Rulers

Religious leaders

Contents of this page:
World Council of Churches - Roman Catholic Church - Eastern Catholic (Uniate) churches - Old Catholic churches - Church of England - Lutheran World Federation - Evangelical Lutheran Church in America - Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod - Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod - Swedish Church - Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland - Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints - Seventh-day Adventists - Jehovah's Witnesses - Salvation Army - Grace Communion International - New Apostolic Church - Assemblies of God - Orthodox churches - Schismatic Orthodox churches - Eastern non-Chalcedonian churches - Assyrian Church of the East - Malabar Independent Syrian Church - Judaism - Muslim Caliphate - Isma`ilia - Dawoodi Bohra - Baha´i Faith - Ahmadiyya - Nation of Islam - Tibetan Buddhism - Soka Gakkai - Sikhism - Svetambara

World Council of Churches

Note: This international ecumenical body includes most "mainline" Protestant denominations and Eastern Orthodox churches in the world.
13 May 1938                provisional committee founded
23 Aug 1948                World Council of Churches (WCC) formally constituted

General secretaries
13 May 1938 -    Feb 1966  Willem Adolf Visser 't Hooft
                           (Netherlands)                      (b. 1900 - d. 1985)
   Feb 1966 - 16 Aug 1972  Eugene Carson Blake (U.S.)         (b. 1906 - d. 1985)
16 Aug 1972 - 31 Dec 1984  Philip Potter (Dominica)           (b. 1921)
 1 Jan 1985 - 31 Dec 1992  Emilio Castro (Uruguay)            (b. 1927 - d. 2013)
 1 Jan 1993 - 31 Dec 2003  Konrad Raiser (Germany)            (b. 1938)
 1 Jan 2004 - 31 Dec 2009  Samuel Kobia (Kenya)               (b. 1947)
 1 Jan 2010 -              Olav Fykse Tveit (Norway)          (b. 1960)

Roman Catholic Church

       c.60                Church of Rome founded by Apostle Peter

Popes (personal names in parentheses)
12 Jul 1691 - 27 Sep 1700  Innocentius XII                    (b. 1615 - d. 1700)
                           (Antonio Pignatelli)
23 Nov 1700 - 19 Mar 1721  Clemens XI                         (b. 1649 - d. 1721)
                           (Giovanni Francesco degli Albani)
 8 May 1721 -  7 Mar 1724  Innocentius XIII                   (b. 1655 - d. 1724)
                           (Michelangiolo dei Conti dei duchi di Poli)
29 May 1724 - 23 Feb 1730  Benedictus XIII                    (b. 1649 - d. 1730)
                           (Pietro Francesco degli Orsini, duca di Gravina;
                           in religion: Vincenzo Maria Orsini)
12 Jul 1730 -  6 Feb 1740  Clemens XII                        (b. 1652 - d. 1740)
                           (Lorenzo Corsini dei marchesi di Sismano, ecc.)
17 Aug 1740 -  3 May 1758  Benedictus XIV                     (b. 1675 - d. 1758)
                           (Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini)
 6 Jul 1758 -  2 Feb 1769  Clemens XIII                       (b. 1693 - d. 1769)
                           (Carlo Rezzonico dei conti della Torre)
19 May 1769 - 22 Sep 1774  Clemens XIV                        (b. 1705 - d. 1774)
                           (Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli;
                           in religion: Lorenzo Francesco Ganganelli)
15 Feb 1775 - 29 Aug 1799  Pius VI                            (b. 1717 - d. 1799)
                           (Giovanni Angelo Braschi)
14 Mar 1800 - 20 Aug 1823  Pius VII                           (b. 1740 - d. 1823)
                           (Giorgio Barnaba Luigi Chiaramonti;
                           in religion: Gregorio Chiaramonti)
28 Sep 1823 - 10 Feb 1829  Leo XII                            (b. 1760 - d. 1829)
                           (Annibale Francesco Clemente Melchiore Girolamo
                           Nicola Sermattei, conte della Genga)
31 Mar 1829 - 30 Nov 1830  Pius VIII                          (b. 1761 - d. 1830)
                           (Francesco Saverio Castiglioni)
 2 Feb 1831 -  1 Jun 1846  Gregorius XVI                      (b. 1765 - d. 1846)
                           (Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari;
                           in religion: Mauro Cappellari)
16 Jun 1846 -  7 Feb 1878  Pius IX                            (b. 1792 - d. 1878)
                           (Giovanni Maria Giambattista Pietro Pellegrino
                           Isidoro, conte Mastai-Ferretti)
20 Feb 1878 - 20 Jul 1903  Leo XIII                           (b. 1810 - d. 1903)
                           (Gioacchino Vincenzo Raffaele Aloisio Pecci)
 4 Aug 1903 - 20 Aug 1914  Pius X                             (b. 1835 - d. 1914)
                           (Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto)
 3 Sep 1914 - 22 Jan 1922  Benedictus XV                      (b. 1854 - d. 1922)
                           (Giacomo Giambattista, marchese della Chiesa)
 6 Feb 1922 - 10 Feb 1939  Pius XI                            (b. 1857 - d. 1939)
                           (Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti)
 2 Mar 1939 -  9 Oct 1958  Pius XII                           (b. 1876 - d. 1958)
                           (Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli)
28 Oct 1958 -  3 Jun 1963  Ioannes XXIII                      (b. 1881 - d. 1963)
                           (Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli)
21 Jun 1963 -  6 Aug 1978  Paulus VI                          (b. 1897 - d. 1978)
                           (Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini)
26 Aug 1978 - 28 Sep 1978  Ioannes Paulus I                   (b. 1912 - d. 1978)
                           (Albino Luciani)
16 Oct 1978 -  2 Apr 2005  Ioannes Paulus II                  (b. 1920 - d. 2005)
                           (Karol Józef Wojtyla)
19 Apr 2005 - 28 Feb 2013  Benedictus XVI                     (b. 1927)
                           (Joseph Alois Ratzinger)
13 Mar 2013 -              Franciscus                         (b. 1936)
                           (Jorge Mario Bergoglio Sívori)

