Rulers: South Africa

Ministries, etc.


Party abbreviations: ANC=African National Congress, IFP=Inkatha Freedom Party, Lab=Labour Party, NP=National Party, SAP=South African Party, UP=United Party
Vice state president
 1 Jan 1981 - 14 Sep 1984  Alwyn Schlebusch              NP   (b. 1917 - d. 2008)
First deputy president
10 May 1994 - 16 Jun 1999  Thabo Mbeki                   ANC  (b. 1942)
Second deputy president
10 May 1994 - 30 Jun 1996  Frederik W. de Klerk          NP   (b. 1936)
Deputy presidents
17 Jun 1999 - 14 Jun 2005  Jacob Zuma                    ANC  (b. 1942)
23 Jun 2005 - 24 Sep 2008  Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka (f)    ANC  (b. 1955)
25 Sep 2008 -  9 May 2009  Baleka Mbete (f)              ANC  (b. 1949)
11 May 2009 -              Kgalema Motlanthe             ANC  (b. 1949)

International Relations

Ministers
- Foreign Affairs -
       1927 -    Jan 1955  the prime ministers
   Jan 1955 -  9 Jan 1964  Eric Louw                     NP   (b. 1890 - d. 1968)
 9 Jan 1964 -  1 Apr 1977  Hilgard Muller                NP   (b. 1914 - d. 1985)
 1 Apr 1977 - 11 May 1994  Roelof Botha                  NP   (b. 1932)
11 May 1994 - 17 Jun 1999  Alfred Nzo                    ANC  (b. 1925 - d. 2000)
17 Jun 1999 - 11 May 2009  Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma (f)    ANC  (b. 1949)
- International Relations -
11 May 2009 -              Maite Nkoana-Mashabane (f)    ANC  (b. 1963)

Defense

Ministers
       1910 -        1920  Jan Smuts (1st time)    1911: SAP  (b. 1870 - d. 1950)
       1920 -        1924  Hendrik Mentz                 SAP  (b. 1877 - d. 1938)
       1924 -    Mar 1933  Frederic Creswell             Lab  (b. 1866 - d. 1948)
   Mar 1933 -    Sep 1939  Oswald Pirow                  NP;
                                             5 Dec 1934: UP   (b. 1890 - d. 1959)
   Sep 1939 -    Jun 1948  Jan Smuts (2nd time)          UP   (s.a.)
   Jun 1948 -        1959  F.C. Erasmus                  NP   (b. 1896 - d. 1967)
       1959 -        1966  Johannes Jacobus Fouché       NP   (b. 1898 - d. 1980)
       1966 -        1980  Pieter Willem Botha           NP   (b. 1916 - d. 2006)
       1980 -        1991  Magnus Malan                 -/NP  (b. 1930 - d. 2011)
       1991 -    May 1992  Roelf Meyer                   NP   (b. 1947)
   May 1992 -  1 Apr 1993  Gene Louw                     NP   (b. 1931)
 1 Apr 1993 - 11 May 1994  Kobie Coetsee                 NP   (b. 1931 - d. 2000)
11 May 1994 - 17 Jun 1999  Joe Modise                    ANC  (b. 1929 - d. 2001)
17 Jun 1999 - 24 Sep 2008  Mosiuoa Lekota                ANC  (b. 1948)
25 Sep 2008 - 11 May 2009  Charles Nqakula               ANC  (b. 1942)
11 May 2009 - 12 Jun 2012  Lindiwe Sisulu (f)            ANC  (b. 1954)
12 Jun 2012 -              Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula (f)   ANC  (b. 1956)

