Rulers: South Africa

Ministries, etc.


Party abbreviations: ANC=African National Congress, IFP=Inkatha Freedom Party, Lab=Labour Party, NP=National Party, SAP=South African Party, UP=United Party
Vice state president
 1 Jan 1981 - 14 Sep 1984  Alwyn Schlebusch              NP   (b. 1917 - d. 2008)
First deputy president
10 May 1994 - 16 Jun 1999  Thabo Mbeki                   ANC  (b. 1942)
Second deputy president
10 May 1994 - 30 Jun 1996  Frederik W. de Klerk          NP   (b. 1936)
Deputy presidents
17 Jun 1999 - 14 Jun 2005  Jacob Zuma                    ANC  (b. 1942)
23 Jun 2005 - 24 Sep 2008  Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka (f)    ANC  (b. 1955)
25 Sep 2008 -  9 May 2009  Baleka Mbete (f)              ANC  (b. 1949)
11 May 2009 - 26 May 2014  Kgalema Motlanthe             ANC  (b. 1949)
26 May 2014 -              Cyril Ramaphosa               ANC  (b. 1952)

International Relations

Ministers
- Foreign Affairs -
       1927 -    Jan 1955  the prime ministers
   Jan 1955 -  9 Jan 1964  Eric Louw                     NP   (b. 1890 - d. 1968)
 9 Jan 1964 -  1 Apr 1977  Hilgard Muller                NP   (b. 1914 - d. 1985)
 1 Apr 1977 - 11 May 1994  Roelof Botha                  NP   (b. 1932)
11 May 1994 - 17 Jun 1999  Alfred Nzo                    ANC  (b. 1925 - d. 2000)
17 Jun 1999 - 11 May 2009  Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma (f)    ANC  (b. 1949)
- International Relations -
11 May 2009 -              Maite Nkoana-Mashabane (f)    ANC  (b. 1963)

Defense

Ministers
       1910 -        1920  Jan Smuts (1st time)    1911: SAP  (b. 1870 - d. 1950)
       1920 -        1924  Hendrik Mentz                 SAP  (b. 1877 - d. 1938)
       1924 -    Mar 1933  Frederic Creswell             Lab  (b. 1866 - d. 1948)
   Mar 1933 -    Sep 1939  Oswald Pirow                  NP;
                                             5 Dec 1934: UP   (b. 1890 - d. 1959)
   Sep 1939 -    Jun 1948  Jan Smuts (2nd time)          UP   (s.a.)
   Jun 1948 -        1959  F.C. Erasmus                  NP   (b. 1896 - d. 1967)
       1959 -        1966  Johannes Jacobus Fouché       NP   (b. 1898 - d. 1980)
       1966 -        1980  Pieter Willem Botha           NP   (b. 1916 - d. 2006)
       1980 -        1991  Magnus Malan                 -/NP  (b. 1930 - d. 2011)
       1991 -    May 1992  Roelf Meyer                   NP   (b. 1947)
   May 1992 -  1 Apr 1993  Gene Louw                     NP   (b. 1931)
 1 Apr 1993 - 11 May 1994  Kobie Coetsee                 NP   (b. 1931 - d. 2000)
11 May 1994 - 17 Jun 1999  Joe Modise                    ANC  (b. 1929 - d. 2001)
17 Jun 1999 - 24 Sep 2008  Mosiuoa Lekota                ANC  (b. 1948)
25 Sep 2008 - 11 May 2009  Charles Nqakula               ANC  (b. 1942)
11 May 2009 - 12 Jun 2012  Lindiwe Sisulu (f)            ANC  (b. 1954)
12 Jun 2012 -              Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula (f)   ANC  (b. 1956)

