Rulers: Germany

States before 1945


Note: The main headings in this record reflect the subdivisions of the German Reich as of 1945 (excluding Austria); states that ceased to exist earlier are listed under their successors. However, the list is only complete for those polities that survived beyond 1815. Within the Holy Roman Empire, there existed also countless minor units (including ecclesiastical states, imperial cities, and even imperial villages), which are impossible to cover with even near completeness; a major reorganization was brought about by the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 1803, when more than 100 polities were eliminated.1
1 Among them the bishoprics of Augsburg, Bamberg, Berchtesgaden, Corvey, Eichstätt, Freising, Fulda, Hildesheim, Konstanz, Lübeck, Münster, Osnabrück, Paderborn, Passau, Würzburg; the imperial cities of Aalen, Biberach, Bopfingen, Buchau, Buchhorn, Dinkelsbühl, Dortmund, Esslingen, Friedberg, Gengenbach, Giengen, Goslar, Hall am Kocher, Heilbronn, Isny, Kaufbeuren, Kempten, Leutkirch, Lindau, Memmingen, Mühlhausen, Nordhausen, Nördlingen, Offenburg, Pfullendorf, Ravensburg, Regensburg, Reutlingen, Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Rottweil, Schwäbisch Gmünd, Schweinfurt, Überlingen, Ulm, Wangen, Weil der Stadt, Weissenburg, Wetzlar, Wimpfen, Windsheim, and Zell am Harmersbach; the imperial villages of Gochsheim, Holzhausen, Leutkircher Heide, Sennfeld, Soden, and Sulzbach; and the imperial valley of Harmersbach.


Alsace-Lorraine

       1871                annexed by Germany as a Reichsland
22 Nov 1918                retaken by France
15 Jun 1940 - 20 Mar 1945  occupied by Germany

Oberpräsident
   Sep 1871 -        1879  Eduard von Moeller                 (b. 1814 - d. 1880)
Reichsstatthalter
 1 Oct 1879 - 17 Jun 1885  Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel      (b. 1809 - d. 1885)
   Oct 1885 -        1894  Chlodwig Fürst zu
                           Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst          (b. 1819 - d. 1901)
       1894 -        1907  Hermann Fürst von
                           Hohenlohe-Langenburg               (b. 1832 - d. 1913)
       1907 -    Apr 1914  Karl Graf von Wedel                (b. 1842 - d. 1919)
   Apr 1914 -    Oct 1918  Nikolaus Michael Louis Hans von
                           Dallwitz                           (b. 1855 - d. 1919)
14 Oct 1918 - 12 Nov 1918  Rudolf Schwander                   (b. 1868 - d. 1950)

Secretaries of state 1 Oct 1879 - Jul 1880 Karl Joseph Benjamin Herzog (b. 1827 - d. 1902) Oct 1880 - 1887 Karl Hofmann (from 1882, Karl von Hofmann) (b. 1827 - d. 1910) 1887 - Jul 1901 Maximilian von Puttkamer (b. 1831 - d. 1906) Jul 1901 - 1908 Ernst Matthias von Köller (b. 1841 - d. 1928) 1908 - Feb 1914 Hugo Freiherr Zorn von Bulach (b. 1851 - d. 1921) 10 Feb 1914 - May 1916 Siegfried Graf von Roedern (b. 1870 - d. 1954) May 1916 - Oct 1918 Georg Freiherr von Tschammer und Quaritz (b. 1869 - d. 1954) Oct 1918 - 12 Nov 1918 Karl Hauss (b. 1871 - d. 1925) French high commissioner 22 Nov 1918 - Mar 1919 Georges Maringer French general commissioners Mar 1919 - Jan 1920 Alexandre Millerand (b. 1859 - d. 1943) 15 Mar 1920 - 20 Jul 1924 Gabriel Alapetite (b. 1854 - d. 1932) 20 Jul 1924 - 1925 Henri Cacaud (acting) (b. 1875 - d. 1961) Chief of civil administration in Alsace 7 Aug 1940 - 20 Mar 1945 Robert Wagner (b. 1895 - d. 1946) Chiefs of civil administration in Lorraine 7 Aug 1940 - 28 Sep 1944 Josef Bürckel (b. 1895 - d. 1944) 29 Sep 1944 - 20 Mar 1945 Willi Stöhr (b. 1903 - d. ...)

Anhalt

10 Jul 1603                Principality of Anhalt partitioned into 5 principalities
                           (Anhalt-Bernburg, Anhalt-Dessau, Anhalt-Köthen,
                           Anhalt-Plötzkau, Anhalt-Zerbst)
30 Aug 1863                Duchy of Anhalt unified

Dukes
- Askanien dynasty -
30 Aug 1863 - 22 May 1871  Leopold IV                         (b. 1794 - d. 1871)
22 May 1871 - 24 Jan 1904  Friedrich I                        (b. 1831 - d. 1904)
24 Jan 1904 - 21 Apr 1918  Friedrich II                       (b. 1856 - d. 1918)
21 Apr 1918 - 13 Sep 1918  Eduard                             (b. 1861 - d. 1918)
13 Sep 1918 - 12 Nov 1918  Joachim Ernst                      (b. 1901 - d. 1947)
   Sep 1918 - 12 Nov 1918    Aribert (regent)                 (b. 1864 - d. 1933)

Ministers of state 12 Sep 1863 - 1868 Carl Friedrich Ferdinand Sintenis (b. 1804 - d. 1868) 1868 - 1875 Karl August Alfred von Larisch (b. 1819 - d. 1897) 1875 - 1892 Anton von Krosigk (b. 1820 - d. 1892) 1892 - 1902 Karl von Koseritz 1903 - 1909 Nikolaus Michael Louis Hans von Dallwitz (b. 1855 - d. 1919) 1 Jan 1910 - 8 Nov 1918 Ernst Laue (b. 1855 - d. 1923) 8 Nov 1918 - 14 Nov 1918 Max Gutknecht (b. 1876 - d. 19...) 14 Nov 1918 - 23 Jul 1919 Wolfgang Heine (b. 1861 - d. 1944) 23 Jul 1919 - 9 Jul 1924 Heinrich Deist (1st time) (b. 1874 - d. 1962) 9 Jul 1924 - 25 Nov 1924 R. Willi Knorr (b. 1878 - d. 1937) 25 Nov 1924 - 21 May 1932 Heinrich Deist (2nd time) (s.a.) 21 May 1932 - 8 Jan 1940 Alfred Freyberg (b. 1892 - d. 1945) 5 May 1933 - 23 Oct 1935 Friedrich Wilhelm Loeper (b. 1883 - d. 1935) (Reichsstatthalter) Oct 1935 - Apr 1937 Fritz Sauckel (b. 1894 - d. 1946) (acting Reichsstatthalter) 8 Jan 1940 - Apr 1945 Rudolf Jordan (b. 1902 - d. 1988) (also Reichsstatthalter from Apr 1937)

Anhalt-Bernburg

10 Jul 1603                Principality of Anhalt-Bernburg
 8 Apr 1806                Duchy of Anhalt-Bernburg
19 Aug 1863                incorporated into Duchy of Anhalt-Dessau-Köthen

Princes (title Fürst zu Anhalt[-Bernburg], Graf von Askanien)
- Askanien dynasty -
 2 Oct 1656 - 14 Feb 1718  Viktor Amadeus                     (b. 1634 - d. 1718)
14 Feb 1718 - 22 Apr 1721  Karl Friedrich                     (b. 1668 - d. 1721)
22 Apr 1721 - 18 May 1765  Viktor Friedrich                   (b. 1700 - d. 1765)
18 May 1765 -  9 Apr 1796  Friedrich Albrecht                 (b. 1735 - d. 1796)
 9 Apr 1796 -  8 Apr 1806  Alexius Friedrich Christian        (b. 1767 - d. 1834)
Dukes (title Herzog zu Anhalt[-Bernburg], Graf von Askanien)
- Askanien dynasty -
 8 Apr 1806 - 24 Mar 1834  Alexius Friedrich Christian        (s.a.)
24 Mar 1834 - 19 Aug 1863  Alexander Karl                     (b. 1805 - d. 1863)
 8 Oct 1855 - 19 Aug 1863    Duchess Friederike Karoline
                             Juliane (f) (co-regent)          (b. 1811 - d. 1902)

Presidents of the government 1810 - 1827 Johann Vollrath Ludwig Freiherr von Salmuth (b. 1761 - d. 1827) 1827 - 1831 Wilhelm Ernst Carl Pfau (from 12 Jun 1828, Wilhelm Ernst Carl von Pfau) (b. 1775 - d. 1847) 1831 - 1848 Friedrich Wilhelm August von Kersten (b. 1773 - d. 1852) Ministers of state 24 Jul 1848 - 2 Nov 1848 Friedrich Wilhelm August von Kersten (s.a.) 3 Nov 1848 - 14 Dec 1850 Carl Magnus Heinrich von Krosigk (b. 1789 - d. 1850) 14 Dec 1850 - 17 Apr 1853 Johann Victor Andreas von Hempel (b. 1792 - d. ...) 17 Apr 1853 - 12 Sep 1863 Maximilian Theodor von Schaetzell (b. 1804 - d. 1879)

Anhalt-Bernburg-Harzgerode

17 Apr 1630                separated from Anhalt-Bernburg
14 Dec 1709                reincorporated into Anhalt-Bernburg

Princes (title Fürst zu Anhalt[-Bernburg-Harzgerode], Graf von Askanien)
- Askanien dynasty -
17 Apr 1630 - 30 Jun 1670  Friedrich                          (b. 1613 - d. 1670)
30 Jun 1670 - 14 Dec 1709  Wilhelm                            (b. 1643 - d. 1709)

Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym

       1707                separated from Anhalt-Bernburg
24 Dec 1812                reincorporated into Anhalt-Bernburg

Princes (title Fürst zu Anhalt[-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym], Graf von Askanien)
- Askanien dynasty -
       1707 - 17 May 1727  Leberecht                          (b. 1669 - d. 1727)
17 May 1727 - 15 Apr 1772  Viktor I                           (b. 1693 - d. 1772)
15 Apr 1772 - 20 Aug 1806  Karl                               (b. 1723 - d. 1806)
20 Aug 1806 - 22 Apr 1812  Viktor II                          (b. 1767 - d. 1812)
22 Apr 1812 - 24 Dec 1812  Friedrich                          (b. 1741 - d. 1812)

Anhalt-Dessau

10 Jul 1603                Principality of Anhalt-Dessau
18 Apr 1807                Duchy of Anhalt-Dessau
 2 May 1853                merges with Anhalt-Köthen to form Duchy of
                           Anhalt-Dessau-Köthen

Princes (title Fürst zu Anhalt[-Dessau], Graf von Askanien)
- Askanien dynasty -
17 Aug 1693 -  9 Apr 1747  Leopold I "der alte Dessauer"      (b. 1676 - d. 1747)
 9 Apr 1747 - 16 Dec 1751  Leopold II                         (b. 1700 - d. 1751)
16 Dec 1751 - 18 Apr 1807  Leopold III                        (b. 1740 - d. 1817)
Dukes (title Herzog zu Anhalt[-Dessau], Graf von Askanien)
- Askanien dynasty -
18 Apr 1807 -  9 Aug 1817  Leopold III                        (s.a.)
 9 Aug 1817 -  2 May 1853  Leopold IV                         (b. 1794 - d. 1871)

Anhalt-Köthen

10 Jul 1603                Principality of Anhalt-Köthen
23 Apr 1665                merged with Anhalt-Plötzkau
 1 Jun 1807                Duchy of Anhalt-Köthen
23 Nov 1847                jointly administered by Anhalt-Dessau and Anhalt-Bernburg
 2 May 1853                merges with Anhalt-Dessau to form Duchy of
                           Anhalt-Dessau-Köthen

Princes (title Fürst zu Anhalt[-Köthen], Graf von Askanien)
- Askanien dynasty -
18 Nov 1670 - 30 May 1704  Emanuel Lebrecht                   (b. 1671 - d. 1704)
30 May 1704 - 19 Nov 1728  Leopold                            (b. 1694 - d. 1728)
19 Nov 1728 -  6 Aug 1755  August Ludwig                      (b. 1697 - d. 1755)
 6 Aug 1755 - 17 Oct 1789  Karl Georg Ludwig Lebrecht         (b. 1730 - d. 1789)
17 Oct 1789 -  1 Jun 1807  August Christian Friedrich         (b. 1769 - d. 1812)
Dukes (title Herzog zu Anhalt[-Köthen], Graf von Askanien)
- Askanien dynasty -
 1 Jun 1807 -  5 May 1812  August Christian Friedrich         (s.a.)
 5 May 1812 - 18 Dec 1818  Ludwig II                          (b. 1802 - d. 1818)
 5 May 1812 -  9 Aug 1817    Leopold III of Anhalt-Dessau     (b. 1740 - d. 1817)
                             (regent)
 9 Aug 1817 - 18 Dec 1818    Alexius of Anhalt-Bernburg       (b. 1767 - d. 1834)
                             (regent)
18 Dec 1818 - 23 Aug 1830  Friedrich Ferdinand                (b. 1769 - d. 1830)
23 Aug 1830 - 23 Nov 1847  Heinrich                           (b. 1778 - d. 1847)

Presidents of the State Government (from Apr 1848, Government) 1812 - 1817 Ludwig Lebrecht Vierthaler (b. 1763 - d. 1818) 1817 - 1835 Lebrecht August Renthe (from 1820, Lebrecht August von Renthe) (b. 1762 - d. 1835) 1836 - 1839 Johann David Karl Albert (from 1837, Johann David Karl von Albert) (b. 1779 - d. 1839) 1840 - 1853 Albert Vierthaler (b. 1794 - d. 1862) Chairmen of the Common Ministry of State (for Anhalt-Dessau and Anhalt-Köthen) 23 Jul 1848 - 10 Jul 1849 August Eberhardt Habicht (b. 1805 - d. 1896) 10 Jul 1849 - May 1853 Gustav August von Gossler (b. 1807 - d. 1869)

Anhalt-Köthen-Pless

       1765                Principality of Anhalt-Köthen-Pless
 5 Nov 1841                reincorporated into Anhalt-Köthen

Princes
- Askanien dynasty -
       1765 - 12 Dec 1797  Friedrich Erdmann                  (b. 1721 - d. 1797)
12 Dec 1797 - 18 Dec 1818  Friedrich Ferdinand                (s.a.)
18 Dec 1818 - 23 Aug 1830  Heinrich                           (s.a.)
23 Aug 1830 -  5 Nov 1841  Ludwig                             (b. 1783 - d. 1841)

Anhalt-Dessau-Köthen

 2 May 1853                Duchy of Anhalt-Dessau-Köthen formed by merger of
                           Anhalt-Dessau and Anhalt-Köthen
30 Aug 1863                after incorporation of Anhalt-Bernburg 19 Aug 1863,
                           the polity becomes the Duchy of Anhalt

Duke
- Askanien dynasty -
 2 May 1853 - 30 Aug 1863  Leopold IV                         (s.a.)

Anhalt-Zerbst

10 Jul 1603                Principality of Anhalt-Zerbst
 3 Mar 1797                divided among Anhalt-Bernburg, Anhalt-Köthen, Anhalt-Dessau

Princes (title Fürst zu Anhalt[-Zerbst], Graf von Askanien)
- Askanien dynasty -
14 Jul 1667 -  3 Nov 1718  Karl Wilhelm                       (b. 1652 - d. 1718)
 3 Nov 1718 -  7 Nov 1742  Johann August                      (b. 1677 - d. 1742)
 7 Nov 1742 -  5 Nov 1746  Johann Ludwig                      (b. 1688 - d. 1746)
                           jointly with
 7 Nov 1742 - 16 Mar 1747  Christian August                   (b. 1690 - d. 1747)
16 Mar 1747 -  3 Mar 1793  Friedrich August                   (b. 1734 - d. 1793)

Baden

27 Apr 1112                Margraviate of Baden (Markgrafschaft Baden) established
24 Aug 1535                polity split into Upper Margraviate of Baden, usually called
                           Baden-Baden, and Lower Margraviate of Baden, usually called
                           Baden-Durlach, after the later choices of capitals
21 Oct 1771                Baden-Baden line extinct; Baden-Durlach reunites both
                           polities into a single Margraviate of Baden
25 Jul 1803                the ruler is made into a prince-elector and the polity is
                           styled Electorate of Baden (Kurfürstentum Baden)
25 Jul 1806                Grand Duchy of Baden (Grossherzogtum Baden)
14 May 1849 - 25 Jun 1849  rebellion; establishes Republic of Baden 1 Jun 1849

Baden-Baden

Margraves (title Markgraf von Baden)
- Zähringen dynasty -
22 May 1677 -  4 Jan 1707  Ludwig Wilhelm "der Türkenlouis"   (b. 1655 - d. 1707)
 4 Jan 1707 - 22 Oct 1761  Ludwig Georg Simpert               (b. 1702 - d. 1761)
22 Oct 1761 - 21 Oct 1771  August Georg Simpert               (b. 1706 - d. 1771)

Baden-Durlach

Margraves (title Markgraf von Baden)
- Zähringen dynasty -
10 Feb 1677 - 25 Jun 1709  Friedrich VII "der Grosse"         (b. 1647 - d. 1709)
25 Jun 1709 - 12 May 1738  Karl III Wilhelm                   (b. 1679 - d. 1738)
12 May 1738 - 21 Oct 1771  Karl IV Friedrich                  (b. 1728 - d. 1811)

Baden reunited

Margrave (title Markgraf von Baden)
- Zähringen dynasty -
21 Oct 1771 - 27 Apr 1803  Karl IV Friedrich                  (s.a.)
Margrave and Elector (title Markgraf von Baden, Kurfürst des Heiligen Römischen Reiches,
Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, etc.)
- Zähringen dynasty -
27 Apr 1803 - 25 Jul 1806  Karl Friedrich                     (s.a.)
Grand dukes (title Grossherzog von Baden)
- Zähringen dynasty -
25 Jul 1806 - 10 Jun 1811  Karl Friedrich                     (s.a.)
10 Jun 1811 -  8 Dec 1818  Karl                               (b. 1786 - d. 1818)
 8 Dec 1818 - 30 Mar 1830  Ludwig I                           (b. 1763 - d. 1830)
30 Mar 1830 - 24 Apr 1852  Leopold                            (b. 1790 - d. 1852)
14 May 1849 - 25 Jun 1849    Lorenz Peter Brentano            (b. 1813 - d. 1891)
                             (chairman Executive of the People's Societies to
                             1 Jun 1849, then chairman Provisional Government
                             of the Republic)
24 Apr 1852 -  5 Sep 1856  Ludwig II                          (b. 1824 - d. 1858)
 5 Sep 1856 - 28 Sep 1907  Friedrich I                        (b. 1826 - d. 1907)
                           (24 Apr 1852 - 5 Sep 1856 regent for Ludwig II)
28 Sep 1907 - 22 Nov 1918  Friedrich II                       (b. 1857 - d. 1928)

Chief ministers 1833 - 1838 Georg Ludwig Winter (b. 1778 - d. 1838) 1838 - 1839 Karl Friedrich Nebenius (1st time) (b. 1785 - d. 1857) 1839 - Nov 1843 Friedrich Landolin Karl Freiherr von Blittersdorf (b. 1792 - d. 1861) Nov 1843 - Mar 1845 Christian Friedrich von Boeckh (b. 1777 - d. 1855) Mar 1845 - 19 Dec 1846 Karl Friedrich Nebenius (2nd time) (s.a.) 19 Dec 1846 - 9 Mar 1848 Johann Baptist Bekk (b. 1797 - d. 1855) 9 Mar 1848 - 1 Jul 1849 Karl Georg Hoffmann (b. 1796 - d. 1865) 1 Jul 1849 - May 1856 Friedrich Adolf Klüber (b. 1791 - d. 1858) May 1856 - 2 Apr 1860 Franz Freiherr von Stengel (b. 1803 - d. 1870) 2 Apr 1860 - 27 Jul 1866 Anton von Stabel (b. 1806 - d. 1880) 27 Jul 1866 - 3 Feb 1868 Karl Mathy (b. 1806 - d. 1868) 12 Feb 1868 - 24 Sep 1876 Julius August Isaak Jolly (b. 1823 - d. 1891) 24 Sep 1876 - 7 Mar 1893 Ludwig Turban (b. 1821 - d. 1898) 7 Mar 1893 - Jun 1901 Franz Wilhelm Nokk (b. 1832 - d. 1903) Jun 1901 - 8 Mar 1905 Karl Ludwig Wilhelm Arthur von Brauer (b. 1845 - d. 1926) 8 Mar 1905 - 22 Dec 1917 Alexander Freiherr von Dusch (b. 1851 - d. 1923) 22 Dec 1917 - 14 Nov 1918 Heinrich Freiherr von und zu Bodman (b. 1851 - d. 1929) State presidents 14 Nov 1918 - 14 Aug 1920 Anton Geiss (b. 1858 - d. 1944) 14 Aug 1920 - 23 Nov 1921 Gustav Josef Ludwig Trunk (1st time) (b. 1871 - d. 1936) 23 Nov 1921 - 23 Nov 1922 Hermann Hummel (b. 1876 - d. 1952) 23 Nov 1922 - 23 Nov 1923 Adam Remmele (1st time) (b. 1877 - d. 1951) 23 Nov 1923 - 23 Nov 1924 Heinrich Franz Köhler (1st time) (b. 1878 - d. 1949) 23 Nov 1924 - 23 Nov 1925 Willy Hugo Hellpach (b. 1877 - d. 1955) 23 Nov 1925 - 23 Nov 1926 Gustav Josef Ludwig Trunk (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Nov 1926 - 3 Feb 1927 Heinrich Franz Köhler (2nd time) (s.a.) 3 Feb 1927 - 23 Nov 1927 Gustav Josef Ludwig Trunk (3rd time) (s.a.) 23 Nov 1927 - 23 Nov 1928 Adam Remmele (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Nov 1928 - 20 Nov 1930 Franz Josef Schmitt (1st time) (b. 1874 - d. 1939) 20 Nov 1930 - 10 Sep 1931 Franz Josef Wittemann (b. 1866 - d. 1931) 18 Sep 1931 - 11 Mar 1933 Franz Josef Schmitt (2nd time) (s.a.) 11 Mar 1933 - 8 May 1933 Robert Backfisch (from 1938, Robert Wagner) (b. 1895 - d. 1946) (also Reichskommissar 8-11 Mar 1933 and Reichsstatthalter 5 May 1933 - 1945) 8 May 1933 - Apr 1945 Walter Köhler (b. 1897 - d. 1989)

Heitersheim

       1548                Principality of Heitersheim
25 Jul 1806                incorporated into Baden

Princes
       1683 -        1703  Hermann II von Wachtendonk
       1703 -        1721  Bernhard Wilhelm von der Rhede
       1721 -        1727  Goswin Hermann Otto von Merveldt
       1728 -        1752  Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode
       1754 -        1755  Philipp Joachim Vogt von Prassberg
       1755 -        1773  Johann Baptist von Schauenburg
       1775 -        1777  Franz Christoph Sebastian von
                           Remchingen
       1777 -        1796  Johann Joseph Benedict von Reinach
                           zu Foussemaigne und Rappach
       1796 - 25 Jul 1806  Ignaz Balthasar Willibald Rink von
                           Baldenstein                        (b. 1721 - d. 1807)

Hohengeroldseck

       1711                lordship elevated to county
       1806                county elevated to principality
       1815                under Austrian sovereignty
       1819                incorporated into Baden

Lords (from 1711, counts; from 1806, prince)
- Cronberg dynasty -
       1692 - 17 Jul 1704  Johann Nikolaus                    (b. 1633 - d. 1704)
- von der Leyen dynasty -
       1705 - 30 Nov 1739  Karl Kaspar Franz                  (b. 1655 - d. 1739)
30 Nov 1739 - 16 Feb 1760  Friedrich Ferdinand Franz Anton    (b. 1709 - d. 1760)
26 Aug 1762 - 26 Sep 1775  Franz Karl                         (b. 1736 - d. 1775)
26 Sep 1775 -        1815  Philipp Franz                      (b. 1766 - d. 1829)

Bavaria

      c.500                Dukes of the Baiuvars
        788                conquered by the Franks
        806                Carolingian Kingdom of Bavaria
24 Sep  911                Carolingian dynasty ends
        911                Dukes of Bavaria (but polity styled Fürstentum und Land zu
                           Bayern)
16 Sep 1180                Wittelsbach dynasty begins
28 Mar 1255 - 30 Jul 1505  numerous dynastic divisions (all rulers styled Herzog von
                           Bayern)
30 Jul 1505                polity reunited, ruler styled Herzog beider Bayern
25 Feb 1623                upon forfeit of the Palatinate to the king, the ruler of
                           Bavaria is elevated to the lapsed electorate (Kurfürstentum
                           Bayern)
29 Apr 1706 -  6 Mar 1714  divided between Austria and the Palatinate
 6 Mar 1714                independence restored; office of archsteward (as part of the
                           electoral dignity) in dispute with the Palatinate
30 Dec 1777                the elector palatine inherits Bavaria upon the extinction of
                           the ruling Wittelsbach line, thus terminating the electoral
                           dispute; the ruler sometimes uses the abbreviated style
                           Kurfürst von Pfalzbayern
27 Apr 1803                Palatinate incorporated into Bavaria
 1 Jan 1806                Kingdom of Bavaria (Königreich Bayern)

Dukes and electors (title Herzog beider Bayern, Erztruchsess und Kurfürst des
Heiligen Römischen Reiches - duke of both Bavarias, archsteward and prince-elector of
the Holy Roman Empire)
- Wittelsbach dynasty -
26 May 1679 - 29 Apr 1706  Maximilian II (1st time)           (b. 1662 - d. 1726)
 6 Mar 1714 - 26 Feb 1726  Maximilian II (2nd time)           (s.a.)
26 Feb 1726 - 20 Jan 1745  Karl Albrecht                      (b. 1697 - d. 1745)
20 Jan 1745 - 30 Dec 1777  Maximilian III                     (b. 1727 - d. 1777)
30 Dec 1777 - 16 Feb 1799  Karl Philipp Theodor               (b. 1724 - d. 1799)
16 Feb 1799 -  1 Jan 1806  Maximilian IV                      (b. 1756 - d. 1825)
Kings (title König von Bayern)
- Wittelsbach dynasty -
 1 Jan 1806 - 13 Oct 1825  Maximilian I                       (s.a.)
13 Oct 1825 - 20 Mar 1848  Ludwig I                           (b. 1786 - d. 1868)
20 Mar 1848 - 10 Mar 1864  Maximilian II                      (b. 1811 - d. 1864)
10 Mar 1864 - 13 Jun 1886  Ludwig II                          (b. 1845 - d. 1886)
13 Jun 1886 -  5 Nov 1913  Otto I                             (b. 1848 - d. 1916)
10 Jun 1886 - 12 Dec 1912    Prince Luitpold                  (b. 1821 - d. 1912)
                             (regent for incapacitated Ludwig II and for insane
                             Otto)
12 Dec 1912 -  5 Nov 1913    Prince Ludwig                    (b. 1845 - d. 1921)
                             (regent for insane Otto)
 5 Nov 1913 - 13 Nov 1918  Ludwig III                         (s.a.)

