Rulers

Countries Ga-Gi

Contents of this page:
Gabon - The Gambia - Georgia - Germany - Ghana - Gibraltar

Gabon

       1839                first transfer of sovereignty to France
       1854                Gorée, Gabon, and other French settlements form the
                           Colony of Gorée and Dependencies, headed by the Commandant
                           of the Naval Division of the Western Coasts of Africa
       1859                Gorée reincorporated into Senegal; the other settlements
                           continue to be subordinated to the Naval Division, now with
                           its centre at Gabon
 1 Aug 1886                part of French Congo; see under Congo (Brazzaville)
15 Jan 1910                part of French Equatorial Africa (AEF); see under
                           Congo (Brazzaville)
30 Jun 1934 - 31 Dec 1937  region within unitary AEF colony
28 Nov 1958                autonomy (Gabonese Republic)
17 Aug 1960                independence

Commandants of the Naval Division of the Western Coasts of Africa
       1839 -        1845  Louis Édouard Bouët (from 1844,
                           Louis Édouard Bouët-Willaumez)
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1808 - d. 1871)
       1845 -        1848  Jean-Baptiste Montagniès de la
                           Roque                              (b. 1793 - d. 1862)
       1848                Auguste Baudin (1st time)          (b. 1800 - d. 1877)
 1 Sep 1848 -    Apr 1850  Louis Édouard Bouët-Willaumez
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1850 -        1851  Charles Penaud                     (b. 1800 - d. 1864)
       1851 -        1854  Auguste Baudin (2nd time)          (s.a.)
       1854 - 31 Jan 1856  Jérôme Félix Monléon               (b. ... - d. 1856)
31 Jan 1856 -    Mar 1859  Auguste Léopold Protet             (b. 1808 - d. 1862)
       1859 -        1861  Auguste Bosse                      (b. 1809 - d. 1891)
       1861 -        1863  Octave François Charles, baron
                           Didelot                            (b. 1812 - d. 1886)
       1863 -        1866  André Émile Léon Laffon de Ladébat (b. 1807 - d. 1874)
       1866 -        1868  Alphonse Jean René, vicomte
                           Fleuriot de Langle                 (b. 1809 - d. 1881)
       1868 -        1869  Alexandre François Dauriac         (b. 1812 - d. 1878)
       1869 -        1870  Victor Auguste, baron Duperré      (b. 1825 - d. 1900)
       1870 -        1872  Siméon Bourgeois                   (b. 1815 - d. 1887)
       1872 -        1874  Antoine Louis Le Couriault
                           du Quilio                          (b. 1815 - d. 1877)
       1874 -        1875  Charles Henri Jules Panon du
                           Hazier                             (b. 1827 - d. 1897)
       1875 -        1877  Amédée Louis Ribourt               (b. 1821 - d. 1893)
       1877 -        1879  François Hippolyte Allemand        (b. 1820 - d. 1895)
       1879 -        1881  Bernard Ernest Mottez
       1881 - 24 Jan 1883  Richild, baron Grivel              (b. 1827 - d. 1883)
       1884 -        1886  Jules Marie Armand Cavelier de
                           Cuverville                         (b. 1834 - d. 1912)
Commandants-particular of Gabon
       1843 -        1844  Antoine Devoisins
       1844                Joseph Marie Millet
       1844 -        1846  André Brisset (1st time)           (b. 1808 - d. ...)
       1846                Méquet
       1846                Clément Grosjean
       1846 -        1847  Jean Carrilès
       1847 -        1848  André Brisset (2nd time)           (s.a.)
25 Mar 1848 -        1848  Alphonse Alexandre Sourdeaux
 3 Aug 1848 -        1848  Eugène Jean Antoine Desperles      (b. 1819 - d. 1860)
   Dec 1848 -        1849  Étienne Charles Deschanel
10 Aug 1849 -        1850  Jean-Auguste Martin                (b. 1814 - d. ...)
15 Dec 1850 -        1853  Alexis Édouard Vignon (1st time)   (b. 1806 - d. ...)
       1853 -        1857  Théophile Quillet
       1857 -        1859  Alexis Édouard Vignon (2nd time)   (s.a.)
       1859 -        1860  Pierre Alexandre Mailhetard
 4 Aug 1860 -        1861  César Charles Joseph Pradier
       1861 -        1863  Paul Claude Nicolas Brue           (b. 1808 - d. ...)
       1863 -        1866  Charles Ferdinand Eugène Baur
       1866 -        1867  Joseph Henri Brunet-Millet         (b. 1821 - d. ...)
       1867 -        1868  Théophile Aube                     (b. 1826 - d. 1890)
       1868 -        1869  Frédéric Amable Bourgarel          (b. 1826 - d. 1897)
       1869 -        1871  Hippolyte Adrien Bourgin
       1871 -        1873  Gustave Aristide Léopold Garraud   (b. 1820 - d. ...)
       1873 -        1875  Charles Henri Jules Panon du
                           Hazier                             (s.a.)
       1875 -        1876  Félix Ambroise Clément             (b. 1822 - d. ...)
       1876 -        1879  Paul Michel Frédéric Caudière      (b. 1822 - d. ...)
       1879 -        1880  Augustin Ernest Dumont             (b. 1835 - d. ...)
       1880 -        1881  Jules Émile Hanet-Cléry            (b. 1833 - d. 1890)
       1881 -        1883  Émile Masson                       (b. 1832 - d. ...)
       1883 -        1885  Jean Joseph Cornut-Gentille        (b. 1839 - d. 1918)
       1885 -        1886  Georges Émile Pradier
Lieutenant governors
29 Jun 1886 - 26 Apr 1889  Noël Ballay                        (b. 1847 - d. 1902)
26 Apr 1889 -  1 Jun 1894  Charles de Chavannes               (b. 1853 - d. 1940)
 1 Jun 1894 - 22 Jan 1899  Albert Dolisie                     (b. 1856 - d. 1899)
 1 May 1899 -        1902  Émile Gentil                       (b. 1866 - d. 1914)
 9 Mar 1904 - 30 Jan 1905  Louis Auguste Bertrand Ormières    (b. 1851 - d. 19...)
19 Apr 1905 -  5 Aug 1905  Paul Cousturier (acting)
 5 Aug 1905 - 27 Apr 1906  Alfred Fourneau (acting)           (b. 1860 - d. 1930)
27 Apr 1906 - 23 Apr 1907  Charles Henri Adrien Noufflard     (b. 1872 - d. 1952)
                           (acting)
23 Apr 1907 - 26 Apr 1907  Alfred Martineau                   (b. 1859 - d. 1945)
26 Apr 1907 - 20 Jan 1909  Édouard Telle (acting)             (b. 1859 - d. 19...)
20 Jan 1909 - 10 Feb 1909  Frédéric Claude Weber (acting)     (b. 1855 - d. 19...)
10 Feb 1909 - 18 Oct 1909  Charles Amédée Rognon (acting)     (b. 1861 - d. 1911)
18 Oct 1909 -  9 Nov 1909  Pascal Pierre Marie Georges Adam
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1865 - d. 1916)
 9 Nov 1909 -    Jun 1911  Léon Félix Richaud (acting)        (b. 18... - d. 1944)
   Jun 1911 - 21 Feb 1912  Georges Poulet
21 Feb 1912 - 18 Apr 1914  Pascal Pierre Marie Georges Adam
                           (2nd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
18 Apr 1914 -  1 Jun 1917  Joseph Guyon                       (b. 1870 - d. 1942)
 1 Jun 1917 - 12 Jun 1918  Georges Thomann (acting)           (b. 1872 - d. 1943)
12 Jun 1918 - 30 Jun 1919  Maurice Pierre Lapalud             (b. 1868 - d. 19...)
30 Jun 1919 - 29 May 1922  Jean Henri Marchand
                           (acting to 13 Apr 1920)
29 May 1922 - 15 Jun 1923  Edmond Émilien Cadier (acting)
15 Jun 1923 - 29 Jul 1924  Louis Nicolas Jean Marie Cercus
                           (acting)
29 Jul 1924 - 19 Jun 1931  Marie Joseph Jules Pierre Bernard  (b. 1876 - d. 19...)
19 Jun 1931 -    Nov 1931  Louis Vingarassamy (acting)
   Nov 1931 - 24 Oct 1936  Louis Bonvin                       (b. 1886 - d. 1946)
                           (administrator-superior from 26 Sep 1934)
Governors-delegate
24 Oct 1936 - 11 Sep 1937  Louis Bonvin                       (s.a.)
11 Sep 1937 - 29 Aug 1938  Georges Parisot                    (b. 1887 - d. 1969)
29 Aug 1938 - 14 Nov 1940  Georges Pierre Masson              (b. ... - d. 1940)
                           (acting to 2 Nov 1939)
14 Nov 1940 - 15 Mar 1941  André Parant                       (b. 1897 - d. 1941)
Governors (from Nov 1958, high commissioners)
26 Mar 1941 -  4 Jul 1941  Hubert Eugène Paul Carras (acting) (b. 1890 - d. 1947)
 4 Jul 1941 - 30 May 1942  Victor Valentin-Smith              (b. 1883 - d. 1965)
30 May 1942 - 26 Aug 1943  Maurice Assier de Pompignan        (b. 1889 - d. 1952)
26 Aug 1943 - 19 Nov 1944  Paul Vuillaume                     (b. 1896 - d. 1975)
19 Nov 1944 - 28 Mar 1946  Numa Sadoul (1st time) (acting)    (b. 1906 - d. 1990)
28 Mar 1946 - 31 Dec 1947  Roland Pré                         (b. 1907 - d. 1980)
31 Dec 1947 -  6 Apr 1949  Numa Sadoul (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 6 Apr 1949 - 19 Oct 1951  Pierre François Pélieu             (b. 1906 - d. 1952)
                           (acting to 4 Jan 1950)
19 Oct 1951 - 25 Apr 1952  Charles Hanin (acting)             (b. 1895 - d. 1964)
25 Apr 1952 - 29 Jan 1958  Yves Digo                          (b. 1897 - d. 1974)
29 Jan 1958 -    Jul 1959  Louis Sanmarco                     (b. 1912 - d. 2009)
   Jul 1959 - 17 Aug 1960  Jean Risterucci                    (b. 1911 - d. 1982)
Presidents
17 Aug 1960 - 17 Feb 1964  Léon M'ba (1st time)               (b. 1902 - d. 1967)
                           (Head of State to 21 Feb 1961)
17 Feb 1964 - 18 Feb 1964  Revolutionary Committee
                           - Daniel Mbene                     (b. ... - d. 1969)
                           - Jean-Valère Essone
                           - Jacques Mombo
                           - Daniel Ndo Edou                  (b. ... - d. 1964)
18 Feb 1964 - 19 Feb 1964  Jean-Hilaire Aubame                (b. 1912 - d. 1989)
                           (head of Provisional Government)
19 Feb 1964 - 28 Nov 1967  Léon M'ba (2nd time)               (s.a.)
28 Nov 1967 -  8 Jun 2009  Albert-Bernard Bongo
                           (from 29 Sep 1973, Omar Bongo;
                           from 15 Nov 2003, Omar Bongo
                           Ondimba)                           (b. 1935 - d. 2009)
 6 May 2009 -  8 Jun 2009    Didjob Divungi Di Ndinge         (b. 1946)
                             (acting for Bongo)
10 Jun 2009 - 16 Oct 2009  Rose Francine Rogombé (f)          (b. 1942)
                           (interim)
16 Oct 2009 -              Ali Bongo Ondimba                  (b. 1959)

Prime ministers 21 May 1957 - 21 Feb 1961 Léon M'ba (s.a.) (vice president of the Government Council to 26 Jul 1958, president of the Government Council 26 Jul - 28 Nov 1958, head of the Provisional Government 28 Nov 1958 - 27 Feb 1959) 16 Apr 1975 - 3 May 1990 Léon Mébiame (b. 1934) 3 May 1990 - 2 Nov 1994 Casimir Oyé-Mba (b. 1942) 2 Nov 1994 - 23 Jan 1999 Paulin Obame-Nguema (b. 1934) 23 Jan 1999 - 20 Jan 2006 Jean-François Ntoutoume Emane (b. 1939) 20 Jan 2006 - 17 Jul 2009 Jean Eyeghe Ndong (b. 1946) 17 Jul 2009 - 28 Feb 2012 Paul Biyoghé Mba (b. 1953) 28 Feb 2012 - 27 Jan 2014 Raymond Ndong Sima (b. 1955) 27 Jan 2014 - Daniel Ona Ondo (b. 1945)

Orungu

Note: There is a large number of very minor traditional polities, with very fragmentary records. Orungu is the only major one.
    bf.1700                Orungu kingdom founded
       1927                kingdom extinguished by French colonial government

Rulers (title Agamwinboni)
- Abulia dynasty -
       1790 -        1803  Reombi "Mpolo"                     (b. c.1760 - d. 18...)
       1803 -        1840  Ogul'Issogwe = Rogombe "Mpolo"
                           = Pasol
       1840 -        1860  Ombango Rogombe "Ikinda" = Pascal
       1860 -        1865  Ndebulia-Rogombe
       1865 -        1882  Ncege
       1882 -         ...  Avonowanga
        ... -        1927  Rogombe-Mentchandi

Gambia, The

       1815                British rule in Fort James
       1816                Bathurst founded
       1821                British colony (subordinated to Sierra Leone until 1843
                           and 1866-88)
       1857                France cedes its last settlement in the area (Albreda)
                           to the British
       1894                British protectorate proclaimed on the interior
18 Feb 1965                independence
24 Apr 1970                Republic of The Gambia
 1 Feb 1982 - 30 Sep 1989  confederation with Senegal (Senegambia)

