Charles E. Magoon                  (b. 1861 - d. 1920)
19 Nov 1906 - 31 Mar 1907  Richard R. Rogers                  (b. 1868 - d. 1949)
 1 Apr 1907 -  4 Dec 1909  Joseph C.S. Blackburn              (b. 1838 - d. 1918)
13 May 1910 -  8 Aug 1913  Maurice H. Thatcher                (b. 1870 - d. 1973)
 9 Aug 1913 - 31 Mar 1914  Richard L. Metcalfe                (b. 1861 - d. 1954)
 1 Apr 1914 - 10 Jan 1917  George Washington Goethals         (b. 1858 - d. 1928)
11 Jan 1917 - 27 Mar 1921  Chester Harding                    (b. 1866 - d. 1936)
28 Mar 1921 - 15 Oct 1924  Jay J. Morrow                      (b. 1870 - d. 1937)
16 Oct 1924 - 15 Oct 1928  Meriwether L. Walker               (b. 1869 - d. 1947)
16 Oct 1928 - 20 Oct 1932  Harry Burgess                      (b. 1872 - d. 1933)
21 Oct 1932 - 26 Aug 1936  Julian L. Schley                   (b. 1880 - d. 1965)
27 Aug 1936 - 10 Jul 1940  Clarence S. Ridley                 (b. 1883 - d. 1969)
11 Jul 1940 - 15 May 1944  Glen E. Edgerton                   (b. 1887 - d. 1976)
16 May 1944 - 19 May 1948  Joseph C. Mehaffey                 (b. 1889 - d. 1963)
20 May 1948 - 26 May 1952  Francis K. Newcomer                (b. 1889 - d. 1967)
27 May 1952 - 27 May 1956  John S. Seybold                    (b. 1897 - d. 1984)
28 May 1956 - 30 Jun 1960  William E. Potter                  (b. 1905 - d. 1988)
 1 Jul 1960 - 31 Jan 1962  William A. Carter                  (b. 1907 - d. 1996)
 1 Feb 1962 - 31 Jan 1967  Robert J. Fleming                  (b. 1907 - d. 1984)
21 Feb 1967 -  2 Mar 1971  Walter P. Leber                    (b. 1918 - d. 2009)
 3 Mar 1971 - 25 Mar 1975  David S. Parker                    (b. 1919 - d. 1990)
26 Mar 1975 - 30 Sep 1979  Harold R. Parfitt                  (b. 1921 - d. 2006)

Papal State: see under Italian states.

Papua New Guinea

 3 Nov 1884                Germany proclaims protectorate over northeastern New Guinea
 6 Nov 1884                Britain proclaims protectorate over southeastern New Guinea
 1 Sep 1906                British New Guinea passed to Australia as Territory of
                           Papua
   Nov 1914                Australian occupation of German New Guinea
17 Dec 1920                German New Guinea becomes League of Nations mandate
21 Jan 1942 -        1944  Japanese occupation of New Guinea and part of Papua
       1945                Territory of Papua and New Guinea
 1 Jul 1971                Territory of Papua New Guinea
16 Sep 1975                independence (Independent State of Papua New Guinea)

New Guinea

Commissioner
       1885 -    Jan 1887  Gustav von Oertzen                 (b. 1836 - d. 1911)
Landeshauptleute (of the New Guinea Company)
10 Jun 1886 -  1 Mar 1888  Georg Freiherr von Schleinitz      (b. 1834 - d. 1910)
 1 Mar 1888 - 31 Oct 1889  Reinhold Kraetke                   (b. 1845 - d. 1934)
Commissioner
 1 Nov 1889 - 31 Aug 1892  Fritz Rose (acting to 30 Sep 1890) (b. 1855 - d. 1922)
Landeshauptleute (of the New Guinea Company)
 1 Sep 1892 -  3 Mar 1895  Georg Schmiele                     (b. 1855 - d. 1895)
 3 Mar 1895 - 17 Aug 1896  Hugo Rüdiger
22 Sep 1896 - 13 Aug 1897  Curt von Hagen                     (b. 1859 - d. 1897)
15 Aug 1897 - 11 Sep 1897  Albert Hahl (acting)               (b. 1868 - d. 1945)
11 Sep 1897 - 31 Mar 1899  Hugo Skopnik
Governors
 1 Apr 1899 - 10 Jul 1901  Rudolf von Bennigsen               (b. 1860 - d. 1912)
10 Jul 1901 - 13 Apr 1914  Albert Hahl                        (s.a.)
                           (acting to 10 Nov 1902)
13 Apr 1914 - 17 Oct 1914  Eduard Haber (acting)              (b. 1866 - d. 1947)
Administrators
   Nov 1914 -  8 Jan 1915  William Holmes                     (b. 1862 - d. 1917)
 8 Jan 1915 - 21 Oct 1917  Samuel Augustus Pethbridge         (b. 1862 - d. 1918)
21 Oct 1917 - 21 Apr 1918  Seaforth Simpson Mackenzie         (b. 1883 - d. 1955)
                           (acting)
21 Apr 1918 -  1 May 1920  George Jameson Johnston            (b. 1869 - d. 1949)
 1 May 1920 - 21 Mar 1921  Thomas Griffiths (1st time)        (b. 1865 - d. 1947)
21 Mar 1921 - 13 Jun 1933  Evan Alexander Wisdom              (b. 1869 - d. 1945)
13 Jun 1933 - 12 Sep 1934  Thomas Griffiths (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                           (acting)
12 Sep 1934 -    Dec 1942  Walter Ramsay McNicoll (from 1937,
                           Sir Walter Ramsay McNicoll)        (b. 1877 - d. 1947)

Papua

Commissioners
   Nov 1884 -  2 Dec 1885  Sir Peter Henry Scratchley         (b. 1835 - d. 1885)
   Dec 1885 -        1886  Hugh Hastings Romilly (acting)     (b. 1856 - d. 1892)
       1886 -        1887  John Douglas                       (b. 1828 - d. 1904)
       1887 -  4 Sep 1888  William MacGregor                  (b. 1846 - d. 1919)
Administrators
 4 Sep 1888 -    Sep 1898  William MacGregor (from 1889,
                           Sir William MacGregor)             (s.a.)
   Nov 1898 -    Mar 1899  Sir Francis Winter (acting)
   Mar 1899 -    Jun 1903  George Ruthven Le Hunte            (b. 1852 - d. 1925)
 9 Jun 1903 -    Jun 1904  Christopher Stansfield Robinson    (b. 1871 - d. 1904)
                           (acting)
   Jun 1904 -    Apr 1907  Francis Rickman Barton (acting)    (b. 1865 - d. 1947)
   Apr 1907 - 27 Feb 1940  Hubert Murray (from 1925,
                           Sir Hubert Murray)                 (b. 1861 - d. 1940)
                           (acting to Jan 1909)
   Feb 1940 - 12 Feb 1942  Hubert Leonard Murray (acting)     (b. 1886 - d. 1963)
12 Feb 1942 -    Oct 1945  Basil Moorhouse Morris             (b. 1888 - d. 1975)