Presidents of the Council of Ministers 2 Feb 1817 - Oct 1825 Heinrich Aloys Graf von Reigersberg (b. 1770 - d. 1865) Oct 1825 - 2 Jan 1832 Georg Friedrich Freiherr von Zentner (b. 1752 - d. 1835) 2 Jan 1832 - 1 Nov 1837 Friedrich August Koch Reichsfreiherr von Gise (b. 1783 - d. 1860) 1 Nov 1837 - 1 Mar 1847 Karl Abel (from 12 Mar 1844, Karl von Abel) (b. 1788 - d. 1859) 1 Mar 1847 - 1 Dec 1847 Friedrich August Karl Maria Philipp Joseph Freiherr von Zu Rhein (b. 1802 - d. 1870) 1 Dec 1847 - 14 Mar 1848 Ludwig Fürst von Öttingen-Wallerstein (b. 1791 - d. 1870) 14 Mar 1848 - 29 Apr 1848 Klemens August Graf von Waldkirch (b. 1806 - d. 1858) (acting) 29 Apr 1848 - 18 Apr 1849 Otto Camillus Hugo Graf von Bray-Steinburg (1st time) (b. 1807 - d. 1899) 18 Apr 1849 - 1 May 1859 Karl Ludwig Heinrich Freiherr von der Pfordten (1st time) (b. 1811 - d. 1880) 1 May 1859 - 4 Oct 1864 Karl Freiherr von Schrenck (b. 1806 - d. 1884) 4 Oct 1864 - 4 Dec 1864 Max von Neumayr (acting) (b. 1810 - d. 1881) 4 Dec 1864 - 31 Dec 1866 Karl Ludwig Heinrich Freiherr von der Pfordten (2nd time) (s.a.) 31 Dec 1866 - 8 Mar 1870 Chlodwig Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst (b. 1819 - d. 1901) 8 Mar 1870 - 21 Aug 1871 Otto Camillus Hugo Graf von Bray-Steinburg (2nd time) (s.a.) 21 Aug 1871 - 2 Jun 1872 Friedrich Adam Justus Freiherr von Hegnenberg-Dux (b. 1810 - d. 1872) 1 Oct 1872 - 4 Mar 1880 Adolph von Pfretzschner (b. 1820 - d. 1901) 4 Mar 1880 - 1 Jun 1890 Johann von Lutz (from 1884, Johann Freiherr von Lutz) (b. 1826 - d. 1890) 1 Jun 1890 - 1 Mar 1903 Krafft Freiherr von Crailsheim (b. 1841 - d. 1926) 1 Mar 1903 - 9 Feb 1912 Klemens Freiherr von Podewils-Dürniz (from 1911, Klemens Graf von Podewils-Dürniz) (b. 1850 - d. 1922) 9 Feb 1912 - 11 Nov 1917 Georg Freiherr von Hertling (from 1914, Georg Graf von Hertling) (b. 1843 - d. 1919) 11 Nov 1917 - 8 Nov 1918 Otto Ritter von Dandl (b. 1868 - d. 1942) Minister-presidents 8 Nov 1918 - 21 Feb 1919 Kurt Eisner (b. 1867 - d. 1919) 4 Mar 1919 - 15 Mar 1919 Martin Segitz (acting) (b. 1853 - d. 1927) 15 Mar 1919 - 16 Mar 1920 Johannes Hoffmann (b. 1867 - d. 1930) (7 Apr - 2 May 1919 in Bamberg) Chairmen of the Provisional Revolutionary Central Council (in Munich) 7 Apr 1919 - 8 Apr 1919 Ernst Niekisch (b. 1889 - d. 1967) 8 Apr 1919 - 14 Apr 1919 Ernst Toller (b. 1893 - d. 1939) Chairmen of the Executive Council (in Munich) 14 Apr 1919 - 27 Apr 1919 Eugen Leviné (b. 1883 - d. 1919) + Max Levien (b. 1885 - d. 1937) 27 Apr 1919 - 28 Apr 1919 Ernst Toller (s.a.) 28 Apr 1919 - 2 May 1919 ... Minister-presidents 16 Mar 1920 - 21 Sep 1921 Gustav von Kahr (b. 1862 - d. 1934) 21 Sep 1921 - 8 Nov 1922 Hugo Graf von und zu Lerchenfeld (b. 1871 - d. 1944) 8 Nov 1922 - 30 Jun 1924 Eugen Ritter von Knilling (b. 1865 - d. 1927) 30 Jun 1924 - 16 Mar 1933 Heinrich Held (b. 1868 - d. 1938) 16 Mar 1933 - 12 Apr 1933 Franz Ritter von Epp (b. 1868 - d. 1946) (also Reichskommissar 9-16 Mar 1933 and Reichsstatthalter 10 Apr 1933 - 29 Apr 1945) 12 Apr 1933 - 1 Nov 1942 Ludwig Siebert (b. 1874 - d. 1942) 2 Nov 1942 - 28 Apr 1945 Paul Giesler (b. 1895 - d. 1945)

Palatinate

        945                Palatinate of Lorraine (Pfalzgrafschaft Lothringen)
       1093                Palatinate of the Rhine (Pfalzgrafschaft bei Rhein);
                           style: Pfalzgraf bei Rhein (count palatine of the Rhine -
                           more literally "at the Rhine")
25 Dec 1356                Golden Bull confirms electoral status of the ruler; the
                           polity is often styled Kurfürstentum Pfalz bei Rhein
                           (Electorate Palatinate of the Rhine); style: Pfalzgraf bei
                           Rhein, Erztruchsess und Kurfürst des Heiligen Römischen
                           Reiches (count palatine of the Rhine, archsteward and
                           prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire)
 7 Mar 1623                the polity is forfeited to the king, the electoral dignity
                           is transferred to Bavaria
 3 Mar 1628                incorporated into Bavaria
24 Oct 1648                polity reconstituted; new electorate created Jun 1653;
                           style: Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, Erzschatzmeister und Kurfürst
                           des Heiligen Römischen Reiches (count palatine of the Rhine,
                           archtreasurer and prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire)
23 Jun 1708                after the (temporary) dissolution of Bavaria, the count
                           palatine recovers the earlier electoral style
                           (Erztruchsess), and maintains it - in dispute with the
                           restored Bavaria
30 Dec 1777                the ruler inherits Bavaria, and the dispute regarding the
                           electoral style ends
27 Apr 1803                Palatinate incorporated into Bavaria

Counts palatine and electors
- Wittelsbach dynasty -
 2 Sep 1690 -  8 Jun 1716  Johann Wilhelm                     (b. 1658 - d. 1716)
 8 Jun 1716 - 31 Dec 1742  Karl III Philipp                   (b. 1661 - d. 1742)
31 Dec 1742 - 16 Feb 1799  Karl IV Philipp Theodor            (b. 1724 - d. 1799)
16 Feb 1799 - 27 Apr 1803  Maximilian Maria                   (b. 1756 - d. 1825)

Bremen

       1646                free imperial city; four mayors to 1853;
                           four "succession lines" can be distinguished
13 Dec 1810                incorporated into France (Bouches-du-Weser département
                           created 1 Jan 1811)
 6 Nov 1813                Free Hanseatic City of Bremen restored

Mayors
- Line 1 -
       1690 -        1721  Friedrich Casimir Tilemann gen. Schenk
       1721 -        1725  Johann von Rheden
       1725 -        1728  Liborius von Line II
       1728 -        1731  Hieronymus Alers
       1731 -        1736  Heinrich Smidt
       1736 -        1749  Daniel von Büren IV
       1749 -        1781  Volkhard Mindemann
       1781                Albrecht Gröning
       1781 -        1782  Martin Eelking
       1782 -        1798  Gerhard von dem Busch
       1798 -        1803  Jakob Breuls
       1803 - 31 Dec 1810  Heinrich Lampe (1st time)          (b. 1746 - d. 1817)
 6 Nov 1813 - 18 Dec 1817  Heinrich Lampe (2nd time)          (s.a.)
       1817 - 18 Feb 1822  Christian Hermann Schöne           (b. 1763 - d. 1822)
       1822 - 23 Jan 1847  Simon Hermann Nonnen               (b. 1777 - d. 1847)
       1847 -  3 Aug 1853  Isaak Hermann Albrecht Schumacher  (b. 1780 - d. 1853)
- Line 2 -
       1689 -        1712  Melchior Schweling
       1712 -        1737  Werner Köhne
       1737 -        1741  Jakob Hüneken
       1741 -        1745  Kaspar von Rheden
       1745 -        1756  Heinrich Lampe I
       1756 -        1767  Heinrich Köhne
       1767 -        1787  Dietrich Smidt
       1787 -        1792  Heinrich Köhnen
       1792 - 31 Dec 1810  Christian Abraham Heineken
                           (1st time)
 6 Nov 1813 -        1818  Christian Abraham Heineken
                           (2nd time)
       1818 -        1821  Arnold Dietrich Tiedemann
       1821 -        1853  Johann Smidt                       (b. 1773 - d. 1857)
- Line 3 -
       1693 -        1711  Heinrich von Aschen
       1711 -        1716  Wilhelm von Bentheim
       1716 -        1742  Johann Holler
       1742 -        1751  Dietrich Meier I
       1751 -        1766  Heinrich Gerhard Schumacher
       1766 -        1775  Isaak von Meinertzhagen
       1775 -        1787  Johann Pundsack
       1787 -        1802  Justin Friedrich Wilhelm Iken
       1802 - 31 Dec 1810  Daniel Klugkist (1st time)
 6 Nov 1813 -        1814  Daniel Klugkist (2nd time)
       1814 -        1821  Georg Gröning                      (b. 1745 - d. 1825)
       1821 -        1839  Heinrich Gröning
       1839 -        1852  Johann Daniel Noltenius
- Line 4 -
       1696 -        1718  Hermann Doverhagen
       1718 -        1720  Konrad von Berchem
       1720 -        1747  Heinrich Meier II
       1747 -        1757  Christian Schönel
       1757 -        1773  Hieronymus Klugkist
       1773 -        1776  Hermann von Line
       1776 -        1794  Daniel Tiedemann
       1794 -        1802  Dietrich Meier II
       1802 -        1808  Liborius Dietrich Post
       1808 - 31 Dec 1810  Franz Tiedemann (1st time)
 6 Nov 1813 -        1824  Franz Tiedemann (2nd time)
       1824 -        1845  Michael Duntze
       1845 -        1853  Dietrich Meier III
First mayors
       1853 - 31 Dec 1856  Johann Smidt (acting)              (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1857 - 31 Dec 1863  Arnold Duckwitz                    (b. 1802 - d. 1881)
 1 Jan 1864 - 31 Dec 1867  Karl Friedrich Gottfried Mohr
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1803 - d. 1888)
 1 Jan 1868 -  3 Oct 1871  Johann Daniel Meier                (b. 1804 - d. 1871)
 3 Oct 1871 -        1871  Karl Friedrich Gottfried Mohr
                           (2nd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
       1871 - 31 Dec 1875  Otto Gildemeister (1st time)       (b. 1823 - d. 1902)
 1 Jan 1876 - 12 Apr 1879  Friedrich Moritz Christian
                           Pfeiffer                           (b. 1815 - d. 1879)
12 Apr 1879 -        1879  Otto Gildemeister (2nd time)
                           (acting)                           (s.a.)
       1879 -        1882  Friedrich Ludwig Grave             (b. 1815 - d. 1885)
       1882 - 31 Dec 1882  Otto Gildemeister (3rd time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1883 - 31 Dec 1883  Karl Friedrich Christian Buff
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1820 - d. 1891)
 1 Jan 1884 - 31 Dec 1884  Otto Gildemeister (4th time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1885 - 31 Dec 1885  Karl Friedrich Christian Buff
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1886 - 31 Dec 1886  Otto Gildemeister (5th time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1887 - 31 Dec 1887  Stephan August Lürmann (1st time)  (b. 1820 - d. 1902)
 1 Jan 1888 - 31 Dec 1888  Karl Friedrich Christian Buff
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1889 - 31 Dec 1889  Stephan August Lürmann (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1890 - 31 Dec 1890  Karl Friedrich Christian Buff
                           (4th time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1891 - 31 Dec 1891  Alfred Dominicus Pauli (1st time)  (b. 1827 - d. 1915)
 1 Jan 1892 - 31 Dec 1892  Stephan August Lürmann (3rd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1893 - 31 Dec 1893  Alfred Dominicus Pauli (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1894 - 31 Dec 1894  Stephan August Lürmann (4th time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1895 - 31 Dec 1895  Albert Gröning (1st time)          (b. 1839 - d. 1903)
 1 Jan 1896 - 31 Dec 1896  Alfred Dominicus Pauli (3rd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1897 - 31 Dec 1897  Albert Gröning (2nd time)          (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1898 - 31 Dec 1898  Alfred Dominicus Pauli (4th time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1899 - 31 Dec 1899  Friedrich August Schultz
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1835 - d. 1905)
 1 Jan 1900 - 31 Dec 1900  Albert Gröning (3rd time)          (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1901 - 31 Dec 1901  Friedrich August Schultz
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1902 - 31 Dec 1902  Albert Gröning (4th time)          (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1903 - 31 Dec 1903  Alfred Dominicus Pauli (5th time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1904 - 31 Dec 1904  Carl Georg Barkhausen (1st time)   (b. 1848 - d. 1917)
 1 Jan 1905 - 31 Dec 1905  Alfred Dominicus Pauli (6th time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1906 - 31 Dec 1906  Carl Georg Barkhausen (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1907 - 31 Dec 1907  Victor Wilhelm Marcus (1st time)   (b. 1848 - d. 1911)
 1 Jan 1908 - 31 Dec 1908  Alfred Dominicus Pauli (7th time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1909 - 31 Dec 1909  Victor Wilhelm Marcus (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1910 - 31 Dec 1910  Alfred Dominicus Pauli (8th time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1911 - 31 Dec 1911  Carl Georg Barkhausen (3rd time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1912 - 31 Dec 1912  Karl Friedrich Heinrich
                           Stadtländer (1st time)             (b. 1844 - d. 1916)
 1 Jan 1913 - 31 Dec 1913  Carl Georg Barkhausen (4th time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1914 - 31 Dec 1914  Karl Friedrich Heinrich
                           Stadtländer (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1915 - 31 Dec 1915  Clemens Carl Buff (1st time)       (b. 1853 - d. 1940)
 1 Jan 1916 - 31 Dec 1916  Carl Georg Barkhausen (5th time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1917 - 31 Dec 1917  Clemens Carl Buff (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1918 - 10 Jan 1919  Hermann Christian Ferdinand
                           Hildebrand                         (b. 1849 - d. 1939)
 4 Feb 1919 -    Dec 1920  Karl Deichmann                     (b. 1863 - d. 1940)
   Dec 1920 - 18 Mar 1933  Martin Donatus Ferdinand Donandt   (b. 1852 - d. 1937)
18 Mar 1933 - 23 Oct 1934  Richard Markert                    (b. 1891 - d. 1957)
                           (Reichskommissar 6 Mar - 13 May 1933)
 5 May 1933 - 15 May 1942  Carl Röver (Reichsstatthalter)     (b. 1889 - d. 1942)
23 Oct 1934 - 22 Jun 1937  Karl Hermann Otto Heider           (b. 1896 - d. 1960)
22 Jun 1937 - 16 Jun 1944  Johann Heinrich Böhmcker           (b. 1896 - d. 1944)
27 May 1942 -    Apr 1945  Paul Wegener (Reichsstatthalter)   (b. 1908 - d. 1993)
       1944 - 26 Apr 1945  Richard Duckwitz                   (b. 1886 - d. 1972)
26 Apr 1945 - 30 Apr 1945  Johannes Schroers (acting)

Brunswick

        955                Bruno I, founder of the Brunonen dynasty, becomes count
                           (Graf)
       1136                Heinrich "der Stolze," duke of Bavaria and Saxony, becomes
                           count
       1180                Heinrich "der Löwe," duke of Bavaria and Saxony, becomes
                           duke (the name Braunschweig [Brunswick] becomes gradually
                           attached to the polity)
21 Aug 1235                the polity is officially Herzogtum Braunschweig und Lüneburg;
                           the style of the ruler is Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg;
                           in theory, the entire polity retains this style, as do all the
                           rulers despite the divisions
       1269                division into Principality of Brunswick (Fürstentum
                           Braunschweig) and Principality of Lüneburg
       1286                Fürstentum Grubenhagen (extinct 14 Apr 1596) and Fürstentum
                           Göttingen detached from Brunswick
23 Nov 1432                Fürstentum Calenberg detached from Brunswick
28 Aug 1807 - 30 Oct 1813  incorporated into Westphalia (see under Hesse-Kassel)
 6 Nov 1813                Duchy of Brunswick (Herzogtum Braunschweig)

Dukes
- Welf dynasty -
27 Sep 1666 - 26 Jan 1704  Rudolf August                      (b. 1627 - d. 1704)
                           jointly with
       1685 - 18 Feb 1702  Anton Ulrich (1st time)            (b. 1633 - d. 1714)
26 Jan 1704 - 27 Mar 1714  Anton Ulrich (2nd time)            (s.a.)
27 Mar 1714 - 23 Mar 1731  August Wilhelm                     (b. 1662 - d. 1731)
23 Mar 1731 -  1 Mar 1735  Ludwig Rudolf                      (b. 1671 - d. 1735)
 1 Mar 1735 -  3 Sep 1735  Ferdinand Albrecht                 (b. 1680 - d. 1735)
 3 Sep 1735 - 26 Mar 1780  Karl I                             (b. 1713 - d. 1780)
26 Mar 1780 - 10 Nov 1806  Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand             (b. 1735 - d. 1806)
10 Nov 1806 - 28 Aug 1807  Friedrich Wilhelm
                           "der schwarze Herzog" (1st time)   (b. 1771 - d. 1815)
 6 Nov 1813 - 16 Jun 1815  Friedrich Wilhelm
                           "der schwarze Herzog" (2nd time)   (s.a.)
16 Jun 1815 - 20 Apr 1831  Karl II                            (b. 1804 - d. 1873)
16 Jun 1815 - 30 Oct 1823    Georg August Friedrich           (b. 1762 - d. 1830)
                             (regent)
20 Apr 1831 - 18 Oct 1884  Wilhelm                            (b. 1806 - d. 1884)
                           (regent to 25 Apr 1831)
Regencies (the ducal line being inhibited by its U.K. connections)
20 Apr 1884 -  2 Nov 1885  Wilhelm Otto Hans Hermann,
                           Graf von Schlitz
                           (president of Regency Council)
 2 Nov 1885 - 13 Sep 1906  Albrecht, prince of Prussia        (b. 1837 - d. 1906)
                           (regent)
13 Sep 1906 -  5 Jun 1907  Albert von Otto                    (b. 1836 - d. 1921)
                           (president of Regency Council)
 5 Jun 1907 -  1 Nov 1913  Johann Albrecht, duke of
                           Mecklenburg-Schwerin (regent)      (b. 1857 - d. 1920)
Duke
 1 Nov 1913 -  8 Nov 1918  Ernst August                       (b. 1887 - d. 1953)
President
 9 Nov 1918 -    Feb 1919  August Ernst Reinhold Merges       (b. 1870 - d. 1945)