Home Affairs

Ministers
- Interior -
31 May 1910 - 25 Jun 1912  Jan Smuts               1911: SAP  (b. 1870 - d. 1950)
25 Jun 1912 - 13 Nov 1913  Abraham Fischer               SAP  (b. 1850 - d. 1913)
      *1915*               Hendrik Schalk Theron         SAP  (b. 1869 - d. 1922)
 1 Feb 1916 - 10 Mar 1921  Sir Thomas Watt               SAP  (b. 1857 - d. 1947)
10 Mar 1921 - 30 Jun 1924  Patrick Duncan                SAP  (b. 1870 - d. 1943)
30 Jun 1924 - 31 Mar 1933  Daniel F. Malan               NP   (b. 1874 - d. 1959)
31 Mar 1933 -  9 Dec 1936  Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr           SAP;
                                             5 Dec 1934: UP   (b. 1894 - d. 1948)
 9 Dec 1936 -  6 Sep 1939  Richard Stuttaford            UP   (b. 1870 - d. 1945)
 6 Sep 1939 - 16 Aug 1943  Harry Gordon Lawrence
                           (1st time)                    UP   (b. 1901 - d. 1973)
16 Aug 1943 - 16 Jan 1948  Charles Francis Clarkson      UP   (b. 1881 - d. 1959)
16 Jan 1948 -  4 Jun 1948  Harry Gordon Lawrence
                           (2nd time)                    UP   (s.a.)
 4 Jun 1948 - 23 Oct 1958  Theophilus Dönges             NP   (b. 1898 - d. 1968)
23 Oct 1958 -    Jan 1961  Jozua François Naudé          NP   (b. 1889 - d. 1969)
       1961 -        1966  Johannes de Klerk             NP   (b. 1903 - d. 1979)
       1966 -        1968  Pieter Mattheus Kruger
                           Le Roux                       NP   (b. 1904 - d. 1985)
       1968 -    May 1970  Lourens Muller                NP   (b. 1917 - d. 2005)
   May 1970 -    Nov 1970  Marais Viljoen                NP   (b. 1915 - d. 2007)
   Nov 1970 -    Jul 1972  Theo Gerdener                 NP   (b. 1916 - d. 2013)
   Jul 1972 -        1978  Connie Mulder                 NP   (b. 1925 - d. 1988)
       1978 -        1980  Alwyn Schlebusch              NP   (b. 1917 - d. 2008)
       1980 -        1982  Chris Heunis                  NP   (b. 1927 - d. 2006)
- Home Affairs -
       1982 -        1985  Frederik W. de Klerk          NP   (b. 1936)
       1985 -        1989  Stoffel Botha                 NP   (b. 1929 - d. 1998)
       1989 -    May 1992  Gene Louw                     NP   (b. 1931)
   May 1992 -  1 Apr 1993  Louis Pienaar                 NP   (b. 1926 - d. 2012)
 1 Apr 1993 - 11 May 1994  Danie Schutte                 NP   (b. 1947)
11 May 1994 - 28 Apr 2004  Mangosuthu Buthelezi          IFP  (b. 1928)
28 Apr 2004 - 11 May 2009  Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula (f)   ANC  (b. 1956)
11 May 2009 -  2 Oct 2012  Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma (f)    ANC  (b. 1949)
 2 Oct 2012 -              Naledi Pandor (f)             ANC  (b. 1953)
                           (acting to 4 Oct 2012)

Finance

Ministers
       1910 -        1912  Henry Charles Hull      1911: SAP  (b. 1866 - d. 1942)
       1912 -        1915  Jan Smuts                     SAP  (b. 1870 - d. 1950)
24 Feb 1915 -        1916  Sir David Pieter de Villiers
                           Graaff                        SAP  (b. 1859 - d. 1931)
       1916 -        1917  Henry Burton (1st time)       SAP  (b. 1866 - d. 1935)
       1917 -        1920  Thomas Orr                    SAP  (b. 1857 - d. 1937)
       1920 -        1924  Henry Burton (2nd time)       SAP  (s.a.)
       1924 -        1939  Nicolaas Christiaan Havenga
                           (1st time)    NP; 5 Dec 1934: UP   (b. 1882 - d. 1957)
       1939 -    Jan 1948  Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr           UP   (b. 1894 - d. 1948)
   Jan 1948 -    Jun 1948  Claud Sturrock                UP   (b. 1882 - d. 1958)
   Jun 1948 -        1954  Nicolaas Christiaan Havenga
                           (2nd time)                    NP   (s.a.)
       1954 -        1956  Eric Louw                     NP   (b. 1890 - d. 1968)
       1956 -        1958  Jozua François Naudé          NP   (b. 1889 - d. 1969)
       1958 -        1967  Theophilus Dönges             NP   (b. 1898 - d. 1968)
       1967 -        1975  Nicolaas J. Diederichs        NP   (b. 1903 - d. 1978)
       1975 -        1984  Owen Horwood                  NP   (b. 1916 - d. 1998)
       1984 -    May 1992  Barend du Plessis             NP   (b. 1940)
   May 1992 - 19 Sep 1994  Derek Keys                    NP   (b. 1931)
19 Sep 1994 -  4 Apr 1996  Chris Liebenberg              -    (b. 1934)
 4 Apr 1996 - 11 May 2009  Trevor Manuel                 ANC  (b. 1956)
11 May 2009 -              Pravin Gordhan                ANC  (b. 1949)