Papua New Guinea

Administrators
31 Oct 1945 -    Jun 1952  Jack Keith Murray                  (b. 1889 - d. 1979)
   Jul 1952 -    Dec 1966  Donald Cleland (from 1961,
                           Sir Donald Cleland)                (b. 1901 - d. 1975)
 9 Jan 1967 -        1970  David Osborne Hay                  (b. 1916 - d. 2009)
       1970 -  1 Dec 1973  Leslie Wilson Johnson              (b. 1916 - d. 2000)
High commissioners
 1 Dec 1973 -    Mar 1974  Leslie Wilson Johnson              (s.a.)
   Mar 1974 - 16 Sep 1975  Thomas Kingston Critchley          (b. 1916 - d. 2009)
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
16 Sep 1975 -  1 Mar 1977  Sir John Guise                     (b. 1914 - d. 1991)
 1 Mar 1977 -  1 Mar 1983  Sir Tore Lokoloko                  (b. 1930 - d. 2013)
 1 Mar 1983 -  1 Mar 1989  Sir Kingsford Dibela               (b. 1932 - d. 2002)
 1 Mar 1989 - 31 Dec 1989  Sir Ignatius Kilage                (b. 1941 - d. 1989)
31 Dec 1989 - 27 Feb 1990  Dennis Young (1st time) (acting)   (b. 1938)
27 Feb 1990 -  4 Oct 1991  Sir Serei Eri                      (b. 1936 - d. 1993)
 4 Oct 1991 - 18 Nov 1991  Dennis Young (2nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)
18 Nov 1991 - 20 Nov 1997  Wiwa Korowi (from 10 Dec 1991,
                           Sir Wiwa Korowi)                   (b. 1948)
20 Nov 1997 - 20 Nov 2003  Silas Atopare (from 29 Jan 1998,
                           Sir Silas Atopare)                 (b. 1951)
21 Nov 2003 - 28 May 2004  Bill Skate (acting)                (b. 1953 - d. 2006)
28 May 2004 - 29 Jun 2004  Jeffery Nape (1st time) (acting)   (b. 1964)
29 Jun 2004 - 13 Dec 2010  Sir Paulias Matane                 (b. 1931)
13 Dec 2010 - 20 Dec 2010  Jeffery Nape (2nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)
20 Dec 2010 -              Michael Ogio (from 6 May 2011,
                           Sir Michael Ogio)                  (b. 1942)
                           (acting to 25 Feb 2011)

Chief minister 27 Apr 1972 - 16 Sep 1975 Michael Somare (b. 1936) Prime ministers 16 Sep 1975 - 11 Mar 1980 Michael Somare (1st time) (s.a.) 11 Mar 1980 - 2 Aug 1982 Sir Julius Chan (1st time) (b. 1939) 2 Aug 1982 - 21 Nov 1985 Michael Somare (2nd time) (s.a.) 21 Nov 1985 - 4 Jul 1988 Paias Wingti (1st time) (b. 1951) 4 Jul 1988 - 17 Jul 1992 Rabbie Namaliu (b. 1947) 17 Jul 1992 - 30 Aug 1994 Paias Wingti (2nd time) (s.a.) 30 Aug 1994 - 22 Jul 1997 Sir Julius Chan (2nd time) (s.a.) 27 Mar 1997 - 2 Jun 1997 John Giheno (acting for Chan) (b. 1950) 22 Jul 1997 - 14 Jul 1999 Bill Skate (s.a.) 14 Jul 1999 - 5 Aug 2002 Sir Mekere Morauta (b. 1946) 5 Aug 2002 - 2 Aug 2011 Sir Michael Somare (3rd time) (s.a.) 13 Dec 2010 - 17 Jan 2011 Sam Abal (1st time) (acting for Somare) 4 Apr 2011 - 2 Aug 2011 Sam Abal (2nd time) (acting for Somare) 2 Aug 2011 - Peter O'Neill (b. 1965) 14 Dec 2011 - 3 Aug 2012 Sir Michael Somare (4th time) (s.a.) (in opposition)

Bougainville

 1 Sep 1975                secession as Republic of the North Solomons
                           (not recognized)
 9 Aug 1976                autonomous province (North Solomons)
   Apr 1995                Bougainville Transitional Government established
 1 Jan 1999                replaced by Bougainville Reconciliation Government
15 Jun 2005                Bougainville Autonomous Government established

Premiers
 1 Sep 1975 -        1980  Alexis Sarei (1st time)            (b. 1934 - d. 2014)
       1980 -        1984  Leo Hannett                        (b. 1941)
       1984 -        1987  Alexis Sarei (2nd time)            (s.a.)
       1987 - 29 Aug 1990  Joseph Kabui                       (b. 1954 - d. 2008)
Administrator
   Aug 1990 -    Apr 1995  Sam Tulo                           (b. 1946)
Premiers
   Apr 1995 - 12 Oct 1996  Theodore Miriung                   (b. 1945 - d. 1996)
18 Nov 1996 - 31 Dec 1998  Gerard Sinato
Co-chairmen of the Bougainville Constituent Assembly
15 Jan 1999 -  9 Dec 1999  Gerard Sinato
                           + Joseph Kabui                     (s.a.)
Governors
 9 Dec 1999 - 20 Apr 2005  John Momis                         (b. 1942)
20 Apr 2005 - 15 Jun 2005  Gerard Sinato (acting)
Presidents
15 Jun 2005 -  7 Jun 2008  Joseph Kabui                       (s.a.)
 7 Jun 2008 -  6 Jan 2009  John Tabinaman (acting)            (b. 1951?)
 6 Jan 2009 - 10 Jun 2010  James Tanis                        (b. 1965?)
10 Jun 2010 -              John Momis                         (s.a.)