Society of Jesus

Superiors General
 6 Jul 1687 - 27 Oct 1705  Tirso González                     (b. 1624 - d. 1705)
31 Jan 1706 - 28 Feb 1730  Michelangelo Tamburini             (b. 1648 - d. 1730)
 7 Mar 1730 - 19 Nov 1750  Frantisek Retz                     (b. 1673 - d. 1750)
 4 Jul 1751 -  4 May 1755  Ignazio Visconti                   (b. 1682 - d. 1755)
30 Nov 1755 -  2 Oct 1757  Luigi Centurione                   (b. 1686 - d. 1757)
21 May 1758 - 24 Nov 1775  Lorenzo Ricci                      (b. 1703 - d. 1775)
 7 Aug 1814 -  5 Feb 1820  Tadeusz Brzozowski                 (b. 1749 - d. 1820)
18 Oct 1820 - 27 Jan 1829  Luigi Fortis                       (b. 1748 - d. 1829)
 9 Jul 1829 -  8 May 1853  Jan Roothaan                       (b. 1785 - d. 1853)
 2 Aug 1853 -  4 Mar 1887  Pierre Jean Beckx                  (b. 1795 - d. 1887)
 5 Mar 1887 - 18 Jan 1892  Anton Maria Anderledy              (b. 1819 - d. 1892)
 2 Oct 1892 - 18 Apr 1906  Luis Martín                        (b. 1846 - d. 1906)
 8 Sep 1906 - 19 Aug 1914  Franz Xaver Wernz                  (b. 1842 - d. 1914)
11 Feb 1915 - 13 Dec 1942  Wlodzimierz Ledóchowski            (b. 1866 - d. 1942)
15 Sep 1946 -  5 Oct 1964  Jean-Baptiste Janssens             (b. 1889 - d. 1964)
22 May 1965 -  3 Sep 1983  Pedro Arrupe                       (b. 1907 - d. 1991)
13 Sep 1983 - 14 Jan 2008  Peter Hans Kolvenbach              (b. 1928)
19 Jan 2008 -              Adolfo Nicolás                     (b. 1936)

Eastern Catholic (Uniate) churches

(information provided by
Andrejus Gajosinskas)

Armenian Catholic Church

       1650                church founded
26 Nov 1740                Patriarchate established