Justice

Ministers
       1910 -        1912  J.B.M. Hertzog          1911: SAP  (b. 1866 - d. 1942)
       1912 - 24 Jul 1913  Jacobus Wilhelmus Sauer       SAP  (b. 1850 - d. 1913)
   Sep 1913 -        1924  Nicolaas Jacobus de Wet       SAP  (b. 1873 - d. 1960)
       1924 -        1929  Tielman Johannes de Villiers
                           Roos                          NP   (b. 1879 - d. 1935)
       1929 -    Mar 1933  Oswald Pirow                  NP   (b. 1890 - d. 1959)
   Mar 1933 -    Sep 1939  Jan Smuts    SAP; 5 Dec 1934: UP   (b. 1870 - d. 1950)
   Sep 1939 -        1945  Colin Fraser Steyn            UP   (b. 1887 - d. 1959)
       1945 -    Jun 1948  Harry Gordon Lawrence         UP   (b. 1901 - d. 1973)
   Jun 1948 -        1959  Charles Robberts Swart        NP   (b. 1894 - d. 1982)
       1959 -    Aug 1961  F.C. Erasmus                  NP   (b. 1896 - d. 1967)
   Aug 1961 -        1966  B.J. Vorster                  NP   (b. 1915 - d. 1983)
       1966 -        1974  Petrus Cornelius Pelser       NP   (b. 1907)
       1974 -        1979  Jimmy Kruger                  NP   (b. 1917 - d. 1987)
       1979 -        1980  Alwyn Schlebusch              NP   (b. 1917 - d. 2008)
       1980 - 11 May 1994  Kobie Coetsee                 NP   (b. 1931 - d. 2000)
11 May 1994 - 17 Jun 1999  Dullah Omar                   ANC  (b. 1934 - d. 2004)
17 Jun 1999 - 28 Apr 2004  Penuell Maduna                ANC  (b. 1952)
28 Apr 2004 - 25 Sep 2008  Brigitte Mabandla (f)         ANC  (b. 1948)
25 Sep 2008 - 11 May 2009  Enver Surty                   ANC  (b. 1953)
11 May 2009 -              Jeff Radebe                   ANC  (b. 1953)

Parliament


National Council of Provinces

       1910                Senate
 1 Jan 1981                abolished
       1994                Senate
       1997                National Council of Provinces