Ministers of state 14 Oct 1874 - 1 Oct 1883 Johann Christian Wilhelm Schulz (b. 1806 - d. 1888) 1 Oct 1883 - 22 Feb 1889 Wilhelm Otto Hans Görtz-Wrisberg (b. 1819 - d. 1889) 1 Apr 1889 - 1 May 1911 Albert von Otto (b. 1836 - d. 1921) 1 May 1911 - 10 Jan 1914 Leonhard Christoph Adolf von Hartwieg (b. 1849 - d. 1914) 16 Jan 1914 - 8 Nov 1918 Karl Wolff (b. 1856 - d. 1935) Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissioners 10 Nov 1918 - 13 Apr 1919 Sepp Oerter (b. 1870 - d. 1928) 17 Apr 1919 - 21 Oct 1919 Heinrich Otto Jasper (b. 1875 - d. 1945) Minister-presidents 21 Oct 1919 - 22 Jun 1920 Heinrich Otto Jasper (1st time) (s.a.) 22 Jun 1920 - 25 Nov 1921 Sepp Oerter (s.a.) 25 Nov 1921 - 23 Mar 1922 August Junke (b. 1886 - d. 1926) 23 Mar 1922 - 23 May 1922 Otto Friedrich Wilhelm Antrick (b. 1858 - d. 1924) 23 May 1922 - 24 Dec 1924 Heinrich Otto Jasper (2nd time) (s.a.) 24 Dec 1924 - 14 Dec 1927 Gerhard Marquordt (b. 1881 - d. 1950) 14 Dec 1927 - 1 Oct 1930 Heinrich Otto Jasper (3rd time) (s.a.) 1 Oct 1930 - 5 May 1933 Werner Küchenthal (b. 1882 - d. 1976) 5 May 1933 - 12 Apr 1945 Dietrich Klagges (b. 1891 - d. 1971) 5 May 1933 - 23 Oct 1935 Friedrich Wilhelm Loeper (b. 1883 - d. 1935) (Reichsstatthalter) Oct 1935 - Apr 1937 Fritz Sauckel (b. 1894 - d. 1946) (acting Reichsstatthalter) Apr 1937 - 1945? Rudolf Jordan (Reichsstatthalter) (b. 1902 - d. 1988)

Hamburg

       1618                the Bundeskammergericht confirms that Hamburg is
                           reichsunmittelbar; the polity usually gives itself
                           the style Free Imperial City of Hamburg; four mayors to
                           1861, alternating with two of them worthaltend (in charge)
                           at any time; four "succession lines" can be distinguished
13 Nov 1806                Free Hanseatic City of Hamburg
19 Nov 1806                occupied by France
13 Dec 1810 - 18 Mar 1813  incorporated into France (Bouches-de-l'Elbe département
                           created 1 Jan 1811)
29 May 1813 - 31 May 1814  incorporated into France
20 Dec 1819                Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg
 1 Apr 1938                Hanseatic City of Hamburg

Mayors
- Line 1 -
18 Nov 1697 - 17 Nov 1709  Peter von Lengerke                 (b. 1651 - d. 1709)
27 Nov 1709 - 15 Jul 1716  Lucas von Borstel                  (b. 1649 - d. 1716)
24 Jul 1716 - 30 Jul 1720  Bernhard Matfeld                   (b. 1661 - d. 1720)
 6 Aug 1720 -  1 Feb 1728  Hinrich Diedrich Wiese             (b. 1676 - d. 1728)
11 Feb 1728 - 22 Nov 1742  Rütger Rulant                      (b. 1665 - d. 1742)
 1 Dec 1742 - 19 Oct 1754  Conrad Widow                       (b. 1686 - d. 1754)
29 Oct 1754 - 28 Jul 1783  Nicolaus Schuback                  (b. 1700 - d. 1783)
 4 Aug 1783 - 12 Jan 1790  Johann Anderson II                 (b. 1717 - d. 1790)
22 Jan 1790 - 13 Nov 1801  Franz Anton Wagner                 (b. 1715 - d. 1801)
20 Nov 1801 - 13 Feb 1811  Friedrich von Graffen (1st time)   (b. 1745 - d. 1820)
18 Mar 1813 - 29 May 1813  Friedrich von Graffen (2nd time)   (s.a.)
31 May 1814 - 17 Mar 1820  Friedrich von Graffen (3rd time)   (s.a.)
25 Mar 1820 -  1 Feb 1850  Johann Heinrich Bartels            (b. 1761 - d. 1850)
- Line 2 -
22 Aug 1684 - 28 Mar 1704  Joachim Lemmermann
 4 Apr 1704 - 30 Jun 1712  Paul Paulsen
 7 Jul 1712 - 30 Jun 1722  Ludwig Becceler
 8 Jul 1722 - 15 Nov 1729  Hans Jacob Faber
23 Nov 1729 - 29 Jan 1739  Daniel Stockfleth
 7 Feb 1739 - 16 Sep 1741  Johann Hermann Luis
26 Sep 1741 - 20 Nov 1759  Cornelius Poppe
23 Nov 1759 - 21 Apr 1780  Peter Greve
28 Apr 1780 - 22 Aug 1784  Frans Doormann
27 Aug 1784 - 31 Jan 1788  Johann Luis
 8 Feb 1788 - 12 Apr 1798  Martin Dorner
20 Apr 1798 - 31 Dec 1810  Daniel Lienau (1st time)
18 Mar 1813 - 29 May 1813  Daniel Lienau (2nd time)
31 May 1814 -  5 Jun 1816  Daniel Lienau (3rd time)
12 Jun 1816 -  6 Jul 1821  Christian Matthias Schröder
13 Jul 1821 - 26 Apr 1829  Johann Daniel Koch
 4 May 1829 - 24 Feb 1835  Martin Garlieb Sillem
 2 Mar 1835 -  5 Mar 1851  Christian Daniel Benecke           (b. 1768 - d. 1851)
- Line 3 -
10 Mar 1697 -  6 Dec 1702  Hieronymus Hartwig Moller
14 Dec 1702 - 28 Jul 1703  Julius Surland
 4 Aug 1703 - 28 Jan 1723  Gerhard Schröder
 5 Feb 1723 -  3 May 1743  Johann Anderson I
14 May 1743 - 23 May 1749  Nicolaus Stampeel
 3 Jun 1749 -  8 Dec 1750  Clemens Samuel Lipstorp
17 Dec 1750 - 27 Jul 1751  Lucas von Spreckelsen
 3 Aug 1751 -  9 Jan 1765  Lucas Corthum
17 Jan 1765 - 20 Mar 1781  Vincent Rumpff
28 Mar 1781 - 22 Aug 1800  Jacob Albrecht von Sienen
29 Aug 1800 - 16 Oct 1802  Peter Hinrich Widow
23 Oct 1802 - 31 Dec 1810  Wilhelm Amsinck (1st time)
18 Mar 1813 - 29 May 1813  Wilhelm Amsinck (2nd time)
31 May 1814 - 21 Jun 1831  Wilhelm Amsinck (3rd time)
29 Jun 1831 - 17 Dec 1842  Amandus Augustus Abendroth         (b. 1767 - d. 1842)
23 Dec 1842 - 31 Dec 1860  Heinrich Kellinghusen              (b. 1796 - d. 1879)
- Line 4 -
 3 Nov 1687 - 28 Aug 1717  Peter Lütkens II
 7 Sep 1717 - 26 Dec 1732  Garlieb Sillem
 6 Jan 1733 - 11 Jan 1751  Martin Lucas Schele
19 Jan 1751 - 20 Nov 1774  Martin Hieronymus Schele
29 Nov 1774 -  5 Sep 1778  Johann Schlüter
11 Sep 1778 -  3 Jan 1786  Albert Schulte
11 Jan 1786 - 28 Aug 1807  Johann Adolf Poppe
 4 Sep 1807 - 31 Dec 1810  Johann Arnold Heise (1st time)
18 Mar 1813 - 29 May 1813  Johann Arnold Heise (2nd time)
31 May 1814 -  5 Mar 1834  Johann Arnold Heise (3rd time)
12 Mar 1834 - 19 Aug 1835  Martin Hieronymus Schrötteringk    (b. ... - d. 1835)
26 Aug 1835 - 24 Nov 1843  David Schlüter                     (b. ... - d. 1844)
27 Nov 1843 - 25 Jan 1855  Johann Ludewig Dammert             (b. ... - d. 1855)
31 Jan 1855 - 31 Dec 1860  Nicolaus Binder                    (b. 1785 - d. 1863)
First mayors
 2 Jan 1861 - 31 Dec 1862  Friedrich Sieveking (1st time)     (b. 1798 - d. 1872)
 1 Jan 1863 - 31 Dec 1864  Nicolaus Ferdinand Haller
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1805 - d. 1876)
 1 Jan 1865 - 31 Dec 1865  Friedrich Sieveking (2nd time)     (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1866 - 31 Dec 1867  Nicolaus Ferdinand Haller
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1868 - 31 Dec 1868  Friedrich Sieveking (3rd time)     (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1869 - 31 Dec 1869  Gustav Heinrich Kirchenpauer
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1808 - d. 1887)
 1 Jan 1870 - 31 Dec 1870  Nicolaus Ferdinand Haller
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1871 - 31 Dec 1872  Gustav Heinrich Kirchenpauer
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1873 - 31 Dec 1873  Nicolaus Ferdinand Haller
                           (4th time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1874 - 31 Dec 1874  Hermann Gossler                    (b. 1802 - d. 1877)
 1 Jan 1875 - 31 Dec 1875  Gustav Heinrich Kirchenpauer
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1876 - 31 Dec 1877  Carl Friedrich Petersen (1st time) (b. 1809 - d. 1892)
 1 Jan 1878 - 31 Dec 1878  Gustav Heinrich Kirchenpauer
                           (4th time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1879 - 31 Dec 1879  Hermann Anthony Cornelius Weber
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1822 - d. 1886)
 1 Jan 1880 - 31 Dec 1880  Carl Friedrich Petersen (2nd time) (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1881 - 31 Dec 1881  Gustav Heinrich Kirchenpauer
                           (5th time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1882 - 31 Dec 1882  Hermann Anthony Cornelius Weber
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1883 - 31 Dec 1883  Carl Friedrich Petersen (3rd time) (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1884 - 31 Dec 1884  Gustav Heinrich Kirchenpauer
                           (6th time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1885 - 31 Dec 1885  Hermann Anthony Cornelius Weber
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1886 - 31 Dec 1886  Carl Friedrich Petersen (4th time) (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1887 -3/4 Mar 1887  Gustav Heinrich Kirchenpauer
                           (7th time)                         (s.a.)
14 Mar 1887 - 31 Dec 1888  Johannes Georg Andreas Versmann
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1820 - d. 1899)
 1 Jan 1889 - 31 Dec 1889  Carl Friedrich Petersen (5th time) (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1890 - 31 Dec 1890  Johannes Georg Mönckeberg
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1839 - d. 1908)
 1 Jan 1891 - 31 Dec 1891  Johannes Georg Andreas Versmann
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1892 - 14 Nov 1892  Carl Friedrich Petersen (6th time) (s.a.)
14 Nov 1892 - 31 Dec 1893  Johannes Georg Mönckeberg
                           (2nd time) (acting to 31 Dec 1892) (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1894 - 31 Dec 1894  Johannes Georg Andreas Versmann
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1895 - 31 Dec 1895  Johannes Christian Eugen Lehmann
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1826 - d. 1901)
 1 Jan 1896 - 31 Dec 1896  Johannes Georg Mönckeberg
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1897 - 31 Dec 1897  Johannes Georg Andreas Versmann
                           (4th time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1898 - 31 Dec 1898  Johannes Christian Eugen Lehmann
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1899 - 31 Dec 1899  Johannes Georg Mönckeberg
                           (4th time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1900 - 15 Sep 1900  Johannes Christian Eugen Lehmann
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
15 Sep 1900 - 31 Dec 1901  Georg Hachmann (1st time)          (b. 1838 - d. 1904)
                           (acting to 19 Nov 1900)
 1 Jan 1902 - 31 Dec 1902  Johannes Georg Mönckeberg
                           (5th time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1903 - 31 Dec 1903  Johann Heinrich Burchard
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1852 - d. 1912)
 1 Jan 1904 -  5 Jul 1904  Georg Hachmann (2nd time)          (s.a.)
 5 Jul 1904 - 31 Dec 1905  Johannes Georg Mönckeberg
                           (6th time) (acting to 11 Jul 1904) (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1906 - 31 Dec 1906  Johann Heinrich Burchard
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1907 - 31 Dec 1907  Johann Otto Stammann               (b. 1835 - d. 1909)
 1 Jan 1908 - 27 Mar 1908  Johannes Georg Mönckeberg
                           (7th time)                         (s.a.)
27 Mar 1908 - 31 Dec 1909  Johann Heinrich Burchard
                           (3rd time) (acting to 3 Apr 1908)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1910 - 31 Dec 1911  Max Predöhl (1st time)             (b. 1854 - d. 1923)
 1 Jan 1912 -  6 Sep 1912  Johann Heinrich Burchard
                           (4th time)                         (s.a.)
 6 Sep 1912 - 31 Dec 1913  Carl August Schröder (1st time)    (b. 1855 - d. 1945)
                           (acting to 13 Sep 1912)
 1 Jan 1914 - 31 Dec 1914  Max Predöhl (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1915 - 31 Dec 1915  Werner von Melle (1st time)        (b. 1853 - d. 1937)
 1 Jan 1916 - 31 Dec 1916  Carl August Schröder (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1917 - 31 Dec 1917  Max Predöhl (3rd time)             (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1918 - 12 Nov 1918  Werner von Melle (2nd time)        (s.a.)
Chairmen of the Workers' and Soldiers' Council
12 Nov 1918 - 11 Jan 1919  Heinrich Lauffenberg
11 Jan 1919 - 31 Mar 1919  Carl Hense
First mayors
31 Mar 1919 - 31 Dec 1919  Werner von Melle (3rd time)        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1920 -  2 Feb 1920  Gustav Friedrich Carl Johann
                           Sthamer                            (b. 1856 - d. 1931)
 2 Feb 1920 -  3 Jan 1924  Arnold Friedrich Georg Diestel     (b. 1857 - d. 1924)
 9 Jan 1924 - 31 Dec 1929  Carl Wilhelm Petersen (1st time)   (b. 1868 - d. 1933)
 1 Jan 1930 - 31 Dec 1931  Rudolf Adolf Wilhelm Ross          (b. 1872 - d. 1951)
 1 Jan 1932 -  8 Mar 1933  Carl Wilhelm Petersen (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 8 Mar 1933 - 30 Jul 1936  Carl Vincent Krogmann              (b. 1889 - d. 1978)
                           (from 18 May 1933 Governing Mayor)
30 Jul 1936 -  3 May 1945  Karl Otto Kurt Kaufmann            (b. 1900 - d. 1969)
                           (also Reichsstatthalter 16 May 1933 - 3 May 1945)

Hesse

       1265                Landgraviate of Hesse (Landgrafschaft Hessen) founded
31 Mar 1567                division into four lines, conventionally styled Hesse-Kassel
                           (see under Prussia), Hesse-Marburg (extinct 1604),
                           Hesse-Rheinfels (extinct 1583), and Hesse-Darmstadt
13 Aug 1806                Grand Duchy of Hesse (informally, until 1866,
                           Hesse-Darmstadt)

Landgraves (title Landgraf zu Hessen)
- Limburg dynasty (of Brabant) -
31 Aug 1678 - 12 Sep 1739  Ernst Ludwig                       (b. 1667 - d. 1739)
31 Aug 1678 - 15 Dec 1685    Elisabeth Dorothea von
                             Sachsen-Gotha (f) (regent)       (b. 1640 - d. 1709)
12 Sep 1739 - 17 Oct 1768  Ludwig VIII                        (b. 1691 - d. 1768)
17 Oct 1768 -  6 Apr 1790  Ludwig IX                          (b. 1719 - d. 1790)
 6 Apr 1790 - 13 Aug 1806  Ludewig X                          (b. 1753 - d. 1830)
Grand dukes (title Grossherzog von Hessen [from 7 Jul 1816:] und bei Rhein)
- Limburg dynasty (of Brabant) -
13 Aug 1806 -  6 Apr 1830  Ludewig I (= Ludewig X)            (s.a.)
 6 Apr 1830 - 16 Jun 1848  Ludwig II                          (b. 1777 - d. 1848)
16 Jun 1848 - 13 Jun 1877  Ludwig III                         (b. 1806 - d. 1877)
13 Jun 1877 - 13 Mar 1892  Ludwig IV                          (b. 1837 - d. 1892)
13 Mar 1892 -  9 Nov 1918  Ernst Ludwig                       (b. 1868 - d. 1937)

Ministers of state 31 Jul 1819 - 14 Feb 1829 Karl Ludwig Wilhelm von Grolman (b. 1775 - d. 1829) Feb 1829 - 5 Mar 1848 Karl Wilhelm Heinrich Freiherr Du Bos du Thil (b. 1777 - d. 1859) 5 Mar 1848 - Jun 1848 Heinrich Wilhelm August Freiherr von Gagern (b. 1799 - d. 1880) Jun 1848 - Jul 1848 Carl Wilhelm Zimmermann (b. 1781 - d. 1856) Jul 1848 - 1 Jun 1850 Heinrich Karl Jaup (b. 1781 - d. 1860) 1 Jun 1850 - 6 Apr 1871 Karl Friedrich Reinhard Freiherr von Dalwigk (b. 1802 - d. 1880) 6 Apr 1871 - 13 Sep 1872 Friedrich Freiherr von Lindelof (b. 1794 - d. 1882) 13 Sep 1872 - May 1876 Karl Hofmann (b. 1827 - d. 1910) May 1876 - May 1884 Julius Rinck gen. Freiherr von Starck (b. 1825 - d. 1910) May 1884 - 1898 Jakob Finger (b. 1825 - d. 1904) 1898 - 29 Jan 1906 Carl Friedrich Bernhard Rothe (b. 1840 - d. 1906) 4 Feb 1906 - 11 Nov 1918 Christian Wilhelm Karl von Ewald (b. 1852 - d. 1932) State presidents 11 Nov 1918 - 14 Feb 1928 Karl Ulrich (b. 1853 - d. 1933) 14 Feb 1928 - 13 Mar 1933 Bernhard Adelung (b. 1876 - d. 1943) 13 Mar 1933 - May 1933 Heinrich Joseph Philipp Müller (b. 1896 - d. 1945) May 1933 - 23 Sep 1933 Ferdinand Werner (b. 1876 - d. 1961) 23 Sep 1933 - 1 Mar 1935 Philipp Wilhelm Jung (b. 1884 - d. 1965) 1 Mar 1935 - Mar 1945 Jakob Sprenger (b. 1884 - d. 1945) (also Reichsstatthalter 5 May 1933 - Mar 1945)

Lippe

       1129                Lordship of (the) Lippe founded (Herrschaft Lippe) [Lippe
                           is the name of a river]; style: Edler Herr zur Lippe
       1529                polity elevated to rank of county (Grafschaft Lippe); style:
                           Graf und Edler Herr zur Lippe
       1616                the dynastic line is divided into four "sovereign" lines:
                           Lippe-Detmold, Lippe-Brake, Lippe-Schwalenberg (extinct
                           2 Sep 1620), Lippe-Alverdissen; plus two "non-sovereign"
                           lines; the style of the rulers of the "sovereign" lines
                           remains Graf und Edler Herr zur Lippe
21 Feb 1709                Lippe-Brake extinct, incorporated into Lippe-Detmold
       1749                on the extinction of the Lippe-Alverdissen line (which had
                           generated the ruling line in Schaumburg-Lippe), the single
                           Lippe-Detmold line survives (Detmold is the capital; the
                           term Lippe-Detmold is sometimes retained in informal use
                           for the whole polity)
16 Dec 1789                Principality of Lippe (Fürstentum Lippe)

Lippe-Detmold

Counts
- Haholt dynasty -
22 May 1697 - 18 Jul 1718  Friedrich Adolf                    (b. 1667 - d. 1718)
18 Jul 1718 - 12 Oct 1734  Simon Heinrich Adolf               (b. 1694 - d. 1734)
                           (recognized as Reichsfürst [prince] 27 Oct 1720,
                           but not so his successors)
12 Oct 1734 -        1749  Simon August                       (b. 1727 - d. 1782)

Lippe-Brake

Counts
- Haholt dynasty -
18 Nov 1657 - 12 Mar 1700  Kasimir                            (b. 1627 - d. 1700)
12 Mar 1700 - 27 Oct 1707  Rudolf                             (b. 1664 - d. 1707)
27 Oct 1707 - 21 Feb 1709  Ludwig Ferdinand                   (b. 1680 - d. 1709)

Lippe-Alverdissen

Counts
- Haholt dynasty -
20 Apr 1681 - 27 Nov 1723  Philipp Ernst                      (b. 1659 - d. 1723)
27 Nov 1723 -        1749  Friedrich Ernst                    (b. 1694 - d. 1777)

Lippe reunited

Counts
- Haholt dynasty -
       1749 -  1 May 1782  Simon August                       (s.a.)
 1 May 1782 - 16 Dec 1789  Leopold I                          (b. 1767 - d. 1802)
 1 May 1782 - 16 Dec 1789    Ludwig Adolf (regent)            (b. 1732 - d. 1800)
Princes (title Fürst zur Lippe)
- Haholt dynasty -
16 Dec 1789 -  4 Apr 1802  Leopold I                          (s.a.)
 4 Apr 1802 -  1 Jan 1851  Leopold II                         (b. 1800 - d. 1851)
 4 Apr 1802 -  3 Jul 1820    Pauline von Anhalt-Bernburg (f)  (b. 1769 - d. 1820)
                             (regent)
 1 Jan 1851 -  8 Dec 1875  Leopold III                        (b. 1821 - d. 1875)
 8 Dec 1875 - 20 Mar 1895  Woldemar                           (b. 1824 - d. 1895)
20 Mar 1895 - 13 Jan 1905  Alexander                          (b. 1831 - d. 1905)
22 Jun 1895 - 10 Jul 1897    Prinz Adolf zu Schaumburg-Lippe  (b. 1859 - d. 1916)
                             (regent)
10 Jul 1897 - 26 Sep 1904    Ernst Graf zur Lippe-Biesterfeld (b. 1842 - d. 1904)
                             (regent)
26 Sep 1904 - 25 Oct 1905  Leopold Graf zur Lippe-Biesterfeld (b. 1871 - d. 1949)
                           (regent [for Alexander to 13 Jan 1905])
25 Oct 1905 - 12 Nov 1918  Leopold IV                         (s.a.)