Paraguay

12 Oct 1813                independence (Republic of Paraguay)

Consuls of the Republic in power (2 consuls alternating in power every 4 months)
12 Oct 1813 - 12 Feb 1814  José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1766 - d. 1840)
12 Feb 1814 - 12 Jun 1814  Fulgencio Yegros                   (b. 1780 - d. 1821)
12 Jun 1814 -  3 Oct 1814  José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
Supreme Dictator
 3 Oct 1814 - 20 Sep 1840  José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia   (s.a.)
                           (from 6 Jun 1816 styled Perpetual Supreme Dictator)
Presidents of the Provisional Junta
20 Sep 1840 - 22 Jan 1841  Manuel Antonio Ortiz
22 Jan 1841 -  9 Feb 1841  Juan José Medina
 9 Feb 1841 - 14 Mar 1841  Mariano Roque Alonzo               (b. ... - d. 1853)
                           (Commandant-General)
Consuls of the Republic
14 Mar 1841 - 13 Mar 1844  Carlos Antonio López               (b. 1792 - d. 1862)
                           + Mariano Roque Alonzo             (s.a.)
                           (ruling jointly, but occasionally styled First Consul,
                           Second Consul)
Presidents
14 Mar 1844 - 10 Sep 1862  Carlos Antonio López               (s.a.)
10 Sep 1862 - 15 Aug 1869  Francisco Solano López             (b. 1827 - d. 1870)
                           (acting to 16 Oct 1862; continues after deposition to
                           1 Mar 1870)
15 Aug 1869 - 31 Aug 1870  Cirilo Antonio Rivarola (1st time) (b. 1836 - d. 1879)
                           (President of Provisional Government)
31 Aug 1870 -  1 Sep 1870  Facundo Machaín (provisional)      (b. 1847 - d. 1877)
 1 Sep 1870 - 18 Dec 1871  Cirilo Antonio Rivarola (2nd time) (s.a.)
                           (provisional to 25 Nov 1870)
18 Dec 1871 - 25 Nov 1874  Salvador Jovellanos (acting)       (b. 1833 - d. 1881)
25 Nov 1874 - 12 Apr 1877  Juan Bautista Gill                 (b. 1840 - d. 1877)
12 Apr 1877 - 25 Nov 1878  Higinio Uriarte                    (b. 1843 - d. 1909)
25 Nov 1878 -  4 Sep 1880  Cándido Bareiro                    (b. 1833 - d. 1880)
 4 Sep 1880 - 25 Nov 1886  Bernardino Caballero               (b. 1839 - d. 1912)
                           (provisional to 25 Nov 1882)
25 Nov 1886 - 25 Nov 1890  Patricio Escobar                   (b. 1843 - d. 1912)
25 Nov 1890 -  9 Jun 1894  Juan Gualberto González            (b. 1851 - d. 1912)
 9 Jun 1894 - 25 Nov 1894  Marcos A. Morínigo (acting)        (b. 1848 - d. 1901)
25 Nov 1894 - 25 Nov 1898  Juan Bautista Egusquiza            (b. 1845 - d. 1902)
25 Nov 1898 -  9 Jan 1902  Emilio Aceval                      (b. 1853 - d. 1931)
 9 Jan 1902 - 25 Nov 1902  Andrés Héctor Carvallo (acting)    (b. 1862 - d. 1934)
25 Nov 1902 - 19 Dec 1904  Juan Antonio Escurra               (b. 1859 - d. 1929)
19 Dec 1904 -  9 Dec 1905  Juan Bautista Gaona (provisional)  (b. 1845 - d. 1932)
 9 Dec 1905 - 25 Nov 1906  Cecilio Báez (provisional)         (b. 1862 - d. 1941)
25 Nov 1906 -  4 Jul 1908  Benigno Ferreira                   (b. 1846 - d. 1920)
 4 Jul 1908 - 25 Nov 1910  Emiliano González Navero
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1861 - d. 1934)
25 Nov 1910 - 17 Jan 1911  Manuel Gondra (1st time)           (b. 1871 - d. 1927)
17 Jan 1911 -  5 Jul 1911  Albino Jara (provisional)          (b. 1877 - d. 1912)
 5 Jul 1911 - 28 Feb 1912  Liberato Marcial Rojas             (b. 1870 - d. 1922)
                           (provisional)
15 Jan 1912 - 17 Jan 1912    Triumvirate (in dissidence)
                             - Alfredo Aponte                 (b. 1874 - d. 19...)
                             - Marcos Caballero Codas
                             - Mario Usher                    (b. 1884 - d. 1931)
28 Feb 1912 - 22 Mar 1912  Pedro Pablo Peña (provisional)     (b. 1864 - d. 1943)
22 Mar 1912 - 15 Aug 1912  Emiliano González Navero
                           (2nd time) (provisional)           (s.a.)
15 Aug 1912 - 15 Aug 1916  Eduardo Schaerer                   (b. 1873 - d. 1941)
15 Aug 1916 -  5 Jun 1919  Manuel Franco                      (b. 1871 - d. 1919)
 5 Jun 1919 - 15 Aug 1920  José Pedro Montero (acting)        (b. 1878 - d. 1927)
15 Aug 1920 -  7 Nov 1921  Manuel Gondra (2nd time)           (s.a.)
 7 Nov 1921 - 12 Apr 1923  Eusebio Ayala (1st time)           (b. 1875 - d. 1942)
                           (provisional)
12 Apr 1923 - 17 Mar 1924  Eligio Ayala (1st time)            (b. 1879 - d. 1930)
                           (provisional)
17 Mar 1924 - 15 Aug 1924  Luis Alberto Riart (provisional)   (b. 1880 - d. 1953)
15 Aug 1924 - 15 Aug 1928  Eligio Ayala (2nd time)            (s.a.)
15 Aug 1928 - 15 Aug 1932  José Patricio Guggiari             (b. 1884 - d. 1957)
15 Aug 1932 - 17 Feb 1936  Eusebio Ayala (2nd time)           (s.a.)
17 Feb 1936 - 20 Feb 1936  Federico Wenman Smith              (b. 1902 - d. 1985)
                           (Commander-in-Chief)
20 Feb 1936 - 15 Aug 1937  Rafael Franco (provisional)        (b. 1896 - d. 1973)
16 Aug 1937 - 15 Aug 1939  Félix Paiva                        (b. 1877 - d. 1965)
                           (provisional to 12 Oct 1938)
15 Aug 1939 -  7 Sep 1940  José Félix Estigarribia            (b. 1888 - d. 1940)
 7 Sep 1940 -  8 Sep 1940  Alejandro Marín Iglesias (acting)  (b. 1907 - d. 1988)
 8 Sep 1940 -  3 Jun 1948  Higinio Morínigo                   (b. 1897 - d. 1983)
                           (provisional to 15 Aug 1943)
 3 Jun 1948 - 15 Aug 1948  Juan Manuel Frutos (provisional)   (b. 1879 - d. 1960)
15 Aug 1948 - 30 Jan 1949  Juan Natalicio González            (b. 1897 - d. 1966)
30 Jan 1949 - 26 Feb 1949  Raimundo Rolón (provisional)       (b. 1903 - d. 1981)
27 Feb 1949 - 11 Sep 1949  Felipe Molas López                 (b. 1901 - d. 1954)
                           (provisional to 14 May 1949)
11 Sep 1949 -  8 May 1954  Federico Chaves                    (b. 1882 - d. 1978)
                           (provisional to 15 Aug 1950)
 8 May 1954 - 15 Aug 1954  Tomás Romero Pereira (provisional) (b. 1886 - d. 1982)
15 Aug 1954 -  3 Feb 1989  Alfredo Stroessner                 (b. 1912 - d. 2006)
 3 Feb 1989 - 15 Aug 1993  Andrés Rodríguez                   (b. 1923 - d. 1997)
                           (provisional to 15 May 1989)
15 Aug 1993 - 15 Aug 1998  Juan Carlos Wasmosy                (b. 1938)
15 Aug 1998 - 28 Mar 1999  Raúl Cubas Grau                    (b. 1943)
28 Mar 1999 - 15 Aug 2003  Luis Ángel González Macchi         (b. 1947)
15 Aug 2003 - 15 Aug 2008  Nicanor Duarte Frutos              (b. 1956)
15 Aug 2008 - 22 Jun 2012  Fernando Lugo                      (b. 1951)
22 Jun 2012 - 15 Aug 2013  Federico Franco                    (b. 1962)
15 Aug 2013 -              Horacio Cartes                     (b. 1956)

Parma and Piacenza: see under Italian states.
Persia: see Iran.

Peru

Peru to 1836

       1542                (Spanish) Viceroyalty of Peru
28 Jul 1821                independence (Peru)
 3 Aug 1821                State of Peru
19 Dec 1822                Peruvian Republic (in sporadic official use also
                           Republic of Peru)