Commandant
       1815 -        1829  Alexander Grant
Lieutenant governors
       1829 -        1830  Alexander Findlay
       1830 -        1837  George Rendall
       1837 -        1838  Thomas Lewis Ingram (1st time)
       1838 -        1839  William Mackie
       1839 -        1840  Thomas Lewis Ingram (2nd time)
       1840 -        1841  Sir Henry Vere Huntley             (b. 1795 - d. 1864)
       1841 -        1843  Thomas Lewis Ingram (3rd time)
Governors
       1843                Henry Froude Seagram
       1843 -        1844  Edmund Norcott
       1844 -        1847  Charles Fitzgerald                 (b. 1792 - d. 1887)
       1847 -        1851  Sir Richard Graves MacDonnell      (b. 1814 - d. 1881)
       1851 -        1852  Sir Arthur Edward Kennedy          (b. 1810 - d. 1883)
       1852 -        1859  Luke Smythe O'Connor               (b. 1806 - d. 1873)
       1859 -        1866  George Abbas Kooli D'Arcy          (b. 1818? - d. 1885)
Administrators
       1866 -        1869  Charles George Edward Patey        (b. 1813 - d. 1881)
       1869 -        1871  Alexander Bravo
       1871 -        1873  Jeremiah Thomas Fitzgerald
                           Callaghan                          (b. c.1830 - d. 1881)
       1873 -        1875  Cornelius Hendricksen Kortright    (b. 1817 - d. 1899)
       1875 -        1877  Sir Samuel Rowe                    (b. 1835 - d. 1888)
       1877 -        1884  Valerius Skipton Gouldsbury
       1884 -        1886  Sir Cornelius Alfred Moloney       (b. 1848 - d. 1913)
       1886 -        1888  Sir James Shaw Hay                 (b. 1839 - d. 1924)
       1888 -        1891  Sir Gilbert Thomas Carter          (b. 1848 - d. 1927)
       1891 -        1900  Sir Robert Baxter Llewelyn         (b. 1845 - d. 1919)
       1900 - 11 Jan 1901  Sir George Chardin Denton          (b. 1851 - d. 1928)
Governors
11 Jan 1901 - 21 Dec 1911  Sir George Chardin Denton          (s.a.)
21 Dec 1911 - 11 Apr 1914  Henry Lionel Galway                (b. 1859 - d. 1949)
11 Apr 1914 -        1920  Edward John Cameron (from
                           1916, Sir Edward John Cameron)     (b. 1858 - d. 1947)
       1920                Herbert Henniker (acting)
 3 Jan 1921 - 10 Mar 1927  Sir Cecil Hamilton Armitage        (b. 1868 - d. 1933)
10 Mar 1927 - 29 Nov 1928  Sir John Middleton                 (b. 1870 - d. 1954)
29 Nov 1928 - 11 Sep 1930  Sir Edward Brandis Denham          (b. 1876 - d. 1938)
11 Sep 1930 - 12 Apr 1934  Sir Herbert Richmond Palmer        (b. 1877 - d. 1958)
12 Apr 1934 - 22 Oct 1936  Arthur Frederick Richards
                           (from 1935, Sir Arthur Frederick
                           Richards)                          (b. 1885 - d. 1978)
22 Oct 1936 - 23 Mar 1942  Sir Thomas Southorn                (b. 1879 - d. 1957)
23 Mar 1942 - 29 Mar 1947  Hilary Rudolph Robert Blood
                           (from 1944, Sir Hilary
                           Rudolph Robert Blood)              (b. 1893 - d. 1967)
29 Mar 1947 -    Dec 1949  Andrew Barkworth Wright
                           (from 1948, Sir Andrew
                           Barkworth Wright)                  (b. 1895 - d. 1971)
   Dec 1949 - 19 Jun 1958  Percy Wyn-Harris (from 1952,
                           Sir Percy Wyn-Harris)              (b. 1903 - d. 1979)
19 Jun 1958 - 29 Mar 1962  Sir Edward Henry Windley           (b. 1909 - d. 1972)
29 Mar 1962 - 18 Feb 1965  John Warburton Paul (from Jun
                           1962, Sir John Warburton Paul)     (b. 1916 - d. 2004)
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
18 Feb 1965 -  9 Feb 1966  Sir John Warburton Paul            (s.a.)
 9 Feb 1966 - 24 Apr 1970  Farimang Mamadi Singhateh
                           (from 12 Sep 1966, Sir Farimang
                           Mamadi Singhateh)                  (b. 1912 - d. 1977)
                           (acting to Jul 1966)
Presidents
24 Apr 1970 - 22 Jul 1994  Sir Dawda Jawara                   (b. 1924)
30 Jul 1981 -  5 Aug 1981    Kukoi Samba Sanyang              (b. 1952 - d. 2013)
                             (chairman National Revolutionary Council, in rebellion)
22 Jul 1994 -              Yahya Jammeh                       (b. 1965)
                           (chairman Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council
                           to 28 Sep 1996; Head of State to 18 Oct 1996)

Chief minister Mar 1961 - 12 Jun 1962 Pierre Sarr N'Jie (b. 1909 - d. 1993) Prime minister 12 Jun 1962 - 24 Apr 1970 David Jawara (from 1965, Dawda Jawara; from Jan 1966, Sir Dawda Jawara) (s.a.)

Genoa: see under Italian states.

Georgia

K`art`li

       1491                Kingdom of K`art`li, part of the Kingdom of Georgia,
                           established
       1727 -        1735  annexed by Ottoman Empire
       1736 -        1744  annexed by Iran
19 Jan 1762                personal union with Kakhet`i reestablished

Kings (alternative names are the official Ottoman and/or Iranian names)
- Bagrationi dynasty -
       1695 -        1703  Nikoloz Irakli I
                           = Nazar `Ali Khan (2nd time)       (b. 1643 - d. 1710)
       1703 -  2 May 1709  Giorgi XI = Gurjin Khan
                           = Shah Nawaz III (3rd time)        (b. af.1648 - d. 1709)
 2 May 1709 -    Jul 1709  Levanti = Shah Qoli Khan           (b. c.1659 - d. 1709)
   Jul 1709 -  8 Oct 1711  K`aikhosro = Khosraw Khan          (b. 1674 - d. 1711)
 8 Oct 1711 -    Oct 1714  Vakhtang VI = Hoseyn Qoli Khan
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1675 - d. 1737)
   Oct 1714 -    Jun 1716  Iese = `Ali Qoli Khan (1st time)   (b. 16... - d. 1727)
       1716 -        1717  Vakhtang VI = Hoseyn Qoli Khan
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1717 -    Aug 1719  Bak`ar III = Shah Nawaz IV
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1700? - d. 1750)
   Aug 1719 -    May 1723  Vakhtang VI = Hoseyn Qoli Khan
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
   May 1723 -    Jun 1723  Konstantine III = Mahmud Qoli Khan
   Jun 1723 -    Jul 1724  Bak`ar III = Ebrahim Pasha
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1724 -        1727  Iese = Mostafa Pasha (2nd time)    (s.a.)
       1735 -        1736  Alek`sandre II = `Ali Mirza
   Jul 1744 - 19 Jan 1762  T`eimuraz II                       (b. 1680 - d. 1762)

Kakhet`i

       1491                Kingdom of Kakhet`i, part of the Kingdom of Georgia,
                           established
       1676 -        1703  annexed by Iran

Kings (alternative names are the official Ottoman and/or Iranian names)
- Bagrationi dynasty -
   May 1703 -    May 1721  Davit` II = Emam Qoli Khan         (b. 1678 - d. 1721)
   May 1721 -  4 Dec 1732  Konstantine II = Mahmud Qoli Khan
                           = (from 1724) Mahmud Pasha         (b. ... - d. 1732)
 4 Dec 1732 -        1736  T`eimuraz II (1st time)            (s.a.)
       1736 -        1738  Alek`sandre III
       1738 -        1744  T`eimuraz II (2nd time)            (s.a.)
   Jul 1744 - 19 Jan 1762  Irakli II                          (b. 1721 - d. 1798)

K`art`li and Kakhet`i

19 Jan 1762                Kingdoms of K`art`li and Kakhet`i in personal union,
                           often officially styled Kingdom of Georgia
 9 Jan 1801                kingdom bequeathed to the Russian emperor
24 Apr 1802                incorporation into Russian Empire; "Georgian Tsar" added
                           to imperial style

Kings
- Bagrationi dynasty -
19 Jan 1762 - 22 Jan 1798  Irakli II                          (s.a.)
22 Jan 1798 -  9 Jan 1801  Giorgi XII                         (b. 1746 - d. 1801)
 9 Jan 1801 - 24 Apr 1802  Provisional Government
                           - Ivan Petrovich Lazarev           (b. 1763 - d. 1803)
                             (chairman from 3 Jun 1801)
                           - Prince Ioane Batonishvili        (b. 1768 - d. 1839)
                           - Ignati T`umanishvili
20 Jan 1801 - 24 Apr 1802  Crown Prince Davit` Batonishvili   (b. 1767 - d. 1819)
                           (semi-officially recognized as regent)

Imeret`i

       1491                Kingdom of Imeret`i, part of the Kingdom of Georgia,
                           established
23 May 1810                incorporation into Russian Empire

Kings
- Vardanidze-Dadiani dynasty -
       1701 -        1702  Mamia (1st time)                   (b. 16... - d. 1714)
- Abashidze dynasty -
       1702 -        1703  Giorgi V (1st time)                (b. 16... - d. 1722)
- Bagrationi dynasty -
       1703                Giorgi VI (1st time)               (b. 1691 - d. 1720)
- Abashidze dynasty -
       1703 -        1707  Giorgi V (2nd time)                (s.a.)
- Bagrationi dynasty -
       1707 -    Oct 1711  Giorgi VI (2nd time)               (s.a.)
- Vardanidze-Dadiani dynasty -
   Oct 1711 -    Jun 1712  Mamia (2nd time)                   (s.a.)
- Bagrationi dynasty -
   Jun 1712 -    Nov 1713  Giorgi VI (3rd time)               (s.a.)
- Vardanidze-Dadiani dynasty -
   Nov 1713 -    May 1714  Mamia (3rd time)                   (s.a.)
- Bagrationi dynasty -
   May 1714 -    Mar 1720  Giorgi VI (4th time)               (s.a.)
- Vardanidze-Dadiani dynasty -
   Mar 1720 -    Jun 1720  Giorgi IV                          (b. 1702 - d. 1726)
- Bagrationi dynasty -
   Jun 1720 -        1741  Alek`sandre V (1st time)           (b. ... - d. 1752)
       1741 -        1742  Giorgi VII                         (b. 1721 - d. af.1772)
       1742 -        1747  Alek`sandre V (2nd time)           (s.a.)
       1747 -        1749  Mamuka
       1749 -    Mar 1752  Alek`sandre V (3rd time)           (s.a.)
   Mar 1752 -        1765  Solomon I "Didi" (1st time)        (b. 1735 - d. 1784)
       1765 -        1768  T`eimuraz
       1768 -  4 May 1784  Solomon I "Didi" (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 4 May 1784 -        1789  Davit`                             (b. 1756 - d. 1795)
                           (continuing in rebellion to 1792)
       1789 - 23 May 1810  Solomon II                         (b. 1773 - d. 1815)

Transcaucasia

22 Apr 1918                Democratic Federative Republic of Transcaucasia
                           (consisting of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia)
26 May 1918                dissolution into three independent republics
12 Mar 1922                Federative Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
                           of Transcaucasia
13 Dec 1922                Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
30 Dec 1922                T.S.F.S.R. founding component of the Soviet Union
                           (see Soviet republics)

Chairman of the Diet
22 Apr 1918 - 26 May 1918  Nikoloz Ch'kheidze                 (b. 1865 - d. 1926)
Union Council
12 Mar 1922 - 13 Dec 1922  Nariman Narimanov                  (b. 1870 - d. 1925)
                           + Polikarp Mdivani                 (b. 1877 - d. 1937)
                           + Aleksandr Myasnikyan             (b. 1886 - d. 1925)
Chairmen of the Transcaucasian Central Executive Committee
13 Dec 1922 -        1927  Mikheil Ch'khakaia                 (b. 1865 - d. 1950)
13 Dec 1922 -        1929  Samed Aga Agamali ogly Aliyev      (b. 1867 - d. 1930)
13 Dec 1922 -    Jun 1925  Sarkis Ambartsumyan                (b. 1880 - d. 19...)