Chancellors 1810 - 1828 Karl Friedrich Funk von Senftenau (b. 1748 - d. 1828) 1829 - 1832 Friedrich Wilhelm Helwing (b. 1758 - d. 1833) 1832 - 1848 Wilhelm Arnold Eschenburg (b. 1778 - d. 1861) 1848 - 1850 Friedrich Simon Leopold (b. 1774 - d. 1850) 1850 - 1853 Christian Theodor von Meien (b. 1781 - d. 1857) Cabinet ministers 1853 - 1855 Laurenz Martin Hannibal Christian Fischer (b. 1784 - d. 1868) 1856 - 1868 Alexander Wilhelm Heinrich August von Oheimb (b. 1820 - d. 1903) 1868 - 1872 Karl Theodor Heldmann (b. 1801 - d. 1872) 1872 - 1875 Julius Adalbert von Flottwell (b. 1829 - d. 1909) 1876 - 1885 August Eschenburg (b. 1823 - d. 1904) 1885 - 1889 Hugo Samuel Wilhelm Egmont Freiherr von Richthofen (b. 1842 - d. 1904) 1889 - 1895 Friedrich Otto Hermann Wolffgramm (from 1890, Friedrich Otto Hermann von Wolffgramm) (b. 1836 - d. 1895) 1895 - 1897 Karl Friedrich von Oertzen (b. 1844 - d. 1914) Ministers of state 1897 - 1899 Karl Gustav Oskar Miesitscheck von Wischkau (b. 1859 - d. 1937) 1900 - 1912 Max Freiherr von Gevekot (b. 1845 - d. 1916) 1913 - 1918 Karl Ludwig Freiherr von Biedenweg (b. 1864 - d. 1940) Nov 1918 - 17 Dec 1920 Clemens Becker (b. 1869 - d. 1961) (first chairman People's and Soldiers' Council to 13 Feb 1919, then chairman State Presidium) 17 Dec 1920 - 8 Jun 1921 Heinrich Drake (1st time) (b. 1881 - d. 1970) (chairman State Presidium) 8 Jun 1921 - 14 Jun 1921 Wilhelm Meier (chairman State Committee) 14 Jun 1921 - 7 Feb 1933 Heinrich Drake (2nd time) (s.a.) (chairman State Presidium; from 1932, president of the state government) 7 Feb 1933 - 23 May 1933 Ernst Krappe (b. 1891 - d. 1977) 23 May 1933 - 1936 Hans Joachim Riecke (b. 1899 - d. 1986) 1936 - 1945 Alfred Meyer (b. 1891 - d. 1945) (also Reichsstatthalter 16 May 1933 - 4 Apr 1945)

Mecklenburg

13 Jul 1471                Duchy of Mecklenburg (Herzogtum Mecklenburg) established;
                           style of ruler (typical version): Herzog zu Mecklenburg,
                           Fürst zu Wenden, Rostock und Stargard des Landes Herr
       1464 -        1695  there are several incomplete and informal territorial
                           divisions, centred mainly on Schwerin and Güstrow, and some
                           sources regard these as separate polities
 8 Mar 1701                Herzogtum Mecklenburg permanently split into Herzogtum
                           Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Herzogtum Mecklenburg-Strelitz;
                           however, the style of both rulers remains Herzog von
                           Mecklenburg, Fürst zu Wenden, Schwerin und Ratzeburg, Graf
                           zu Schwerin, der Länder Rostock und Stargard Herr

Duke
- Mecklenburg dynasty -
 1 Jul 1692 -  8 Mar 1701  Friedrich Wilhelm                  (b. 1675 - d. 1713)

Mecklenburg-Schwerin

14 Jun 1815                duchy elevated to rank of grand duchy (Grossherzogtum)
   Nov 1918                republic

Dukes
- Mecklenburg dynasty -
 8 Mar 1701 - 31 Jul 1713  Friedrich Wilhelm                  (s.a.)
31 Jul 1713 - 28 Nov 1747  Karl Leopold                       (b. 1678 - d. 1747)
28 Nov 1747 - 30 May 1756  Christian Ludwig II                (b. 1683 - d. 1756)
30 May 1756 - 24 Apr 1785  Friedrich "der Fromme"             (b. 1717 - d. 1785)
24 Apr 1785 - 14 Jun 1815  Friedrich Franz I                  (b. 1756 - d. 1837)
Grand dukes
- Mecklenburg dynasty -
14 Jun 1815 -  1 Feb 1837  Friedrich Franz I                  (s.a.)
 1 Feb 1837 -  7 Mar 1842  Paul Friedrich                     (b. 1800 - d. 1842)
 7 Mar 1842 - 15 Apr 1883  Friedrich Franz II                 (b. 1823 - d. 1883)
15 Apr 1883 - 10 Apr 1897  Friedrich Franz III                (b. 1851 - d. 1897)
10 Apr 1897 - 14 Nov 1918  Friedrich Franz IV                 (b. 1882 - d. 1945)
11 Apr 1897 -  9 Apr 1901    Johann Albrecht (regent)         (b. 1857 - d. 1920)

Presidents of the state ministry 12 Apr 1850 - 1858 Hans Adolf Karl Graf von Bülow 29 May 1858 - 1869 Jasper Joachim Bernhard Wilhelm von Oertzen (b. 1801 - d. 1874) 1869 - 15 Dec 1885 Henning Carl Friedrich Graf von Bassewitz (b. 1814 - d. 1885) 1886 - 1901 Alexander Friedrich Wilhelm von Bülow 1901 - 1914 Karl Heinrich Ludwig Graf von Bassewitz-Levetzow (b. 1855 - d. 1921) 1914 - 9 Nov 1918 Adolf Ferdinand Helmut August Wilhelm Langfeld (b. 1857 - d. af.1935) 9 Nov 1918 - 1919 Hugo Wendorff (b. 1864 - d. 1945) Minister-presidents 1919 - 28 Jul 1920 Hugo Wendorff (s.a.) 28 Jul 1920 - 14 Jan 1921 Hermann Reincke-Bloch (b. 1867 - d. 1928) 14 Jan 1921 - 18 Mar 1924 Johannes Stelling (b. 1877 - d. 1933) 18 Mar 1924 - 8 Jul 1926 Joachim Freiherr von Brandenstein (b. 1864 - d. 1941) 8 Jul 1926 - 10 Jul 1929 Paul Schröder (b. 1875 - d. 1932) 10 Jul 1929 - 13 Jul 1932 Karl Eschenburg (b. 1877 - d. 1943) 13 Jul 1932 - 10 Aug 1933 Walter Granzow (b. 1887 - d. 1952) 10 Aug 1933 - 31 Dec 1933 Hans Egon Engell (b. 1897 - d. 1974) 26 May 1933 - 31 Dec 1933 Friedrich Hildebrandt (b. 1898 - d. 1948) (Reichsstatthalter)

Mecklenburg-Strelitz

28 Jun 1815                duchy elevated to rank of grand duchy (Grossherzogtum)
   Nov 1918                republic; at this time the Principality of Ratzeburg, which
                           hitherto was sometimes considered to be only in personal
                           union with Mecklenburg-Strelitz, definitely becomes an
                           integral part of it

Dukes
- Mecklenburg dynasty -
 8 Mar 1701 - 12 May 1708  Adolf Friedrich II                 (b. 1658 - d. 1708)
12 May 1708 - 11 Dec 1752  Adolf Friedrich III                (b. 1686 - d. 1752)
11 Dec 1752 -  2 Jun 1794  Adolf Friedrich IV                 (b. 1738 - d. 1794)
 2 Jun 1794 - 28 Jun 1815  Karl Ludwig Friedrich              (b. 1741 - d. 1816)
Grand dukes
- Mecklenburg dynasty -
28 Jun 1815 -  6 Nov 1816  Karl Ludwig Friedrich              (s.a.)
 6 Nov 1816 -  6 Sep 1860  Georg Wilhelm                      (b. 1779 - d. 1860)
 6 Sep 1860 - 30 May 1904  Friedrich Wilhelm                  (b. 1819 - d. 1904)
30 May 1904 - 11 Jun 1914  Adolf Friedrich V                  (b. 1848 - d. 1914)
11 Jun 1914 - 23 Feb 1918  Adolf Friedrich VI                 (b. 1882 - d. 1918)
27 Feb 1918 - 14 Nov 1918  Friedrich Franz IV, Grand Duke of
                           Mecklenburg-Schwerin (regent)      (b. 1882 - d. 1945)

Ministers of state 1837 - 1848 Otto Ludwig Christian von Dewitz auf Sallnow (b. 1780 - d. 1864) 1850 - 1862 Wilhelm von Bernstorff 1 Nov 1862 - 1868 Bernhard Ernst von Bülow (b. 1815 - d. 1879) 1868 - 1872 Johann von Hammerstein-Loxten (b. 1843 - d. 1905) 1872 - 1885 Anton von Piper (acting) (b. 1805 - d. 1880) 1885 - 1907 Friedrich Wilhelm Otto Ulrich Karl Helmut von Dewitz (b. 1843 - d. 1928) 1907 - 10 Nov 1918 Heinrich Bossart (b. 1857 - d. 1930) Chairmen of the state ministry 11 Nov 1918 - 7 Jan 1919 Peter Franz Stubmann (b. 1876 - d. 1962) 7 Jan 1919 - 13 Oct 1919 Hans Krüger (b. 1884 - d. 1933) Ministers of state 13 Oct 1919 - 2 Aug 1923 Kurt Gustav Hans Otto Freiherr von Reibnitz (1st time) (b. 1877 - d. 1937) 2 Aug 1923 - 13 Mar 1928 Karl Schwabe (b. 1877 - d. 1938) 13 Mar 1928 - 12 Apr 1929 Kurt Gustav Hans Otto Freiherr von Reibnitz (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Apr 1929 - 16 Apr 1929 Kurt Häntzschel (Reichskommissar) (b. 1889 - d. ...) 16 Apr 1929 - 4 Dec 1931 Kurt Gustav Hans Otto Freiherr von Reibnitz (3rd time) (s.a.) 4 Dec 1931 - 27 May 1933 Heinrich Wilhelm Ferdinand von Michael (b. 1888 - d. 1942) 27 May 1933 - 31 Dec 1933 Fritz Stichtenoth (b. 1895 - d. 1935) 26 May 1933 - 31 Dec 1933 Friedrich Hildebrandt (b. 1898 - d. 1948) (Reichsstatthalter)

Mecklenburg

 1 Jan 1934                Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz united

Minister-presidents
 1 Jan 1934 - 25 Oct 1934  Hans Egon Engell                   (s.a.)
25 Oct 1934 -    May 1945  Friedrich Scharf                   (b. 1897 - d. 1974)
 1 Jan 1934 -  1 May 1945  Friedrich Hildebrandt              (b. 1898 - d. 1948)
                           (Reichsstatthalter)

Oldenburg

       1148                Count Christian II "der Streitbare" of the Oldenburg dynasty
                           takes the style Graf von Oldenburg
22 Mar 1777                Duchy of Holstein-Oldenburg; style Herzog zu Holstein-
                           Oldenburg conferred 29 Dec 1774, published 22 Mar 1777
10 Dec 1810 -    Nov 1813  incorporated into France
28 May 1829                Grand Duchy of Oldenburg; style: Grossherzog von Oldenburg
                           (style of Grossherzog zu Holstein-Oldenburg awarded by
                           Final Act of Congress of Vienna 9 Jun 1815, but not used)

Counts
- Oldenburg dynasty -
 4 Sep 1699 - 12 Oct 1730  Friedrich II                       (b. 1671 - d. 1730)
                           (= King Frederik IV of Denmark)
12 Oct 1730 -  6 Aug 1746  Christian XI                       (b. 1699 - d. 1746)
                           (= King Christian VI of Denmark)
 6 Aug 1746 - 14 Jan 1766  Friedrich III                      (b. 1723 - d. 1766)
                           (= King Frederik V of Denmark)
14 Jan 1766 -  1 Jul 1773  Christian XII                      (b. 1749 - d. 1808)
                           (= King Christian VII of Denmark)
- Holstein-Gottorp dynasty -
 1 Jul 1773 - 14 Dec 1773  Paul                               (b. 1754 - d. 1801)
14 Dec 1773 - 22 Mar 1777  Friedrich August                   (b. 1711 - d. 1785)
Dukes
- Holstein-Gottorp dynasty -
22 Mar 1777 -  6 Jul 1785  Friedrich August                   (s.a.)
 6 Jul 1785 - 10 Dec 1810  Wilhelm (1st time)                 (b. 1754 - d. 1823)
   Nov 1813 -  2 Jul 1823  Wilhelm (2nd time)                 (s.a.)
 2 Jul 1823 - 21 May 1829  Peter I                            (b. 1755 - d. 1829)
21 May 1829 - 28 May 1829  August                             (b. 1783 - d. 1853)
Grand dukes
- Holstein-Gottorp dynasty -
28 May 1829 - 27 Feb 1853  August                             (s.a.)
27 Feb 1853 - 13 Jun 1900  Peter II                           (b. 1827 - d. 1900)
13 Jun 1900 - 11 Nov 1918  Friedrich August                   (b. 1852 - d. 1931)

Ministers of state 1868 - 1871 Peter Friedrich Ludwig Freiherr von Rössing (b. 1805 - d. 1874) 1871 - 1876 Carl Heinrich Ernst von Berg (b. 1810 - d. 1894) 1876 - 1890 Friedrich Andreas Ruhstrat (b. 1818 - d. 1896) 1890 - 1900 Gerhard Friedrich Günther Jansen (b. 1831 - d. 1914) 1901 - 1908 W. Friedrich Willich (b. 1846 - d. 1917) 1908 - 1916 Friedrich Julius Heinrich Ruhstrat (b. 1854 - d. 1916) 1916 - 1918 Franz Friedrich Paul Ruhstrat (b. 1859 - d. 1935) Minister-presidents 14 Nov 1918 - 21 Jun 1919 Bernhard Kuhnt (b. 1877 - d. 19...) (president of the Directory) 21 Jun 1919 - 17 Apr 1923 Theodor Johann Tantzen (b. 1877 - d. 1947) 17 Apr 1923 - 13 Jul 1930 Eugen von Finckh (b. 1860 - d. 1930) 14 Dec 1930 - 16 Jun 1932 Friedrich Cassebohm (b. 1872 - d. 1951) 16 Jun 1932 - 6 May 1933 Carl Röver (b. 1889 - d. 1942) (also Reichsstatthalter 5 May 1933 - 15 May 1942) 6 May 1933 - Apr 1945 Georg Joel (b. 1898 - d. 1981) 27 May 1942 - Apr 1945 Paul Wegener (Reichsstatthalter) (b. 1908 - d. 1993)

Kniphausen

       1807                Lordship of Kniphausen becomes part of Kingdom of Holland
       1810                part of France
       1813                administered by Oldenburg
31 Jul 1826                semi-sovereignty under Oldenburg
 1 Aug 1854                part of Oldenburg

Lords
- Aldenburg dynasty -
26 Jun 1681 -  6 Jun 1738  Anton II                           (b. 1681 - d. 1738)
- Bentinck dynasty -
       1738 -        1754  Charlotte Sophie (f)               (b. 1715 - d. 1800)
       1754 -  1 Apr 1768  Christian Friedrich Anton          (b. 1734 - d. 1768)
 1 Apr 1768 -        1807  Wilhelm Gustav Friedrich
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1762 - d. 1835)
 1 Apr 1768 - 21 Jul 1783    Marie Katharina von Tuyll (f)    (b. 1743 - d. 1798)
                             (regent)
31 Jul 1826 - 22 Oct 1835  Wilhelm Gustav Friedrich
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
22 Oct 1835 -  1 Aug 1854  Gustav Adolf                       (b. 1809 - d. 1876)

Prussia

Note: What is usually regarded as the Prussian state is based (with various additions) on two distinct polities, the Mark Brandenburg and Preussen (originally a Polish fief). In the period covered here, the rulers of both entities are identical, but their institutional histories are sufficiently distinct to treat them separately before listing the rulers.

Brandenburg

        965                Nordmark founded, ruled by a Markgraf
       1150                the holdings of the Markgraf are renamed Mark Brandenburg
       1150 -        1356  the Mark Brandenburg suffers numerous divisions and creations
                           of side-lines
25 Dec 1356                the Golden Bull confirms the ruler of the principal line as
                           prince-elector and decrees the indivisibility of the Mark
                           Brandenburg to which the electorate is attached; the style of
                           the elector is von Gottes Gnaden Markgraf zu Brandenburg, des
                           Heiligen Römischen Reichs Erzkämmerer und Kurfürst ("By the
                           grace of God margrave of Brandenburg, archchamberlain and
                           prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire"), to which numerous
                           actual as well as notional styles are attached
 6 Aug 1806                with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire the effective
                           function of the electors ceases, the Mark Brandenburg itself
                           having been long incorporated into the royal Prussian
                           conglomerate (see below); it is notable that the later kings of
                           Prussia, while continuing to use Markgraf von Brandenburg
                           in their style, do not include the electoral Kurfürst

Prussia

 5 Mar 1198                the Teutonic Order (in full Orden der Brüder des Hospitals
                           Sankt Marien des Deutschen Hauses zu Jerusalem - "Order of the
                           Brethren of the Hospital of Saint Mary of the German House in
                           Jerusalem") is founded in the Holy Land
       1309                the seat of the Hochmeister is moved to Prussia (the area
                           later designated East Prussia)
 9 Apr 1525                the Hochmeister Albrecht Markgraf von Brandenburg-Ansbach
                           having converted to Protestantism, he becomes hereditary Herzog
                           von Preussen (duke of Prussia), as a vassal of the king of
                           Poland
19 Sep 1657                Poland relinquishes sovereignty over the duchy, and on 6 Nov
                           1657 the duke (prince-elector and margrave of Brandenburg
                           Friedrich Wilhelm "der Grosse Kurfürst") takes the style
                           Souveräner Herzog von Preussen (Sovereign duke of Prussia)
18 Jan 1701                the duke/elector's attempts at getting the king/emperor to
                           accept his accession to royal rank having failed, he accepts
                           on 16 Dec 1700 the royal crown of a Prussia outside the Empire,
                           and is proclaimed König in Preussen (king in Prussia)
13 Sep 1772                the almost fictional distinction between the electorate inside
                           the empire and the kingdom outside the empire having become
                           blurred in practice, the king (Friedrich II "der Grosse")
                           assumes the style König von Preussen (king of Prussia);
                           the combined polity (with several accretions over time) is
                           usually styled Königreich Preussen (Kingdom of Prussia),
                           but technically the official use is Königlich Preussische
                           Staaten (Royal Prussian States)
   Nov 1918                republic
   Apr 1945                end of central Prussian government
25 Feb 1947                the Allied Control Commission declares Prussia dissolved

Kings (see above regarding style)
- Hohenzollern dynasty -
18 Jan 1701 - 25 Feb 1713  Friedrich I                        (b. 1657 - d. 1713)
25 Feb 1713 - 31 May 1740  Friedrich Wilhelm I                (b. 1688 - d. 1740)
31 May 1740 - 17 Aug 1786  Friedrich II "der Grosse"          (b. 1712 - d. 1786)
17 Aug 1786 - 16 Nov 1797  Friedrich Wilhelm II               (b. 1744 - d. 1797)
16 Nov 1797 -  7 Jun 1840  Friedrich Wilhelm III              (b. 1770 - d. 1840)
 7 Jun 1840 -  2 Jan 1861  Friedrich Wilhelm IV               (b. 1795 - d. 1861)
 2 Jan 1861 -  9 Mar 1888  Wilhelm I                          (b. 1797 - d. 1888)
                           (7 Oct 1858 - 2 Jan 1861 regent for Friedrich Wilhelm IV)
 9 Mar 1888 - 15 Jun 1888  Friedrich III                      (b. 1831 - d. 1888)
15 Jun 1888 -  9 Nov 1918  Wilhelm II                         (b. 1859 - d. 1941)

Prime ministers 19 Mar 1848 - 29 Mar 1848 Adolf Heinrich Graf von Arnim-Boitzenburg (b. 1803 - d. 1868) 29 Mar 1848 - 20 Jun 1848 Gottfried Ludolf Camphausen (b. 1803 - d. 1890) 25 Jun 1848 - 21 Sep 1848 Rudolf Ludwig Cäsar von Auerswald (b. 1795 - d. 1866) 21 Sep 1848 - 1 Nov 1848 Ernst von Pfuel (b. 1799 - d. 1866) 1 Nov 1848 - 19 Dec 1850 Friedrich Wilhelm Graf von Brandenburg (b. 1792 - d. 1850) 19 Dec 1850 - 6 Nov 1858 Otto Theodor Freiherr von Manteuffel (b. 1805 - d. 1882) 6 Nov 1858 - 17 Mar 1862 Karl Anton Fürst von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (b. 1811 - d. 1885) 17 Mar 1862 - 23 Sep 1862 Adolf Fürst von Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen (b. 1797 - d. 1873) 23 Sep 1862 - 1 Jan 1873 Otto von Bismarck (from 15 Sep 1865, Otto Graf von Bismarck; from 21 Mar 1871, Otto Fürst von Bismarck) (1st time) (b. 1815 - d. 1898) 1 Jan 1873 - 9 Nov 1873 Albrecht Graf von Roon (b. 1803 - d. 1879) 9 Nov 1873 - 20 Mar 1890 Otto Fürst von Bismarck (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Mar 1890 - 23 Mar 1892 Leo von Caprivi (from 18 Dec 1891, Leo Graf von Caprivi) (b. 1831 - d. 1899) 23 Mar 1892 - 29 Oct 1894 Botho Wend August Graf zu Eulenburg (b. 1831 - d. 1912) 29 Oct 1894 - 9 Nov 1918 the imperial chancellors 11 Nov 1918 - 27 Mar 1920 Paul Hirsch (b. 1868 - d. 1940) 13 Mar 1920 - 17 Mar 1920 Wolfgang Kapp (in rebellion) (b. 1858 - d. 1922) 27 Mar 1920 - 21 Apr 1921 Otto Braun (1st time) (b. 1872 - d. 1955) 21 Apr 1921 - 5 Nov 1921 Adam Stegerwald (b. 1874 - d. 1945) 5 Nov 1921 - 18 Feb 1925 Otto Braun (2nd time) (s.a.) 18 Feb 1925 - 6 Apr 1925 Wilhelm Marx (b. 1863 - d. 1946) 6 Apr 1925 - 10 Apr 1933 Otto Braun (3rd time) (s.a.) 6 Jun 1932 - 20 Jul 1932 Heinrich Hirtsiefer (b. 1876 - d. 1941) (acting for Braun) 20 Jul 1932 - 3 Dec 1932 Franz von Papen (1st time) (b. 1879 - d. 1969) (Reichskommissar) 3 Dec 1932 - 28 Jan 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (b. 1882 - d. 1934) (Reichskommissar) 30 Jan 1933 - 10 Apr 1933 Franz von Papen (2nd time) (s.a.) (Reichskommissar) 10 Apr 1933 - 24 Apr 1945 Hermann Göring (b. 1893 - d. 1946) 25 Apr 1933 - 30 Apr 1945 Adolf Hitler (Reichsstatthalter) (b. 1889 - d. 1945)