Viceroys
   Aug 1689 - 15 Sep 1705  Melchor Portocarrero Lasso de la
                           Vega, conde de Monclova            (b. 1636 - d. 1705)
   Sep 1705 - 22 May 1707  Audiencia
22 May 1707 - 24 Apr 1710  Manuel Oms de Santa Pau Olim de
                           Sentamanat y Lanuza, marqués de
                           Castell dos Rios                   (b. 16... - d. 1710)
   Apr 1710 -    Sep 1710  Miguel Núñez de Sanabria
                           (president of the Audiencia)
       1710 - 21 Feb 1716  Diego Ladrón de Guevara            (b. 1641 - d. 1718)
21 Feb 1716 -    Aug 1716  Mateo de la Mata Ponce de León
                           (president of the Audiencia)
   Aug 1716 - 26 Jan 1720  Carmino Nicolás Caracciolo,
                           príncipe de Santo Buono            (b. 1671 - d. 1727)
26 Jan 1720 - 14 May 1724  Diego Morcillo Rubio de Auñón      (b. 1642 - d. 1730)
14 May 1724 -  4 Jan 1736  José de Armendáriz, marqués de
                           Castelfuerte                       (b. 1670 - d. 1740)
 4 Jan 1736 - 12 Jul 1745  José Antonio de Mendoza Caamaño
                           y Sotomayor, marqués de
                           Villagarcía, vizconde de Barrantes (b. 1667 - d. 1746)
12 Jul 1745 - 12 Oct 1761  José Antonio Manso de Velasco,
                           (from 1748) conde de Superunda     (b. 1688 - d. 1767)
12 Oct 1761 - 17 Jul 1776  Manuel de Amat y Junient           (b. 1704 - d. 1790)
17 Jul 1776 - 21 Jul 1780  Manuel de Guirior y Portal de
                           Huarte y Edozain                   (b. 1708 - d. 1788)
21 Jul 1780 -  3 Apr 1784  Agustín de Jáuregui y Aldecoa      (b. 1708 - d. 1784)
 6 Apr 1784 - 25 Mar 1790  Teodoro de Croix                   (b. 1730 - d. 1791)
25 Mar 1790 -  6 Jun 1796  Francisco Gil de Taboada y Lemos   (b. 1736 - d. 1809)
 6 Jun 1796 -        1801  Ambrosio O'Higgins, marqués de
                           Osorno                             (b. 1716 - d. 1801)
       1801 -  5 Nov 1801  Manuel de Arredondo y Pelegrin
                           (president of the Audiencia)
 5 Nov 1801 - 20 Aug 1806  Gabriel de Avilés y del Fierro,
                           marqués de Avilés                  (b. 1730 - d. 1810)
20 Aug 1806 -  7 Jul 1816  José Fernando Abascal y Sousa      (b. 1743 - d. 1827)
 7 Jul 1816 - 29 Jan 1821  Joaquín de la Pezuela, marqués
                           de Viluma                          (b. 1761 - d. 1830)
29 Jan 1821 -    Dec 1824  José de la Serna e Hinojosa        (b. 1770 - d. 1832)
                           (acting)
   Dec 1824 - 23 Jan 1826  Pío de Tristán (acting)            (b. 1773 - d. 1859)
General-in-Chief
28 Jul 1821 -  3 Aug 1821  José de San Martín                 (b. 1778 - d. 1850)
Protector
 3 Aug 1821 - 20 Sep 1822  José de San Martín                 (s.a.)
President of the Constituent Congress
20 Sep 1822 - 22 Sep 1822  Francisco Xavier de Luna Pizarro   (b. 1780 - d. 1855)
President of the Supreme Governing Junta
22 Sep 1822 - 27 Feb 1823  José La Mar                        (b. 1778 - d. 1830)
Interim Administrator
27 Feb 1823 - 28 Feb 1823  José Bernardo de Tagle y
                           Portocarrero, marqués de Torre
                           Tagle, marqués de Trujillo         (b. 1779 - d. 1825)
Presidents
28 Feb 1823 - 23 Jun 1823  José de la Riva Agüero             (b. 1783 - d. 1858)
                           (continues, in revolt, after deposition to 25 Nov 1823)
23 Jun 1823 - 17 Jul 1823  Antonio José de Sucre              (b. 1795 - d. 1830)
                           (Supreme Military Chief)
17 Jul 1823 - 17 Feb 1824  José Bernardo de Tagle y
                           Portocarrero                       (s.a.)
                           (Supreme Chief to 16 Aug 1823)
17 Feb 1824 - 28 Jan 1827  Simón Bolívar                      (b. 1783 - d. 1830)
                           (Acting Dictator to 10 Feb 1825, Liberator to 9 Dec 1826,
                           then President-for-Life)
28 Jan 1827 -  9 Jun 1827  Andrés de Santa Cruz (acting)      (b. 1792 - d. 1865)
 9 Jun 1827 - 22 Aug 1827  Manuel Salazar y Baquíjano         (b. 1777 - d. 1850)
                           (acting)
22 Aug 1827 -  7 Jun 1829  José La Mar                        (s.a.)
 7 Jun 1829 -  1 Sep 1829  Antonio Gutiérrez de La Fuente     (b. 1796 - d. 1878)
                           (Provisional Supreme Chief)
 1 Sep 1829 - 20 Dec 1833  Agustín Gamarra (1st time)         (b. 1785 - d. 1841)
20 Dec 1833 - 21 Dec 1833  Francisco Xavier de Luna Pizarro   (s.a.)
                           (President of National Convention)
21 Dec 1833 - 11 Aug 1836  Luis José Orbegoso (provisional)   (b. 1795 - d. 1847)
 4 Jan 1834 - 24 Apr 1834    Pedro Pablo Bermúdez             (b. 1793 - d. 1852)
                             (Provisional Supreme Chief, in rebellion)
23 Feb 1835 -  7 Feb 1836    Felipe Santiago de Salaverry     (b. 1806 - d. 1836)
                             (Supreme Chief, in rebellion)

Divided Peru and the Peru-Bolivian Confederation

In 1836 Andrés de Santa Cruz, president of Bolivia, launched a project to confederate Peru and Bolivia under his "Protectorship." In Peru he began by having an Assembly proclaim on 17 Mar 1836 the South-Peruvian State, following on 11 Aug 1836 by a similar proclamation of the North-Peruvian State; in each case he became the new state's "Supreme Protector" with full powers. The Peru-Bolivian Confederation was proclaimed 28 Oct 1836; Santa Cruz was its Supreme Protector, while remaining Supreme Protector of each of the Peruvian States as well as President of the Bolivian Republic. The Confederation lasted until 20 Feb 1839. In each of the Peruvian States there was from 1837, under the Supreme Protector, a Provisional President.

South-Peruvian State

17 Mar 1836                South-Peruvian State (also styled Republic of the South of
                           Peru, or South-Peruvian Republic)
23 Feb 1839                state extinguished

Supreme Protector
17 Mar 1836 - 23 Feb 1839  Andrés de Santa Cruz               (s.a.)
Provisional Presidents
17 Sep 1837 - 12 Oct 1838  Ramón Herrera                      (b. 1799 - d. 1882)
12 Oct 1838 - 23 Feb 1839  Pío de Tristán                     (s.a.)

North-Peruvian State

11 Aug 1836                North-Peruvian State (also styled Republic of the North of
                           Peru, or North-Peruvian Republic)
24 Jan 1839                state extinguished

Supreme Protector
11 Aug 1836 - 24 Jan 1839  Andrés de Santa Cruz               (s.a.)
Provisional Presidents
21 Aug 1837 - 30 Jul 1838  Luis José Orbegoso                 (s.a.)
                           (declares secession of North-Peruvian Republic from the
                           Peru-Bolivian Confederation 30 Jul 1838 and continues as
                           Provisional President to 1 Sep 1838)
11 Aug 1838 - 24 Jan 1839  José de la Riva Agüero             (s.a.)