Georgia

26 May 1918                Georgian Democratic Republic
25 Feb 1921                Georgian Socialist Soviet Republic
12 Mar 1922                part of the Federative Union of Soviet Socialist
                           Republics of Transcaucasia
13 Dec 1922                part of the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist
                           Republic
 5 Dec 1936                T.S.F.S.R. dissolved; Georgian S.S.R. becomes a full
                           union republic (see Soviet republics)
14 Nov 1990                Georgian Republic
 9 Apr 1991                independence declared
25 Dec 1991                final independence (dissolution of the U.S.S.R.)
26 Nov 1995                Georgia

Heads of state
26 May 1918 - 12 Mar 1919  Noe Zhordania                      (b. 1868 - d. 1953)
                           (president of National Council to Oct 1918,
                           then president of Parliament)
12 Mar 1919 - 25 Feb 1921  Nikoloz Ch'kheidze                 (s.a.)
                           (president of Constituent Assembly)
Chairmen of the Revolutionary Committee
25 Feb 1921 -  7 Jul 1921  P'ilipe Makharadze                 (b. 1868 - d. 1941)
 7 Jul 1921 - 28 Feb 1922  Polikarp Mdivani                   (s.a.)
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
28 Feb 1922 -  4 Jan 1924  P'ilipe Makharadze                 (s.a.)
Presidents
14 Nov 1990 -  6 Jan 1992¹ Zviad Gamsakhurdia                 (b. 1939 - d. 1993)
                           (chairman Supreme Council to 14 Apr 1991)
 6 Jan 1992 - 10 Mar 1992  Tengiz Kitovani                    (b. 1939)
                           + Jaba Ioseliani                   (b. 1926 - d. 2003)
                           (coleaders Military Council)
10 Mar 1992 - 23 Nov 2003  Eduard Shevardnadze                (b. 1928 - d. 2014)
                           (chairman State Council to 6 Nov 1992; chairman Parliament
                           6 Nov 1992 - 26 Nov 1995)
23 Nov 2003 - 25 Jan 2004  Nino Burjanadze (f) (1st time)     (b. 1964)
                           (acting)
25 Jan 2004 - 25 Nov 2007  Mikheil Saakashvili (1st time)     (b. 1967)
25 Nov 2007 - 20 Jan 2008  Nino Burjanadze (f) (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                           (acting)
20 Jan 2008 - 17 Nov 2013  Mikheil Saakashvili (2nd time)     (s.a.)
17 Nov 2013 -              Giorgi Margvelashvili              (b. 1969)

Prime ministers 26 May 1918 - 24 Jun 1918 Noe Ramishvili (b. 18... - d. 1930) 24 Jun 1918 - 1921 Noe Zhordania (s.a.) Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars Feb 1922 - 1923 Sergey Kavtaradze (b. 1885 - d. 1971) Prime ministers 15 Nov 1990 - 18 Aug 1991 Tengiz Sigua (1st time) (b. 1934) 18 Aug 1991 - 23 Aug 1991 Murman Omanidze (acting) (b. 1938) 23 Aug 1991 - 6 Jan 1992¹ Bessarion Gugushvili (b. 1945) 6 Jan 1992 - 6 Aug 1993 Tengiz Sigua (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Aug 1993 - 20 Aug 1993 Eduard Shevardnadze (acting) (s.a.) 20 Aug 1993 - 5 Oct 1995 Otar Patsatsia (b. 1929) Ministers of state 8 Dec 1995 - 7 Aug 1998 Niko Lekishvili (b. 1947) 7 Aug 1998 - 11 May 2000 Vazha Lortkipanidze (b. 1949) 11 May 2000 - 21 Dec 2001 Giorgi Arsenishvili (b. 1942) 21 Dec 2001 - 27 Nov 2003 Avtandil Jorbenadze (b. 1951) 27 Nov 2003 - 17 Feb 2004 Zurab Zhvania (b. 1963 - d. 2005) Prime ministers 17 Feb 2004 - 3 Feb 2005 Zurab Zhvania (s.a.) 17 Feb 2005 - 22 Nov 2007 Zurab Nogaideli (b. 1964) 22 Nov 2007 - 1 Nov 2008 Lado Gurgenidze (b. 1970) 1 Nov 2008 - 6 Feb 2009 Grigol Mgaloblishvili (b. 1973) 6 Feb 2009 - 4 Jul 2012 Nika Gilauri (b. 1975) 4 Jul 2012 - 25 Oct 2012 Vano Merabishvili (b. 1968) 25 Oct 2012 - 20 Nov 2013 Bidzina Ivanishvili (b. 1956) 20 Nov 2013 - Irakli Garibashvili (b. 1982)
¹The ousted administration of Gamsakhurdia and Gugushvili formed a counter-government at Zugdidi on 24 Sep 1993 that controlled parts of western Georgia until 6 Nov 1993.

Mingrelia

    bf.1323                Principality of Mingrelia (Samegrelo) established
 4 Jan 1867                incorporation into Russian Empire

Princes
- Ch`ik`ovani-Dadiani dynasty -
       1691 -        1704  Giorgi IV Lipartiani (1st time)
       1704 -        1710  Kats`ia I
       1710 -        1714  Giorgi IV Lipartiani (2nd time)
       1715 -        1728  Bezhan                             (b. ... - d. 1728)
       1728 -        1744  Otia                               (b. ... - d. 1744)
       1744 - 17 Dec 1788  Kats`ia II                         (b. ... - d. 1788)
17 Dec 1788 -        1791  Grigol (1st time)                  (b. 17... - d. 1804)
       1791 -        1793  Manuch`ar II
       1793 -        1794  Tariel (1st time)                  (b. 17... - d. 1802)
       1794 -        1802  Grigol (2nd time)                  (s.a.)
       1802                Tariel (2nd time)                  (s.a.)
       1802 -  4 Nov 1804  Grigol (3rd time)                  (s.a.)
 4 Nov 1804 -        1840  Levan V                            (b. 1793 - d. 1846)
       1840 - 11 Sep 1853  Davit`                             (b. 1812 - d. 1853)
11 Sep 1853 -  4 Jan 1867  Nikoloz                            (b. 1847 - d. 1903)

Guria

       1352                Principality of Guria established
       1830                incorporation into Russian Empire

Princes
- Vardanidze-Dadiani dynasty -
       1689 -        1712  Mamia III (1st time)               (b. 16... - d. 1714)
       1712                Giorgi IV (1st time)               (b. 1702 - d. 1726)
       1712 - 16 Jan 1714  Mamia III (2nd time)               (s.a.)
16 Jan 1714 -        1716  Giorgi IV (2nd time)               (s.a.)
       1716                K`aikhosro III
       1716 -        1726  Giorgi IV (3rd time)               (s.a.)
       1726 -        1744  Mamia IV                           (b. c.1717 - d. 1778)
       1744                Giorgi V
       1744 -        1778  Svimon II (1st time)               (b. ... - d. 1792)
       1778 -        178.  K`aikhosro IV                      (b. ... - d. af.1820)
       178. -        1792  Svimon II (2nd time)               (s.a.)
       1792 -        1803  Vakhtang II                        (b. ... - d. af.1814)
       1803 -    Jul 1823  Mamia V                            (b. 1789 - d. 1823)
   Jul 1823 -    Sep 1829  Davit`                             (b. 1815 - d. 1839)

Svania (Svanet`i)

       1460                Principality of Svania established
       1858                incorporation into Russian Empire

Princes
- Dadeshk`eliani dynasty -
      *1750*               Otar
     c.1780 -      c.1800  Mistost                            (b. ... - d. c.1800)
     c.1800 -    Sep 1841  Tsiokh Nikoloz                     (b. ... - d. 1841)
   Sep 1841 -        1846  Mikheil                            (b. ... - d. 1850)
       1846 -    Sep 1857  Konstantine                        (b. 1827 - d. 1858)

Abkhazia

       1325                Principality of Abkhazia established
       1867                incorporation into Russian Empire
23 Jul 1992                independence declared (recognized only by Russia [26 Aug 2008],
                           Nicaragua [3 Sep 2008], Venezuela [10 Sep 2009], Nauru [15 Dec
                           2009], Vanuatu [23 May 2011, subsequently contradicted], and
                           Tuvalu [18 Sep 2011])
Note: Imeret`i (s.a.), rather than the Abkhazian principality, is the geographic (but not ethnic) antecedent of present-day Abkhazia.
Princes
- Sharvashidze dynasty -
       1789 - 14 May 1806  Kelesh Begi                        (b. 1747 - d. 1806)
14 May 1806 -    Jun 1810  Arslan Begi (1st time)
   Jun 1810 - 13 Nov 1821  Safar Begi (from 1810, Giorgi)     (b. 17... - d. 1821)
13 Nov 1821 -    Oct 1822  Dimitri                            (b. ... - d. 1822)
       1821 -        1822    Arslan Begi (2nd time)
                             (in rebellion)
   Oct 1822 - 15 Feb 1864  Mikheil                            (b. ... - d. 1866)
15 Feb 1864 -        1865  Grigol III
Presidents
 4 Dec 1990 - 12 Feb 2005  Vladislav Ardzinba                 (b. 1945 - d. 2010)
                           (chairman of parliament to 26 Nov 1994)
12 Feb 2005 - 29 May 2011  Sergey Bagapsh                     (b. 1949 - d. 2011)
29 May 2011 -  1 Jun 2014  Aleksandr Ankvab                   (b. 1952)
                           (acting to 26 Sep 2011)
31 May 2014 - 25 Sep 2014  Valery Bganba                      (b. 1953)
                           (acting [for Ankvab to 1 Jun 2014])
25 Sep 2014 -              Raul Khadjimba                     (b. 1958)

Prime ministers 5 May 1992 - 12 Dec 1993 Vazha Zarandia (b. 1932) 1993 - 1994 Sokrat Djindjolia (b. 1937) Jan 1995 - 29 Apr 1997 Gennady Gagulia (1st time) (b. 1948) 29 Apr 1997 - Dec 1999 Sergey Bagapsh (s.a.) Dec 1999 - Jun 2001 Vyacheslav Tsugba (b. 1944) Jun 2001 - 29 Nov 2002 Anri Djergenia (b. 1941) 29 Nov 2002 - 22 Apr 2003 Gennady Gagulia (2nd time) (s.a.) 22 Apr 2003 - 6 Oct 2004 Raul Khadjimba (s.a.) 6 Oct 2004 - 14 Feb 2005 Nodar Khashba (b. 1951) 14 Feb 2005 - 13 Feb 2010 Aleksandr Ankvab (s.a.) 13 Feb 2010 - 27 Sep 2011 Sergey Shamba (b. 1951) 27 Sep 2011 - 2 Jun 2014 Leonid Lakerbaya (b. 1947) 2 Jun 2014 - Vladimir Delba (acting) (b. 1974)

Pro-Georgian government (in Tbilisi; 27 Sep 2006 - 12 Aug 2008 in Chkhalta, Abkhazia)

Chairmen of the Supreme Council
24 Nov 1992 - 16 Mar 2004  Tamaz Nadareishvili                (b. 1954 - d. 2004)
16 Mar 2004 - 20 Mar 2009  Temur Mzhavia                      (b. 1952)
20 Mar 2009 -              Elguja Gvazava                     (b. 1952)

Prime ministers 18 Jul 1993 - 27 Sep 1993 Zhiuli Shartava (b. 1944 - d. 1993) Nov 1993 - Jul 1998 Zurak Erkvania (b. 1951) Jul 1998 - 30 Sep 2004 Londer Tsaava 30 Sep 2004 - 21 Mar 2006 Irakli Alasania (b. 1973) 21 Mar 2006 - 15 Jun 2009 Malkhaz Akishbaya (b. 1972) 15 Jun 2009 - 8 Apr 2013 Giorgi Baramia (b. 1966) 8 Apr 2013 - Vakhtang Kolbaya (acting) (b. 1952)

South Ossetia

28 Nov 1991                independence declared (recognized only by Russia [26 Aug 2008],
                           Nicaragua [3 Sep 2008], Venezuela [10 Sep 2009], Nauru
                           [16 Dec 2009], and Tuvalu [19 Sep 2011])

Chairmen of parliament (from 27 Nov 1996, presidents)
28 Nov 1991 -    Jan 1992  Znaur Gassiyev                     (b. 1925)
   Jan 1992 -    Oct 1993  Torez Kulumbegov                   (b. 1938 - d. 2006)
   Oct 1993 - 18 Dec 2001  Lyudvig Chibirov                   (b. 1932)
18 Dec 2001 - 10 Dec 2011  Eduard Kokoyty                     (b. 1964)
11 Dec 2011 - 19 Apr 2012  Vadim Brovtsev (acting)            (b. 1969)
19 Apr 2012 -              Leonid Tibilov                     (b. 1952)

Prime ministers 28 Nov 1991 - Oct 1993 Oleg Teziyev (b. 1948) 1993 - 1994 Gerasim Khugayev (1st time) (b. 1945) May 1994 - Aug 1994 Eduard Gassiyev 1994 - Sep 1996 Vladislav Gabarayev (b. 1957) 1996 - Aug 1998 Aleksandr Shavlokhov (b. 1940) Aug 1998 - Jun 2001 Merab Chigoyev (b. 1950) Jun 2001 - Dec 2001 Dmitry Sanakoyev (b. 1969) Dec 2001 - Aug 2003 Gerasim Khugayev (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting to 9 Jan 2002) 17 Sep 2003 - May 2005 Igor Sanakoyev (b. 1947) May 2005 - 5 Jul 2005 Zurab Kokoyev (acting) 5 Jul 2005 - 17 Aug 2008 Yury Morozov (b. 1949) 17 Aug 2008 - 22 Oct 2008 Boris Chochiyev (acting) (b. 1957) 22 Oct 2008 - 5 Aug 2009 Aslanbek Bulatsev (b. 1963) 5 Aug 2009 - 26 Apr 2012 Vadim Brovtsev (s.a.) 26 Apr 2012 - 20 Jan 2014 Rostislav Khugayev (b. 1951) (acting to 15 May 2012) 20 Jan 2014 - Domenty Kulumbegov (b. 1955) (acting to 2 Apr 2014)
Alternative government (pro-Georgian; in Kurta, South Ossetia, until Aug 2008)
10 May 2007                "provisional administrative entity" in South Ossetia
                           established by Georgia

President (from 10 May 2007, head of provisional administration)
 1 Dec 2006 -              Dmitry Sanakoyev                   (s.a.)

Prime minister 7 Dec 2006 - Sep 2007 Uruzmag Karkusov

Ajaria

Chairman of the Supreme Council (from 1998 also head of the republic)
15 Mar 1991 -  6 May 2004  Aslan Abashidze                    (b. 1938)
                           (acting to Jul 1991)
Chairman of the Interim Council
 7 May 2004 - 20 Jul 2004  Levan Varshalomidze                (b. 1972)
Chairmen of the Supreme Council
20 Jul 2004 - 28 Oct 2012  Mikheil Makharadze                 (b. 1946)
28 Oct 2012 -              Avtandil Beridze

Prime ministers Aug 2003 - 6 Apr 2004 Rezo Shamilishvili 6 Apr 2004 - 6 May 2004 Rostom Japaridze (b. 1948) 20 Jul 2004 - 30 Oct 2012 Levan Varshalomidze (s.a.) 30 Oct 2012 - Archil Khabadze (b. 1981)

German East Africa: see Tanzania.
German New Guinea: see Papua New Guinea.
German South West Africa: see Namibia.