Frankfurt

       1372                free imperial city
19 Sep 1806                Frankfurt is incorporated into the Prince-Primate's
                           territorial possessions
16 Feb 1810                Grand Duchy of Frankfurt
 6 Nov 1813                Allied administration
 9 Jul 1815                Free City of Frankfurt
18 Jul 1866                administered by Prussia
 8 Oct 1866                annexation by Prussia
Note: Before 1806 the highest authorities were (1) the Stadtschultheiss (a fossil of the royal supervision of the city), senior member of the Rat (Council); (2) the senior mayor (Älterer Bürgermeister), elected annually, who presides in the Rat. The mayor's term begins on a date between Easter and Pentecost, and varies from year to year.
Stadtschultheissen
       1696 -        1716  Johann Erasmus Seyffart von
                           Klettenberg und Rhoda
       1716 -        1721  Johann Georg von Holzhausen
       1721 - 10 Jun 1741  Johann Heinrich Werlin
       1741 -  9 Aug 1747  Johann Christoph Ochs von
                           Ochsenstein
       1747 -  6 Feb 1771  Johann Wolfgang Textor
       1771 - 13 Mar 1777  Johann Isaac Moors
       1777 - 21 Mar 1788  Johann Martin Ruppel
       1788 - 27 Feb 1802  Johann Friedrich Maximilian von
                           Stallburg
       1802 -        1806  Wilhelm Carl Ludwig Moors
       1806 - 19 Sep 1806  Friedrich Carl Schweitzer (acting)
Senior Mayors
       1699 -        1700  Philipp Nicolaus Lersner
       1700 -        1701  Heinrich von Barckhausen (1st time)
       1701 -        1702  Johann Adolph Stephan von
                           Cronstätten II (1st time)
       1702 -        1703  Dominicus Heyden (1st time)
       1703 -        1704  Nicolaus August Ruland
       1704 -        1705  Johann Arnold Mohr von Mohrenhelm
       1705 -        1706  Johann Adolph von Glauburg I
                           (2nd time)
       1706 -        1707  Heinrich von Barckhausen (2nd time)
       1707 -        1708  Johann Adolph Stephan von
                           Cronstätten II (2nd time)
       1708 -        1709  Dominicus Heyden (2nd time)
       1709 -        1710  Philipp Jacob Fleckhammer von
                           Aystetten
       1710 -        1711  Johann Georg von Holzhausen (1st time)
       1711 -        1712  Johann Philipp Orth II (1st time)
       1712 -        1713  Johann Adolph von Glauburg I
                           (3rd time)
       1713 -        1714  Heirich von Barckhausen (3rd time)
       1714 -        1715  Johann Georg von Holzhausen (2nd time)
       1715 -        1716  Johann Philipp Orth II (2nd time)
       1716 -        1717  Johann Martin von den Birgden
       1717 -        1718  Johann Heinrich Werlin
       1718 -        1719  Johann Philipp von Kellner I
       1719 -        1720  Konrad Hieronymus Eberhard gen.
                           Schwind (1st time)
       1720 -        1721  Ludwig Adolph von Syvertes
       1721 -        1722  Johann Christoph von Stetten
       1722 -        1723  Bartholomäus von Barckhausen
       1723 -        1724  Georg Friedrich Faust von
                           Aschaffenburg
       1724 -        1725  Johann Hieronymus von Glauburg
       1725 -        1726  Johann Christoph Ochs von
                           Ochsenstein (1st time)
       1726                Johann Adolph von Glauburg II
                           (acting)
       1726 -        1727  Konrad Hieronymus Eberhard gen.
                           Schwind (2nd time)
       1727 -        1728  Achilles August von Lersner
                           (1st time)
       1728 -  1 Sep 1728  Johann Daniel Fleischbein von
                           Kleeberg
       1728                Johann Adolph von Glauburg III
                           (acting)
       1728 -        1729  Achilles August von Lersner
                           (2nd time)
       1729 -        1730  Johann Christoph Ochs von
                           Ochsenstein (2nd time)
       1730 -        1731  Achilles August von Lersner
                           (3rd time)
       1731 -        1732  Johann Carl von Kaib (1st time)
       1732 -        1733  Johann Jacob von Bertram (1st time)
       1733 -        1734  Johann Hieronymus von Holzhausen
       1734 -        1735  Johann Jacob von Bertram (2nd time)
       1735 -        1736  Johann Philipp von Syvertes
                           (1st time)
       1736 -        1737  Johann Carl von Kaib (2nd time)
       1737 -        1738  Johann Philipp von Kellner II
       1738 -        1739  Johann Wolfgang Textor (1st time)
       1739 -        1740  Johann Carl von Kaib (3rd time)
       1740 -        1741  Johann Philipp von Syvertes
                           (2nd time)
       1741                Johann Christoph Ochs von
                           Ochsenstein (3rd time)
       1741                Remigius Seyffart von Klettenberg
                           (1st time) (acting)
       1741 -        1742  Johann Wolfgang Textor (2nd time)
       1742 -        1743  Johann Carl von Kaib (4th time)
       1743 -        1744  Johann Wolfgang Textor (3rd time)
       1744 -        1745  Johann Georg Schweitzer Edler von
                           Wiederhold (1st time)
       1745 -        1746  Johann Carl von Fichard (1st time)
       1746 -        1747  Friedrich Maximilian von
                           Günderrode (1st time)
       1747 -        1748  Friedrich Maximilian von Lersner I
                           (1st time)
       1748 -        1749  Johann Georg Schweitzer Edler von
                           Wiederhold (2nd time)
       1749 -        1750  Friedrich Maximilian von
                           Günderrode (2nd time)
       1750 -        1751  Johann Carl von Fichard (2nd time)
       1751 -        1752  Friedrich Maximilian von Lersner I
                           (2nd time)
       1752 -        1753  Johann Georg Schweitzer Edler von
                           Wiederhold (3rd time)
       1753 -        1754  Johann Carl von Fichard (3rd time)
       1754 -        1755  Remigius Seyffart von Klettenberg
                           (2nd time)
       1755 -        1756  Johann Carl von Fichard (4th time)
       1756 -        1757  Friedrich Wilhelm von Völcker
       1757 -        1758  Erasmus Schlösser (1st time)
       1758 -        1759  Philipp Jacob von Stallburg
       1759 -        1760  Remigius Seyffart von Klettenberg
                           (3rd time)
       1760 -        1761  Johann Carl von Fichard (5th time)
       1761 -        1762  Johann Maximilian von Holzhausen
       1762 -        1763  Johann Friedrich Armand von Uffenbach
       1763 -        1764  Johann Isaac Moors (1st time)
       1764 -        1765  Erasmus Schlösser (2nd time)
       1765 -        1766  Hieronymus Maximilian von Glauburg
                           (1st time)
       1766 -        1767  Johann Carl von Fichard (6th time)
       1767 -        1768  Friedrich Maximilian Baur von
                           Eysseneck
       1768 -        1769  Johann Philipp von Heyden (1st time)
       1769 -        1770  Johann Isaac Moors (2nd time)
       1770 -        1771  Hieronymus Maximilian von Glauburg
                           (2nd time)
       1771 -        1772  Johann Daniel von Olenschlager
       1772 -        1773  Johann Philipp von Heyden (2nd time)
       1773 -        1774  Hieronymus Maximilian von Glauburg
                           (3rd time)
       1774 -        1775  Friedrich Adolph von Glauburg
                           (1st time)
       1775 -        1776  Johann Philipp von Heyden (3rd time)
       1776 -        1777  Hieronymus Maximilian von Glauburg
                           (4th time)
       1777 -        1778  Johann Friedrich von Wiesenhütten
                           (1st time)
       1779 -        1780  Friedrich Adolph von Glauburg
                           (2nd time)
       1780 -        1781  Johann Daniel Fleischbein von
                           Kleeberg II
       1781 -        1782  Johann Friedrich von Wiesenhütten
                           (2nd time)
       1782 -        1783  Friedrich Adolph von Glauburg
                           (3rd time)
       1783 -        1784  Johann Christoph von Adlerflycht
                           (1st time)
       1784 -        1785  Johann Friedrich von Wiesenhütten
                           (3rd time)
       1785 -        1786  Johann Christoph von Adlerflycht
                           (2nd time)
       1786 -        1787  Friedrich Adolph von Glauburg
                           (4th time)
       1787 -        1788  Johann Friedrich Maximilian von
                           Stallburg
       1788 -        1789  Friedrich Adolph von Glauburg
                           (5th time)
       1789 -        1790  Friedrich Maximilian von Lersner II
                           (1st time)
       1790 -        1791  Johann Christoph von Lauterbach
                           (1st time)
       1791 -        1792  Adolph Carl von Humbracht (1st time)
       1792 -        1793  Johann Christoph von Lauterbach
                           (2nd time)
       1793 -        1794  Johann Nicolaus Olenschlager von
                           Olenstein (1st time)
       1794 -        1795  Adolph Carl von Humbracht (2nd time)
       1795 -        1796  Johann Nicolaus Olenschlager von
                           Olenstein (2nd time)
       1796 -        1797  Johann Christoph von Lauterbach
                           (3rd time)
       1797 -        1798  Adolph Carl von Humbracht (3rd time)
       1798 -        1799  Friedrich Maximilian von Lersner II
                           (2nd time)
       1799 -        1800  Adolph Carl von Humbracht (4th time)
       1800 -        1801  Anton Ulrich Carl von Holzhausen
                           (1st time)
       1801 -        1802  Adolph Carl von Humbracht (5th time)
       1802 -        1803  Johann Nicolaus Olenschlager von
                           Olenstein (3rd time)
       1803 -        1804  Johann Friedrich von Riese
       1804 -        1805  Johann Nicolaus Olenschlager von
                           Olenstein (4th time)
       1805 -        1806  Friedrich August von Wiesenhütten
       1806 - 19 Sep 1806  Anton Ulrich Carl von Holzhausen
                           (2nd time)
Grand dukes (title Grossherzog von Frankfurt)
16 Feb 1810 - 28 Oct 1813  Carl Theodor Reichsfreiherr von
                           Dalberg                            (b. 1744 - d. 1817)
28 Oct 1813 - 23 Dec 1813  Prince Eugène-Rose-Napoléon de
                           Beauharnais, prince de Venise      (b. 1781 - d. 1824)
Governors-general
 6 Nov 1813 - 31 Dec 1813  Philipp Prinz zu Hessen-Homburg    (b. 1779 - d. 1846)
31 Dec 1813 - 20 Jun 1815  Heinrich XIII Fürst von
                           Reuss-Greiz                        (b. 1747 - d. 1817)
Chief of civil administration
31 Dec 1813 -        1815? Johann Aloys Joseph Reichsfreiherr
                           von Hügel                          (b. 1754 - d. 1825)
Senior Mayors
 1 Jan 1814 -  3 Sep 1816  Adolf Karl von Humbracht           (s.a.)
 3 Sep 1816 - 31 Dec 1817  Johann Wilhelm Metzler (1st time)  (b. 1755 - d. 1837)
 1 Jan 1818 - 31 Dec 1818  Georg Steitz                       (b. 1756 - d. 1819)
 1 Jan 1819 - 31 Dec 1819  Johann Wilhelm Metzler (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1820 - 31 Dec 1820  Carl Wilhelm Freiherr von
                           Günderrode                         (b. 1765 - d. 1823)
 1 Jan 1821 - 31 Dec 1821  Johann Büchner                     (b. 1756 - d. 1834)
 1 Jan 1822 - 31 Dec 1822  Georg Friedrich von Guaita
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1772 - d. 1851)
 1 Jan 1823 - 31 Dec 1823  Johann Wilhelm Metzler (3rd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1824 - 31 Dec 1824  Georg Freidrich von Guaita
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1825 - 31 Dec 1825  Johann Friedrich von Meyer
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1772 - d. 1849)
 1 Jan 1826 - 31 Dec 1826  Georg Friedrich von Guaita
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1827 - 31 Dec 1827  Friedrich Wilhelm Philipp Freiherr
                           von Malapert gen. Neufville
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1784 - d. 1852)
 1 Jan 1828 - 31 Dec 1828  Ferdinand Maximilian Stark
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1778 - d. 1857)
 1 Jan 1829 - 31 Dec 1829  Johann Peter Hieronymus Hoch       (b. 1779 - d. 1831)
 1 Jan 1830 - 31 Dec 1830  Friedrich Wilhelm Philipp Freiherr
                           von Malapert gen. Neufville
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1831 - 31 Dec 1831  Georg Friedrich von Guaita
                           (4th time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1832 - 31 Dec 1832  Johann Gerhard Christian Thomas
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1785 - d. 1838)
 1 Jan 1833 - 31 Dec 1833  Georg Friedrich von Guaita
                           (5th time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1834 - 31 Dec 1834  Ferdinand Maximilian Stark
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1835 - 31 Dec 1835  Johann Gerhard Christian Thomas
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1836 - 31 Dec 1836  Ferdinand Maximilian Stark
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1837 - 31 Dec 1837  Georg Friedrich von Guaita
                           (6th time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1838 -  1 Nov 1838  Johann Gerhard Christian Thomas
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Nov 1838 -        1838  Eduard Franz Souchay (acting)      (b. 1800 - d. 1872)
       1838 - 31 Dec 1838  Georg Friedrich von Guaita
                           (7th time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1839 - 31 Dec 1839  Johann Friedrich von Meyer
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1840 - 31 Dec 1840  Gottfried Scharff (1st time)       (b. 1782 - d. 1855)
 1 Jan 1841 - 31 Dec 1841  Friedrich Carl Hector Wilhelm
                           Freiherr von Günderrode
                           gen. von Kellner (1st time)        (b. 1786 - d. 1862)
 1 Jan 1842 - 31 Dec 1842  Gottfried Scharff (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1843 - 31 Dec 1843  Johann Friedrich von Meyer
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1844 - 31 Dec 1844  Gottfried Scharff (3rd time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1845 - 31 Dec 1845  Carl Heinrich Georg von Heyden
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1793 - d. 1866)
 1 Jan 1846 - 31 Dec 1846  Gottfried Scharff (4th time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1847 - 31 Dec 1847  Friedrich Carl Hector Wilhelm
                           Freiherr von Günderrode
                           gen. von Kellner (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1848 - 31 Dec 1848  Carl Heinrich Georg von Heyden
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1849 - 31 Dec 1849  Samuel Gottlieb Müller (1st time)  (b. 1802 - d. 1880)
 1 Jan 1850 - 31 Dec 1850  Carl Heinrich Georg von Heyden
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1851 - 31 Dec 1851  Friedrich Carl Hector Wilhelm
                           Freiherr von Günderrode
                           gen. von Kellner (3rd time)        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1852 - 31 Dec 1852  Johann Georg Neuburg (1st time)    (b. 1795 - d. 1866)
 1 Jan 1853 - 31 Dec 1853  Carl Heinrich Georg von Heyden
                           (4th time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1854 - 31 Dec 1854  Johann Georg Neuburg (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1855 - 31 Dec 1855  Eduard Ludwig von Harnier
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1800 - d. 1868)
 1 Jan 1856 - 31 Dec 1856  Johann Georg Neuburg (3rd time)    (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1857 - 31 Dec 1857  Eduard Ludwig von Harnier
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1858 - 31 Dec 1858  Johann Georg Neuburg (4th time)    (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1859 - 31 Dec 1859  Eduard Ludwig von Harnier
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1860 - 31 Dec 1860  Samuel Gottlieb Müller (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1861 - 31 Dec 1861  Friedrich Carl Hector Wilhelm
                           Freiherr von Günderrode
                           gen. von Kellner (4th time)        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1862 - 31 Dec 1862  Johann Georg Neuburg (5th time)    (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1863 - 31 Dec 1863  Samuel Gottlieb Müller (3rd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1864 - 31 Dec 1864  Anton Heinrich Emil von Oven       (b. 1817 - d. 1903)
 1 Jan 1865 - 31 Dec 1865  Philipp Friedrich Gwinner          (b. 1796 - d. 1868)
 1 Jan 1866 - 24 Jul 1866  Carl Constanz Victor Fellner       (b. 1807 - d. 1866)
27 Jul 1866 - 27 Feb 1868  Samuel Gottlieb Müller (4th time)  (s.a.)

Hanover

       1286                Fürstentum Göttingen detached from Brunswick
23 Nov 1432                Fürstentum Calenberg detached from Brunswick
 6 Feb 1463                Calenberg and Göttingen merged into Fürstentum
                           Calenberg-Göttingen
19 Dec 1692                the ruler of Calenberg-Göttingen is made a prince-elector
                           of the Holy Roman Empire; the polity is styled
                           Kurfürstentum Braunschweig und Lüneburg; the abbreviation
                           Kurbraunschweig is also in official use, and the style
                           Kurfürstentum Hannover (from the name of the capital city)
                           comes into gradual official use also; the change in Erzamt
                           ("arch-office") in the ruler's style in 1710 and the
                           technically incorrect retention of the new one in 1714 are
                           the indirect result of corresponding changes for the rulers
                           of Bavaria (Bayern) and the Palatinate (Pfalz)
 1 Aug 1714 - 20 Jun 1837  personal union with Great Britain
 1 Mar 1810 - 29 Oct 1813  incorporated into Westphalia (see under Hesse-Kassel)
 6 Nov 1813                electorate restored
12 Oct 1814                Kingdom of Hanover (Königreich Hannover)
20 Sep 1866                annexation by Prussia

Dukes and Electors (title Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg, Erzpanner [from
1710 Erzschatzmeister] und Kurfürst des Heiligen Römischen Reiches - duke of
Brunswick and Lüneburg, archbannerbearer [then archtreasurer] and prince-elector of
the Holy Roman Empire)
- Welf dynasty -
19 Dec 1692 -  2 Feb 1698  Ernst August                       (b. 1629 - d. 1698)
 2 Feb 1698 - 22 Jun 1727  Georg I                            (b. 1660 - d. 1727)
22 Jun 1727 - 25 Oct 1760  Georg II                           (b. 1683 - d. 1760)
25 Oct 1760 -  1 Mar 1810  Georg III (1st time)               (b. 1738 - d. 1820)
 6 Nov 1813 - 12 Oct 1814  Georg III (2nd time)               (s.a.)
Kings (title König von Hannover, Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg)
- Welf dynasty -
12 Oct 1814 - 29 Jan 1820  Georg III                          (s.a.)
29 Jan 1820 - 26 Jan 1830  Georg IV                           (b. 1762 - d. 1830)
                           (regent for Georg III 6 Nov 1813 - 29 Jan 1820)
26 Jan 1830 - 20 Jun 1837  Wilhelm                            (b. 1765 - d. 1837)
20 Jun 1837 - 18 Nov 1851  Ernst August                       (b. 1771 - d. 1851)
18 Nov 1851 - 20 Sep 1866  Georg V                            (b. 1819 - d. 1878)

Bremen-Verden

       1648                Swedish dominion
       1712                occupied by Denmark
       1715                occupied by Hanover
       1719                ceded to Hanover

Governors-general
       1698 -        1711  Nils greve Gyllenstierna af
                           Fogelvik                           (b. 1648 - d. 1720)
       1711 -        1712  Mauritz von Vellingk               (b. 1651 - d. 1727)

Lüneburg

       1269                Principality of Lüneburg (Fürstentum Lüneburg)
28 Aug 1705                incorporated into Kurbraunschweig (s.a.)

Duke (title Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg)
12 Sep 1665 - 28 Aug 1705  Georg Wilhelm                      (b. 1624 - d. 1705)

East Frisia

19 Nov 1430                Frisian League of Freedom (Friesischer Bund der Freiheit)
                           founded
23 Dec 1464                the leader of the League takes the style Graf zu Norden,
                           Emden und Emisgonien in Ostfriesland; the abbreviation Graf
                           von Ostfriesland (Count of East Frisia) is in almost universal
                           official use
28 Apr 1662                the count takes the style Fürst von Ostfriesland (prince of
                           East Frisia) - it had been held as a personal distinction once
                           before - and the polity is styled Fürstentum Ostfriesland
                           (Principality of East Frisia); this style is officially
                           acquired, not by formal adoption, but by prescription
                           (Observanz und Verjährung)
       1807 - 13 Jul 1810  incorporated into Kingdom of Holland
13 Jul 1810 -        1813  incorporated into France
       1813 -  9 Jun 1815  under Prussian administration
 9 Jun 1815                incorporated into Hanover

Princes (title Fürst von Ostfriesland)
- Cirksena dynasty -
11 Oct 1665 - 30 Jun 1708  Christian Eberhard                 (b. 1665 - d. 1708)
30 Jun 1708 - 12 Jun 1734  Georg Albrecht                     (b. 1690 - d. 1734)
12 Jun 1734 - 25 May 1744  Karl Edzard                        (b. 1716 - d. 1744)
- Hohenzollern dynasty -
25 May 1744 -        1807  the kings of Prussia

Hesse-Homburg

       1622                Landgraviate of Hesse (informally Hesse-Homburg) established
                           under the suzerainty of Hesse-Darmstadt
       1671 -        1680  Hesse-Homburg forfeited to Hesse-Darmstadt
       1680                Hesse-Homburg reestablished under the suzerainty of
                           Hesse-Darmstadt
       1708                Hesse-Homburg sovereign
       1806                Hesse-Homburg under suzerainty of Hesse-Darmstadt
       1815                Sovereign Landgraviate of Hesse
24 Mar 1866                incorporation into Hesse(-Darmstadt)
 3 Sep 1866                ceded to Prussia

Landgraves (title Landgraf zu Hessen; from 1815 Souveräner Landgraf zu Hessen)
- Limburg dynasty (of Brabant) -
       1680 - 24 Jan 1708  Friedrich II "mit dem silbernen
                           Bein"                              (b. 1633 - d. 1708)
24 Jan 1708 -  8 Jun 1746  Friedrich III                      (b. 1673 - d. 1746)
 8 Jun 1746 -  7 Feb 1751  Friedrich IV                       (b. 1724 - d. 1751)
 7 Feb 1751 - 20 Jan 1820  Friedrich V                        (b. 1748 - d. 1820)
20 Jan 1820 -  2 Apr 1829  Friedrich VI                       (b. 1769 - d. 1829)
 2 Apr 1829 - 19 Jan 1839  Ludwig                             (b. 1770 - d. 1839)
19 Jan 1839 - 15 Dec 1846  Philipp                            (b. 1779 - d. 1846)
15 Dec 1846 -  8 Sep 1848  Gustav                             (b. 1781 - d. 1848)
 8 Sep 1848 - 24 Mar 1866  Ferdinand                          (b. 1783 - d. 1866)

Hesse-Kassel

31 Mar 1567                Landgraviate of Hesse (informally Hesse-Kassel) separated
15 May 1803                Landgrave Wilhelm IX acquires the dignity of prince-
                           elector, approved 27 Apr 1803, and the polity is styled
                           Electorate of Hesse (Kurfürstentum Hessen)
 6 Aug 1806                at the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire the ruler clings
                           tenaciously to the now empty style of elector; the polity
                           continues to be styled Kurfürstentum Hessen
28 Aug 1807                the Electorate of Hesse is replaced by the Kingdom of
                           Westphalia (Königreich Westphalen) established by
                           Napoléon I for his brother
29/30 Oct 1813             Kingdom of Westphalia dissolved, Electorate of Hesse restored
20 Sep 1866                incorporated into Prussia

Landgraves (title Landgraf zu Hessen)
- Limburg dynasty (of Brabant) -
 1 Dec 1670 - 23 Mar 1730  Karl                               (b. 1654 - d. 1730)
 1 Dec 1670 -        1677    Hedwig Sophie von Brandenburg
                             (f) (regent)                     (b. 1623 - d. 1683)
23 Mar 1730 -  5 Apr 1751  Friedrich I                        (b. 1676 - d. 1751)
 5 Apr 1751 -  1 Feb 1760  Wilhelm VIII                       (b. 1682 - d. 1760)
 1 Feb 1760 - 31 Oct 1785  Friedrich II                       (b. 1720 - d. 1785)
31 Oct 1785 - 15 May 1803  Wilhelm IX                         (b. 1743 - d. 1821)
Landgrave and Elector (Landgraf zu Hessen, Kurfürst des Heiligen Römischen Reiches);
then Elector and Sovereign Landgrave (Kurfürst und souveräner Landgraf zu Hessen)
15 May 1803 - 28 Aug 1807  Wilhelm I (1st time)               (s.a.)
                           (= Wilhelm IX)
King of Westphalia
- Bonaparte dynasty -
28 Aug 1807 - 29 Oct 1813  Hieronymus Napoleon                (b. 1784 - d. 1860)
Electors and Sovereign Landgraves
- Limburg dynasty (of Brabant) -
30 Oct 1813 - 27 Feb 1821  Wilhelm I (2nd time)               (s.a.)
27 Feb 1821 - 20 Nov 1847  Wilhelm II                         (b. 1777 - d. 1847)
20 Nov 1847 - 20 Sep 1866  Friedrich Wilhelm I                (b. 1802 - d. 1875)
                           (30 Sep 1831 - 20 Nov 1847 regent for Wilhelm II)

Hohenzollern

     c.1350                Friedrich VII "der alte Schwarzgraf" (r. 1333-79) takes the
                           style of Graf von Hohenzollern
18 Mar 1576                Grafschaft Hohenzollern split into Grafschaft
                           Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Grafschaft Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
29 Mar 1623                both counties raised to the rank of principalities
                           (Fürstentum Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Fürstentum
                           Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen)
 7 Dec 1849                both princes abdicate; principalities under Prussian
                           administration
12 Mar 1850                principalities incorporated into Prussia

Hohenzollern-Hechingen

Princes (title Fürst zu Hohenzollern Hechingen)
- Hohenzollern dynasty -
13 Jan 1671 - 14 Nov 1735  Friedrich Wilhelm                  (b. 1663 - d. 1735)
14 Nov 1735 -  4 Jun 1750  Friedrich Ludwig                   (b. 1688 - d. 1750)
 4 Jun 1750 -  9 Apr 1798  Joseph Wilhelm                     (b. 1717 - d. 1798)
 9 Apr 1798 -  2 Nov 1810  Hermann Friedrich Otto             (b. 1748 - d. 1810)
 2 Nov 1810 - 13 Sep 1838  Friedrich Hermann Otto             (b. 1776 - d. 1838)
13 Sep 1838 -  7 Dec 1849  Friedrich Wilhelm                  (b. 1801 - d. 1869)

Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen

Princes (title Fürst zu Hohenzollern Sigmaringen)
- Hohenzollern dynasty -
13 Aug 1689 - 20 Oct 1715  Meinrad II                         (b. 1673 - d. 1715)
20 Oct 1715 -  8 Dec 1769  Joseph Friedrich                   (b. 1702 - d. 1769)
 8 Dec 1769 - 20 Dec 1785  Karl Friedrich                     (b. 1724 - d. 1785)
20 Dec 1785 - 17 Oct 1831  Anton                              (b. 1762 - d. 1831)
17 Oct 1831 - 27 Aug 1848  Karl                               (b. 1785 - d. 1853)
27 Aug 1848 -  7 Dec 1849  Karl Anton                         (b. 1811 - d. 1885)

Lauenburg

11 Aug 1261                Duchy of Lauenburg (Herzogtum Lauenburg; very formally
                           Herzogtum Sachsen-Lauenburg)
13 Dec 1810 -        1813  incorporated into France
 9 Jun 1815    (one day)   incorporated into Prussia
16 Nov 1864 - 20 Aug 1865  jointly administered by Austria and Prussia
 1 Jul 1876                incorporated into Prussia with the continued style
                           of Duchy of Lauenburg

Dukes (title Herzog von Sachsen, Engern und Westfalen; Herzog zu [der] Lauenburg)
- Welf dynasty -
22 Sep 1691 - 28 Aug 1705  Georg Wilhelm                      (b. 1624 - d. 1705)
                           (in dispute from 11 Oct 1689)
28 Aug 1705 - 13 Dec 1810  the electors of Hanover
       1813 -  9 Jun 1815  the elector, then king, of Hanover
 9 Jun 1815 - 16 Nov 1864  the kings of Denmark
20 Aug 1865 -  1 Jul 1876  the king of Prussia

Lübeck

       1226                free imperial city; four mayors to 31 Dec 1848;
                           four "succession lines" can be distinguished
13 Dec 1810                incorporated into France (from 1 Jan 1811 part of
                           Bouches-de-l'Elbe département)
       1813                Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck restored
 1 Apr 1937                part of Prussia

Mayors
- Line 1 -
       1697 -        1705  Gotthard Kerkerink
       1706 -        1708  Sebastian Gerken
       1708 -        1729  Adolf Matthäus Rodde
       1731                Jakob Hübens
       1732 -        1737  Johann Heinrich Dreyer
       1738 -        1743  Hermann Münter
       1743 -        1757  Heinrich Rust
       1757 -        1761  Matthäus Rodde II
       1761 -        1768  Ludwig Philipp Röck
       1769 -        1773  Friedrich Green
       1773 -        1789  Joachim Peters
       1789 -        1790  Franz Berhard Rodde
       1790 -        1792  Anton Dietrich Wilken
       1792 -        1798  Jürgen Bloom
       1799 -        1804  Johann Georg Böhme                 (b. 17... - d. 1804)
       1804 -        1810  Johann Philipp Plessing            (b. 17... - d. 1810)
       1810 - 31 Dec 1810  Georg David Richerz                (b. 17... - d. 1811)
       1814 -        1821  Christian Adolf Overbeck
       1821 -        1845  Christian Heinrich Kindler         (b. 1762 - d. 1845)
       1845 - 31 Dec 1848  Johann Joachim Friedrich Torkuhl   (b. 1790 - d. 1870)
- Line 2 -
       1695 -        1703  Hieronymus von Dorne
       1703 -        1714  Johann Westken
       1715 -        1722  Peter Heinrich Tesdorpf I
       1722 -        1727  Joachim Lüder Carstens
       1728 -        1732  Heinrich von Brömsen
       1732 -        1744  Anton von Lüneburg
       1744 -        1750  Johann Adolf Krohn
       1750 -        1757  Andreas Albrecht von Brömsen
       1757 -        1778  Daniel Häks
       1778 -        1805  Hermann Georg Büneckau
       1805 - 31 Dec 1810  Johann Kaspar Lindenberg
                           (1st time)
       1813 -        1824  Johann Kaspar Lindenberg
                           (2nd time)
       1824 -        1833  Adolf Heinrich Voeg                (b. 1766 - d. 1833)
       1833                Johann Heinrich Kipp
       1833 - 31 Dec 1848  Bernhard Heinrich Frister
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1778 - d. 1861)
- Line 3 -
       1669 -        1700  Johann Ritter
       1708 -        1716  Thomas von Wickede II
       1717 -        1724  Daniel Müller II
       1724 -        1730  Hermann Rodde
       1731 -        1734  Christian Albrecht Niemann
       1735 -        1743  August Simon Lindholz
       1744 -        1765  Gotthard Arnold Isselhorst
       1765 -        1782  Georg Wilhelm Detharding
       1782 -        1793  Joachim Tank
       1794 -        1799  Gabriel Christian Lemcke
       1800 -        1806  Christian von Brömsen
       1806 - 31 Dec 1810  Matthäus Rodde III
       1817                Nikolaus Jakob Keusch
       1818 -        1825  Stephan Heinrich Behnke
       1826                Friedrich Nölting
       1827 -        1832  Peter Heinrich Tesdorpf II
       1832 - 31 Dec 1848  Thomas Günter Wunderlich
- Line 4 -
       1694 -        1707  Anton Winkler
       1707 -        1724  Daniel Müller I
       1724 -        1750  Heinrich Balemann
       1750 -        1761  Johann Friedrich Carstens
       1761 -        1768  Heinrich Dietrich Balemann
       1768 -        1773  Heinrich Brokes II
       1773 -        1776  Bernhard von Wickede
       1777 -        1780  Joachim Matthias Lütkens
       1781 -        1785  Johann Arnold Isselhorst
       1786 -        1805  Hermann Dietrich Krohn
       1805 - 31 Dec 1810  Johann Matthäus Tesdorpf
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1749 - d. 1824)
       1813 - 25 Jan 1824  Johann Matthäus Tesdorpf
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1825 - 31 Dec 1848  Christian Nikolaus von Evers
Presiding mayors
 1 Jan 1849 - 31 Dec 1850  Heinrich Brehmer (1st time)        (b. 1800 - d. 1872)
 1 Jan 1851 - 31 Dec 1852  Johann Joachim Friedrich Torkuhl
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1853 - 31 Dec 1854  Bernhard Heinrich Frister
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1855 - 31 Dec 1856  Karl Ludwig Röck (1st time)        (b. 1790 - d. 1869)
 1 Jan 1857 - 31 Dec 1858  Johann Joachim Friedrich Torkuhl
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1859 - 31 Dec 1860  Karl Ludwig Röck (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1861 - 31 Dec 1862  Heinrich Brehmer (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1863 - 31 Dec 1864  Karl Ludwig Röck (3rd time)        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1865 - 31 Dec 1866  Heinrich Brehmer (3rd time)        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1867 - 31 Dec 1868  Karl Ludwig Röck (4th time)        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1869 - 31 Dec 1870  Theodor Curtius (1st time)         (b. 1811 - d. 1889)
 1 Jan 1871 - 31 Dec 1872  Heinrich Theodor Behn (1st time)   (b. 1819 - d. 1906)
 1 Jan 1873 - 31 Dec 1874  Theodor Curtius (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1875 - 31 Dec 1876  Heinrich Theodor Behn (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1877 - 31 Dec 1878  Theodor Curtius (3rd time)         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1879 - 31 Dec 1880  Heinrich Theodor Behn (3rd time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1881 - 31 Dec 1882  Artur Gustav Kulenkamp (1st time)  (b. 1827 - d. 1895)
 1 Jan 1883 - 31 Dec 1884  Heinrich Theodor Behn (4th time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1885 - 31 Dec 1886  Artur Gustav Kulenkamp (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1887 - 31 Dec 1888  Heinrich Theodor Behn (5th time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1889 - 31 Dec 1890  Artur Gustav Kulenkamp (3rd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1891 - 31 Dec 1892  Heinrich Theodor Behn (6th time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1893 - 31 Dec 1894  Artur Gustav Kulenkamp (4th time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1895 - 31 Dec 1896  Heinrich Theodor Behn (7th time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1897 - 31 Dec 1898  Wilhelm Brehmer (1st time)         (b. 1828 - d. 1905)
 1 Jan 1899 - 31 Dec 1900  Heinrich Klug (1st time)           (b. 1837 - d. 1912)
 1 Jan 1901 - 31 Dec 1902  Wilhelm Brehmer (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1903 - 31 Dec 1904  Heinrich Klug (2nd time)           (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1905 - 31 Dec 1906  Johann Georg Eschenburg (1st time) (b. 1844 - d. 1936)
 1 Jan 1907 - 13 Oct 1908  Ernst Christian Johannes Schön     (b. 1843 - d. 1908)
 1 Jan 1909 - 31 Dec 1916  Johann Georg Eschenburg (2nd time) (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1917 -        1920  Emil Ferdinand Fehling             (b. 1847 - d. 1927)
       1920 -        1926  Johann Martin Andreas Neumann      (b. 1865 - d. 1928)
       1926 -    May 1933  Paul B. Heinrich Löwigt            (b. 1873 - d. 1934)
   May 1933 - 31 Mar 1937  Otto Heinrich Drechsler            (b. 1895 - d. 1945)
26 May 1933 - 31 Mar 1937  Friedrich Hildebrandt
                           (Reichsstatthalter)

Nassau

       1159                County of Nassau established
16 Dec 1255                dynasty divided into Ottonische Linie (leading to
                           Oranje-Nassau) and Walramische Linie (with which this
                           record is exclusively concerned)
25 Nov 1355                division into Nassau-(Wiesbaden-)Idstein and
                           Nassau-Weilburg

Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein

25 Nov 1355                County of Nassau (Grafschaft Nassau); style: Graf von
                           Nassau, Herr zu Idstein und Wiesbaden
19 Jun 1605 -  2 Jun 1677  personal union with Nassau-Weilburg
 4 Aug 1688                Principality of Nassau (Fürstentum Nassau; commonly
                           Fürstentum Nassau-Idstein)
26 Oct 1721                incorporated into Nassau-Ottweiler

Prince (title Fürst zu Nassau)
 4 Aug 1688 - 26 Oct 1721  Georg August Samuel                (b. 1665 - d. 1721)

Nassau-Weilburg

25 Nov 1355                County of Nassau (Grafschaft Nassau); style: Graf von
                           Nassau, Herr zu Weilburg
26 Sep 1366                Princely County of Nassau (Gefürstete Grafschaft Nassau);
                           style: Gefürsteter Graf von Nassau, Graf von Saarbrücken
                           (from 11 Mar 1381), Herr zu Weilburg
27 Feb 1442                Nassau-Saarbrücken is split off
       1561 - 22 Mar 1602  split into Nassau-Weilburg and Nassau-Weilnau
 5 Sep 1737                Principality of Nassau (Fürstentum Nassau; commonly
                           Fürstentum Nassau-Weilburg); title awarded 4 Aug 1688,
                           but only adopted 5 Sep 1737 upon confirmation of award
30 Aug 1806                combined with Nassau-Usingen into Duchy of Nassau

Counts
18 Sep 1675 - 17 Feb 1719  Johann Ernst                       (b. 1664 - d. 1719)
17 Feb 1719 -  5 Sep 1737  Karl August                        (b. 1685 - d. 1753)
Princes
 5 Sep 1737 -  9 Nov 1753  Karl August                        (s.a.)
 9 Nov 1753 - 28 Nov 1788  Karl Christian                     (b. 1735 - d. 1788)
28 Nov 1788 - 30 Aug 1806  Friedrich Wilhelm                  (b. 1768 - d. 1816)

Nassau-Saarbrücken

27 Feb 1442                County of Nassau (Grafschaft Nassau); style:
                           Gefürsteter Graf von Nassau, Graf von Saarbrücken
23 Nov 1574 -  5 Feb 1629  personal union with Nassau-Weilburg
       1648                Nassau-Saarbrücken re-founded
10 Apr 1659                divided into Nassau-Saarbrücken, Nassau-Ottweiler, and
                           Nassau-Usingen
 6 Dec 1723                Nassau-Saarbrücken and Nassau-Ottweiler re-combined
   Oct 1792                incorporated into France
   Oct 1792 -        1797  the line continues in rebellion

Counts
19 Oct 1677 - 14 Feb 1713  Ludwig Crato                       (b. 1663 - d. 1713)
                           (Nassau-Saarbrücken only)
14 Feb 1713 -  6 Dec 1723  Karl Ludwig                        (b. 1665 - d. 1723)
                           (Nassau-Saarbrücken only)
       1680 - 25 May 1728  Friedrich Ludwig                   (b. 1651 - d. 1728)
                           (to 6 Dec 1723 Nassau-Ottweiler only)
25 May 1728 -  6 Dec 1735  Karl                               (b. 1712 - d. 1775)
 6 Dec 1735 - 24 Jul 1768  Wilhelm Heinrich                   (b. 1718 - d. 1768)
24 Jul 1768 -  2 Mar 1794  Ludwig                             (b. 1745 - d. 1794)
                           (from Oct 1792 in rebellion against France)
 2 Mar 1794 -        1797  Heinrich Ludwig Karl Albrecht
                           (in rebellion against France)

Nassau-Usingen

10 Apr 1659                County of Nassau (Grafschaft Nassau; commonly Grafschaft
                           Nassau-Usingen); style: Gefürsteter Graf von Nassau
 4 Aug 1688                Principality of Nassau (Fürstentum Nassau; commonly
                           Fürstentum Nassau-Usingen); style: Fürst zu Nassau
31 Jul 1806                the ruler takes the style Herzog zu Nassau, as mandated by
                           the provisions of the Rheinbundakte: "the head of the
                           house of Nassau shall take the style of Duke"
30 Aug 1806                combined with Nassau-Weilburg into Duchy of Nassau

Princes
 4 Aug 1688 - 17 Oct 1702  Walrad                             (b. 1635 - d. 1702)
17 Oct 1702 - 14 Feb 1718  Wilhelm Heinrich                   (b. 1684 - d. 1718)
14 Feb 1718 - 21 Jun 1775  Karl                               (b. 1712 - d. 1775)
14 Feb 1718 - 11 Oct 1738    Charlotte Amalia von
                             Nassau-Dillenburg (f) (regent)   (b. 1680 - d. 1738)
21 Jun 1775 - 17 May 1803  Karl Wilhelm                       (b. 1735 - d. 1803)
17 May 1803 - 31 Jul 1806  Friedrich August                   (b. 1738 - d. 1816)
Duke
31 Jul 1806 - 30 Aug 1806  Friedrich August                   (s.a.)

Nassau

30 Aug 1806                Duchy of Nassau, ruled jointly to 24 Mar 1816 by the duke
                           of Nassau (formerly prince of Nassau-Usingen) and the
                           prince of Nassau (formerly prince of Nassau-Weilburg)
20 Sep 1866                annexation by Prussia

Dukes
30 Aug 1806 - 24 Mar 1816  Friedrich August                   (s.a.)
30 Aug 1806 -  9 Jan 1816  Friedrich Wilhelm (prince)         (b. 1768 - d. 1816)
 9 Jan 1816 - 20 Aug 1839  Wilhelm                            (b. 1792 - d. 1839)
                           (prince to 24 Mar 1816)
20 Aug 1839 - 20 Sep 1866  Adolf                              (b. 1817 - d. 1905)

Directing ministers of state 1815 - 22 Jan 1834 Ernst Franz Ludwig Freiherr Marschall von Biberstein (b. 1770 - d. 1834) 1834 - 1842 Carl Wilderich Graf von Walderdorff (b. 1799 - d. 1862) 1842 - 1843 Friedrich Georg Karl Anton Freiherr von Bock-Hermsdorff 1843 - 1848 Ernst August Freiherr von Dungern 1848 - 2 Jan 1849 August Hergenhahn (1st time) (b. 1804 - d. 1874) 11 Jun 1849 - 7 Feb 1852 Friedrich Gerhard Freiherr von Winzingerode 7 Feb 1852 - 31 Jul 1866 August Ludwig Prinz zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg (b. 1788 - d. 1874) 1 Aug 1866 - 22 Dec 1866 August Hergenhahn (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting)

Schleswig and Holstein

       1106                County of Holstein (Grafschaft Holstein) founded
       1115                Duchy of Schleswig (Hertogdømmet Slesvig) established
                           for (initially) a junior line of the Danish royal family
                           (Skjoldunger dynasty)
14 Feb 1474                Holstein becomes a duchy (Herzogtum Holstein); from here on
                           Schleswig and Holstein are in personal union
       1490                the combined polities are split into Segebergscher Anteil
                           and Gottorpscher Anteil (Segeberg Portion and Gottorp
                           Portion), but they are governed as a whole by the rulers of
                           the two lines ruling in alternation
13 Apr 1523                portions reunited
       1544                the combined polities are split as before, the lines being
                           styled Schleswig-Holstein-Segeberg and Schleswig-Holstein-
                           Gottorp, the government being shared as before from 1581
 4 Sep 1721                the part of Schleswig ruled by the Gottorp line is annexed
                           by the Segeberg line (i.e., the kings of Denmark)
 1 Jul 1773                the part of Holstein ruled by the Gottorp line is ceded to
                           the Segeberg line in exchange for Oldenburg, thus reuniting
                           Schleswig and Holstein under the kings of Denmark, while
                           remaining respectively an appendage of Denmark and a member
                           of the Holy Roman Empire and later of the German
                           Confederation
28 Jan 1848 - 15 Nov 1863  numerous effected or attempted changes in the status of
                           each of the two polities with respect to Denmark and with
                           respect to each other
15 Nov 1863                with the death of Frederik VII the direct Oldenburg
                           dynastic line ends; Denmark and Schleswig are inherited by
                           the Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (formerly non-
                           sovereign) line, while Holstein falls into dispute between
                           this line and the Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-
                           Augustenburg (formerly non-sovereign) line
30 Oct 1864                King Christian IX (Glücksburg) cedes his rights to both
                           polities to Prussia and Austria jointly (Convention of
                           Vienna); Austria subsequently supports the claims of
                           Friedrich VIII (Augustenburg) and summons the estates of
                           Holstein to this end in Jun 1866
 7 Jun 1866                Prussian forces invade, and generalized war among the
                           German polities ensues
23 Aug 1866                both polities are recognized as being under Prussian rule
                           (Convention of Prague)
24 Jan 1867                both polities are incorporated into Prussia

Schleswig-Holstein-Segeberg

Dukes
       1544 -  1 Jul 1773  the kings of Denmark

Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp

Dukes
 6 Jan 1695 - 19 Jul 1702  Friedrich IV                       (b. 1671 - d. 1702)
19 Jul 1702 - 18 Jun 1739  Karl Friedrich                     (b. 1700 - d. 1739)
18 Jun 1739 - 17 Jul 1762  Karl Peter Ulrich                  (b. 1728 - d. 1762)
17 Jul 1762 -  1 Jul 1773  Paul                               (b. 1754 - d. 1801)

Schleswig and Holstein

Dukes
 1 Jul 1773 - 30 Oct 1864  the kings of Denmark

Holstein in rebellion

Duke
- Sonderburg-Augustenburg line -
24 Dec 1863 - 23 Aug 1866  Friedrich VIII                     (b. 1829 - d. 1880)

Waldeck

       1180                County of Waldeck established, with many divisions
                           beginning 16 Feb 1397
       1625                the Waldeck-Eisenberg branch acquires the County of Pyrmont
       1682                the ruler of the Waldeck-Eisenberg branch assumes the style
                           Fürst zu Waldeck, Graf von Pyrmont
29 Nov 1692                all branches reunited; style: Graf von Waldeck und Pyrmont
 6 Jan 1712                Waldeck raised to rank of principality
       1805                Waldeck and Pyrmont separated, both ranked as principalities
24 Sep 1812                reunited as Principality of Waldeck-Pyrmont
   Nov 1918                republic
 1 Apr 1929                part of Prussia

Counts (title Graf von Waldeck und Pyrmont)
- Waldeck dynasty -
29 Nov 1692 - 12 Dec 1706  Christian Ludwig                   (b. 1635 - d. 1706)
12 Dec 1706 -  6 Jan 1712  Friedrich Anton Ulrich             (b. 1676 - d. 1728)
Princes (title Fürst zu Waldeck, Graf von Pyrmont)
- Waldeck dynasty -
 6 Jan 1712 -  1 Jan 1728  Friedrich Anton Ulrich             (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1728 - 17 May 1728  Christian Philipp                  (b. 1701 - d. 1728)
17 May 1728 - 29 Aug 1763  Karl August Friedrich              (b. 1704 - d. 1763)
29 Aug 1763 - 24 Sep 1812  Friedrich                          (b. 1743 - d. 1812)
                           (from 1805 only Fürst zu Waldeck)
29 Aug 1763 - 25 Oct 1766    Christiane Henriette Pfalzgräfin
                             von Birkenfeld (f) (regent)      (b. 1725 - d. 1816)
Princes (title Fürst zu Waldeck und Pyrmont)
- Waldeck dynasty -
       1805 -  9 Sep 1813  Georg                              (b. 1747 - d. 1813)
                           (to 24 Sep 1812 Prinz zu Waldeck, Fürst zu Pyrmont)
 9 Sep 1813 - 15 May 1845  Georg Friedrich Heinrich           (b. 1789 - d. 1845)
15 May 1845 - 12 May 1893  Georg Viktor                       (b. 1831 - d. 1893)
15 May 1845 - 14 Jan 1852    Emma von Anhalt-Bernburg-
                             Schaumburg-Hoym (f) (regent)     (b. 1802 - d. 1858)
12 May 1893 - 13 Nov 1918  Friedrich                          (b. 1865 - d. 1946)

State directors 1 Jan 1868 - 1872 Julius Adalbert von Flottwell (b. 1829 - d. 1909) 1872 - 1881 Karl Albert Friedrich Hugo von Sommerfeld 1881 - 1884 Jesko Franz Edwald von Puttkamer 1885 - 1886 Ernst von Saldern (b. 18... - d. 1886) Oct 1886 - 1907 Ernst Friedrich Johannes von Saldern (b. 1839 - d. 1907) 1907 - 1908 Leo Marquard Freiherr von Lützow (b. 18... - d. 1908) 1908 - 1914 Ernst Reinhold Gerhard von Glasenapp (b. 1861 - d. 1928) 1914 - 1 Sep 1920 Karl Hermann Friedrich Wilhelm von Redern 1 Sep 1920 - 7 Feb 1929 Wilhelm Schmieding (b. ... - d. 1929) 25 Feb 1929 - 31 Mar 1929 Herbert Herberg

Saxony

25 Dec 1356                the Golden Bull confirms that the duke of Saxony is an
                           elector, and makes his land indivisible; style of ruler:
                           Herzog von Sachsen, Erzmarschall und Kurfürst des Heiligen
                           Römischen Reichs (duke of Saxony, archmarshal and
                           prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire)
27 Nov 1422                Saxony is forfeited to the king
 6 Jan 1423                Saxony is enfeoffed to the Wettin dynasty, rulers of Meissen
 7 Sep 1464                Dukes Ernst and Albrecht IV "der Beherzte" rule jointly,
                           Ernst being elector
11 Nov 1485                a separate Herzogtum Sachsen is created for Albrecht, Ernst
                           retaining the (indivisible) electorate; thus the dynasty
                           splits into the Ernestine line and the Albertine line
19 May 1547                the Ernestine line is deprived of the electorate; it goes
                           on to establish the Saxon duchies in Thuringia
 4 Jun 1547                the electorate is conferred on the Albertine line
11 Dec 1806                Kingdom of Saxony (Königreich Sachsen) created