Peru reconstituted

25 Aug 1838                Peruvian Republic (in sporadic official use also Republic
                           of Peru)
28 Sep 1881 - 23 Oct 1883    Chilean occupation
28 Jul 1980                Republic of Peru

Presidents
25 Aug 1838 - 18 Nov 1841  Agustín Gamarra (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                           (provisional to 11 Jul 1840)
18 Nov 1841 - 16 Aug 1842  Manuel Menéndez (1st time)         (b. 1793 - d. 1847)
                           (acting)
16 Aug 1842 - 17 Oct 1842  Juan Crisóstomo Torrico            (b. 1808 - d. 1875)
                           (Supreme Chief)
17 Oct 1842 - 15 Mar 1843  Juan Francisco de Vidal            (b. 1800 - d. 1869)
                           (acting; in rebellion from 12 Aug 1842)
16 Mar 1843 - 20 Mar 1843  Justo Figuerola (1st time)         (b. 1771 - d. 1854)
                           (acting)
20 Mar 1843 - 17 Jun 1844  Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco          (b. 1806 - d. 1873)
                           (Supreme Director, in rebellion from 20 Feb 1843 and
                           continuing to 22 Jul 1844)
 3 Sep 1843 - 17 Feb 1844    Domingo Nieto                    (b. 1803 - d. 1844)
                             (President of the Provisional Supreme Governing Junta
                             of the "Free Departments," in rebellion)
17 Feb 1844 - 11 Dec 1844    Ramón Castilla                   (b. 1797 - d. 1867)
                             (ditto)
17 Jun 1844 - 10 Aug 1844  Domingo Elías                      (b. 1805 - d. 1867)
                           (Political and Military Chief)
10 Aug 1844 - 11 Aug 1844  Manuel Menéndez (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                           (acting)
11 Aug 1844 -  7 Oct 1844  Justo Figuerola (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 7 Oct 1844 - 20 Apr 1845  Manuel Menéndez (3rd time)         (s.a.)
                           (acting)
20 Apr 1845 - 20 Apr 1851  Ramón Castilla (1st time)          (s.a.)
20 Apr 1851 -  5 Jan 1855  José Rufino Echenique              (b. 1808 - d. 1887)
 5 Jan 1855 - 24 Oct 1862  Ramón Castilla (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                           (provisional [in rebellion from 1 May 1854] to 25 Oct 1858)
24 Oct 1862 -  3 Apr 1863  Miguel de San Román                (b. 1802 - d. 1863)
 3 Apr 1863 -  9 Apr 1863  Ramón Castilla (3rd time) (acting) (s.a.)
 9 Apr 1863 -  5 Aug 1863  Pedro Diez Canseco (1st time)      (b. 1815 - d. 1893)
                           (acting)
 5 Aug 1863 -  8 Nov 1865  Juan Antonio Pezet (acting)        (b. 1809 - d. 1879)
25 Apr 1865 - 24 Jun 1865    Mariano Ignacio Prado            (b. 1826 - d. 1901)
                             (Provisional Supreme Chief, in rebellion)
 8 Nov 1865 - 28 Nov 1865  Pedro Diez Canseco (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                           (acting, in rebellion from 24 Jun 1865)
28 Nov 1865 -  7 Jan 1868  Mariano Ignacio Prado (1st time)   (s.a.)
                           (Provisional Supreme Chief to 15 Feb 1867,
                           provisional to 31 Aug 1867)
 7 Jan 1868 -  8 Jan 1868  Luis La Puerta                     (b. 1811 - d. 1896)
                           (President of the Council of Ministers)
 8 Jan 1868 -  2 Aug 1868  Pedro Diez Canseco (3rd time)      (s.a.)
                           (acting, in rebellion from 11 Sep 1867)
 2 Aug 1868 - 22 Jul 1872  José Balta                         (b. 1814 - d. 1872)
22 Jul 1872 - 26 Jul 1872  Tomás Gutiérrez (Supreme Chief)    (b. ... - d. 1872)
26 Jul 1872 - 27 Jul 1872  Francisco Diez Canseco (acting)    (b. 1821 - d. 1884)
27 Jul 1872 -  2 Aug 1872  Mariano Herencia Zevallos (acting) (b. 1820 - d. 1873)
 2 Aug 1872 -  2 Aug 1876  Manuel Pardo                       (b. 1834 - d. 1878)
 2 Aug 1876 - 23 Dec 1879  Mariano Ignacio Prado (2nd time)   (s.a.)
23 Dec 1879 - 12 Mar 1881  Nicolás de Piérola (1st time)      (b. 1839 - d. 1913)
                           (Supreme Chief, continuing in rebellion to 31 Jul 1881
                           and then as President to 28 Nov 1881)
12 Mar 1881 - 28 Sep 1881  Francisco García Calderón          (b. 1834 - d. 1905)
                           (provisional)
17 May 1881 - 23 Oct 1883    Patricio Lynch Solo de Zaldívar  (b. 1824 - d. 1886)
                             (Chilean governor)

In opposition to Chilean occupation, two insurrectionary governments develop:
(A)
15 Nov 1881 - 28 Oct 1883    Lizardo Montero (acting)         (b. 1832 - d. 1905)
28 Oct 1883 -  3 Dec 1885    Andrés Avelino Cáceres (acting)  (b. 1833 - d. 1923)
(B)
31 Aug 1882 -  3 Dec 1885    Miguel Iglesias                  (b. 1830 - d. 1909)
                             (Supreme Chief to 30 Dec 1882, "Regenerator President"
                             30 Dec 1882 - 2 Mar 1884, then provisional)