Home Affairs

Ministers
- Interior -
31 May 1910 - 25 Jun 1912  Jan Smuts               1911: SAP  (b. 1870 - d. 1950)
25 Jun 1912 - 13 Nov 1913  Abraham Fischer               SAP  (b. 1850 - d. 1913)
      *1915*               Hendrik Schalk Theron         SAP  (b. 1869 - d. 1922)
 1 Feb 1916 - 10 Mar 1921  Sir Thomas Watt               SAP  (b. 1857 - d. 1947)
10 Mar 1921 - 30 Jun 1924  Patrick Duncan                SAP  (b. 1870 - d. 1943)
30 Jun 1924 - 31 Mar 1933  Daniel F. Malan               NP   (b. 1874 - d. 1959)
31 Mar 1933 -  9 Dec 1936  Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr           SAP;
                                             5 Dec 1934: UP   (b. 1894 - d. 1948)
 9 Dec 1936 -  6 Sep 1939  Richard Stuttaford            UP   (b. 1870 - d. 1945)
 6 Sep 1939 - 16 Aug 1943  Harry Gordon Lawrence
                           (1st time)                    UP   (b. 1901 - d. 1973)
16 Aug 1943 - 16 Jan 1948  Charles Francis Clarkson      UP   (b. 1881 - d. 1959)
16 Jan 1948 -  4 Jun 1948  Harry Gordon Lawrence
                           (2nd time)                    UP   (s.a.)
 4 Jun 1948 - 23 Oct 1958  Theophilus Dönges             NP   (b. 1898 - d. 1968)
23 Oct 1958 -    Jan 1961  Jozua François Naudé          NP   (b. 1889 - d. 1969)
       1961 -        1966  Johannes de Klerk             NP   (b. 1903 - d. 1979)
       1966 -        1968  Pieter Mattheus Kruger
                           Le Roux                       NP   (b. 1904 - d. 1985)
       1968 -    May 1970  Lourens Muller                NP   (b. 1917 - d. 2005)
   May 1970 -    Nov 1970  Marais Viljoen                NP   (b. 1915 - d. 2007)
   Nov 1970 -    Jul 1972  Theo Gerdener                 NP   (b. 1916 - d. 2013)
   Jul 1972 -        1978  Connie Mulder                 NP   (b. 1925 - d. 1988)
       1978 -        1980  Alwyn Schlebusch              NP   (b. 1917 - d. 2008)
       1980 -        1982  Chris Heunis                  NP   (b. 1927 - d. 2006)
- Home Affairs -
       1982 -        1985  Frederik W. de Klerk          NP   (b. 1936)
       1985 -        1989  Stoffel Botha                 NP   (b. 1929 - d. 1998)
       1989 -    May 1992  Gene Louw                     NP   (b. 1931)
   May 1992 -  1 Apr 1993  Louis Pienaar                 NP   (b. 1926 - d. 2012)
 1 Apr 1993 - 11 May 1994  Danie Schutte                 NP   (b. 1947)
11 May 1994 - 28 Apr 2004  Mangosuthu Buthelezi          IFP  (b. 1928)
28 Apr 2004 - 11 May 2009  Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula (f)   ANC  (b. 1956)
11 May 2009 -  2 Oct 2012  Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma (f)    ANC  (b. 1949)
 2 Oct 2012 - 26 May 2014  Naledi Pandor (f)             ANC  (b. 1953)
                           (acting to 4 Oct 2012)
26 May 2014 - 31 Mar 2017  Malusi Gigaba                 ANC  (b. 1971)
31 Mar 2017 -              Hlengiwe Mkhize (f)           ANC  (b. 1952)

Finance

Ministers
       1910 -        1912  Henry Charles Hull      1911: SAP  (b. 1866 - d. 1942)
       1912 -        1915  Jan Smuts                     SAP  (b. 1870 - d. 1950)
24 Feb 1915 -        1916  Sir David Pieter de Villiers
                           Graaff                        SAP  (b. 1859 - d. 1931)
       1916 -        1917  Henry Burton (1st time)       SAP  (b. 1866 - d. 1935)
       1917 -        1920  Thomas Orr                    SAP  (b. 1857 - d. 1937)
       1920 -        1924  Henry Burton (2nd time)       SAP  (s.a.)
       1924 -        1939  Nicolaas Christiaan Havenga
                           (1st time)    NP; 5 Dec 1934: UP   (b. 1882 - d. 1957)
       1939 -    Jan 1948  Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr           UP   (b. 1894 - d. 1948)
   Jan 1948 -    Jun 1948  Claud Sturrock                UP   (b. 1882 - d. 1958)
   Jun 1948 -        1954  Nicolaas Christiaan Havenga
                           (2nd time)                    NP   (s.a.)
       1954 -        1956  Eric Louw                     NP   (b. 1890 - d. 1968)
       1956 -        1958  Jozua François Naudé          NP   (b. 1889 - d. 1969)
       1958 -        1967  Theophilus Dönges             NP   (b. 1898 - d. 1968)
       1967 -        1975  Nicolaas J. Diederichs        NP   (b. 1903 - d. 1978)
       1975 -        1984  Owen Horwood                  NP   (b. 1916 - d. 1998)
       1984 -    May 1992  Barend du Plessis             NP   (b. 1940)
   May 1992 - 19 Sep 1994  Derek Keys                    NP   (b. 1931)
19 Sep 1994 -  4 Apr 1996  Chris Liebenberg              -    (b. 1934)
 4 Apr 1996 - 11 May 2009  Trevor Manuel                 ANC  (b. 1956)
11 May 2009 - 26 May 2014  Pravin Gordhan (1st time)     ANC  (b. 1949)
26 May 2014 - 10 Dec 2015  Nhlanhla Nene                 ANC  (b. 1958)
10 Dec 2015 - 13 Dec 2015  David van Rooyen              ANC  (b. 1968)
13 Dec 2015 - 31 Mar 2017  Pravin Gordhan (2nd time)     ANC  (s.a.)
31 Mar 2017 -              Malusi Gigaba                 ANC  (b. 1971)