Germany

Holy Roman Empire

Constitutionally the entity dealt here is the Reich ruled by the king elected by the electors (Kurfürsten) and crowned king. (It is a matter of dispute whether the king acquires his ruling authority with the election or only with the coronation; both dates are given in the following record.) In theory, his title is just King (König) without territorial appendage. By the time period covered here, it was understood that the king had acquired the dignity and notional authority of a Roman emperor (see below), and the scope of his authority as such was styled the Holy Roman Empire (Heiliges Römisches Reich - Sacrum Romanum Imperium); the addition "of the German Nation" (deutscher Nation - nationis germanicae) comes into official use in the 15th century (e.g., Act of the Imperial Diet [Reichsschluss] of 1486); its meaning has been the subject of considerable dispute since the 17th century. In the time period covered, the imperial authority extended de facto (except for some vestigial remnants, such as the chartering of notaries-public throughout Western Europe) only to the (German) Reich, and official use made no distinctions.

Upon his election (and coronation) the person acquired the style of king, whether during the lifetime of the ruler or after an interregnum. Theoretically he was king just as much as an existing ruler, but this was just theory. In honour of the imperial status of the ruler, the elected and crowned king, if not yet emperor-elect (see below), was styled, not just King or German King, but Roman King (Römischer König - Rex Romanorum, literally "king of the Romans").

Upon the demise of the imperial authority, by death or abdication, if a Roman King was in existence, he took the style of Roman Emperor-Elect, King in Germany (see below). The imperial coronation by the pope having been discontinued (except for Karl V 24 Feb 1530), it was decided 4 Feb 1508 to forego the formal acquisition of the style of Roman Emperor and to fall back on the theory that an elected German king was ipso facto Roman emperor-elect and to make this point by incorporating this concept into the ruler's style.

The full style during the period covered (to which were, of course, attached the styles belonging to the states ruled by the emperor-elect, such as Archduke of Austria) was as follows: Von Gottes Gnaden erwählter römischer Kaiser, R.I.S.A., König in Germanien - Divina favente clementia Romanorum imperator electus et semper augustus, R.I.S.A., rex in Germania. The initials R.I.S.A. stood for Romanorum imperator semper augustus, but were misinterpreted to stand for Romani imperii semper auctor, and this misinterpretation had by the period covered come into official use, being rendered in German as zu allen Zeiten Mehrer des Reichs ("at all times increaser of the empire").

Under the provisions of the Golden Bull of 1356, when there was no king the royal authority was exercised by two imperial vicars (Reichsvikare - vicarii imperii), each with a separate territorial jurisdiction. They were specified to be the count palatine of the Rhine (Pfalzgraf bei Rhein) and the count palatine of Saxony (Pfalzgraf von Sachsen). By our time period, the count palatine of Saxony was the duke of Saxony, elector; and the count palatine of the Rhine was the elector with that title, until the interregnum of 1657, when the electorate in question, and with it the county palatine, were in dispute with Bavaria.

 6 Aug 1806                Reich dissolved

Emperors-elect
 1 Aug 1658 -  5 May 1705  Leopold I                          (b. 1640 - d. 1705)
                           (elected 18 Jul 1658)
 5 May 1705 - 17 Apr 1711  Joseph I                           (b. 1678 - d. 1711)
                           (elected 23 Jan 1690, crowned 26 Jan 1690)
17 Apr 1711 - 12 Oct 1711  Imperial vicars
                           - Johann Wilhelm                   (b. 1658 - d. 1716)
                             (count palatine of the Rhine)
                           - Friedrich August I "der Starke"  (b. 1670 - d. 1733)
                             (count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony)
22 Dec 1711 - 20 Oct 1740  Karl VI                            (b. 1685 - d. 1740)
                           (elected 12 Oct 1711)
20 Oct 1740 - 14 Jan 1742  Imperial vicars
                           - Karl Albrecht                    (b. 1697 - d. 1745)
                             (duke of Bavaria)
                           - Friedrich August II (1st time)   (b. 1696 - d. 1763)
                             (count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony, etc.)
12 Feb 1742 - 20 Jan 1745  Karl VII                           (s.a.)
                           (= Karl Albrecht, duke of Bavaria)
                           (elected 14 Jan 1742)
20 Jan 1745 - 13 Sep 1745  Imperial vicars
                           - Maximilian III                   (b. 1727 - d. 1777)
                             (duke of Bavaria)
                           - Friedrich August II (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             (count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony, etc.)
 4 Oct 1745 - 18 Aug 1765  Franz I                            (b. 1708 - d. 1765)
                           (elected 13 Sep 1745)
18 Aug 1765 - 20 Feb 1790  Joseph II                          (b. 1741 - d. 1790)
                           (elected 27 Mar 1764, crowned 3 Apr 1764)
20 Feb 1790 - 30 Sep 1790  Imperial vicars
                           - Karl IV Philipp Theodor
                             (1st time)                       (b. 1724 - d. 1799)
                             (count palatine of the Rhine, duke of Bavaria)
                           - Friedrich August III
                             "der Gerechte" (1st time)        (b. 1750 - d. 1827)
                             (count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony, etc.)
 9 Oct 1790 -  1 Mar 1792  Leopold II                         (b. 1747 - d. 1792)
                           (elected 30 Sep 1790)
 1 Mar 1792 -  7 Jul 1792  Imperial vicars
                           - Karl IV Philipp Theodor
                             (2nd time)                       (s.a.)
                             (count palatine of the Rhine, duke of Bavaria)
                           - Friedrich August III
                             "der Gerechte" (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                             (count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony, etc.)
14 Jul 1792 -  6 Aug 1806  Franz II                           (b. 1768 - d. 1835)
                           (elected 7 Jul 1792)

Confederation of the Rhine

Under the aegis of Napoléon I, emperor of the French and king of Italy, a confederation of states resigning from the Reich was formed 25 Jul 1806, Napoléon becoming protecteur de la Confédération du Rhin in addition to his other styles. The Charter (Rheinbundakte in German) was written in the French language, and called the entity États confédérés du Rhin, but used the term Confédération. The official German term was Rhein-Confoederation, but it was informally styled Rheinbund, the name by which it is known to history. The constituents of the Confederation were technically not states, but rulers. By joining the Confederation some had their rank elevated, notably a few who became grand-dukes (Grossherzöge), who were regarded as of royal status. The Diet of the Confederation, as well as its College of Kings, was chaired by the former archbishop of Mayence, imperial archchancellor and elector, in his capacity as Prince-Primate (Fürstprimas).
25 Jul 1806                Confederation of the Rhine founded

                           Charter members:
                           - king of Bavaria
                           - king of Württemberg
                           - elector-archchancellor (formerly archbishop of Mayence)
                           - elector of Baden - becomes grand-duke
                           - duke of Berg and Cleves - becomes grand-duke
                           - landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt - becomes grand-duke
                           - prince of Nassau-Usingen - becomes duke
                           - prince of Nassau-Weilburg
                           - prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen
                           - prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
                           - prince of Salm-Salm
                           - prince of Salm-Kyrburg
                           - prince of Isenburg-Birstein
                           - duke of Arenberg
                           - prince of Liechtenstein
                           - count of Leyen - becomes prince
                           From 15 Sep 1806:
                           - grand-duke of Würzburg
                           From 11 Dec 1806:
                           - king of Saxony
                           From 15 Dec 1806:
                           - duke of Saxe-Weimar
                           - duke of Saxe-Gotha
                           - duke of Saxe-Meiningen
                           - duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen
                           - duke of Saxe-Coburg
                           - duke of Anhalt-Dessau
                           - duke of Anhalt-Bernburg
                           - duke of Anhalt-Köthen
                           - duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
                           - duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
                           - duke of Oldenburg
                           - prince of Lippe-Detmold
                           - prince of Schaumburg-Lippe
                           - four princes of Reuss
                           - two princes of Schwarzburg
                           - prince of Waldeck
                           From 15 Nov 1807:
                           - king of Westphalia

Prince-Primate
25 Jul 1806 - 19 Oct 1813  Carl Theodor Reichsfreiherr von
                           Dalberg                            (b. 1744 - d. 1817)

Transition 1813-15

After the dissolution of the Rhine Confederation, there was no central authority in Germany until the creation of the German Confederation. An attempt at coordination was, however, made, and it was headed by a body called Central Administration Council (Zentralverwaltungsrat).
President of the Central Administration Council
21 Oct 1813 - 20 Jun 1815  Karl Freiherr vom und zum Stein    (b. 1757 - d. 1831)

Germany 1815-1945

20 Jun 1815 - 24 Aug 1866  German Confederation; members in official sequence:
                            (1) Austria¹
                            (2) Prussia (announces exit 14 Jun 1866, permission
                                denied by Federal Assembly 16 Jun 1866)
                            (3) Bavaria
                            (4) Saxony
                            (5) Hanover
                            (6) Württemberg (from 1 Sep 1815)
                            (7) Baden (from 26 Jul 1815)
                            (8) Hesse-Kassel
                            (9) Hesse-Darmstadt
                           (10) Holstein (plus Schleswig from 12 Apr 1848)
                           (11) Luxembourg
                           (12) Limburg (from 5 Sep 1839) (see under Netherlands)
                           (13) Braunschweig
                           (14) Mecklenburg-Schwerin
                           (15) Nassau-Usingen + Nassau-Weilburg, merged 24 Mar 1816
                                into Nassau
                           (16) Saxe-Weimar
                           (17) Saxe-Gotha
                           (18) Saxe-Coburg
                           (19) Saxe-Meiningen
                           (20) Saxe-Hildburghausen
                           (21) Mecklenburg-Strelitz
                           (22) Holstein-Oldenburg
                           (23) Anhalt-Dessau (merged 30 Aug 1863 into Anhalt)
                           (24) Anhalt-Bernburg (ditto)
                           (25) Anhalt-Köthen (ditto)
                           (26) Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
                           (27) Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
                           (28) Hohenzollern-Hechingen (annexed by Prussia
                                12 Mar 1850)
                           (29) Liechtenstein
                           (30) Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (annexed by Prussia
                                12 Mar 1850)
                           (31) Waldeck
                           (32) Reuss Senior Line
                           (33) Reuss Junior Line
                           (34) Schaumburg-Lippe
                           (35) Lippe
                           (36) Hesse-Homburg (from 7 Jul 1817)
                           (37) Lauenburg
                           (38) Lübeck
                           (39) Frankfurt
                           (40) Bremen
                           (41) Hamburg
12 Jul 1848 - 20 Dec 1849  German Reich (officially from 28 Mar 1849)
 1 Jul 1867                North German Confederation; members in official sequence:
                            (1) Prussia² (with Lauenburg)
                            (2) Saxony
                            (3) Mecklenburg-Schwerin
                            (4) Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
                            (5) Mecklenburg-Strelitz
                            (6) Oldenburg
                            (7) Brunswick
                            (8) Saxe-Meiningen
                            (9) Saxe-Altenburg
                           (10) Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
                           (11) Anhalt
                           (12) Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
                           (13) Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
                           (14) Waldeck
                           (15) Reuss Senior Line
                           (16) Reuss Junior Line
                           (17) Schaumburg-Lippe
                           (18) Lippe
                           (19) Lübeck
                           (20) Bremen
                           (21) Hamburg
                           (22) Hesse-Darmstadt (only the territories on the right
                                bank of the Rhine)
 1 Jan 1871                German Reich
10 Nov 1918                republic
23 May 1945                Allied occupation (formally assuming supreme power
                           5 Jun 1945)

Provisional Central Authorities
12 Jul 1848 - 20 Dec 1849  Johann, Erzherzog von Österreich   (b. 1782 - d. 1859)
                           (Imperial Vicar [Reichsverweser])
 6 Jun 1849 - 18 Jun 1849  German Imperial Regency
                           - Franz Raveaux                    (b. 1810 - d. 1851)
                           - Carl Vogt                        (b. 1817 - d. 1895)
                           - August Heinrich Simon            (b. 1805 - d. 1860)
                           - Friedrich Schüler                (b. 1791 - d. 1873)
                           - August Becher                    (b. 1816 - d. 1890)
20 Dec 1849 -  1 May 1850  Federal Commission
                           (on behalf of the emperor of Austria and the king of
                           Prussia)
Emperors³
- Hohenzollern dynasty -
18 Jan 1871 -  9 Mar 1888  Wilhelm I                          (b. 1797 - d. 1888)
 9 Mar 1888 - 15 Jun 1888  Friedrich III                      (b. 1831 - d. 1888)
15 Jun 1888 -  9 Nov 1918  Wilhelm II                         (b. 1859 - d. 1941)
Presidents
11 Nov 1918 - 20 Dec 1918  Richard Müller                     (b. 1880 - d. 1943)
                           + Hans-Georg von Beerfelde         (b. 1877 - d. 1960)
                           (to 12 Nov 1918)
                           + Brutus Molkenbuhr                (b. 1881 - d. 1959)
                           (from 12 Nov 1918)
                           (chairmen Executive Council of the Workers' and Soldiers'
                           Councils of Greater Berlin)
20 Dec 1918 -  6 Feb 1919  Robert Leinert                     (b. 1873 - d. 1940)
                           + Max Cohen-Reuss                  (b. 1876 - d. 1963)
                           + Hermann Müller                   (b. 1876 - d. 1931)
                           (chairmen Central Council of the German Socialist Republic)
 6 Feb 1919 -  7 Feb 1919  Wilhelm Pfannkuch                  (b. 1841 - d. 1923)
                           (president by age of the Constituent National Assembly)
 7 Feb 1919 - 11 Feb 1919  Eduard David                       (b. 1863 - d. 1930)
                           (president of the Constituent National Assembly)
11 Feb 1919 - 28 Feb 1925  Friedrich Ebert                    (b. 1871 - d. 1925)
28 Feb 1925 - 12 Mar 1925  Hans Luther (acting)               (b. 1879 - d. 1962)
12 Mar 1925 - 12 May 1925  Walter Simons (acting)             (b. 1861 - d. 1937)
12 May 1925 -  2 Aug 1934  Paul von Hindenburg                (b. 1847 - d. 1934)
 2 Aug 1934 - 30 Apr 1945  Adolf Hitler (Führer)              (b. 1889 - d. 1945)
 1 May 1945 - 23 May 1945  Karl Dönitz                        (b. 1891 - d. 1980)