 3 Dec 1885 -  3 Jun 1886  Antonio Arenas                     (b. 1808 - d. 1891)
                           (President of the Council of Ministers)
 3 Jun 1886 - 10 Aug 1890  Andrés Avelino Cáceres (1st time)  (s.a.)
10 Aug 1890 -  1 Apr 1894  Remigio Morales Bermúdez           (b. 1836 - d. 1894)
 1 Apr 1894 - 10 Aug 1894  Justiniano Borgoño (acting)        (b. 1836 - d. 1921)
10 Aug 1894 - 20 Mar 1895  Andrés Avelino Cáceres (2nd time)  (s.a.)
20 Mar 1895 -  8 Sep 1895  Manuel Candamo (1st time)          (b. 1841 - d. 1904)
                           (President of Governing Junta)
 8 Sep 1895 -  8 Sep 1899  Nicolás de Piérola (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 8 Sep 1899 -  8 Sep 1903  Eduardo López de Romaña            (b. 1847 - d. 1912)
 8 Sep 1903 -  7 May 1904  Manuel Candamo (2nd time)          (s.a.)
 7 May 1904 - 24 Sep 1904  Serapio Calderón (acting)          (b. 1843 - d. 1922)
24 Sep 1904 - 24 Sep 1908  José Pardo y Barreda (1st time)    (b. 1864 - d. 1947)
24 Sep 1908 - 24 Sep 1912  Augusto B. Leguía y Salcedo
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1863 - d. 1932)
24 Sep 1912 -  4 Feb 1914  Guillermo E. Billinghurst          (b. 1851 - d. 1915)
 4 Feb 1914 - 18 Aug 1915  Óscar Raymundo Benavides Larrea
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1876 - d. 1945)
                           (junta chairman to 15 May 1914)
18 Aug 1915 -  4 Jul 1919  José Pardo y Barreda (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 4 Jul 1919 - 25 Aug 1930  Augusto B. Leguía y Salcedo
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
                           (provisional to 12 Oct 1919)
25 Aug 1930 - 27 Aug 1930  Manuel María Ponce Brousset        (b. 1874 - d. 1966)
                           (chairman military junta)
27 Aug 1930 -  1 Mar 1931  Luis M. Sánchez Cerro (1st time)   (b. 1889 - d. 1933)
                           (chairman [to 29 Aug 1930, military] junta)
 1 Mar 1931     (hours)    Mariano Holguín Maldonado          (b. 1860 - d. 1945)
                           (chairman Transitional Junta)
 1 Mar 1931 -  5 Mar 1931  Ricardo Leoncio Elías Arias        (b. 1874 - d. 1951)
                           (chairman Transitional Junta)
 5 Mar 1931 - 11 Mar 1931  Gustavo A. Jiménez                 (b. 1886 - d. 1933)
                           (chairman Transitional Junta)
11 Mar 1931 -  8 Dec 1931  David Samanez Ocampo               (b. 1866 - d. 1947)
                           (chairman National Junta)
 8 Dec 1931 - 30 Apr 1933  Luis M. Sánchez Cerro (2nd time)   (s.a.)
30 Apr 1933     (hours)    José Matías Manzanilla Barrientos  (b. 1867 - d. 1947)
                           (acting)
30 Apr 1933 -  8 Dec 1939  Óscar Raymundo Benavides Larrea
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 8 Dec 1939 - 28 Jul 1945  Manuel Prado y Ugarteche
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1889 - d. 1967)
28 Jul 1945 - 29 Oct 1948  José Luis Bustamante y Rivero      (b. 1894 - d. 1989)
29 Oct 1948 -  1 Jun 1950  Manuel A. Odría (1st time)         (b. 1897 - d. 1974)
                           (provisional to 31 Oct 1948, then chairman military junta)
 1 Jun 1950 - 28 Jul 1950  Zenón Noriega Agüero               (b. 1900 - d. 1957)
                           (chairman military junta)
28 Jul 1950 - 28 Jul 1956  Manuel A. Odría (2nd time)         (s.a.)
28 Jul 1956 - 18 Jul 1962  Manuel Prado y Ugarteche
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
18 Jul 1962 - 20 Jul 1962  Ricardo Pío Pérez Godoy            (b. 1905 - d. 1982)
                           + Nicolás Lindley López            (b. 1908 - d. 1995)
                           + Juan Francisco Torres Matos
                           + Pedro Vargas Prada Peirano       (b. 1912 - d. 1997)
                           (commanders-in-chief)
20 Jul 1962 -  3 Mar 1963  Ricardo Pío Pérez Godoy            (s.a.)
                           (junta chairman)
 3 Mar 1963 - 28 Jul 1963  Nicolás Lindley López              (s.a.)
                           (junta chairman)
28 Jul 1963 -  3 Oct 1968  Fernando Belaúnde Terry (1st time) (b. 1912 - d. 2002)
 3 Oct 1968     (hours)    Revolutionary Junta
                           - Juan Velasco Alvarado            (b. 1910 - d. 1977)
                           - Mario Castro de Mendoza
                           - Alberto López Causillas
 3 Oct 1968     (hours)    Revolutionary Junta
                           - Ernesto Montagne Sánchez         (b. 1916)
                           - Raúl Ríos Pardo de Zela
                           - Alberto López Causillas
 3 Oct 1968 - 30 Aug 1975  Juan Velasco Alvarado              (s.a.)
30 Aug 1975     (hours)    Revolutionary Junta
                           - Óscar Vargas Prieto              (b. 1917)
                           - César Podestá Jiménez
                           - Jorge Parodi Galliani            (b. 1923 - d. 2010)
30 Aug 1975 - 28 Jul 1980  Francisco Morales Bermúdez         (b. 1921)
28 Jul 1980 - 28 Jul 1985  Fernando Belaúnde Terry (2nd time) (s.a.)
28 Jul 1985 - 28 Jul 1990  Alan García (1st time)             (b. 1949)
28 Jul 1990 - 22 Nov 2000  Alberto Fujimori                   (b. 1938)
22 Nov 2000 - 28 Jul 2001  Valentín Paniagua                  (b. 1936 - d. 2006)
28 Jul 2001 - 28 Jul 2006  Alejandro Toledo                   (b. 1946)
28 Jul 2006 - 28 Jul 2011  Alan García (2nd time)             (s.a.)
28 Jul 2011 -              Ollanta Humala                     (b. 1962)