Justice

Ministers
       1910 -        1912  J.B.M. Hertzog          1911: SAP  (b. 1866 - d. 1942)
       1912 - 24 Jul 1913  Jacobus Wilhelmus Sauer       SAP  (b. 1850 - d. 1913)
   Sep 1913 -        1924  Nicolaas Jacobus de Wet       SAP  (b. 1873 - d. 1960)
       1924 -        1929  Tielman Johannes de Villiers
                           Roos                          NP   (b. 1879 - d. 1935)
       1929 -    Mar 1933  Oswald Pirow                  NP   (b. 1890 - d. 1959)
   Mar 1933 -    Sep 1939  Jan Smuts    SAP; 5 Dec 1934: UP   (b. 1870 - d. 1950)
   Sep 1939 -        1945  Colin Fraser Steyn            UP   (b. 1887 - d. 1959)
       1945 -    Jun 1948  Harry Gordon Lawrence         UP   (b. 1901 - d. 1973)
   Jun 1948 -        1959  Charles Robberts Swart        NP   (b. 1894 - d. 1982)
       1959 -    Aug 1961  F.C. Erasmus                  NP   (b. 1896 - d. 1967)
   Aug 1961 -        1966  B.J. Vorster                  NP   (b. 1915 - d. 1983)
       1966 -        1974  Petrus Cornelius Pelser       NP   (b. 1907)
       1974 -        1979  Jimmy Kruger                  NP   (b. 1917 - d. 1987)
       1979 -        1980  Alwyn Schlebusch              NP   (b. 1917 - d. 2008)
       1980 - 11 May 1994  Kobie Coetsee                 NP   (b. 1931 - d. 2000)
11 May 1994 - 17 Jun 1999  Dullah Omar                   ANC  (b. 1934 - d. 2004)
17 Jun 1999 - 28 Apr 2004  Penuell Maduna                ANC  (b. 1952)
28 Apr 2004 - 25 Sep 2008  Brigitte Mabandla (f)         ANC  (b. 1948)
25 Sep 2008 - 11 May 2009  Enver Surty                   ANC  (b. 1953)
11 May 2009 - 26 May 2014  Jeff Radebe                   ANC  (b. 1953)
26 May 2014 -              Michael Masutha               ANC  (b. 1965)

Parliament


National Council of Provinces

       1910                Senate
 1 Jan 1981                abolished
       1994                Senate
       1997                National Council of Provinces