Dukes and Electors
- Wettin dynasty, Albertine line -
 7 May 1694 -  1 Feb 1733  Friedrich August I "der Starke"    (b. 1670 - d. 1733)
 1 Feb 1733 -  5 Oct 1763  Friedrich August II                (b. 1696 - d. 1763)
 5 Oct 1763 - 17 Dec 1763  Friedrich Christian                (b. 1722 - d. 1763)
17 Dec 1763 - 11 Dec 1806  Friedrich August III
                           "der Gerechte"                     (b. 1750 - d. 1827)
Kings
- Wettin dynasty, Albertine line -
11 Dec 1806 -  5 May 1827  Friedrich August I "der Gerechte"  (s.a.)
 5 May 1827 -  6 Jun 1836  Anton I                            (b. 1755 - d. 1836)
 6 Jun 1836 -  9 Aug 1854  Friedrich August II                (b. 1797 - d. 1854)
 9 Aug 1854 - 29 Oct 1873  Johann I                           (b. 1801 - d. 1873)
29 Oct 1873 - 19 Jun 1902  Albert I                           (b. 1828 - d. 1902)
19 Jun 1902 - 15 Oct 1904  Georg I                            (b. 1832 - d. 1904)
15 Oct 1904 - 13 Nov 1918  Friedrich August III               (b. 1865 - d. 1932)

Minister-presidents 16 Mar 1848 - 24 Feb 1849 Alexander Karl Hermann Braun (b. 1807 - d. 1868) 24 Feb 1849 - 2 May 1849 Gustav Friedrich Held (b. 1804 - d. 1857) 2 May 1849 - 28 Oct 1858 Ferdinand Zschinsky (from 1856, Ferdinand von Zschinsky) (b. 1797 - d. 1858) 28 Oct 1858 - Oct 1866 Ferdinand Freiherr von Beust (b. 1809 - d. 1886) Oct 1866 - 1 Oct 1871 Johann Paul Freiherr von Falkenstein (b. 1801 - d. 1882) 1 Oct 1871 - 1 Nov 1876 Richard Reichsfreiherr von Friesen (b. 1808 - d. 1884) 1 Nov 1876 - 25 Mar 1891 Alfred von Fabrice (from 1884, Alfred Graf von Fabrice) (b. 1818 - d. 1891) 25 Mar 1891 - 23 Dec 1891 Karl Friedrich Wilhelm von Gerber (b. 1823 - d. 1891) Dec 1891 - 12 Feb 1895 Julius Hans von Thümmel (b. 1824 - d. 1895) 1895 - 15 Jun 1901 Heinrich Rudolf Schurig (b. 1835 - d. 1901) Jun 1901 - 30 Apr 1906 Karl Georg Levin von Metzsch-Reichenbach (b. 1836 - d. 1927) 30 Apr 1906 - 1 Dec 1910 Conrad Wilhelm von Rüger (b. 1837 - d. 1916) 1 Dec 1910 - 26 Jul 1912 Viktor Alexander von Otto (b. 1852 - d. 1912) 26 Jul 1912 - 21 May 1914 Max Clemens Lothar Freiherr von Hausen (b. 1846 - d. 1922) 21 May 1914 - 26 Oct 1918 Heinrich Gustav Beck (b. 1857 - d. 1933) 26 Oct 1918 - 13 Nov 1918 Karl Rudolf Heinze (1st time) (b. 1865 - d. 1928) 15 Nov 1918 - 21 Jan 1919 Robert Richard Lipinski (b. 1867 - d. 1936) (chairman Council of People's Commissioners) 21 Jan 1919 - 4 May 1920 Georg Gradnauer (b. 1866 - d. 1946) (chairman Council of People's Commissioners to 14 Mar 1919) 4 May 1920 - 21 Mar 1923 Johann Wilhelm Buck (b. 1869 - d. 1945) 21 Mar 1923 - 29 Oct 1923 Erich Zeigner (b. 1886 - d. 1949) 29 Oct 1923 - 31 Oct 1923 Karl Rudolf Heinze (2nd time) (s.a.) (Reichskommissar) 31 Oct 1923 - 4 Jan 1924 Alfred Karl Fellisch (b. 1884 - d. 1973) 4 Jan 1924 - 25 Jun 1929 Max Wilhelm August Heldt (b. 1872 - d. 1933) 25 Jun 1929 - 6 May 1930 Wilhelm Robert Ferdinand Bünger (b. 1870 - d. 1937) 6 May 1930 - 10 Mar 1933 Karl Alfred Walther Schieck (b. 1874 - d. 1946) 10 Mar 1933 - 28 Feb 1935 Manfred Freiherr von Killinger (b. 1886 - d. 1944) (Reichskommissar to 5 May 1933) 28 Feb 1935 - 7 May 1945 Martin Mutschmann (b. 1879 - d. 1947) (also Reichsstatthalter from 5 May 1933)

Schaumburg-Lippe

19 Jul 1647                County of Schaumburg-Lippe (Grafschaft Schaumburg-Lippe)
                           permanently separated from Lippe
18 Apr 1807                raised to the rank of principality (Fürstentum Schaumburg-Lippe)

Counts (title Graf zu Schaumburg, Graf und Edler Herr zur Lippe, etc.)
- Haholt dynasty -
19 Jul 1647 - 20 Apr 1681  Philipp I                          (b. 1601 - d. 1681)
20 Apr 1681 - 13 Jun 1728  Friedrich Christian                (b. 1655 - d. 1728)
13 Jun 1728 - 24 Sep 1748  Albrecht Wolfgang                  (b. 1699 - d. 1748)
24 Sep 1748 - 10 Sep 1777  Wilhelm                            (b. 1724 - d. 1777)
10 Sep 1777 - 13 Feb 1787  Philipp II                         (b. 1723 - d. 1787)
13 Feb 1787 - 18 Apr 1807  Georg Wilhelm                      (b. 1784 - d. 1860)
       1787 -  9 Nov 1799    Juliane Wilhelmine Louise
                             Landgräfin von Hessen-
                             Philippsthal (f) (co-regent)     (b. 1761 - d. 1799)
       1787 -        1807    Johann Ludwig Reichsgraf von
                             Wallmoden-Gimborn                (b. 1736 - d. 1811)
                             (co-regent; from 9 Nov 1799 regent)
Princes
- Haholt dynasty -
18 Apr 1807 - 21 Nov 1860  Georg I Wilhelm                    (s.a.)
21 Nov 1860 -  8 May 1893  Adolf I Georg                      (b. 1817 - d. 1893)
 8 May 1893 - 29 Apr 1911  Georg II                           (b. 1846 - d. 1911)
29 Apr 1911 - 16 Nov 1918  Adolf II                           (b. 1883 - d. 1936)

Ministers of state 1893 - 1895 Heinrich Spring 1895 - 1897 Martin Georg Anton von Wegnern 1898 - 4 Dec 1918 Friedrich Rudolf Ernst Freiherr von Feilitzsch Chairman of the State Council 4 Dec 1918 - 14 Mar 1919 Heinrich Lorenz State councillors 14 Mar 1919 - 22 May 1922 Otto Bömers 22 May 1922 - 28 May 1925 Konrad Wippermann 28 May 1925 - 7 Oct 1927 Erich Steinbrecher 7 Oct 1927 - 7 Mar 1933 Heinrich Lorenz 1 Apr 1933 - 23 May 1933 Hans Joachim Riecke State president 23 May 1933 - 1945 Karl Dreier 16 May 1933 - 4 Apr 1945 Alfred Meyer (Reichsstatthalter) (b. 1891 - d. 1945)

Sudetenland

 1 Oct 1938                Germany annexes Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia
 1 May 1939                Reichsgau Sudetenland created
   May 1945                reincorporated into Czechoslovakia

Reichskommissar; from 1 May 1939, Reichsstatthalter
 1 Oct 1938 -    May 1945  Konrad Henlein                     (b. 1898 - d. 1945)

Thuringia

Reuss

       1099                the ruling house is founded by Heinrich "der Fromme,"
                           appointed Vogt ("advocate") to administer royal domain of
                           Gera
     c.1303                Heinrich, founder of the junior Plauen line, whose mother
                           was a Russian princess, adopts the byname "der Reusse"
                           (i.e., the Russian), Reuss gradually becoming the dynastic
                           name
       1564                split into three lines, one of which is extinct 1616
 5 Sep 1673                all ruling members of the dynasty become Reichsgrafen
                           (counts, immediate vassals of the king); although the
                           dynasty is already split into the "senior line" (Ältere
                           Linie) and the "junior line" (Jüngere Linie), the common
                           style, with only the distinction of the initial word, is
                           Älterer/Jüngerer Linie Graf Reuss, Graf und Herr von Plauen,
                           Herr von Greiz, Kranichfeld, Gera, Schleiz und Lobenstein
17 Apr 1919                two lines united as People's State of Reuss (Volksstaat
                           Reuss)
 1 May 1920                part of Thuringia

Reuss Junior Line

 5 Sep 1673                the dynastic line is divided into Reuss-Schleiz, Reuss-
                           Gera, and Reuss-Lobenstein
       1678                Reuss-Lobenstein split into Reuss-Lobenstein, Reuss-
                           Hirschberg (extinct 29 Oct 1711), and Reuss-Ebersdorf
       1790                Reuss-Lobenstein becomes principality (Fürstentum Reuss-
                           Lobenstein); style: Jüngerer Linie Fürst Reuss zu
                           Lobenstein, Graf und Herr von Plauen, etc. (s.a.)
26 Apr 1802                Reuss-Schleiz and Reuss-Gera are unified into Reuss-Schleiz
                           und Gera
       1806                Reuss-Ebersdorf becomes principality (Fürstentum Reuss-
                           Ebersdorf); style: Jüngerer Linie Fürst Reuss zu Ebersdorf,
                           Graf und Herr von Plauen, etc. (s.a.)
 9 Apr 1806                Reuss-Schleiz und Gera becomes principality (Fürstentum
                           Reuss-Schleiz-Gera); style: Jüngerer Linie regierender
                           Fürst Reuss zu Schleiz (und Gera), Graf und Herr von
                           Plauen, etc. (s.a.)
 1 Oct 1848                Reuss-Schleiz-Gera, Reuss-Ebersdorf, and Reuss-Lobenstein
                           combine into Fürstentum Reuss Jüngere Linie; style: Jüngerer
                           Linie regierender Fürst Reuss, Graf und Herr von Plauen,
                           Herr von Greiz, Kranichfeld, Gera, Schleiz und Lobenstein
   Nov 1918                Free State of Reuss Junior Line (Freistaat Reuss Jüngere
                           Linie)

Reuss-Schleiz

Counts
28 Mar 1692 - 28 Jul 1726  Heinrich XI                        (b. 1669 - d. 1726)
28 Jul 1726 -  6 Dec 1744  Heinrich I                         (b. 1695 - d. 1744)
 6 Dec 1744 - 25 Jun 1784  Heinrich XII                       (b. 1716 - d. 1784)
25 Jun 1784 - 26 Apr 1802  Heinrich XLII                      (b. 1752 - d. 1818)

Reuss-Gera

Counts
23 Mar 1686 - 25 Nov 1735  Heinrich XVIII                     (b. 1677 - d. 1735)
25 Nov 1735 - 13 Mar 1748  Heinrich XXV                       (b. 1681 - d. 1748)
13 Mar 1748 - 26 Apr 1802  Heinrich XXX                       (b. 1727 - d. 1802)

Reuss-Hirschberg

Count
       1678 - 29 Oct 1711  Heinrich VIII                      (b. 1652 - d. 1711)

Reuss-Lobenstein

Counts
       1678 - 24 May 1710  Heinrich III                       (b. 1648 - d. 1710)
24 May 1710 - 12 May 1739  Heinrich XV                        (b. 1674 - d. 1739)
12 May 1739 -  6 May 1782  Heinrich II                        (b. 1702 - d. 1782)
 6 May 1782 -        1790  Heinrich XXXV                      (b. 1738 - d. 1805)
Princes
       1790 - 30 Mar 1805  Heinrich XXXV                      (s.a.)
30 Mar 1805 -  7 May 1824  Heinrich LIV                       (b. 1767 - d. 1824)
 7 May 1824 -  1 Oct 1848  Heinrich LXXII                     (b. 1797 - d. 1853)
                           (personal union with Reuss-Ebersdorf)

Reuss-Ebersdorf

Counts
       1678 - 20 Jun 1711  Heinrich X                         (b. 1662 - d. 1711)
20 Jun 1711 - 22 May 1747  Heinrich XXIX                      (b. 1699 - d. 1747)
22 May 1747 - 13 May 1779  Heinrich XXIV                      (b. 1724 - d. 1779)
13 May 1779 -        1806  Heinrich LI                        (b. 1761 - d. 1822)
Princes
       1806 - 10 Jul 1822  Heinrich LI                        (s.a.)
10 Jul 1822 -  1 Oct 1848  Heinrich LXXII                     (s.a.)
                           (from 7 May 1824 personal union with Reuss-Lobenstein)

Reuss-Schleiz-Gera and Reuss Junior Line

Count
26 Apr 1802 -  9 Apr 1806  Heinrich XLII                      (s.a.)
Princes
 9 Apr 1806 - 17 Apr 1818  Heinrich XLII                      (s.a.)
17 Apr 1818 - 19 Jun 1854  Heinrich LXII                      (b. 1785 - d. 1854)
19 Jun 1854 - 11 Jul 1867  Heinrich LXVII                     (b. 1789 - d. 1867)
11 Jul 1867 - 29 Mar 1913  Heinrich XIV                       (b. 1832 - d. 1913)
29 Mar 1913 - 11 Nov 1918  Heinrich XXVII                     (b. 1858 - d. 1928)

Ministers of state (until 1848 common government for Reuss-Lobenstein, Reuss-Ebersdorf, and Reuss-Schleiz-Gera) 1825 - 1839 Gustav Adolph von Strauch (b. 1790 - d. 1839) 1840 - 1855 Hermann Robert Bretschneider (from 1842, Hermann Robert von Bretschneider) (b. 1796 - d. 18...) 1856 - 1862 Eduard von Geldern (b. 1806 - d. 1866) 1862 - 1877 Andreas Paul Adolph von Harbou (b. 1809 - d. 1877) 1877 - 1892 Emil von Beulwitz (b. 1821 - d. 1893) 1892 - 1896 Christian August Anton Vollert (b. 1826 - d. 1897) 1896 - 1902 Walter Engelhardt 1902 - 7 Nov 1918 Karl Franz Ernst von Hinüber (b. 1854 - d. 1929) 7 Nov 1918 - 10 Nov 1918 Paul Ruckdeschel (b. 1864 - d. 1942) Leading minister of state Nov 1918 - Apr 1919 Karl von Brandenstein (b. 1875 - d. 1946)

Reuss Senior Line

 5 Sep 1673                the dynastic line is divided into Reuss-Untergreiz, Reuss-
                           Burgk (merged into Reuss-Untergreiz 13 Oct 1697), Reuss-
                           Rothental (merged into Reuss-Untergreiz 22 Feb 1698),
                           and Reuss-Obergreiz (split into Reuss-Obergreiz and
                           Reuss-Dölau 1694, reunited 17 Nov 1722)
17 Mar 1768                Reuss-Untergreiz and Reuss-Obergreiz combine to re-form
                           Reuss-Greiz, encompassing the whole senior-line polity
12 May 1778                polity elevated to rank of principality (Fürstentum Reuss
                           Ältere Linie); style: Älterer Linie souveräner Fürst Reuss,
                           Graf und Herr von Plauen, Herr von Greiz, Kranichfeld,
                           Gera, Schleiz und Lobenstein
   Nov 1918                Free State of Reuss Senior Line (Freistaat Reuss Ältere
                           Linie)

Reuss-Untergreiz

Counts
 3 Mar 1675 - 14 Apr 1733  Heinrich XIII                      (b. 1672 - d. 1733)
                           jointly with
 3 Mar 1675 -        1682  Heinrich XIV
14 Apr 1733 - 17 Mar 1768  Heinrich III                       (b. 1701 - d. 1768)

Reuss-Obergreiz

Counts
18 Mar 1681 - 21 Oct 1697  Heinrich VI                        (b. 1649 - d. 1697)
                           (jointly with the following two)
18 Mar 1681 -  9 Oct 1690  Heinrich XV
18 Mar 1681 -  6 Mar 1698  Heinrich XVI
                           (from 1694 Reuss-Dölau)
21 Oct 1697 -  7 Sep 1714  Heinrich I                         (b. 1693 - d. 1714)
                           jointly with
21 Oct 1697 - 17 Nov 1722  Heinrich II                        (b. 1696 - d. 1722)
                           (from 6 Mar 1698 in personal union with Reuss-Dölau)
17 Nov 1722 - 17 Mar 1723  Heinrich IX
17 Mar 1723 - 17 Mar 1768  Heinrich XI                        (b. 1722 - d. 1800)

Reuss-Greiz, later Reuss Senior Line

Count
17 Mar 1768 - 12 May 1778  Heinrich XI                        (s.a.)
Princes
12 May 1778 - 28 Jun 1800  Heinrich XI                        (s.a.)
28 Jun 1800 - 29 Jan 1817  Heinrich XIII                      (b. 1747 - d. 1817)
29 Jan 1817 - 31 Oct 1836  Heinrich XIX                       (b. 1790 - d. 1836)
31 Oct 1836 -  8 Nov 1859  Heinrich XX                        (b. 1794 - d. 1859)
 8 Nov 1859 - 19 Apr 1902  Heinrich XXII                      (b. 1846 - d. 1902)
 8 Nov 1859 - 28 Mar 1867    Princess Karoline (f) (regent)   (b. 1819 - d. 1872)
19 Apr 1902 - 11 Nov 1918  Heinrich XXIV                      (b. 1878 - d. 1927)
15 Oct 1908 - 11 Nov 1918    Heinrich XXVII (regent)          (b. 1858 - d. 1928)

Leading minister of state Nov 1918 - Apr 1919 William Oberländer (b. 1869 - d. 19...)

People's State of Reuss

Ministers of state
   Apr 1919 -  1 May 1920  Karl von Brandenstein              (s.a.)
                           + William Oberländer               (s.a.)

Saxon duchies

 1 Jan 1249                the defunct office of Landgraf von Thüringen is revived by
                           the king and conferred upon Heinrich "der Erlauchte" of the
                           Wettin dynasty
19 May 1547                the ruler of the Albertine line of dukes of Saxony abandons
                           the style of landgrave and continues as duke of Saxony
21 Feb 1566                division into Saxe-Gotha and Saxe-Weimar
Note: All monarchs in this section belong to the Ernestine line of the Wettin dynasty. Every polity in this account is a Duchy of Saxe-X (Herzogtum Sachsen-X) and its ruler is styled Herzog von Sachsen, Herzog zu Sachsen-X. The only exception is the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, later styled Grand Duchy of Saxony (Grossherzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach, Grossherzogtum Sachsen), after 1815.

Saxe-Altenburg

23 Nov 1602                Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg
26 May 1672 - 11 Feb 1825  personal union with Saxe-Gotha
12 Nov 1826                Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg restored in exchange for
                           Saxe-Hildburghausen

Dukes
26 May 1672 - 11 Feb 1825  the dukes of Saxe-Gotha
12 Nov 1826 - 29 Sep 1834  Friedrich                          (b. 1763 - d. 1834)
29 Sep 1834 - 30 Nov 1848  Joseph                             (b. 1789 - d. 1868)
30 Nov 1848 -  3 Aug 1853  Georg                              (b. 1796 - d. 1853)
 3 Aug 1853 -  7 Feb 1908  Ernst I                            (b. 1826 - d. 1908)
 7 Feb 1908 - 13 Nov 1918  Ernst II                           (b. 1871 - d. 1955)

Chancellors 1682 - 1700 Johann Caspar von Hendrich (b. 1635 - d. 1700) 1700 - 1705 Georg Dietrich Pflugk (b. 1640 - d. 1705) 1706 - 1731 Heinrich Hildebrand von Einsiedel (b. 1658 - d. 1731) 1731 - 1738 Johann Georg von Geissmar (b. 1682 - d. 1749) 1738 - 1742 Siegmund Ehrenfried von Oppel (b. 1687 - d. 1757) 1743 - 11 Nov 1750 Ernst Friedrich Freiherr von Seckendorff (b. 1696 - d. 1756) 11 Nov 1750 - 1766 Albrecht Anton von Rüxleben (b. 1705 - d. 1770) 1766 - 1782 Johann Freiherr von Rothkirch und Trach (b. 1710 - d. 1782) 1783 - 1789 Friedrich Karl Adam von Schwarzenfels (acting to 1786) (b. 1738 - d. 1789) 1789 - 30 Nov 1826 Friedrich Carl Adolf von Trützschler (b. 1751 - d. 1831) Ministers of state 1 Dec 1826 - Sep 1830 Friedrich Carl Adolf von Trützschler (s.a.) Sep 1830 - 25 May 1848 Johann Heinrich Ernst Edler von Braun (b. 1788 - d. 1863) 25 May 1848 - 9 Nov 1848 Gustav Adolf Edler von der Planitz (b. 1802 - d. 1869) 9 Nov 1848 - 1 Dec 1848 Karl Louis Graf von Beust (1st time) (b. 1811 - d. 1888) 1 Dec 1848 - 22 Aug 1849 Hans Conon von der Gabelentz (b. 1807 - d. 1874) 22 Aug 1849 - 2 Feb 1853 Karl Louis Graf von Beust (2nd time) (s.a.) 2 Feb 1853 - Jun 1867 Karl August Alfred von Larisch (b. 1819 - d. 1897) Jun 1867 - 1879 Friedrich L. von Gerstenberk, Edler von Zech (b. 1826 - d. 1899) 1880 - 22 Aug 1891 Hugo von Leipziger (b. 1823 - d. 1896) 22 Aug 1891 - Aug 1904 Georg Heinrich von Helldorf (b. 1834 - d. 1907) 1904 - 1 Dec 1912 Friedrich Arthur von Borries (b. 1853 - d. 1923) 1 Dec 1912 - Jul 1915 Robert von Scheller-Steinwartz (b. 1865 - d. 1921) Jul 1915 - 9 Nov 1918 Waldemar von Wussow (b. 1865 - d. 1938) Leading ministers of state 13 Nov 1918 - 27 Mar 1919 Wilhelm Tell (b. 1871 - d. af.1929) 27 Mar 1919 - 1 May 1920 August Frölich (b. 1877 - d. 1966)

Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

12 Nov 1826                Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Saxe-Gotha enter into
                           personal union, styled Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Dukes
12 Nov 1826 - 29 Jan 1844  Ernst I                            (b. 1784 - d. 1844)
29 Jan 1844 - 22 Aug 1893  Ernst II                           (b. 1818 - d. 1893)
22 Aug 1893 - 30 Jun 1900  Alfred                             (b. 1844 - d. 1900)
30 Jun 1900 - 14 Nov 1918  Carl Eduard                        (b. 1884 - d. 1954)
       1900 - 19 Jul 1905    Ernst von Hohenlohe-Langenburg   (b. 1863 - d. 1950)
                             (regent)

Ministers of state 1826 - Jan 1840 Christoph Anton Ferdinand Freiherr von Carlowitz (b. 1785 - d. 1840) Jan 1840 - Oct 1840 Dietrich Freiherr von Stein (1st time) (b. 1793 - d. 1867) Oct 1840 - 1 Mar 1846 Georg Ferdinand Freiherr von Lepel 1 Mar 1846 - 1 Dec 1849 Dietrich Freiherr von Stein (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Dec 1849 - Mar 1888 Camillo Richard von Seebach (from 1855, Camillo Richard Freiherr von Seebach) (b. 1808 - d. 1894) Mar 1888 - 14 Nov 1891 Gisbert von Bonin-Brettin (b. 1841 - d. 1913) 14 Nov 1891 - Nov 1900 Carl Friedrich von Strenge (b. 1843 - d. 1907) Nov 1900 - 19 May 1905 Philipp Otto Hentig (b. 1852 - d. 1934) 19 May 1905 - May 1914 Ernst Friedrich Hermann von Richter (b. 1862 - d. 1935) May 1914 - 1919 Hans Barthold von Bassewitz (b. 1867 - d. 1949) 1919 - 1920 Ernst Fritsch

Saxe-Coburg(-Saalfeld)

 6 Nov 1572                (de jure 14 Dec 1596) Duchy of Saxe-Coburg
26 Jul 1633                extinct, divided between Saxe-Eisenach and Saxe-Weimar
 5 Mar 1680                Duchy of Saxe-Coburg
16 Aug 1699                extinct
       1735                the joint rulers of the non-sovereign line of Saxe-Saalfeld
                           establish the (sovereign) Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
27 Jan 1807 - 28 Jul 1807  occupied by France
12 Nov 1826                personal union with Saxe-Gotha; the union styled
                           Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
   Nov 1918                de facto separation from Gotha
 1 Jul 1920                part of Bavaria

Dukes
       1735 -  4 Sep 1745  Christian Ernst                    (b. 1683 - d. 1745)
                           jointly with
       1735 - 16 Sep 1764  Franz Josias                       (b. 1697 - d. 1764)
16 Sep 1764 -  8 Sep 1800  Ernst Friedrich                    (b. 1724 - d. 1800)
 8 Sep 1800 -  9 Dec 1806  Franz Friedrich Anton              (b. 1750 - d. 1806)
 9 Dec 1806 - 27 Jan 1807  Ernst I (1st time)                 (b. 1784 - d. 1844)
28 Jul 1807 - 12 Nov 1826  Ernst I (2nd time)                 (s.a.)