Presidents of the Council of Ministers 5 Aug 1848 - 16 Sep 1848 Carl Fürst zu Leiningen (b. 1804 - d. 1856) 16 Sep 1848 - 17 Dec 1848 Anton Ritter von Schmerling (b. 1805 - d. 1893) (acting) 17 Dec 1848 - 16 May 1849 Heinrich Freiherr von Gagern (b. 1799 - d. 1880) 16 May 1849 - 3 Jun 1849 Maximilian Grävell (interim) (b. 1781 - d. 1860) 3 Jun 1849 - 20 Dec 1849 August Ludwig Prinz von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg (b. 1788 - d. 1874) Chancellors 14 Jul 1867 - 20 Mar 1890 Otto Graf von Bismarck (from 21 Mar 1871, Otto Fürst von Bismarck) (b. 1815 - d. 1898) 20 Mar 1890 - 29 Oct 1894 Leo von Caprivi (from 18 Dec 1891, Leo Graf von Caprivi) (b. 1831 - d. 1899) 29 Oct 1894 - 17 Oct 1900 Chlodwig Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst (b. 1819 - d. 1901) 17 Oct 1900 - 14 Jul 1909 Bernhard Graf von Bülow (from 6 Sep 1905, Bernhard Fürst von Bülow) (b. 1849 - d. 1929) 14 Jul 1909 - 16 Jul 1917 Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg (b. 1856 - d. 1921) 16 Jul 1917 - 2 Dec 1917 Georg Michaelis (b. 1857 - d. 1936) 2 Dec 1917 - 5 Oct 1918 Georg Graf von Hertling (b. 1843 - d. 1919) 5 Oct 1918 - 9 Nov 1918 Max Prinz von Baden (b. 1867 - d. 1929) 9 Nov 1918 - 10 Nov 1918 Friedrich Ebert (s.a.) Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissioners 10 Nov 1918 - 27 Dec 1918 Friedrich Ebert (1st time) (s.a.) + Hugo Haase (b. 1863 - d. 1919) 27 Dec 1918 - 29 Dec 1918 Friedrich Ebert (2nd time) (s.a.) 29 Dec 1918 - 30 Dec 1918 Friedrich Ebert (3rd time) (s.a.) + Philipp Scheidemann (b. 1865 - d. 1939) 30 Dec 1918 - 11 Feb 1919 Friedrich Ebert (4th time) (s.a.) (executive chairman) Chancellors 13 Feb 1919 - 21 Jun 1919 Philipp Scheidemann (s.a.) (prime minister) 21 Jun 1919 - 27 Mar 1920 Gustav Bauer (b. 1870 - d. 1944) (prime minister to 14 Aug 1919) 13 Mar 1920 - 17 Mar 1920 Wolfgang Kapp (in rebellion) (b. 1858 - d. 1922) 27 Mar 1920 - 21 Jun 1920 Hermann Müller (1st time) (s.a.) 21 Jun 1920 - 10 May 1921 Konstantin Fehrenbach (b. 1852 - d. 1926) 10 May 1921 - 22 Nov 1922 Joseph Wirth (b. 1879 - d. 1956) 22 Nov 1922 - 13 Aug 1923 Wilhelm Cuno (b. 1876 - d. 1933) 13 Aug 1923 - 30 Nov 1923 Gustav Stresemann (b. 1878 - d. 1929) 30 Nov 1923 - 16 Jan 1925 Wilhelm Marx (1st time) (b. 1863 - d. 1946) 16 Jan 1925 - 13 May 1926 Hans Luther (s.a.) 13 May 1926 - 17 May 1926 Otto Gessler (acting) (b. 1875 - d. 1955) 17 May 1926 - 28 Jun 1928 Wilhelm Marx (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Jun 1928 - 30 Mar 1930 Hermann Müller (2nd time) (s.a.) 30 Mar 1930 - 1 Jun 1932 Heinrich Brüning (b. 1885 - d. 1970) 1 Jun 1932 - 3 Dec 1932 Franz von Papen (b. 1879 - d. 1969) 3 Dec 1932 - 30 Jan 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (b. 1882 - d. 1934) 30 Jan 1933 - 30 Apr 1945 Adolf Hitler (s.a.) 30 Apr 1945 - 1 May 1945 Joseph Goebbels (b. 1897 - d. 1945) 2 May 1945 - 23 May 1945 Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk (b. 1887 - d. 1977) (chairman [Leitender Minister] of interim government, at Flensburg)
¹According to the Charter of the German Confederation, "Austria has the chair in the Federal Assembly." Although the Charter does not use the term, this chairmanship is officially styled Präsidium or Bundespräsidium; it is ambiguous whether this style refers to the person or office of the Emperor of Austria.
²According to the Constitution of the North German Confederation, "The Crown of Prussia is entitled to the Presidency of the Confederation" (Präsidium des Bundes). The office does not confer a specific style on the King of Prussia; when exercising it, the style used is "King of Prussia in the name of the North German Confederation."
³Full style of the emperor up to 1918: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preussen, Markgraf zu Brandenburg, Burggraf zu Nürnberg, Graf zu Hohenzollern, souveräner und oberster Herzog von Schlesien wie auch der Grafschaft Glatz, Grossherzog vom Niederrhein und Posen, Herzog zu Sachsen, Westfalen und Engern, zu Pommern, Lüneburg, Holstein und Schleswig, zu Magdeburg, Bremen, Geldern, Cleve, Jülich und Berg, sowie auch der Wenden und Kaschuben, zu Krossen, Lauenburg, Mecklenburg, Landgraf zu Hessen und Thüringen, Markgraf der Ober- und Niederlausitz, Prinz von Oranien, Fürst zu Rügen, zu Ostfriesland, zu Paderborn und Pyrmont, zu Halberstadt, Münster, Minden, Osnabrück, Hildesheim, zu Verden, Kammin, Fulda, Nassau und Moers, gefürsteter Graf zu Henneberg, Graf der Mark und zu Ravensberg, zu Hohnstein, Tecklenburg und Lingen, zu Mansfeld, Sigmaringen und Veringen, Herr zu Frankfurt.

Allied occupation

U.S. zone

Military governors
 8 May 1945 - 10 Nov 1945  Dwight D. Eisenhower               (b. 1890 - d. 1969)
11 Nov 1945 - 25 Nov 1945  George S. Patton, Jr. (acting)     (b. 1885 - d. 1945)
26 Nov 1945 -  5 Jan 1947  Joseph T. McNarney                 (b. 1893 - d. 1972)
 6 Jan 1947 - 14 May 1949  Lucius D. Clay                     (b. 1897 - d. 1978)
15 May 1949 -  1 Sep 1949  Clarence R. Huebner (acting)       (b. 1888 - d. 1972)
High commissioners
 2 Sep 1949 -  1 Aug 1952  John J. McCloy                     (b. 1895 - d. 1989)
 1 Aug 1952 - 11 Dec 1952  Walter J. Donnelly                 (b. 1896 - d. 1970)
11 Dec 1952 - 10 Feb 1953  Samuel Reber (acting)              (b. 1903 - d. 1971)
10 Feb 1953 -  5 May 1955  James B. Conant                    (b. 1893 - d. 1978)

British zone

Military governors
22 May 1945 - 30 Apr 1946  Sir Bernard Law Montgomery (from 1
                           Jan 1946, Bernard Law Montgomery,
                           Viscount Montgomery of Alamein)    (b. 1887 - d. 1976)
 1 May 1946 - 31 Oct 1947  Sir William Sholto Douglas         (b. 1893 - d. 1969)
 1 Nov 1947 - 21 Sep 1949  Sir Brian Hubert Robertson         (b. 1896 - d. 1974)
High commissioners
21 Sep 1949 - 24 Jun 1950  Sir Brian Hubert Robertson         (s.a.)
24 Jun 1950 - 29 Sep 1953  Sir Ivone Kirkpatrick              (b. 1897 - d. 1964)
29 Sep 1953 -  5 May 1955  Sir Frederick Hoyer Millar         (b. 1900 - d. 1989)

French zone

Military governor
   Jul 1945 - 21 Sep 1949  Pierre Koenig                      (b. 1898 - d. 1970)
High commissioner
21 Sep 1949 -  5 May 1955  André François-Poncet              (b. 1887 - d. 1978)

Soviet zone

Military governors
 9 Jun 1945 - 10 Apr 1946  Georgy Zhukov                      (b. 1896 - d. 1974)
10 Apr 1946 - 29 Mar 1949  Vasily Sokolovsky                  (b. 1897 - d. 1968)
29 Mar 1949 - 10 Oct 1949  Vasily Chuikov                     (b. 1900 - d. 1982)
Chairman of the Soviet Control Commission
10 Oct 1949 - 28 May 1953  Vasily Chuikov                     (s.a.)
High commissioners
28 May 1953 - 16 Jul 1954  Vladimir Semyonov                  (b. 1911 - d. 1992)
16 Jul 1954 - 20 Sep 1955  Georgy Pushkin                     (b. 1909 - d. 1963)

German Democratic Republic

 7 Oct 1949                German Democratic Republic ("East Germany")
 3 Oct 1990                incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany

General secretaries (28 Jul 1953 - 22 May 1976, first secretaries) of the
Socialist Unity (Communist) Party
22 Apr 1946 - 25 Jul 1950  Wilhelm Pieck                      (b. 1876 - d. 1960)
                           + Otto Grotewohl                   (b. 1894 - d. 1964)
                           (co-chairmen)
25 Jul 1950 -  3 May 1971  Walter Ulbricht                    (b. 1893 - d. 1973)
 3 May 1971 - 18 Oct 1989  Erich Honecker                     (b. 1912 - d. 1994)
18 Oct 1989 -  3 Dec 1989  Egon Krenz                         (b. 1937)
                           ("leading role" of the party abolished 1 Dec 1989)

Presidents 7 Oct 1949 - 11 Oct 1949 Johannes Dieckmann (1st time) (b. 1893 - d. 1969) (acting) 11 Oct 1949 - 7 Sep 1960 Wilhelm Pieck (s.a.) 7 Sep 1960 - 12 Sep 1960 Johannes Dieckmann (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting) Chairmen of the Council of State 12 Sep 1960 - 1 Aug 1973 Walter Ulbricht (s.a.) 1 Aug 1973 - 3 Oct 1973 Friedrich Ebert (acting) (b. 1894 - d. 1979) 3 Oct 1973 - 29 Oct 1976 Willi Stoph (b. 1914 - d. 1999) 29 Oct 1976 - 24 Oct 1989 Erich Honecker (s.a.) 24 Oct 1989 - 6 Dec 1989 Egon Krenz (s.a.) 6 Dec 1989 - 5 Apr 1990 Manfred Gerlach (acting) (b. 1928 - d. 2011) 5 Apr 1990 - 2 Oct 1990 Sabine Bergmann-Pohl (f) (b. 1946) (president of the People's Chamber)
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (premiers)¹ 12 Oct 1949 - 21 Sep 1964 Otto Grotewohl (s.a.) 21 Sep 1964 - 3 Oct 1973 Willi Stoph (1st time) (s.a.) (acting to 24 Sep 1964) 3 Oct 1973 - 29 Oct 1976 Horst Sindermann (b. 1915 - d. 1990) 29 Oct 1976 - 13 Nov 1989 Willi Stoph (2nd time) (s.a.) 13 Nov 1989 - 12 Apr 1990 Hans Modrow (b. 1928) 12 Apr 1990 - 2 Oct 1990 Lothar de Maizière (b. 1940)
¹Although initially the government was officially called Regierung, the term Ministerrat was used unofficially and, from 16 Nov 1954, officially; the term Vorsitzender des Ministerrates for its head was made official 8 Dec 1958, replacing the earlier Ministerpräsident.