Presidents
 1 Nov 1910 - 10 Mar 1921  Francis William Reitz              (b. 1844 - d. 1934)
11 Mar 1921 - 30 Jun 1929  H.C. van Heerden                   (b. 1862 - d. 1933)
19 Jul 1929 - 16 Jan 1930  R.A. Kerr
17 Jan 1930 - 18 Jan 1940  Christiaan Andries van Niekerk
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1874 - d. 1966)
19 Jan 1940 - 31 Dec 1941  François Stephanus Malan           (b. 1871 - d. 1941)
12 Jan 1942 - 31 Dec 1945  Philippus Arnoldus Myburgh         (b. 1880 - d. 1946)
18 Jan 1946 -  5 Aug 1948  Pieter Jurie Wessels               (b. 1878 - d. 1958)
 6 Aug 1948 - 19 Jan 1961  Christiaan Andries van Niekerk
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
20 Jan 1961 - 31 May 1969  Jozua François Naudé               (b. 1889 - d. 1969)
 6 Jun 1969 -    Jan 1976  Johannes de Klerk                  (b. 1903 - d. 1979)
23 Jan 1976 - 18 Jun 1979  Marais Viljoen                     (b. 1915 - d. 2007)
19 Jun 1979 - 31 Dec 1980  Jimmy Kruger                       (b. 1917 - d. 1987)
20 May 1994 -  4 Feb 1997  Kobie Coetsee                      (b. 1931 - d. 2000)
Chairmen
 6 Feb 1997 - 21 Jun 1999  Mosiuoa Lekota                     (b. 1948)
21 Jun 1999 -  4 May 2004  Naledi Pandor (f)                  (b. 1953)
 4 May 2004 - 21 Nov 2004  Joyce Kgoali (f)                   (b. 1950 - d. 2004)
21 Nov 2004 - 22 May 2014  Mninwa Johannes Mahlangu           (b. 1952)
                           (acting to 17 Jan 2005)
22 May 2014 -              Thandi Modise (f)                  (b. 1959)

National Assembly

       1910                House of Assembly
       1994                National Assembly

Speakers
 1 Nov 1910 - 18 Nov 1915  James Tennant Molteno (from 1911,
                           Sir James Tennant Molteno)         (b. 1865 - d. 1936)
19 Nov 1915 - 24 Jul 1924  Joel Krige                         (b. 1866 - d. 1933)
25 Jul 1924 - 19 Jun 1929  Ernest George Jansen (1st time)    (b. 1881 - d. 1959)
19 Jul 1929 - 25 May 1933  Jan Hendrick Hofmeyr de Waal       (b. 1871 - d. 1937)
26 May 1933 - 21 Jan 1944  Ernest George Jansen (2nd time)    (s.a.)
22 Jan 1944 -  5 Aug 1948  Clifford Meyer van Coller          (b. 1876 - d. 1977)
 6 Aug 1948 -  7 Nov 1950  Jozua François Naudé               (b. 1889 - d. 1969)
19 Jan 1951 - 31 Dec 1960  Johannes Conradie
20 Jan 1961 -  1 Aug 1974  Henning Johannes Klopper           (b. 1895 - d. 1985)
 2 Aug 1974 - 25 Jan 1976  Alwyn Schlebusch                   (b. 1917 - d. 2008)
26 Jan 1976 - 30 Jul 1981  Jannie Loots                       (b. 1914 - d. 1998)
31 Jul 1981 - 13 Feb 1983  J.P. du Toit
14 Feb 1983 - 31 Dec 1986  Johan Greeff                       (b. 1921 - d. 2004)
 1 Jan 1987 - 26 Oct 1991  Louis le Grange                    (b. 1928 - d. 1991)
14 Nov 1991 - 26 Apr 1994  Gene Louw                          (b. 1931)
 9 May 1994 - 23 Apr 2004  Frene Ginwala (f)                  (b. 1932)
23 Apr 2004 - 25 Sep 2008  Baleka Mbete (f) (1st time)        (b. 1949)
25 Sep 2008 -  6 May 2009  Gwen Mahlangu-Nkabinde (f)         (b. 1955)
 6 May 2009 - 21 May 2014  Max Sisulu                         (b. 1945)
21 May 2014 -              Baleka Mbete (f) (2nd time)        (s.a.)

Political parties


African National Congress

       1912                South African Native National Congress founded
       1923                renamed African National Congress

Presidents-general
       1912 -        1917  John Langalibalele Dube            (b. 1871 - d. 1946)
       1917 -        1924  Sefako Mapogo Makgatho             (b. 1861 - d. 1951)
       1924 -        1927  Zaccheus R. Mahabane (1st time)    (b. 1881 - d. 1970)
       1927 -        1930  Josiah Tshangana Gumede            (b. 1870 - d. 1947)
       1930 -        1936  Pixley ka Isaka Seme               (b. 1882 - d. 1951)
       1937 -        1940  Zaccheus R. Mahabane (2nd time)    (s.a.)
       1940 -    Dec 1949  Alfred Bitini Xuma                 (b. 1890 - d. 1962)
   Dec 1949 - 16 Dec 1952  James Moroka                       (b. 1891 - d. 1985)
16 Dec 1952 - 21 Jul 1967  Albert Luthuli                     (b. 1898 - d. 1967)
21 Jul 1967 -  5 Jul 1991  Oliver Tambo (acting to 1969)      (b. 1917 - d. 1993)
 5 Jul 1991 - 17 Dec 1997  Nelson Mandela                     (b. 1918 - d. 2013)
17 Dec 1997 - 18 Dec 2007  Thabo Mbeki                        (b. 1942)
18 Dec 2007 -              Jacob Zuma                         (b. 1942)