Prime ministers (presidents of the Council of Ministers) 1861 - 1863 Juan Antonio Pezet (s.a.) 1863 - 1864 Juan Antonio Ribeyro (b. 1810 - d. 1886) Aug 1864 - 11 Apr 1865 Manuel Cortas 11 Apr 1865 - Sep 1865 Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco (s.a.) Sep 1865 - 9 Nov 1865 Pedro José Calderón (b. 1832 - d. 1885) 9 Nov 1865 - Jun 1867 Mariano Ignacio Prado (s.a.) Jun 1867 - Jan 1868 Pedro J. Saavedra Jan 1868 Luis La Puerta (s.a.) Jan 1868 - Aug 1868 Antonio Arenas (1st time) (s.a.) 1868 - 2 Aug 1871 José Balta (s.a.) 2 Aug 1871 - Dec 1871 José Allende (b. 1793 - d. 1873) Dec 1871 - 1872 José Jorge Loayza (1st time) (b. 1827 - d. 1904) 2 Aug 1872 - 1873 José Miguel Medina (b. 1804 - d. 1884) 1873 - 1874 José de la Riva-Agüero y Looz Corswarem (b. 1827 - d. 1881) 1874 José Eusebio Sánchez (b. 1823 - d. 1903) 1875 Nicolás Freyre (b. 1810 - d. ...) 2 Aug 1876 - 26 Aug 1876 Antonio Arenas (2nd time) (s.a.) 26 Aug 1876 - 4 Jun 1877 Teodoro La Rosa (b. 1818 - d. 1882) 4 Jun 1877 - 18 Jun 1878 Juan Buendía Noriega (b. 1816 - d. 1895) 18 Jun 1878 - 17 Dec 1878 José Jorge Loayza (2nd time) (s.a.) 17 Dec 1878 - 19 May 1879 Manuel Irigoyen Larrea (1st time) (b. 1830 - d. 1912) 19 May 1879 - 16 Oct 1879 Manuel de Mendiburu Bonet (b. 1805 - d. 1885) 16 Oct 1879 - 23 Dec 1879 Manuel C. de La Cotera Mar 1881 - Nov 1881 Aurelio Denegri (1st time) 3 Jan 1883 - 27 Aug 1883 Lorenzo Iglesias Pino 27 Aug 1883 - 7 Apr 1884 Manuel Antonio Barinaga (1st time) 7 Apr 1884 - 14 May 1885 Mariano Castro Zaldívar 14 May 1885 - 2 Dec 1885 Joaquín Iglesias 2 Dec 1885 - 3 Jun 1886 Antonio Arenas (3rd time) (s.a.) 3 Jun 1886 - 6 Oct 1886 Pedro Alejandrino del Solar Gabans (1st time) (b. 1829 - d. 1909) 6 Oct 1886 - 22 Nov 1886 José Araníbar 22 Nov 1886 - 22 Aug 1887 Pedro Alejandrino del Solar Gabans (2nd time) (s.a.) 22 Aug 1887 - 12 Sep 1887 Mariano Santos Álvarez Villegas (b. 1823 - d. 1893) 12 Sep 1887 - 5 Oct 1887 Carlos M. Elías y de la Quintana (1st time) (b. 1841 - d. 1907) 5 Oct 1887 - 8 Nov 1887 Raymundo Morales Arias (interim) 8 Nov 1887 - 8 Mar 1889 Aurelio Denegri (2nd time) 8 Mar 1889 - 4 Apr 1889 José Mariano Jiménez (1st time) (b. 1843 - d. 1901) 4 Apr 1889 - 10 Feb 1890 Pedro Alejandrino del Solar Gabans (3rd time) (s.a.) 11 Feb 1890 - 10 Aug 1890 Manuel Irigoyen Larrea (2nd time) (s.a.) 10 Aug 1890 - 24 Jul 1891 Mariano Nicolás Valcárcel Salazar (b. 1850 - d. 1921) 24 Jul 1891 - 14 Aug 1891 Alberto Elmore Fernández de Córdoba (1st time) (acting) (b. 1844 - d. 1916) 14 Aug 1891 - 24 Aug 1891 Federico Herrera (1st time) 24 Aug 1891 - 14 Oct 1891 Justiniano Borgoño Castañeda (s.a.) 14 Oct 1891 - 14 Apr 1892 Federico Herrera (2nd time) (acting to 27 Nov 1891) 14 Apr 1892 - 30 Jun 1892 Juan Ibarra (acting to 2 May 1892) 30 Jun 1892 - 3 Mar 1893 Carlos M. Elías y de la Quintana (2nd time) (s.a.) 3 Mar 1893 - 11 May 1893 Manuel Velarde Seoane (b. 1833 - d. 1900) 11 May 1893 - 1 Apr 1894 José Mariano Jiménez (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Apr 1894 - 10 Aug 1894 Baltasar García Urrutia 10 Aug 1894 - 16 Nov 1894 Cesáreo Chacaltana Reyes (1st time) (b. 1845 - d. 1906) 16 Nov 1894 - 21 Mar 1895 Manuel Irigoyen Larrea (3rd time) (s.a.) 8 Sep 1895 - 30 Nov 1895 Antonio Bentín 30 Nov 1895 - 8 Aug 1896 Manuel Antonio Barinaga (2nd time) 8 Aug 1896 - 25 Nov 1897 Manuel Pablo Olaechea (b. 1843 - d. 1913) 25 Nov 1897 - 16 May 1898 Alejandro López de Romaña 16 May 1898 - 8 Sep 1899 José Jorge Loayza (3rd time) (s.a.) 8 Sep 1899 - 14 Dec 1899 Manuel María Gálvez Egúsquiza (b. 1838 - d. 1917) 14 Dec 1899 - 30 Aug 1900 Enrique de la Riva-Agüero Riglos (1st time) (b. 1857 - d. 1930) 30 Aug 1900 - 2 Oct 1900 Enrique Coronel Zegarra y Cortés (b. 1851 - d. 1919) 2 Oct 1900 - 11 Sep 1901 Domingo M. Almenara Butler (b. 1848 - d. 1931) 11 Sep 1901 - 9 Aug 1902 Cesáreo Chacaltana Reyes (2nd time) (s.a.) 9 Aug 1902 - 4 Nov 1902 Cesáreo Octavio Deustua Escarza (b. 1849 - d. 1945) 4 Nov 1902 - 8 Sep 1903 Eugenio Larrabure y Unanue (b. 1844 - d. 1916) 8 Sep 1903 - 14 May 1904 José Pardo y Barreda (s.a.) 14 May 1904 - 24 Sep 1904 Alberto Elmore Fernández de Córdoba (2nd time) (s.a.) 24 Sep 1904 - 1 Aug 1907 Augusto B. Leguía y Salcedo (s.a.) 1 Aug 1907 - 9 Oct 1907 Agustín Tovar 9 Oct 1907 - 24 Sep 1908 Carlos A. Washburn Salas (b. 1854 - d. 192...) 24 Sep 1908 - 8 Jun 1909 Eulogio Romero Salcedo (b. 1855 - d. 1931) 8 Jun 1909 - 14 Mar 1910 Rafael Fernández de Villanueva Cortez (b. 1839 - d. 1931) 14 Mar 1910 - 3 Aug 1910 Javier Prado y Ugarteche (b. 1871 - d. 1921) 3 Aug 1910 - 3 Nov 1910 Germán Schreiber Waddington (1st time) (b. 18... - d. 1930) 3 Nov 1910 - 27 Dec 1910 José Salvador Cavero (b. 1850 - d. 1940) 27 Dec 1910 - 31 Aug 1911 Enrique C. Basadre Stevenson (b. 1848 - d. 1925) 31 Aug 1911 - 24 Sep 1912 Agustín G. Ganoza Cavero (b. 1854 - d. 1926) 24 Sep 1912 - 23 Dec 1912 Elías Malpartida (b. 1850 - d. 1924) 24 Dec 1912 - 24 Feb 1913 Enrique Varela (1st time) (b. 18... - d. 1914) 24 Feb 1913 - 17 Jun 1913 Federico Luna y Peralta 17 Jun 1913 - 27 Jul 1913 Aurelio Sousa Matute (1st time) (b. 1860 - d. 1925) 27 Jul 1913 - 4 Feb 1914 Enrique Varela (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 May 1914 - 1 Aug 1914 Pedro E. Muñiz (b. 1862 - d. 1915) 1 Aug 1914 - 22 Aug 1914 Manuel Melitón Carvajal (b. 1847 - d. 1935) 22 Aug 1914 - 11 Nov 1914 Aurelio Sousa Matute (2nd time) (s.a.) 11 Nov 1914 - 19 Feb 1915 Germán Schreiber Waddington (2nd time) (s.a.) 19 Feb 1915 - 24 Sep 1915 Carlos Isaac Abrill (b. 1863 - d. 19...) 