Federal Republic of Germany

 7 Sep 1949                Federal Republic of Germany ("West Germany" to 2 Oct 1990)

Presidents
 7 Sep 1949 - 12 Sep 1949  Karl Arnold (acting)          CDU  (b. 1901 - d. 1958)
12 Sep 1949 - 12 Sep 1959  Theodor Heuss                 FDP  (b. 1884 - d. 1963)
13 Sep 1959 - 30 Jun 1969  Heinrich Lübke                CDU  (b. 1894 - d. 1972)
 1 Jul 1969 - 30 Jun 1974  Gustav Heinemann              SPD  (b. 1899 - d. 1976)
 1 Jul 1974 - 30 Jun 1979  Walter Scheel                 FDP  (b. 1919)
 1 Jul 1979 - 30 Jun 1984  Karl Carstens                 CDU  (b. 1914 - d. 1992)
 1 Jul 1984 - 30 Jun 1994  Richard von Weizsäcker        CDU  (b. 1920)
 1 Jul 1994 - 30 Jun 1999  Roman Herzog                  CDU  (b. 1934)
 1 Jul 1999 - 30 Jun 2004  Johannes Rau                  SPD  (b. 1931 - d. 2006)
 1 Jul 2004 - 31 May 2010  Horst Köhler                  CDU  (b. 1943)
31 May 2010 - 30 Jun 2010  Jens Böhrnsen (acting)        SPD  (b. 1949)
30 Jun 2010 - 17 Feb 2012  Christian Wulff               CDU  (b. 1959)
17 Feb 2012 - 18 Mar 2012  Horst Seehofer (acting)       CSU  (b. 1949)
18 Mar 2012 -              Joachim Gauck                 -    (b. 1940)

Chancellors 16 Sep 1949 - 16 Oct 1963 Konrad Adenauer CDU (b. 1876 - d. 1967) 16 Oct 1963 - 1 Dec 1966 Ludwig Erhard CDU (b. 1897 - d. 1977) 1 Dec 1966 - 21 Oct 1969 Kurt Georg Kiesinger CDU (b. 1904 - d. 1988) 21 Oct 1969 - 7 May 1974 Willy Brandt SPD (b. 1913 - d. 1992) 7 May 1974 - 16 May 1974 Walter Scheel (acting) FDP (s.a.) 16 May 1974 - 1 Oct 1982 Helmut Schmidt SPD (b. 1918) 1 Oct 1982 - 27 Oct 1998 Helmut Kohl CDU (b. 1930) 27 Oct 1998 - 22 Nov 2005 Gerhard Schröder SPD (b. 1944) 22 Nov 2005 - Angela Merkel (f) CDU (b. 1954)
Party abbreviations: CDU=Christian Democratic Union, SPD=Social Democratic Party of Germany, FDP=Free Democratic Party

Saarbecken (Saargebiet)

   Nov 1918                Allied occupation
26 Feb 1920                League of Nations administration
 1 Mar 1935                reincorporated into Germany

Administrators-superior
20 Nov 1918 - 17 Feb 1919  Henri Wirbel (France) (1st time)   (b. 1861 - d. 1948)
17 Feb 1919 - 20 Nov 1919  Joseph Louis Marie Andlauer
                           (France)                           (b. 1869 - d. 1956)
20 Nov 1919 -  7 Mar 1920  Henri Wirbel (France) (2nd time)   (s.a.)
Presidents of the Commission of Government
26 Feb 1920 - 31 Mar 1926  Victor Rault (France)              (b. 1858 - d. 1930)
 1 Apr 1926 - 31 Mar 1927  George Washington Stephens
                           (Canada)                           (b. 1866 - d. 1942)
20 Jun 1927 - 31 Mar 1932  Sir Ernest Wilton (U.K.)           (b. 1870 - d. 1952)
 1 Apr 1932 -  1 Mar 1935  Geoffrey George Knox (U.K.)        (b. 1884 - d. 1958)
Reichskommissar für die Rückgliederung des Saarlandes (from 17 Jun 1936,
Reichskommissar für das Saarland; from 8 Apr 1940, Reichskommissar für die
Saarpfalz; from 11 Mar 1941, Reichsstatthalter in der Westmark)
 1 Mar 1935 - 28 Sep 1944  Josef Bürckel                      (b. 1895 - d. 1944)
29 Sep 1944 - 21 Mar 1945  Willi Stöhr                        (b. 1903 - d. ...)

Heligoland

       1402                part of Schleswig-Holstein
       1714                part of Denmark
 5 Sep 1807                British occupation (1814 colony)
15 Dec 1890                part of Germany
 8 May 1945 -  1 Mar 1952  British occupation

Lieutenant governors
 5 Sep 1807 -        1808  Corbet James D'Auvergne            (b. 1765? - d. 1826)
       1808 -        1815  William Osborne Hamilton           (b. 1750? - d. 1818)
       1815 -        1840  Henry King
       1840 -        1857  John Hindmarsh (from Aug 1851,
                           Sir John Hindmarsh)                (b. 1775 - d. 1860)
       1857 -        1863  Richard Pattinson
       1863 -        1868  Fitzhardinge Berkeley Maxse        (b. 1832 - d. 1883)
Governors
       1868 -        1881  Fitzhardinge Berkeley Maxse        (s.a.)
       1881 -        1888  John Terence Nicolls O'Brien       (b. 1830 - d. 1903)
       1888 -        1890  Arthur Cecil Stuart Barkly         (b. 1843 - d. 1890)

Ghana

       1751                British rule (Gold Coast)
       1843                crown colony (subordinated to Sierra Leone until 1874)
 6 Mar 1957                Gold Coast and British Togoland independent as Ghana
 1 Jul 1960                Republic of Ghana

Governors of the Committee of Merchants
23 Jun 1751 - 23 Jan 1756  Thomas Melvil                      (b. ... - d. 1756)
23 Jan 1756 - 17 Feb 1756  William Tymewell                   (b. ... - d. 1756)
17 Feb 1756 - 15 Oct 1757  Charles Bell (1st time)
15 Oct 1757 - 10 May 1761  Nassau Senior (acting)
10 May 1761 - 15 Aug 1763  Charles Bell (2nd time)
15 Aug 1763 -  1 Mar 1766  William Mutter
 1 Mar 1766 - 11 Aug 1766  John Hippersley                    (b. ... - d. 1766)
11 Aug 1766 - 21 Apr 1769  Gilbert Petrie
21 Apr 1769 - 11 Aug 1770  John Crossle
11 Aug 1770 - 20 Jan 1777  David Mill
20 Jan 1777 - 25 Mar 1780  Richard Miles (1st time)
25 Mar 1780 - 20 May 1781  John Roberts
20 May 1781 - 29 Apr 1782  John B. Weuves (acting)
29 Apr 1782 - 29 Jan 1784  Richard Miles (2nd time)
29 Jan 1784 - 24 Jan 1787  James Morgue
24 Jan 1787 - 27 Apr 1787  Thomas Price
27 Apr 1787 - 20 Jun 1789  Thomas Morris
20 Jun 1789 - 15 Nov 1791  William Fielde
15 Nov 1791 - 31 Mar 1792  John Gordon (1st time)
31 Mar 1792 - 16 Dec 1798  Archibald Dalzel (1st time)        (b. 1740 - d. 1811)
16 Dec 1798 -  4 Jan 1799  Jacob Mould (1st time)
 4 Jan 1799 - 28 Apr 1800  John Gordon (2nd time)
28 Apr 1800 - 30 Sep 1802  Archibald Dalzel (2nd time)        (s.a.)
30 Sep 1802 -  8 Feb 1805  Jacob Mould (2nd time)
 8 Feb 1805 -  4 Dec 1807  George Torrane
 4 Dec 1807 - 21 Apr 1816  Edward White
21 Apr 1816 - 19 Jan 1817  Joseph Dawson
19 Jan 1817 - 27 Mar 1822  John Hope Smith
Governors
27 Mar 1822 - 17 May 1822  Sir Charles Macarthy (1st time)    (b. ... - d. 1824)
17 May 1822 -    Dec 1822  James Chisholm (1st time)
   Dec 1822 - 21 Jan 1824  Sir Charles Macarthy (2nd time)    (s.a.)
21 Jan 1824 - 17 Oct 1824  James Chisholm (2nd time)
17 Oct 1824 - 22 Mar 1825  Edward Purdon
22 Mar 1825 -  8 Mar 1826  Charles Turner                     (b. ... - d. 1826)
18 May 1826 - 15 Nov 1826  Sir Neil Campbell                  (b. 1776 - d. 1827)
15 Nov 1826 - 11 Oct 1827  Henry John Ricketts (1st time)
11 Oct 1827 - 10 Mar 1828  Hugh Lumley                        (b. ... - d. 1828)
10 Mar 1828 -  5 Jun 1828  George Hingston
 5 Jun 1828 - 25 Jun 1828  Henry John Ricketts (2nd time)
Governors of the Committee of Merchants
25 Jun 1828 - 19 Feb 1830  John Jackson
19 Feb 1830 - 26 Jun 1836  George Maclean (1st time)
26 Jun 1836 - 15 Aug 1838  William Topp
15 Aug 1838 -        1843  George Maclean (2nd time)
Governors
       1843 -  8 Mar 1845  R.M. Worsley Hill
 8 Mar 1845 - 15 Apr 1846  James Lelley
15 Apr 1846 - 31 Jan 1849  William Winniett (1st time)
31 Jan 1849 - 13 Jan 1850  James Coleman Fitzpatrick          (b. 1816 - d. 1880)
13 Jan 1850 -  4 Dec 1850  Sir William Winniett (2nd time)
 4 Dec 1850 - 14 Oct 1851  James Bannerman                    (b. 1790 - d. 1858)
14 Oct 1851 -    Dec 1854  Stephen John Hill                  (b. 1809 - d. 1891)
   Dec 1854 -    Mar 1857  Henry Connor (acting)
   Mar 1857 -    Apr 1858  Sir Benjamin Chilley Campbell Pine (b. 1809 - d. 1891)
   Apr 1858 - 20 Apr 1860  Henry Bird (acting)
20 Apr 1860 - 14 Apr 1862  Edward B. Andrews
14 Apr 1862 - 20 Sep 1862  William A. Ross (acting)
20 Sep 1862 -        1865  Richard Pine
       1865                Rokeby Jones (acting)
       1865                W.E. Mockler (acting)
   Apr 1865 -    Feb 1867  Edward Conran
   Feb 1867 -    Apr 1872  Herbert Taylor Ussher (1st time)   (b. 1836 - d. 1880)
                           (administrator)
   Apr 1872 -        1872  John Pope Hennessy                 (b. 1834 - d. 1891)
       1872 -    Sep 1872  Charles Spencer Salmon (acting)
   Sep 1872 -  2 Oct 1873  Robert William Harley
 2 Oct 1873 -  4 Mar 1874  Garnet Joseph Wolseley             (b. 1833 - d. 1913)
 4 Mar 1874 - 30 Mar 1874  James Maxwell (acting)
30 Mar 1874 -    Jun 1874  Charles Cameron Lees (1st time)    (b. 1831 - d. 1898)
                           (acting)
   Jun 1874 -  7 Apr 1876  George Cumine Strahan              (b. 1838 - d. 1889)
 7 Apr 1876 -    Dec 1876  Charles Cameron Lees (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                           (acting)
   Dec 1876 - 13 May 1878  Sanford Freeling                   (b. 1828 - d. 1894)
                           (acting to 5 Jun 1877)
13 May 1878 -    Jun 1879  Charles Cameron Lees (3rd time)    (s.a.)
                           (acting)
   Jun 1879 -  1 Dec 1880  Herbert Taylor Ussher (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 1 Dec 1880 -  4 Mar 1881  William Brandford Griffith
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1821 - d. 1897)
 4 Mar 1881 - 29 Apr 1884  Sir Samuel Rowe                    (b. 1835 - d. 1888)
29 Apr 1884 - 24 Apr 1885  W.A.G. Young
24 Apr 1885 -  7 Apr 1895  William Brandford Griffith (from
                           1887, Sir William Brandford
                           Griffith) (2nd time)               (s.a.)
 7 Apr 1895 -  6 Dec 1897  William Edward Maxwell (from 1896,
                           Sir William Edward Maxwell)        (b. 1842/43 - d. 1897)
 6 Dec 1897 - 29 Aug 1900  Frederick Mitchell Hodgson         (b. 1851 - d. 1925)
                           (acting to 29 May 1898)
29 Aug 1900 - 17 Dec 1900  W. Low (acting)
17 Dec 1900 -  9 Feb 1904  Sir Matthew Nathan                 (b. 1862 - d. 1939)
 9 Feb 1904 -  3 Mar 1904  Herbert Bryan (1st time) (acting)  (b. 1865 - d. 1950)
 3 Mar 1904 -  1 Sep 1910  John Pickersgill Rodger            (b. 1851 - d. 1910)
 1 Sep 1910 - 20 Nov 1910  Herbert Bryan (2nd time) (acting)  (s.a.)
21 Nov 1910 - 29 Jun 1912  James Jamieson Thorburn            (b. 1864 - d. 1929)
29 Jun 1912 - 26 Dec 1912  Herbert Bryan (3rd time) (acting)  (s.a.)
26 Dec 1912 -  1 Apr 1919  Sir Hugh Clifford                  (b. 1866 - d. 1941)
 1 Apr 1919 -  8 Oct 1919  Alexander Ransford Slater
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1874 - d. 1940)
 9 Oct 1919 - 24 Apr 1927  Frederick Gordon Guggisberg        (b. 1869 - d. 1930)
24 Apr 1927 -  5 Jun 1927  Sir James Crawford Maxwell         (b. 1869 - d. 1932)
                           (acting)
 5 Jun 1927 -    Jul 1927  John Maxwell (acting)              (b. 1875 - d. 1946)
   Jul 1927 -  5 Apr 1932  Sir Alexander Ransford Slater
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 5 Apr 1932 - 29 Nov 1932  Geoffry Northcote (1st time)       (b. 1881 - d. 1948)
                           (acting)
30 Nov 1932 - 13 May 1934  Sir Shenton Thomas                 (b. 1879 - d. 1962)
13 May 1934 - 23 Oct 1934  Geoffry Northcote (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                           (acting)
24 Oct 1934 - 24 Oct 1941  Sir Arnold Wienholt Hodson         (b. 1881 - d. 1944)
24 Oct 1941 - 29 Jun 1942  George Ernest London (acting)      (b. 1889 - d. 1957)
29 Jun 1942 -  2 Aug 1947  Sir Alan Cuthbert Maxwell Burns    (b. 1887 - d. 1980)
12 Jan 1948 - 15 Feb 1949  Sir Gerald Hallen Creasy           (b. 1897 - d. 1983)
15 Feb 1949 - 28 Mar 1949  Sir Robert Scott (1st time)        (b. 1903 - d. 1968)
                           (acting)
28 Mar 1949 - 11 Jun 1949  Thorleif Rattray Orde Mangin       (b. 1896 - d. 1950)
                           (acting)
11 Jun 1949 - 11 Aug 1949  Sir Robert Scott (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                           (acting)
11 Aug 1949 -  6 Mar 1957  Sir Charles Noble Arden
                           Arden-Clarke                       (b. 1898 - d. 1962)
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
 6 Mar 1957 - 14 May 1957  Sir Charles Noble Arden
                           Arden-Clarke                       (s.a.)
14 May 1957 - 13 Nov 1957  Sir Arku Korsah (acting)           (b. 1894 - d. 1967)
13 Nov 1957 - 30 Jun 1960  William Francis Hare, Earl of
                           Listowel                           (b. 1906 - d. 1997)
Presidents
 1 Jul 1960 - 24 Feb 1966  Kwame Nkrumah                      (b. 1909 - d. 1972)
24 Feb 1966 -  2 Apr 1969  Joseph Ankrah                      (b. 1915 - d. 1992)
                           (chairman National Liberation Council)
 2 Apr 1969 -  7 Aug 1970  Akwasi Afrifa                      (b. 1936 - d. 1979)
                           (chairman National Liberation Council to 3 Sep 1969,
                           then chairman Presidential Commission)
 7 Aug 1970 - 31 Aug 1970  Nii Amaa Ollennu (acting)          (b. 1906 - d. 1986)
31 Aug 1970 - 13 Jan 1972  Edward Akufo-Addo                  (b. 1906 - d. 1979)
13 Jan 1972 -  5 Jul 1978  Ignatius Kutu Acheampong           (b. 1931 - d. 1979)
                           (chairman National Redemption Council to 9 Oct 1975,
                           then chairman Supreme Military Council)
 5 Jul 1978 -  4 Jun 1979  Fred W.K. Akuffo                   (b. 1937 - d. 1979)
                           (chairman Supreme Military Council)
 4 Jun 1979 - 24 Sep 1979  Jerry John Rawlings (1st time)     (b. 1947)
                           (chairman Armed Forces Revolutionary Council)
24 Sep 1979 - 31 Dec 1981  Hilla Limann                       (b. 1934 - d. 1998)
31 Dec 1981 -  7 Jan 2001  Jerry John Rawlings (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                           (chairman Provisional National Defense Council to
                           7 Jan 1993)
 7 Jan 2001 -  7 Jan 2009  John Agyekum Kufuor                (b. 1938)
 7 Jan 2009 - 24 Jul 2012  John Atta Mills                    (b. 1944 - d. 2012)
24 Jul 2012 -              John Dramani Mahama                (b. 1958)