Presidents
 1 Nov 1910 - 10 Mar 1921  Francis William Reitz              (b. 1844 - d. 1934)
11 Mar 1921 - 30 Jun 1929  H.C. van Heerden                   (b. 1862 - d. 1933)
19 Jul 1929 - 16 Jan 1930  R.A. Kerr
17 Jan 1930 - 18 Jan 1940  Christiaan Andries van Niekerk
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1874 - d. 1966)
19 Jan 1940 - 31 Dec 1941  François Stephanus Malan           (b. 1871 - d. 1941)
12 Jan 1942 - 31 Dec 1945  Philippus Arnoldus Myburgh         (b. 1880 - d. 1946)
18 Jan 1946 -  5 Aug 1948  Pieter Jurie Wessels               (b. 1878 - d. 1958)
 6 Aug 1948 - 19 Jan 1961  Christiaan Andries van Niekerk
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
20 Jan 1961 - 31 May 1969  Jozua François Naudé               (b. 1889 - d. 1969)
 6 Jun 1969 -    Jan 1976  Johannes de Klerk                  (b. 1903 - d. 1979)
23 Jan 1976 - 18 Jun 1979  Marais Viljoen                     (b. 1915 - d. 2007)
19 Jun 1979 - 31 Dec 1980  Jimmy Kruger                       (b. 1917 - d. 1987)
20 May 1994 -  4 Feb 1997  Kobie Coetsee                      (b. 1931 - d. 2000)
 6 Feb 1997 - 21 Jun 1999  Mosiuoa Lekota                     (b. 1948)
21 Jun 1999 -  4 May 2004  Naledi Pandor (f)                  (b. 1953)
 4 May 2004 - 21 Nov 2004  Joyce Kgoali (f)                   (b. 1950 - d. 2004)
21 Nov 2004 -              Mninwa Johannes Mahlangu           (b. 1952)
                           (acting to 17 Jan 2005)

National Assembly

       1910                House of Assembly
       1994                National Assembly

Speakers
 1 Nov 1910 - 18 Nov 1915  James Tennant Molteno (from 1911,
                           Sir James Tennant Molteno)         (b. 1865 - d. 1936)
19 Nov 1915 - 24 Jul 1924  Joel Krige                         (b. 1866 - d. 1933)
25 Jul 1924 - 19 Jun 1929  Ernest George Jansen (1st time)    (b. 1881 - d. 1959)
19 Jul 1929 - 25 May 1933  Jan Hendrick Hofmeyr de Waal       (b. 1871 - d. 1937)
26 May 1933 - 21 Jan 1944  Ernest George Jansen (2nd time)    (s.a.)
22 Jan 1944 -  5 Aug 1948  Clifford Meyer van Coller          (b. 1876 - d. 1977)
 6 Aug 1948 -  7 Nov 1950  Jozua François Naudé               (b. 1889 - d. 1969)
19 Jan 1951 - 31 Dec 1960  Johannes Conradie
20 Jan 1961 -  1 Aug 1974  Henning Johannes Klopper           (b. 1895 - d. 1985)
 2 Aug 1974 - 25 Jan 1976  Alwyn Schlebusch                   (b. 1917 - d. 2008)
26 Jan 1976 - 30 Jul 1981  Jannie Loots                       (b. 1914 - d. 1998)
31 Jul 1981 - 13 Feb 1983  J.P. du Toit
14 Feb 1983 - 31 Dec 1986  Johan Greeff                       (b. 1921 - d. 2004)
 1 Jan 1987 - 26 Oct 1991  Louis le Grange                    (b. 1928 - d. 1991)
14 Nov 1991 - 26 Apr 1994  Gene Louw                          (b. 1931)
 9 May 1994 - 23 Apr 2004  Frene Ginwala (f)                  (b. 1932)
23 Apr 2004 - 25 Sep 2008  Baleka Mbete (f)                   (b. 1949)
25 Sep 2008 -  6 May 2009  Gwen Mahlangu-Nkabinde (f)         (b. 1955)
 6 May 2009 -              Max Sisulu                         (b. 1945)

Political parties


African National Congress

       1912                South African Native National Congress founded
       1923                renamed African National Congress