Secretaries-general 1912 - 1917 Sol Plaatje (b. 1876 - d. 1932) 1917 - 1919 Isaiah Bud-M'belle (b. 1870 - d. 1947) 1919 - 1923 Saul Msane (b. c.1856 - d. c.1932) 1923 - 1927 T.D. Mweli Skota (b. 1890 - d. 1976) 1927 - 1930 E.J. Khaile 1930 - 1936 Elijah Mdolomba 1936 - 1949 James Calata (b. 1895 - d. 1983) 1949 - 1955 Walter Sisulu (b. 1912 - d. 2003) 1955 - 1958 Oliver Tambo (s.a.) 1958 - 1969 Duma Nokwe (b. 1927 - d. 1978) 1969 - 5 Jul 1991 Alfred Nzo (b. 1925 - d. 2000) 5 Jul 1991 - 17 Dec 1997 Cyril Ramaphosa (b. 1952) 17 Dec 1997 - 18 Dec 2007 Kgalema Motlanthe (b. 1949) 18 Dec 2007 - Gwede Mantashe (b. 1955)

New National Party

       1914                National Party founded (in English often Nationalist Party)
 5 Dec 1934                united with South African Party to form United Party
       1939                Reunited National Party or People's Party founded
                           (again commonly Nationalist Party)
       1951                united with Afrikaner Party to form National Party
   Dec 1998                renamed New National Party
 1 Mar 2006                dissolved

Leaders
       1914 -  5 Dec 1934  J.B.M. Hertzog (1st time)          (b. 1866 - d. 1942)
       1939 - 12 Dec 1940  J.B.M. Hertzog (2nd time)          (s.a.)
12 Dec 1940 - 30 Nov 1954  Daniel F. Malan                    (b. 1874 - d. 1959)
30 Nov 1954 - 24 Aug 1958  Johannes G. Strijdom               (b. 1893 - d. 1958)
 2 Sep 1958 -  6 Sep 1966  Hendrik F. Verwoerd                (b. 1901 - d. 1966)
13 Sep 1966 - 28 Sep 1978  B.J. Vorster                       (b. 1915 - d. 1983)
28 Sep 1978 -  2 Feb 1989  Pieter Willem Botha                (b. 1916 - d. 2006)
 2 Feb 1989 -  9 Sep 1997  Frederik W. de Klerk               (b. 1936)
 9 Sep 1997 -  1 Mar 2006  Marthinus van Schalkwyk            (b. 1959)

United Party

       1911                South African Party established
 5 Dec 1934                South African Party and Nationalist Party merge as United Party
28 Jun 1977                dissolved

Leaders
       1911 - 27 Aug 1919  Louis Botha                        (b. 1862 - d. 1919)
       1919 -  5 Dec 1934  Jan Smuts                          (b. 1870 - d. 1950)
 5 Dec 1934 -  5 Sep 1939  J.B.M. Hertzog                     (b. 1866 - d. 1942)
 5 Sep 1939 - 11 Sep 1950  Jan Smuts                          (s.a.)
22 Nov 1950 - 21 Nov 1956  J.G.N. Strauss                     (b. 1900 - d. 1990)
21 Nov 1956 - 28 Jun 1977  Sir De Villiers Graaff             (b. 1913 - d. 1999)

Democratic Alliance

 4 Feb 1989                Democratic Party formed by merger of Progressive Federal Party,
                           National Democratic Movement, and Independent Party
24 Jun 2000                Democratic Alliance

Leaders
 4 Feb 1989 -  9 Sep 1990  Zach de Beer                       (b. 1928 - d. 1999)
                           + Wynand Malan                     (b. 1943)
                           + Denis Worrall                    (b. 1935)
 9 Sep 1990 - 22 May 1994  Zach de Beer                       (s.a.)
22 May 1994 -  6 May 2007  Tony Leon                          (b. 1956)
 6 May 2007 - 10 May 2015  Helen Zille (f)                    (b. 1951)
10 May 2015 -              Mmusi Maimane                      (b. 1980)