Prime ministers 21 Mar 1952 - 1 Jul 1960 Kwame Nkrumah (s.a.) 3 Sep 1969 - 13 Jan 1972 Kofi Busia (b. 1913 - d. 1978)

Danish Gold Coast Settlements

       1657/58             Danish Gold Coast Settlements (also called Danish Guinea)
                           established on eastern Gold Coast (Ft. Friedensborg [Ningo],
                           Ft. Christiansborg, Ft. Augustaborg [Tshi], Ft. Prinzenstein
                           [Keta], Ft. Konigenstein [Ada])
   Dec 1680 - 29 Aug 1682  Portuguese occupation of Ft. Christiansborg
       1750                Danish crown colony
30 Mar 1850                Danish Gold Coast Settlements sold to Britain and
                           incorporated into the Gold Coast Colony

Opperhoveds
23 Dec 1698 - 31 Aug 1703  John Trawne                        (b. 16... - d. 1703)
11 Sep 1703 - 23 Apr 1704  Hartvig Meyer                      (b. 16... - d. 1704)
23 Apr 1704 -  5 May 1705  Peter Sverdrup (acting)            (b. 16... - d. 1705)
 5 May 1705 - 25 May 1705  Peter Petersen (acting)            (b. 16... - d. 1705)
25 May 1705 - 17 Aug 1711  Erik Olsen Lygaard (2nd time)      (b. 16... - d. 1711)
17 Aug 1711 - 26 Nov 1717  Bfantz Boye                        (b. 16... - d. 1717)
26 Nov 1717 -  6 Aug 1720  Knud Røst                          (b. 16... - d. 1720)
 6 Aug 1720 - 24 Jan 1722  Peter Østrup                       (b. ... - d. 1722)
25 Jan 1722 - 22 Jan 1723  Niels Jensen Østrup                (b. ... - d. 1724)
22 Jan 1723 - 27 Apr 1724  Christian Andreas Syndermann       (b. ... - d. 1724)
27 Apr 1724 -  1 Mar 1727  Hendrik von Suhm                   (b. ... - d. 1727)
 4 Mar 1727 - 18 Sep 1727  Fred Pahl                          (b. ... - d. 1727)
18 Sep 1727 - 24 Dec 1728  Andreas Willumsen                  (b. ... - d. 1728)
24 Dec 1728 - 12 Aug 1735  Anders Pedersen Waerøe
12 Aug 1735 - 14 Jun 1736  Severin Schilderup                 (b. ... - d. 1736)
14 Jun 1736 - 20 Jun 1740  Enevold Nielson Boris              (b. ... - d. 1740)
20 Jun 1740 - 26 May 1743  Peter Nikolaj Jørgensen            (b. ... - d. 1743)
26 May 1743 -  3 Feb 1744  Christian Glob Dorph               (b. ... - d. 1744)
 3 Feb 1744 - 11 Mar 1745  Jørgen Billsen                     (b. ... - d. 1745)
11 Mar 1745 - 23 Mar 1745  Thomas Brock                       (b. ... - d. 1745)
23 Mar 1745 - 23 Apr 1745  Johan Wilder                       (b. ... - d. 1745)
23 Apr 1745 - 21 Jun 1746  August Frederik Hackenburg
21 Jun 1746 -  6 Mar 1751  Joost Platfusz
 6 Mar 1751 -  8 Mar 1751  Magnus Christopher Lützow          (b. ... - d. 1751)
 8 Mar 1751 - 21 Jul 1752  Magnus Hacksen (acting)            (b. ... - d. 1752)
21 Jul 1752 - 11 Mar 1757  Carl Engman
11 Mar 1757 - 14 Feb 1762  Christian Jessen                   (b. ... - d. 1768)
14 Feb 1762 - 20 Oct 1766  Carl Gottlieb Resch                (b. ... - d. 1768)
Governors
20 Oct 1766 - 11 Jan 1768  Christian Tychsen                  (b. ... - d. 1768)
11 Jan 1768 -  2 Jul 1769  Frantz Joachim Kühberg             (b. ... - d. 1769)
 2 Jul 1769 - 11 Jun 1770  Joachim Christian Otto (acting)    (b. ... - d. 1770)
11 Jun 1770 - 15 Jun 1772  Johan Daniel Frøhlich (acting)     (b. ... - d. 1772)
15 Jun 1772 - 24 Jun 1777  Niels Urban Aarestrup (acting)
24 Jun 1777 -  2 Dec 1780  Johan Conrad von Hemsen            (b. ... - d. 1780)
 2 Dec 1780 - 21 Apr 1788  Jens Adolf Kiøge (acting)          (b. 1746 - d. 1789)
21 Apr 1788 - 23 Oct 1789  Johan Friedrich Kipnasse (acting)  (b. ... - d. 1796)
23 Oct 1789 -    Jul 1792  Andreas Rieselsen Bjørn            (b. 1748 - d. 1821)
   Jul 1792 - 30 Jun 1793  Andreas Hammer
                           (acting to 25 Jan 1793)
30 Jun 1793 -  3 Aug 1793  Bendt Olrik                        (b. 1749 - d. 1793)
 3 Aug 1793 - 17 Aug 1795  Baron Christian Friedrich von
                           Hager (acting)                     (b. 1754 - d. 1795)
   Oct 1795 - 31 Dec 1799  Johan Peter David Wrisberg
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1771 - d. 1819)
31 Dec 1799 -  3 Dec 1802  Johan David Ahnholm (acting)       (b. 1756 - d. 1806)
 3 Dec 1802 - 15 Apr 1807  Johan Peter David Wrisberg
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
15 Apr 1807 -  1 Mar 1817  Christian Schiønning               (b. 1764 - d. 1817)
 3 Mar 1817 -  5 Oct 1817  Johan Emanuel Rechter              (b. ... - d. 1817)
 5 Oct 1817 -  6 May 1819  Jens Nikolas Cornelius Reiersen    (b. ... - d. 1819)
                           (acting)
 6 May 1819 -  1 Jan 1821  Christian Svanekjaer (acting)      (b. 1788 - d. 1843)
 1 Jan 1821 -  5 Sep 1821  Peter Svane Steffens               (b. ... - d. 1821)
 5 Sep 1821 - 23 Dec 1823  Matthias Thønning (acting)         (b. ... - d. 1824)
23 Dec 1823 -  7 May 1825  Johan Christopher von Richelieu    (b. 1789 - d. 1858)
 7 May 1825 - 30 Sep 1827  Niels Brøch (1st time) (acting)    (b. c.1802 - d. 1836)
30 Sep 1827 -  1 Aug 1828  Jens Peter Flindt                  (b. 1788 - d. 1842)
 1 Aug 1828 - 20 Jan 1831  Heinrich Gerhard Lind (1st time)   (b. 1797 - d. 1833)
                           (acting)
29 Jan 1831 - 21 Oct 1831  Ludwig Vincent von Hein            (b. 1799 - d. 1831)
21 Oct 1831 -  4 Dec 1831  Helmut von Ahrenstorff             (b. 1807 - d. 1831)
 4 Dec 1831 -  1 Mar 1833  Niels Brøch (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1833 - 21 Jul 1833  Heinrich Gerhard Lind (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                           (acting)
21 Jul 1833 - 26 Dec 1834  Edvard von Gandil (acting)         (b. 1804 - d. 1834)
26 Dec 1834 - 18 Mar 1839  Frederik Segfried Mørch            (b. 1800 - d. 1839)
                           (acting to 19 Aug 1837)
19 Mar 1839 - 18 Aug 1839  Hans Angel Giede (acting)          (b. ... - d. 1839)
18 Aug 1839 - 24 May 1842  Lucas Dall (acting)                (b. 1806 - d. 1855)
24 May 1842 - 26 Aug 1842  Bernhard Johan Christian Wilkens   (b. 1810 - d. 1842)
                           (acting)
26 Aug 1842 - 15 Mar 1844  Edvard James Arnold Carstensen
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1815 - d. 1848)
18 Mar 1844 -  5 Jul 1844  Edvard Ericksen (acting)
 5 Jul 1844 -  9 Oct 1844  George Lutterdot (acting)
 9 Aug 1844 - 10 Apr 1847  Edvard James Arnold Carstensen
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
10 Apr 1847 - 20 Feb 1850  Rasmus Eric Schmidt (acting)

Dutch Gold Coast Settlements

       1598                Dutch Gold Coast Settlements begin
21 Feb 1871                Dutch Gold Coast Settlements sold to Britain and
                           incorporated into the Gold Coast colony

Directors-general
 9 Jun 1702 -  5 Nov 1705  Willem de la Palma
 5 Nov 1705 - 10 Oct 1708  Pieter Nuyts
10 Oct 1708 - 14 Aug 1709  Henrikus van Wiessel (governor)
14 Aug 1709 - 16 Apr 1711  Adriaan Schoonheidt
16 Apr 1711 - 11 Jun 1716  Hieronimus Haring
11 Jun 1716 -  9 Apr 1718  Robberts Abraham Engelgraef
 9 Apr 1718 - 14 Oct 1722  Willem Bullier
14 Oct 1722 - 28 May 1723  Abraham Houtman
28 May 1723 - 14 Dec 1723  Mattheus de Kraane (governor)
14 Dec 1723 - 11 Mar 1727  Pieter Valkenier
11 Mar 1727 -  6 Mar 1730  Robert Norri
 6 Mar 1730 - 13 Mar 1734  Jan Pranger
13 Mar 1734 - 21 Feb 1736  Antonius van Overbeek              (b. ... - d. 1736)
15 Oct 1736 - 16 Mar 1740  Martinus François des Bordes       (b. ... - d. 1740)
16 Mar 1740 -  7 Mar 1741  François Barbrius (governor)       (b. ... - d. 1741)
 8 Mar 1741 - 11 Apr 1747  Baron Jacob de Petersen
11 Apr 1747 - 14 Jul 1754  Jan van Voorst
14 Jul 1754 - 24 Oct 1755  Nikolaas van der Nood de Gieterre  (b. ... - d. 1755)
24 Oct 1755 - 16 Jan 1758  Roelof Ulsen (governor)            (b. ... - d. 1758)
16 Jan 1758 - 12 Mar 1759  Lambert Jacob van Tets             (b. ... - d. 1759)
13 Mar 1759 -  2 Mar 1760  Jan Pieter Theodor Huydecooper
                           (1st time)                         (b. ... - d. 1769)
 2 Mar 1760 - 11 Jul 1763  David Pieter Erasmi                (b. ... - d. 1763)
11 Jun 1763 - 31 Aug 1764  Henrick Walmbeck (governor)        (b. ... - d. 1764)
11 Sep 1764 - 10 Jun 1769  Jan Pieter Theodor Huydecooper
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
                           (from 8 Jun 1767 governor-general)
10 Jun 1769 - 11 Apr 1780  Pieter Woortman                    (b. ... - d. 1780)
10 May 1780 - 30 Dec 1780  Jacobus van der Puye (governor)    (b. ... - d. 1780)
30 Dec 1780 - 12 Mar 1784  Pieter Volkmar                     (b. ... - d. 1784)
15 Mar 1784 - 14 Feb 1785  Gilles Servaas Gallé (1st time)
                           (governor-general)
14 Feb 1785 - 26 May 1786  Adolph Thierens
 2 Jun 1786 - 24 Aug 1787  Gilles Servaas Gallé (2nd time)
                           (governor-general)
 8 Sep 1788 - 19 Mar 1790  Lieven van Burgen van der Gryp
                           (1st time) (president)             (b. ... - d. 1795)
19 Mar 1790 - 23 Mar 1794  Jacobus de Veer
26 May 1794 - 10 Jan 1795  Lieven van Burgen van der Gryp
                           (2nd time) (president)             (s.a.)
10 Jan 1795 -  3 Jun 1796  Otto Arnoldus Duim (governor)      (b. ... - d. 1796)
10 Aug 1796 -  1 May 1798  Gerhardus Hubertus van Hammel      (b. ... - d. 1798)
 8 May 1798 - 28 Apr 1804  Cornelis Ludewich Bartels          (b. 17... - d. 1804)
                           (from 1801 governor-general)
28 Apr 1804 - 15 Jun 1805  Izaak de Roever (president)
Governors-general
16 Jun 1805 - 21 Jul 1807  Pieter Linthorst
21 Jul 1807 - 11 Aug 1808  Johannes Petrus Hoogenboom         (b. 17... - d. 1808)
                           (president)
12 Aug 1808 - 23 Feb 1810  Jan Frederik Koning
23 Feb 1810 -  1 Mar 1816  Abraham de Veer
                           (commandant-general)
 1 Mar 1816 - 22 Apr 1818  Herman Willem Daenels
22 Apr 1818 - 10 Jan 1820  Frantz Christian Eberhard
                           Oldenborg
Commanders
10 Jan 1820 - 27 Jul 1821  Johannes Oosthout
27 Jul 1821 - 11 Jan 1823  Frederick Frans Ludewich Ulrich
                           Last (1st time) (acting)
11 Jan 1823 -  6 May 1823  Librecht Jan Temmink (acting)
 6 May 1823 - 14 May 1824  Willem Poolman
14 May 1824 - 25 Dec 1824  Hendrik Adriaan Mouwe, Jr. (acting)
25 Dec 1824 -  2 Jan 1825  Johan David Carel Pagenstecher
                           (acting)
 2 Jan 1825 - 12 Nov 1826  Frederick Frans Ludewich Ulrich
                           Last (2nd time) (acting)
12 Nov 1826 -  4 Oct 1828  Jacobus van der Breggen Paauw
                           (acting)
 4 Oct 1828 - 17 Apr 1833  Frederick Frans Ludewich Ulrich
                           Last (3rd time)
17 Apr 1833 - 17 May 1833  Jan Thieleman Jacobus Cremer
                           (acting)
17 May 1833 -  2 Feb 1834  Eduard Daniel Leopold van Ingen
                           (acting)
 2 Feb 1834 - 16 Mar 1834  Marthinus Swarte (acting)
16 Mar 1834 -  2 Dec 1836  Christian Ernst Lans
 2 Dec 1836 - 28 Oct 1837  Hendrikus Jacobus Tonneboeijer     (b. ... - d. 1837)
                           (acting)
29 Oct 1837 -  5 Aug 1838  Anthony van der Eb (acting)        (b. 1813 - d. 1852)
Governors
 5 Aug 1838 -  7 Mar 1840  Hendrik Bosch
 7 Mar 1840 -        1846  Anthony van der Eb (1st time)
       1846 -        1847  Willem George Frederik Derx
                           (1st time)
       1847 -        1852  Anthony van der Eb (2nd time)
       1852 -        1856  Hero Schomerus                     (b. ... - d. 1856)
       1856                Petrus Jacobus Runchel             (b. 1822 - d. ...)
       1856 -        1857  Willem George Frederik Derx
                           (2nd time)
       1857                Jules Felicine Romain Stanislas
                           van den Bossche                    (b. 1819 - d. 1889)
       1857 -        1862  Cornelis Johannes Marius Nagtglas
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1814 - d. 1897)
       1862 -        1865  Henry Alexander Elias
       1865 -        1866  A. Magnin
       1866 -        1867  Willem Hendrik Johan van Idsinga   (b. 1822 - d. 1896)
       1867 -        1869  Georg Pieter Willem Boers          (b. 1811 - d. 1884)
       1869 -        1871  Cornelis Johannes Marius Nagtglas
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1871                Jan Albert Hendrik Hugenholz       (b. 1826 - d. 1874)
       1871 - 21 Feb 1871  Jan Helenus Fergusson              (b. 1826 - d. 1908)