Minister of state 9 Nov 1918 - 8 Jul 1920 Hermann Quarck (b. 1873 - d. 1932)

Saxe-Eisenach

 6 Nov 1572                (de jure 14 Dec 1596) Duchy of Saxe-Eisenach
 2 Nov 1638                extinct, incorporated into Saxe-Weimar
22 Sep 1641                Duchy of Saxe-Eisenach
   Sep 1662                Saxe-Eisenach divided into Saxe-Jena and Saxe-Eisenach
       1698                Saxe-Jena and Saxe-Eisenach reunited by the ruler of
                           Saxe-Jena, reestablishing Saxe-Eisenach

Dukes
       1698 -  4 Jan 1729  Johann Wilhelm II                  (b. 1666 - d. 1729)
 4 Jan 1729 - 26 Jul 1741  Wilhelm Heinrich                   (b. 1691 - d. 1741)

Saxe-Gotha

21 Feb 1566                Duchy of Saxe-Gotha
 6 Nov 1572                (de jure 14 Dec 1596) divided into Saxe-Coburg and
                           Saxe-Eisenach
22 Sep 1641                Duchy of Saxe-Gotha
25 May 1672                in personal union with Saxe-Altenburg
 5 Mar 1680                divided into Saxe-Gotha, Saxe-Coburg, Saxe-Meiningen,
                           Saxe-Hildburghausen, plus three non-sovereign lines
                           (Saxe-Römhild, Saxe-Eisenberg, Saxe-Saalfeld)
11 Feb 1825                ruling lineage extinct
12 Nov 1826                duchy restored in personal union with Saxe-Coburg, the
                           union styled Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
   Nov 1918                de facto separation from Saxe-Coburg

Dukes
 5 Mar 1680 - 12 Aug 1691  Friedrich I                        (b. 1646 - d. 1691)
12 Aug 1691 - 23 Mar 1732  Friedrich II                       (b. 1676 - d. 1732)
23 Mar 1732 - 10 Mar 1772  Friedrich III                      (b. 1699 - d. 1772)
10 Mar 1772 - 20 Apr 1804  Ernst II                           (b. 1745 - d. 1804)
20 Apr 1804 - 17 May 1822  Emil Leopold August                (b. 1772 - d. 1822)
17 May 1822 - 11 Feb 1825  Friedrich IV                       (b. 1774 - d. 1825)

Chairman of the Council of People's Commissioners 14 Nov 1918 - 25 Mar 1919 Otto Geithner Leading minister of state 25 Mar 1919 - Jun 1920 Otto Geithner

Saxe-Hildburghausen

 5 Mar 1680                Duchy of Saxe-Hildburghausen
12 Nov 1826                personal union with Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen,
                           in exchange for Saxe-Altenburg

Dukes
 5 Mar 1680 - 17 Oct 1715  Ernst                              (b. 1655 - d. 1715)
17 Oct 1715 -  9 Mar 1724  Ernst Friedrich I                  (b. 1681 - d. 1724)
 9 Mar 1724 - 13 Aug 1745  Ernst Friedrich II                 (b. 1707 - d. 1745)
 9 Mar 1724 - 17 Dec 1728    Sophie Albertine Gräfin von
                             Erbach (f) (regent)              (b. 1683 - d. 1742)
13 Aug 1745 - 23 Sep 1780  Ernst Friedrich III                (b. 1727 - d. 1780)
13 Aug 1745 - 10 Jun 1748    Caroline Gräfin von
                             Erbach-Fürstenau (f) (regent)    (b. 1700 - d. 1758)
23 Sep 1780 - 12 Nov 1826  Friedrich                          (b. 1763 - d. 1834)
23 Sep 1780 -  4 Jan 1787    Joseph Friedrich (regent)        (b. 1702 - d. 1787)

Saxe-Meiningen

 5 Mar 1680                Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen
12 Nov 1826                personal and administrative union with Saxe-
                           Hildburghausen; while the ducal style is invariably
                           Duke of Saxe-Meiningen and Hildburghausen, the polity
                           is usually officially styled Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen

Dukes (jointly 1706-82)
 5 Mar 1680 - 27 Apr 1706  Bernhard I                         (b. 1649 - d. 1706)
27 Apr 1706 - 24 Nov 1724  Ernst Ludwig I                     (b. 1672 - d. 1724)
27 Apr 1706 - 10 Mar 1746  Friedrich Wilhelm                  (b. 1679 - d. 1746)
27 Apr 1706 - 27 Jan 1763  Anton Ulrich                       (b. 1687 - d. 1763)
24 Nov 1724 - 24 Feb 1729  Ernst Ludwig II                    (b. 1709 - d. 1729)
24 Nov 1724 - 28 Mar 1743  Carl Friedrich                     (b. 1712 - d. 1743)
27 Jan 1763 - 21 Jul 1782  August Friedrich Carl Wilhelm      (b. 1754 - d. 1782)
27 Jan 1763 - 24 Dec 1803  Georg I                            (b. 1761 - d. 1803)
27 Jan 1763 - 19 Nov 1775    Charlotte Amalie von
                             Hessen-Philippsthal (f)          (b. 1730 - d. 1801)
                             (regent [for Georg I to 4 Feb 1782])
24 Dec 1803 - 20 Sep 1866  Bernhard II                        (b. 1800 - d. 1882)
24 Dec 1803 - 17 Dec 1821    Luise Eleonore von Hohenlohe (f) (b. 1763 - d. 1837)
                             (regent)
20 Sep 1866 - 25 Jun 1914  Georg II                           (b. 1826 - d. 1914)
25 Jun 1914 - 10 Nov 1918  Bernhard III                       (b. 1851 - d. 1928)

Leiter des Geheimen Ratskollegiums (from 1 Apr 1829, Leiter des Landesministeriums) 10 Mar 1746 - 1758 Andreas Simson von Biechling (b. 1686 - d. 1758) 1758 - 1762 Johann Nadler (b. 1688 - d. 1762) 1762 - 1770 Justus Hermann von Pfaffenrath (b. c.1710 - d. 1780) 1770 - 2 Jan 1779 Adolf Gottlieb von Eyben (b. 1741 - d. 1811) 2 Jan 1779 - 1792 Martin Christian Grimm (b. 1727 - d. 1792) 1792 - 1807 Franz Christian Freiherr Eckbrecht von Dürckheim (b. 1729 - d. 1807) 1807 - Jan 1832 Christian Ferdinand von Könitz (b. 1756 - d. 1832) Jan 1832 - Jun 1840 Friedrich von Krafft (1st time) (b. 1777 - d. 1858) Jun 1840 - Dec 1843 Karl August Friedrich Adolf von Fischern (b. 1796 - d. 1875) Dec 1843 - 1 Nov 1847 Friedrich von Krafft (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Nov 1847 - 14 Sep 1848 Friedrich Karl Anton von Werthern (b. 1804 - d. 1864) 14 Sep 1848 - 24 Oct 1849 Hans Freiherr von Spesshardt (b. 1797 - d. 1860) 24 Oct 1849 - 12 May 1854 Rudolf Hermann Freiherr von Wechmar (b. 1800 - d. 1861) 12 May 1854 - Sep 1861 Andreas Paul Adolph von Harbou (b. 1809 - d. 1877) Sep 1861 - 1 Oct 1864 Anton Ferdinand Freiherr von Krosigk (1st time) (b. 1820 - d. 1892) 27 Jul 1865 - 18 Aug 1866 Friedrich Fürchtegott von Uttenhoven (b. 1818 - d. 1889) 18 Aug 1866 - 20 Sep 1866 Ernst Gustav Gottlieb Louis von Buck (b. 1801 - d. 1887) 20 Sep 1866 - 1873 Anton Ferdinand Freiherr von Krosigk (2nd time) (s.a.) 1873 - 1890 Albrecht Otto von Giseke (b. 1822 - d. 1890) 1890 - 1902 Friedrich von Heim (b. 1835 - d. 1912) 1902 - 5 Oct 1912 Rudolf Freiherr von Ziller (b. 1832 - d. 1912) 14 Oct 1912 - 12 Nov 1918 Karl Schaller (b. 1846 - d. 1922) Secret state councillor (from Mar 1919, leading minister) 12 Nov 1918 - 1920 Ludwig Freiherr von Türcke

Saxe-Weimar

21 Feb 1566                Duchy of Saxe-Weimar
23 Nov 1602                divided into Saxe-Altenburg and Saxe-Weimar
22 Sep 1641                divided into Saxe-Gotha, Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Eisenach
26 Jul 1741                personal union with Saxe-Eisenach; the polities jointly
                           often being styled Saxe-Weimar und Eisenach
20 Sep 1809                Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach merged into
                           Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach

Dukes
25 May 1683 - 26 Aug 1728  Wilhelm Ernst                      (b. 1662 - d. 1728)
                           jointly with
25 May 1683 - 20 Jun 1707  Johann Ernst III                   (b. 1664 - d. 1707)
26 Aug 1728 - 19 Jan 1748  Ernst August I                     (b. 1688 - d. 1748)
19 Jan 1748 - 28 May 1758  Ernst August II                    (b. 1737 - d. 1758)
       1748 -        1755    Friedrich III, Duke of
                             Saxe-Gotha (regent)              (b. 1699 - d. 1772)
28 May 1758 - 20 Sep 1809  Carl August                        (b. 1757 - d. 1828)
       1758 -        1775    Anna Amalia (f) (regent)         (b. 1739 - d. 1807)

Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach

20 Sep 1809                Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
21 Apr 1815                Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
       1877                restyled Grand Duchy of Saxony, but preceding style
                           continues in some official use

Grand dukes
20 Sep 1809 - 14 Jun 1828  Carl August (to 21 Apr 1815 duke)  (b. 1757 - d. 1828)
14 Jun 1828 -  8 Jul 1853  Carl Friedrich                     (b. 1783 - d. 1853)
 8 Jul 1853 -  5 Jan 1901  Carl Alexander                     (b. 1818 - d. 1901)
 5 Jan 1901 -  9 Nov 1918  Wilhelm Ernst                      (b. 1876 - d. 1923)

State commissioner 8 Nov 1918 - 20 May 1919 August Baudert (b. 1860 - d. 1942) Leading minister of state 20 May 1919 - 1 May 1920 Arnold Rudolf Paulssen (b. 1864 - d. 1942)

Schwarzburg

       1160                County of Schwarzburg founded
21 Nov 1599                divided into County of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen and
                           County of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt

Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt

15 Apr 1711                Principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt

Counts (title Graf zu Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt)
- Schwarzburg dynasty -
14 Nov 1646 - 15 Dec 1710  Albrecht Anton                     (b. 1641 - d. 1710)
14 Nov 1646 -  2 Mar 1662    Aemilia Antonia Gräfin von
                             Oldenburg (f) (regent)           (b. 1614 - d. 1670)
15 Dec 1710 - 15 Apr 1711  Ludwig Friedrich I                 (b. 1667 - d. 1718)
Princes (title Fürst zu Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt)
- Schwarzburg dynasty -
15 Apr 1711 - 24 Jun 1718  Ludwig Friedrich I                 (s.a.)
24 Jun 1718 -  1 Sep 1744  Friedrich Anton                    (b. 1692 - d. 1744)
 1 Sep 1744 - 10 Jul 1767  Johann Friedrich                   (b. 1721 - d. 1767)
10 Jul 1767 - 29 Aug 1790  Ludwig Günther IV                  (b. 1708 - d. 1790)
29 Aug 1790 - 13 Apr 1793  Friedrich Karl                     (b. 1736 - d. 1793)
13 Apr 1793 - 28 Apr 1807  Ludwig Friedrich II                (b. 1767 - d. 1807)
28 Apr 1807 - 28 Jun 1867  Friedrich Günther                  (b. 1793 - d. 1867)
28 Apr 1807 -  6 Nov 1814    Karoline Louise Landgräfin von
                             Hessen-Homburg (f) (regent)      (b. 1771 - d. 1854)
28 Jun 1867 - 26 Nov 1869  Albrecht                           (b. 1798 - d. 1869)
26 Nov 1869 - 19 Jan 1890  Georg Albrecht                     (b. 1838 - d. 1890)
19 Jan 1890 - 22 Nov 1918  Günther Viktor                     (b. 1852 - d. 1925)

Chancellors 23 Mar 1667 - 24 Aug 1701 Ahasver Fritsch (b. 1629 - d. 1701) 24 Aug 1701 - 11 Oct 1723 Georg Ulrich von Beulwitz (b. 1661 - d. 1723) (acting to 1702) 11 Oct 1723 - 13 Mar 1744 Friedrich Christian von Reitzenstein (b. 1679 - d. 1748) 13 Mar 1744 - 17 Apr 1761 Christoph Leopold von Hertenberg (b. 1692 - d. 1761) (acting to 13 Nov 1750) 17 Apr 1761 - 7 Jun 1777 Christian Ulrich von Ketelhodt (b. 1701 - d. 1777) (acting to 27 May 1761) 27 Aug 1777 - 20 Nov 1785 Johann Wilhelm Ludwig von Holleben (b. 1715 - d. 1785) 20 Nov 1785 - 14 Jan 1814 Carl Gerth von Ketelhodt (b. 1738 - d. 1814) 14 Jan 1814 - 9 Mar 1829 Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig von Beulwitz (b. 1755 - d. 1829) 9 Mar 1829 - 20 Apr 1836 Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von Ketelhodt (b. 1766 - d. 1836) 7 May 1836 - 6 Jul 1836 Friedrich Michael Bamberg (b. 1765 - d. 1836) 13 Jul 1836 - 24 Nov 1845 Philipp Christian Wilhelm Hönniger (b. 1782 - d. 1845) 24 Nov 1845 - 11 Mar 1848 Karl August Ludwig Freiherr von Ketelhodt (acting to 9 Jan 1846) (b. 1798 - d. 1849) 11 Mar 1848 - 1 Jul 1850 Julius Heinrich Reinhard von Röder (b. 1798 - d. 1881) (acting to 29 Dec 1848) Vorsitzende des Gesamtministeriums 1 Jul 1850 - 19 Dec 1851 Julius Heinrich Reinhard von Röder (s.a.) 19 Dec 1851 - 1 May 1858 Jacob Hermann von Bertrab (b. 1818 - d. 1887) President of the government 1 May 1858 - 1 Apr 1868 Jacob Hermann von Bertrab (s.a.) Ministers of state 1 Apr 1868 - 2 Dec 1887 Jacob Hermann von Bertrab (s.a.) 3 Dec 1887 - 1 Apr 1888 Ludwig Albert von Holleben (b. 1825 - d. 1902) (acting) 1 Apr 1888 - 1 Apr 1903 Wilhelm Friedrich von Starck (b. 1835 - d. 1913) 1 Apr 1903 - 23 Nov 1918 Franz Ernst Wilhelm Karl Freiherr von der Recke (b. 1854 - d. 1923) Leading minister of state Mar 1919 - 1 May 1920 Emil Hartmann (b. 1868 - d. 19...)

Schwarzburg-Sondershausen

13 Sep 1697                Principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
28 Mar 1909                upon the extinction of the princely line, personal union with
                           Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (ruler styled Fürst zu Schwarzburg)

Princes (title Fürst zu Schwarzburg-Sondershausen)
- Schwarzburg dynasty -
13 Sep 1697 - 20 Dec 1716  Anton Günther II                   (b. 1653 - d. 1716)
                           jointly with
13 Sep 1697 - 19 May 1721  Christian Wilhelm                  (b. 1647 - d. 1721)
10 May 1721 - 28 Nov 1740  Günther XLIII                      (b. 1678 - d. 1740)
28 Nov 1740 -  6 Nov 1758  Heinrich XXXVIII                   (b. 1689 - d. 1758)
 6 Nov 1758 - 14 Oct 1794  Christian Günther III              (b. 1736 - d. 1794)
14 Oct 1794 - 19 Aug 1835  Günther Friedrich Karl I           (b. 1760 - d. 1837)
19 Aug 1835 - 17 Jul 1880  Günther Friedrich Karl II          (b. 1801 - d. 1889)
17 Jul 1880 - 28 Mar 1909  Karl Günther                       (b. 1830 - d. 1909)
28 Mar 1909 - 22 Nov 1918  Günther Viktor                     (b. 1852 - d. 1925)

Leading minister of state Mar 1919 - 1 May 1920 Wilhelm Bärwinkel

Thüringen

 1 May 1920                Gotha, Reuss, Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Meiningen,
                           Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt,
                           and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen united as Thüringen

Leading ministers of state
   Jun 1920 -    Nov 1920  August Frölich (1st time)          (b. 1877 - d. 1964)
10 Nov 1920 -  6 Oct 1921  Arnold Rudolf Paulssen             (b. 1864 - d. 1942)
 7 Oct 1921 - 21 Feb 1924  August Frölich (2nd time)          (s.a.)
Minister-presidents
21 Feb 1924 -  6 Nov 1928  Richard Leutheusser                (b. 1867 - d. 1945)
 6 Nov 1928 -  7 May 1929  Karl Riedel
 7 May 1929 - 13 Jan 1930  Arnold Rudolf Paulssen             (s.a.)
13 Jan 1930 - 26 Aug 1932  Erwin Baum                         (b. 1868 - d. 1950)
26 Aug 1932 -  8 May 1933  Fritz Sauckel                      (b. 1894 - d. 1946)
                           (also Reichsstatthalter 5 May 1933 - Apr 1945)
 8 May 1933 - 12 Apr 1945  Willy E.K. Marschler               (b. 1893 - d. 1952)

Wartheland

 1 Nov 1939                part of occupied Poland annexed as Reichsgau Posen
29 Jan 1940                renamed Wartheland
       1945                reincorporated into Poland

Reichsstatthalter
 2 Nov 1939 -        1945  Arthur Greiser                     (b. 1897 - d. 1946)

Württemberg

     c.1083                Lordship (style Herr von Württemberg)
       1135                County of Württemberg (Grafschaft Württemberg)
21 Jul 1495                Duchy of Württemberg (Herzogtum Württemberg)
15 Oct 1519 -  6 Feb 1520  incorporated into Swabian League (Schwäbischer Bund)
29 Apr 1803                the ruler is made into a prince-elector and the polity is
                           styled Electorate of Württemberg (Kurfürstentum Württemberg)
 1 Jan 1806                Kingdom of Württemberg (Königreich Württemberg)

Dukes (title Herzog von Württemberg und Teck)
- Beutelsbach dynasty -
 3 Jul 1677 - 31 Oct 1733  Eberhard Ludwig                    (b. 1676 - d. 1733)
31 Oct 1733 - 12 Mar 1737  Karl Alexander                     (b. 1684 - d. 1737)
12 Mar 1737 - 24 Oct 1793  Karl Eugen                         (b. 1728 - d. 1793)
24 Oct 1793 - 20 May 1795  Ludwig Eugen                       (b. 1731 - d. 1795)
20 May 1795-22/23Dec 1797  Friedrich Eugen                    (b. 1732 - d. 1797)
23 Dec 1797 - 29 Apr 1803  Friedrich II                       (b. 1754 - d. 1816)
Duke and Elector (Herzog von Württemberg und Teck, Erzpanner und Kurfürst des
Heiligen Römischen Reiches - duke of Württemberg and Teck, archbannerbearer and
prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire)
- Beutelsbach dynasty -
29 Apr 1803 -  1 Jan 1806  Friedrich II                       (s.a.)
Kings (title König von Württemberg)
- Beutelsbach dynasty -
 1 Jan 1806 - 30 Oct 1816  Friedrich I                        (s.a.)
30 Oct 1816 - 25 Jun 1864  Wilhelm I                          (b. 1781 - d. 1864)
25 Jun 1864 -  6 Oct 1891  Karl I                             (b. 1823 - d. 1891)
 6 Oct 1891 - 30 Nov 1918  Wilhelm II                         (b. 1848 - d. 1921)

Minister-presidents 29 Jul 1821 - 15 Nov 1831 Christian Friedrich von Otto (b. 1758 - d. 1836) 15 Nov 1831 - 9 Mar 1848 Paul Friedrich Theodor Eugen Freiherr von Mauclerc (b. 1783 - d. 1859) 9 Mar 1848 - 28 Oct 1849 Friedrich von Römer (b. 1794 - d. 1864) 28 Oct 1849 - 2 Jul 1850 Johannes von Schlayer (b. 1792 - d. 1860) 2 Jul 1850 - 21 Sep 1864 Josef Freiherr von Linden (b. 1804 - d. 1895) 21 Sep 1864 - 31 Aug 1870 Karl Friedrich Gottlob Freiherr von Varnbüler von und zu Hemmingen (b. 1809 - d. 1889) 31 Aug 1870 - 9 Jan 1871 Adolf Graf von Taube (acting) (b. 1810 - d. 1899) 9 Jan 1871 - 31 Jul 1876 Johann August Freiherr von Wächter (b. 1807 - d. 1879) 31 Jul 1876 - 10 Nov 1900 Hermann von Mittnacht (from 1887, Hermann Freiherr von Mittnacht) (b. 1825 - d. 1909) 10 Nov 1900 - 15 Apr 1901 Max Freiherr Schott von Schottenstein (b. 1836 - d. 1917) 15 Apr 1901 - 4 Dec 1906 Wilhelm August von Breitling (b. 1835 - d. 1914) 4 Dec 1906 - 9 Nov 1918 Karl von Weizsäcker (from 5 Oct 1916, Karl Freiherr von Weizsäcker) (b. 1853 - d. 1926) 9 Nov 1918 - 11 Nov 1918 Theodor Liesching (b. 1865 - d. 1922) State presidents 11 Nov 1918 - 23 Jun 1920 Wilhelm Blos (b. 1849 - d. 1927) 23 Jun 1920 - 8 Apr 1924 Johannes von Hieber (b. 1862 - d. 1951) 8 Apr 1924 - 3 Jun 1924 Edmund Rau (acting) (b. 1868 - d. 1953) 3 Jun 1924 - 8 Jun 1928 Wilhelm Bazille (b. 1874 - d. 1934) 8 Jun 1928 - 15 Mar 1933 Eugen Bolz (b. 1881 - d. 1945) 15 Mar 1933 - 12 May 1933 Wilhelm Murr (b. 1888 - d. 1945) (also Reichskommissar 8-15 Mar 1933 and Reichsstatthalter 5 May 1933 - 20 Apr 1945) 12 May 1933 - Apr 1945 Christian Mergenthaler (b. 1884 - d. 1980)