Presidents-general
       1912 -        1917  John Langalibalele Dube            (b. 1871 - d. 1946)
       1917 -        1924  Sefako Mapogo Makgatho             (b. 1861 - d. 1951)
       1924 -        1927  Zaccheus R. Mahabane (1st time)    (b. 1881 - d. 1970)
       1927 -        1930  Josiah Tshangana Gumede            (b. 1870 - d. 1947)
       1930 -        1936  Pixley ka Isaka Seme               (b. 1882 - d. 1951)
       1937 -        1940  Zaccheus R. Mahabane (2nd time)    (s.a.)
       1940 -    Dec 1949  Alfred Bitini Xuma                 (b. 1890 - d. 1962)
   Dec 1949 - 16 Dec 1952  James Moroka                       (b. 1891 - d. 1985)
16 Dec 1952 - 21 Jul 1967  Albert Luthuli                     (b. 1898 - d. 1967)
21 Jul 1967 -  5 Jul 1991  Oliver Tambo (acting to 1969)      (b. 1917 - d. 1993)
 5 Jul 1991 - 17 Dec 1997  Nelson Mandela                     (b. 1918 - d. 2013)
17 Dec 1997 - 18 Dec 2007  Thabo Mbeki                        (b. 1942)
18 Dec 2007 -              Jacob Zuma                         (b. 1942)

Secretaries-general 1912 - 1917 Sol Plaatje (b. 1876 - d. 1932) 1917 - 1919 Isaiah Bud-M'belle (b. 1870 - d. 1947) 1919 - 1923 Saul Msane (b. c.1856 - d. c.1932) 1923 - 1927 T.D. Mweli Skota (b. 1890 - d. 1976) 1927 - 1930 E.J. Khaile 1930 - 1936 Elijah Mdolomba 1936 - 1949 James Calata (b. 1895 - d. 1983) 1949 - 1955 Walter Sisulu (b. 1912 - d. 2003) 1955 - 1958 Oliver Tambo (s.a.) 1958 - 1969 Duma Nokwe (b. 1927 - d. 1978) 1969 - 5 Jul 1991 Alfred Nzo (b. 1925 - d. 2000) 5 Jul 1991 - 17 Dec 1997 Cyril Ramaphosa (b. 1952) 17 Dec 1997 - 18 Dec 2007 Kgalema Motlanthe (b. 1949) 18 Dec 2007 - Gwede Mantashe (b. 1955)

New National Party

       1914                Nationalist Party founded
 5 Dec 1934                united with South African Party to form United Party
       1939                Nationalist Party recreated
       1951                united with Afrikaner Party to form National Party
   Dec 1998                renamed New National Party
 1 Mar 2006                dissolved

Leaders
       1914 -  5 Dec 1934  J.B.M. Hertzog (1st time)          (b. 1866 - d. 1942)
       1939 - 12 Dec 1940  J.B.M. Hertzog (2nd time)          (s.a.)
12 Dec 1940 - 30 Nov 1954  Daniel F. Malan                    (b. 1874 - d. 1959)
30 Nov 1954 - 24 Aug 1958  Johannes G. Strijdom               (b. 1893 - d. 1958)
 2 Sep 1958 -  6 Sep 1966  Hendrik F. Verwoerd                (b. 1901 - d. 1966)
13 Sep 1966 - 28 Sep 1978  B.J. Vorster                       (b. 1915 - d. 1983)
28 Sep 1978 -  2 Feb 1989  Pieter Willem Botha                (b. 1916 - d. 2006)
 2 Feb 1989 -  9 Sep 1997  Frederik W. de Klerk               (b. 1936)
 9 Sep 1997 -  1 Mar 2006  Marthinus van Schalkwyk            (b. 1959)

United Party

       1911                South African Party established
 5 Dec 1934                South African Party and Nationalist Party merge as United Party
28 Jun 1977                dissolved

Leaders
       1911 - 27 Aug 1919  Louis Botha                        (b. 1862 - d. 1919)
       1919 -  5 Dec 1934  Jan Smuts                          (b. 1870 - d. 1950)
 5 Dec 1934 -  5 Sep 1939  J.B.M. Hertzog                     (b. 1866 - d. 1942)
 5 Sep 1939 - 11 Sep 1950  Jan Smuts                          (s.a.)
22 Nov 1950 - 21 Nov 1956  J.G.N. Strauss                     (b. 1900 - d. 1990)
21 Nov 1956 - 28 Jun 1977  Sir De Villiers Graaff             (b. 1913 - d. 1999)