Gibraltar

20 Aug 1462                part of Castile/Spain
24 Jul 1704                British occupation
13 Jul 1713                Spain cedes Gibraltar to Britain
20 Jun 1830                British crown colony

Military commander
24 Jul 1704 -  4 Aug 1704  Sir George Rooke                   (b. 1650 - d. 1709)
Governors
 4 Aug 1704 - 14 Sep 1705  Prince George of Hesse-Darmstadt   (b. 1669 - d. 1705)
24 Dec 1707 - 24 Jan 1711  Roger Elliott                      (b. c.1665 - d. 1714)
24 Jan 1711 -  7 Aug 1713  Thomas Stanwix                     (b. c.1670 - d. 1725)
 7 Aug 1713 - 20 Oct 1720  David Colyear, Earl of Portmore    (b. c.1656 - d. 1730)
20 Oct 1720 -  2 Feb 1727  Richard Kane                       (b. 1666 - d. 1736)
 2 Feb 1727 - 13 May 1730  Jasper Clayton                     (b. 1675 - d. 1743)
15 May 1730 - 24 Oct 1739  Joseph Sabine                      (b. 1662 - d. 1739)
24 Oct 1739 - 22 Apr 1740  Francis Columbine
22 Apr 1740 -        1749  William Hargrave
       1749 - 31 May 1754  Sir Humphrey Bland                 (b. c.1686 - d. 1763)
31 May 1754 - 12 Jul 1756  Thomas Fowke
12 Jul 1756 - 16 Apr 1757  James O'Hara, Earl of Tyrawley     (b. c.1682 - d. 1773)
16 Apr 1757 - 28 Apr 1761  William Home, Earl of Home         (b. 1681 - d. 1761)
28 Apr 1761 - 23 Jun 1761  John Toovey (acting)
13 Jun 1761 - 14 Jun 1761  John Parslow (acting)
14 Jun 1761 -    Jan 1776  Edward Cornwallis                  (b. 1713 - d. 1776)
   Jan 1776 - 25 May 1777  Robert Boyd (1st time) (acting)    (b. 1710 - d. 1794)
25 May 1777 -    Jul 1790  George Augustus Eliott, (from
                           14 Jun 1787) Baron Heathfield of
                           Gibraltar                          (b. 1717 - d. 1790)
   Jul 1790 - 13 May 1794  Sir Robert Boyd (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                           (acting to Oct 1790)
13 May 1794 - 30 Dec 1795  Charles Rainsford                  (b. 1728 - d. 1809)
30 Dec 1795 - 25 Feb 1802  Charles O'Hara                     (b. 1740 - d. 1802)
25 Feb 1802 - 10 May 1802  Charles Barnett
24 May 1802 - 23 Jan 1820  Prince Edward, Duke of Kent        (b. 1767 - d. 1820)
                             Acting for Edward:
 2 May 1803 - 17 Dec 1804    Sir Thomas Trigge                (b. 17... - d. 1814)
17 Dec 1804 -    Jun 1806    Henry Edward Fox                 (b. 1755 - d. 1811)
   Jun 1806 -    Nov 1806    James Drummond (1st time)
   Nov 1806 -    Aug 1808    Sir Hew Whitefoord Dalrymple     (b. 1750 - d. 1830)
   Aug 1808 -    May 1809    James Drummond (2nd time)
   May 1809 -    Aug 1809    Sir John Francis Cradock         (b. 1762 - d. 1839)
   Aug 1809 -    Oct 1809    John Smith
   Oct 1809 -    Nov 1809    Alex McKenzie Fraser             (b. 1756 - d. 1809)
   Nov 1809 -  2 Apr 1814    (Sir) Colin Campbell             (b. 1754 - d. 1814)
 3 Apr 1814 - 15 Nov 1821    Sir George Don (1st time)        (b. 1754 - d. 1832)
29 Jan 1820 - 24 Sep 1835  John Pitt, Earl of Chatham         (b. 1756 - d. 1835)
                             Acting for Pitt:
 7 Jun 1825 - 10 May 1831    Sir George Don (2nd time)        (s.a.)
10 May 1831 - 29 May 1835    Sir William Houstoun
28 Feb 1835 - 11 Oct 1842  Sir Alexander George Woodford      (b. 1782 - d. 1870)
                           (lieutenant governor to 1 Sep 1836)
11 Oct 1842 - 12 Dec 1848  Sir Robert Thomas Wilson           (b. 1777 - d. 1849)
12 Dec 1848 - 26 Jul 1855  Sir Robert William Gardiner        (b. 1781 - d. 1864)
26 Jul 1855 -  5 May 1859  Sir James Fergusson                (b. 1787 - d. 1865)
 5 May 1859 - 21 Sep 1865  Sir William John Codrington        (b. 1804 - d. 1884)
21 Sep 1865 - 25 Jul 1870  Sir Richard Airey                  (b. 1803 - d. 1881)
25 Jul 1870 - 23 Jun 1876  Sir William Fenwick Williams       (b. 1800 - d. 1883)
23 Jun 1876 -  3 Jan 1883  Robert Cornelis Napier, Baron
                           Napier of Magdala                  (b. 1810 - d. 1890)
 3 Jan 1883 -  2 Nov 1886  Sir John Miller Adye               (b. 1819 - d. 1900)
 2 Nov 1886 - 23 Aug 1890  Sir Arthur Edward Hardinge         (b. 1828 - d. 1892)
23 Aug 1890 - 27 Jan 1891  Sir Leicester Curzon Smyth         (b. 1829 - d. 1891)
27 Jan 1891 - 31 Mar 1891  H.R.L. Newdigate (acting)          (b. 1832 - d. 1908)
31 Mar 1891 - 27 Jun 1893  Sir Lothian Nicholson              (b. 1827 - d. 1893)
27 Jun 1893 -  7 Aug 1893  G.J. Smart (acting)
 7 Aug 1893 - 22 May 1900  Sir Robert Biddulph                (b. 1835 - d. 1918)
22 May 1900 -  1 Aug 1905  Sir George Stuart White            (b. 1835 - d. 1912)
 1 Aug 1905 - 30 Jul 1910  Sir Frederick William Edward
                           Forestier Forestier-Walker         (b. 1844 - d. 1910)
30 Jul 1910 - 11 Jul 1913  Sir Archibald Hunter               (b. 1856 - d. 1936)
11 Jul 1913 -  9 Jul 1918  Sir Herbert Scott Gould Miles      (b. 1850 - d. 1926)
 9 Jul 1918 - 26 May 1923  Sir Horace Lockwood Smith-Dorrien  (b. 1858 - d. 1930)
26 May 1923 - 13 Aug 1928  Sir Charles Carmichael Monro       (b. 1860 - d. 1929)
13 Aug 1928 - 13 May 1933  Sir Alexander John Godley          (b. 1867 - d. 1957)
13 May 1933 - 12 Aug 1938  Sir Charles Harington Harington    (b. 1872 - d. 1940)
12 Aug 1938 - 11 Jul 1939  Sir Edmund Ironside                (b. 1880 - d. 1959)
11 Jul 1939 - 14 May 1941  Sir Clive Gerard Liddell           (b. 1883 - d. 1956)
14 May 1941 - 31 May 1942  John Vereker, Viscount Gort        (b. 1886 - d. 1946)
31 May 1942 - 14 Feb 1944  Noel Mason-Macfarlane (from 1943,
                           Sir Noel Mason-Macfarlane)         (b. 1889 - d. 1953)
14 Feb 1944 -  8 Feb 1947  Sir Ralph Eastwood                 (b. 1890 - d. 1959)
 8 Feb 1947 - 23 Apr 1952  Sir Kenneth Arthur Noel Anderson   (b. 1891 - d. 1959)
23 Apr 1952 -  6 May 1955  Sir George Holmes Alexander
                           MacMillan of MacMillan             (b. 1897 - d. 1986)
 6 May 1955 - 16 Apr 1958  Sir Harold Redman                  (b. 1899 - d. 1986)
16 Apr 1958 -  8 Jun 1962  Sir Charles Frederic Keightley     (b. 1901 - d. 1974)
 8 Jun 1962 -  5 Aug 1965  Sir Alfred Dudley Ward             (b. 1905 - d. 1991)
 5 Aug 1965 -    Mar 1969  Sir Gerald William Lathbury        (b. 1906 - d. 1978)
   Mar 1969 -  3 Oct 1973  Sir Varyl Cargill Begg             (b. 1908 - d. 1995)
 3 Oct 1973 - 30 May 1978  Sir John Grandy                    (b. 1913 - d. 2004)
30 May 1978 - 26 Oct 1982  Sir William Jackson                (b. 1917 - d. 1999)
26 Oct 1982 - 19 Nov 1985  Sir David Williams                 (b. 1921 - d. 2012)
19 Nov 1985 -    Dec 1989  Sir Peter Terry                    (b. 1926)
   Dec 1989 -    Mar 1993  Sir Derek Reffell                  (b. 1928)
   Apr 1993 -  5 Dec 1995  Sir John Chapple                   (b. 1931)
 5 Dec 1995 - 19 Feb 1997  Sir Hugo White                     (b. 1939 - d. 2014)
24 Feb 1997 -  5 Apr 2000  Sir Richard Luce                   (b. 1936)
 5 Apr 2000 - 16 May 2003  David Durie (from 1 Jan 2003,
                           Sir David Durie)                   (b. 1944)
16 May 2003 - 27 May 2003  David Blunt (acting)               (b. 1953)
27 May 2003 - 17 Jul 2006  Sir Francis Richards               (b. 1945)
17 Jul 2006 - 27 Sep 2006  Philip Barton (acting)
27 Sep 2006 - 21 Oct 2009  Sir Robert Fulton                  (b. 1948)
21 Oct 2009 - 26 Oct 2009  Lesley Pallett (f) (acting)
26 Oct 2009 - 13 Nov 2013  Sir Adrian Johns                   (b. 1951)
13 Nov 2013 -  6 Dec 2013  Alison MacMillan (f) (acting)
 6 Dec 2013 -              Sir James Dutton                   (b. 1954)

Chief ministers 11 Aug 1964 - 6 Aug 1969 Sir Joshua Hassan (1st time) (b. 1915 - d. 1997) 6 Aug 1969 - 25 Jun 1972 Robert Peliza (b. 1920 - d. 2011) 25 Jun 1972 - 8 Dec 1987 Sir Joshua Hassan (2nd time) (s.a.) 8 Dec 1987 - 25 Mar 1988 Adolfo Canepa (b. 1940) 25 Mar 1988 - 17 May 1996 Joe Bossano (b. 1939) 17 May 1996 - 9 Dec 2011 Peter Caruana (b. 1956) 9 Dec 2011 - Fabian Picardo (b. 1972)