24 Sep 1915 - 27 Jul 1917 Enrique de la Riva-Agüero Riglos (2nd time) (s.a.) 27 Jul 1917 - 18 Dec 1918 Francisco Tudela y Varela (b. 1876 - d. 1962) 18 Dec 1918 - 26 Apr 1919 Germán Arenas y Loayza (1st time) (b. 1870 - d. 1948) 26 Apr 1919 - 4 Jul 1919 Juan Manuel Zuloaga (b. 1862 - d. 1944) 4 Jul 1919 - 6 Dec 1919 Melitón F. Porras (b. 1860 - d. 1944) 6 Dec 1919 - 7 Oct 1922 Germán Leguía y Martínez (b. 1861 - d. 1928) 7 Oct 1922 - 12 Oct 1924 Julio Enrique Ego-Aguirre (b. 1865 - d. 19...) 12 Oct 1924 - 7 Dec 1926 Alejandrino Maguiña (b. 1864 - d. 1935) 7 Dec 1926 - 12 Oct 1929 Pedro José Rada y Gamio (b. 1873 - d. 1938) 12 Oct 1929 - 24 Aug 1930 Benjamín Huamán de los Heros (b. 1878 - d. 1936) 25 Aug 1930 Fernando Sarmiento 8 Dec 1931 - 28 Jan 1932 Germán Arenas y Loayza (2nd time) (s.a.) 29 Jan 1932 - 13 Apr 1932 Francisco R. Lanatta (b. 1879 - d. 19...) 13 Apr 1932 - 20 May 1932 Luis A. Flores (b. 1899 - d. 1969) 21 May 1932 - 10 Sep 1932 Ricardo Rivadeneira 10 Sep 1932 - 24 Dec 1932 Carlos Zavala Loayza (b. 1882 - d. 1957) 24 Dec 1932 - 29 Jun 1933 José Matías Manzanilla Barrientos (s.a.) 29 Jun 1933 - 24 Nov 1933 Jorge Prado y Ugarteche (b. 1887 - d. 1970) 24 Nov 1933 - 19 May 1934 José de la Riva-Agüero y Osma (b. 1885 - d. 1944) 19 May 1934 - 24 Dec 1934 Alberto Rey de Castro y Romaña (b. 1869 - d. 1961) 24 Dec 1934 - May 1935 Carlos Arenas y Loayza (b. 1885 - d. 1955) May 1935 - 13 Apr 1936 Manuel Esteban Rodríguez (b. 1883 - d. 19...) 8 Dec 1936 - 19 Apr 1939 Ernesto Montagne Markholz (b. 1885 - d. 1954) 19 Apr 1939 - 8 Dec 1939 Manuel Ugarteche Jiménez (b. 1872 - d. 1943) 8 Dec 1939 - 9 Dec 1944 Alfredo Solf y Muro (b. 1872 - d. 1969) 9 Dec 1944 - 28 Jul 1945 Julio L. East (b. 1876 - d. 19...) 28 Jul 1945 - 31 Jan 1946 Rafael Belaúnde Diez Canseco (b. 1886 - d. 1972) 31 Jan 1946 - 12 Jan 1947 Julio Ernesto Portugal Escobedo (b. 1894 - d. 1972) 12 Jan 1947 - 31 Oct 1947 José R. Alzamora Freundt (b. 1891 - d. 1953) 31 Oct 1947 - 17 Jun 1948 Roque Augusto Saldías Maninat (1st time) (b. 1892 - d. 1974) 17 Jun 1948 - 27 Oct 1948 Armando Revoredo Iglesias (b. 1897 - d. 1978) 28 Jul 1950 - 9 Aug 1954 Zenón Noriega Agüero (s.a.) 9 Aug 1954 - 28 Jul 1956 Roque Augusto Saldías Maninat (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Jul 1956 - 9 Jun 1958 Manuel Cisneros Sánchez (b. 1904 - d. 1971) 9 Jun 1958 - 17 Jul 1959 Luis Gallo Porras (b. 1893 - d. 1972) 17 Jul 1959 - 24 Nov 1961 Pedro Gerardo Beltrán Espantoso (b. 1897 - d. 1979) 24 Nov 1961 - 18 Jul 1962 Carlos Moreyra y Paz Soldán (b. 1898 - d. 1981) 18 Jul 1962 - 28 Jul 1963 Nicolás Lindley López (s.a.) 28 Jul 1963 - 31 Dec 1963 Julio Óscar Trelles Montes (b. 1904 - d. 1990) 31 Dec 1963 - 15 Sep 1965 Fernando Schwalb López Aldana (1st time) (b. 1916 - d. 2002) 15 Sep 1965 - 6 Sep 1967 Daniel Becerra de la Flor (b. 1906 - d. 1987) 6 Sep 1967 - 17 Nov 1967 Edgardo Seoane Corrales (b. 1903 - d. 1978) 17 Nov 1967 - 30 May 1968 Raúl Ferrero Rebagliati (b. 1911 - d. 1977) 30 May 1968 - 2 Oct 1968 Oswaldo Hercelles García (b. 1908 - d. 1969) 2 Oct 1968 - 3 Oct 1968 Miguel Mujica Gallo (b. 1910 - d. 2001) 3 Oct 1968 - 31 Jan 1973 Ernesto Montagne Sánchez (s.a.) 31 Jan 1973 - 1 Feb 1975 Edgardo Mercado Jarrín (b. 1919 - d. 2012) 1 Feb 1975 - 30 Aug 1975 Francisco Morales Bermúdez (s.a.) 30 Aug 1975 - 31 Jan 1976 Óscar Vargas Prieto (s.a.) 31 Jan 1976 - 16 Jul 1976 Jorge Fernández Maldonado Solari (b. 1922 - d. 2000) 17 Jul 1976 - 30 Jan 1978 Guillermo Arbulú Galliani (b. 1921 - d. 1997) 30 Jan 1978 - 31 Jan 1979 Óscar Molina Pallochia (b. 1921 - d. 1990) 31 Jan 1979 - 28 Jul 1980 Pedro Richter Prada (b. 1921) 28 Jul 1980 - 3 Jan 1983 Manuel Ulloa Elías (b. 1922 - d. 1992) 3 Jan 1983 - 10 Apr 1984 Fernando Schwalb López Aldana (2nd time) (s.a.) 10 Apr 1984 - 12 Oct 1984 Sandro Mariátegui Chiappe (b. 1921 - d. 2013) 12 Oct 1984 - 28 Jul 1985 Luis Pércovich Roca (b. 1931) 28 Jul 1985 - 26 Jun 1987 Luis Alva Castro (b. 1942) 26 Jun 1987 - 17 May 1988 Guillermo Larco Cox (1st time) (b. 1932 - d. 2002) 17 May 1988 - 15 May 1989 Armando Villanueva del Campo (b. 1915 - d. 2013) 15 May 1989 - 30 Sep 1989 Luis Alberto Sánchez (b. 1900 - d. 1994) 30 Sep 1989 - 28 Jul 1990 Guillermo Larco Cox (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Jul 1990 - 15 Feb 1991 Juan Carlos Hurtado Miller (b. 1940) 15 Feb 1991 - 6 Nov 1991 Carlos Torres y Torres Lara (b. 1942 - d. 2000) 6 Nov 1991 - 6 Apr 1992 Alfonso de los Heros (b. 1939) 6 Apr 1992 - 28 Aug 1993 Óscar de la Puente Raygada (b. 1938) 28 Aug 1993 - 17 Feb 1994 Alfonso Bustamante y Bustamante (b. 1941) 17 Feb 1994 - 28 Jul 1995 Efraín Goldenberg Schreiber (b. 1929) 28 Jul 1995 - 3 Apr 1996 Dante Córdova Blanco (b. 1943) 3 Apr 1996 - 4 Jun 1998 Alberto Pandolfi (1st time) (b. 1940) 4 Jun 1998 - 21 Aug 1998 Javier Valle Riestra (b. 1932) 21 Aug 1998 - 3 Jan 1999 Alberto Pandolfi (2nd time) (s.a.) 3 Jan 1999 - 10 Oct 1999 Víctor Joy Way (b. 1947) 10 Oct 1999 - 29 Jul 2000 Alberto Bustamante Belaúnde (b. 1950 - d. 2008) 29 Jul 2000 - 25 Nov 2000 Federico Salas Guevara (b. 1950) 25 Nov 2000 - 28 Jul 2001 Javier Pérez de Cuéllar (b. 1920) 28 Jul 2001 - 12 Jul 2002 Roberto Dañino (b. 1951) 12 Jul 2002 - 28 Jun 2003 Luis Solari (b. 1948) 28 Jun 2003 - 15 Dec 2003 Beatriz Merino (f) (b. 1947) 15 Dec 2003 - 16 Aug 2005 Carlos Ferrero Costa (b. 1941) 16 Aug 2005 - 28 Jul 2006 Pedro Pablo Kuczynski (b. 1938) 28 Jul 2006 - 14 Oct 2008 Jorge del Castillo (b. 1950) 14 Oct 2008 - 11 Jul 2009 Yehude Simon (b. 1947) 11 Jul 2009 - 14 Sep 2010 Javier Velásquez (b. 1960) 14 Sep 2010 - 19 Mar 2011 José Antonio Chang (b. 1958) 19 Mar 2011 - 28 Jul 2011 Rosario Fernández (f) (b. 1955) 28 Jul 2011 - 11 Dec 2011 Salomón Lerner (b. 1946) 11 Dec 2011 - 23 Jul 2012 Óscar Valdés (b. 1949) 23 Jul 2012 - 31 Oct 2013 Juan Jiménez (b. 1964) 31 Oct 2013 - 24 Feb 2014 César Villanueva (b. 1946) 24 Feb 2014 - 22 Jul 2014 René Cornejo (b. 1962) 22 Jul 2014 - Ana Jara (f) (b. 1968)