Patriarchs of the Catholic Armenians
26 Nov 1740 -  1 Oct 1749  Apraham Bedros I                   (b. 1679 - d. 1749)
14 Oct 1749 - 10 Jun 1753  Hagop Bedros II
23 Jun 1753 - 10 Nov 1780  Mikael Bedros III
 1 Dec 1780 -  6 Feb 1788  Parsegh Bedros IV
11 May 1788 - 17 Jun 1812  Krikor Bedros V
 8 Apr 1815 -        1841  Krikor Bedros VI
27 Jan 1842 -        1843  Hagop Bedros VII
25 Jan 1844 -  9 Jan 1866  Krikor Bedros VIII
14 Sep 1866 -    Jun 1881  Andon Bedros IX (from 13 Dec
                           1880, Cardinal Andon Bedros IX)    (b. 1809 - d. 1884)
     c.1870 -         ...    Jacob (anti-patriarch)
 4 Aug 1881 -    May 1899  Stepan Bedros X                    (b. ... - d. 1899)
24 Jul 1899 - 18 Apr 1904  Boghos Bedros XI                   (b. 1829 - d. 1904)
 4 Aug 1904 -    Apr 1910  Boghos Bedros XII                  (b. 1836 - d. 1915)
23 Apr 1910 - 15 Dec 1931  Boghos Bedros XIII                 (b. 1853 - d. 1931)
17 Oct 1931 - 26 Oct 1937  Avedis Bedros XIV                  (b. 1856 - d. 1937)
30 Nov 1937 - 25 Aug 1962  Krikor Bedros XV (from 18 Feb
                           1946, Cardinal Krikor Bedros XV)   (b. 1895 - d. 1971)
 4 Sep 1962 - 22 Apr 1976  Iknadios Bedros XVI                (b. 1899 - d. 1979)
 3 Jul 1976 - 31 May 1982  Hemaiag Bedros XVII                (b. 1905 - d. 1998)
 5 Aug 1982 - 28 Nov 1998  Hovhannes Bedros XVIII             (b. 1927 - d. 2011)
 7 Oct 1999 -              Nerses Bedros XIX                  (b. 1940)

Byzantine Catholic Church in America

Bishops
15 Jun 1924 - 13 May 1948  Basil Takach                       (b. 1879 - d. 1948)
13 May 1948 - 12 Dec 1954  Daniel Ivancho                     (b. 1908 - d. 1972)
 5 Feb 1955 - 22 Dec 1967  Nicholas T. Elko                   (b. 1909 - d. 1991)
 5 Mar 1968 - 11 Jun 1969  Stephen J. Kocisko                 (b. 1915 - d. 1995)
Metropolitan Archbishops
11 Jun 1969 - 12 Jun 1991  Stephen J. Kocisko                 (s.a.)
12 Jun 1991 - 13 Apr 1993  Thomas V. Dolinay                  (b. 1923 - d. 1993)
20 Apr 1993 -  8 Sep 1994  John M. Bilock (administrator)     (b. 1916 - d. 1994)
   Sep 1994 - 15 Nov 1994  Russell A. Duker (administrator)
 7 Feb 1995 - 15 Apr 2001  Judson M. Procyk                   (b. 1931 - d. 2001)
 1 May 2001 -  9 Jul 2002  John M. Kudrick (administrator)    (b. 1947)
 9 Jul 2002 - 10 Jun 2010  Basil M. Schott                    (b. 1939 - d. 2010)
18 Jun 2010 - 19 Jan 2012  Eugene P. Yackanich                (b. 1940?)
                           (administrator)
19 Jan 2012 -              William C. Skurla                  (b. 1956)

Chaldean Catholic Church

       1552                rival Assyrian Patriarch accepts union with Rome
       1607                regular Assyrian Patriarch Eliyya VIII also accepts union
       1617                heir of Eliyya VIII breaks union
       1681                Archbishop of Amed (Diyarbakir) is granted title of
                           Patriarch
       1692                Patriarch of the first (1552) line breaks union;
                           only one Patriarch remains

Patriarchs
21 May 1696 -  2 Jun 1712  Joseph II                          (b. 1667 - d. 1712)
26 Feb 1713 - 23 Jan 1757  Joseph III                         (b. ... - d. 1757)
 8 Feb 1757 -        1781  Joseph IV                          (b. ... - d. 1791)
       1781 -  6 Apr 1828  Joseph V                           (b. 17... - d. 1828)
                           (apostolic administrator to 1804)
 5 Aug 1830 - 16 Aug 1838  Youhanan VIII Hormez               (b. ... - d. 1838)
                           (claimed the patriarchate from 1778)
16 Aug 1838 -        1847  Nicolawos Zaya                     (b. ... - d. 1855)
11 Sep 1848 - 29 Mar 1878  Joseph VI Audo                     (b. 1790 - d. 1878)
28 Feb 1879 - 27 Jun 1894  Eliyya XIV Abbo-Alyonan            (b. 1840 - d. 1894)
28 Oct 1894 -  6 Nov 1899  Abdisho V Khayat                   (b. 1827 - d. 1899)
 9 Jul 1900 - 21 Jul 1947  Joseph Emmanuel II Toma            (b. 1852 - d. 1947)
17 Sep 1947 -  8 Jul 1958  Joseph VII Ghanima                 (b. 1881 - d. 1958)
13 Dec 1958 - 13 Apr 1989  Paul II Cheikho                    (b. 1906 - d. 1989)
21 May 1989 -  7 Jul 2003  Raphael I Bidawid                  (b. 1922 - d. 2003)
 7 Jul 2003 -  3 Dec 2003  Shlemon Warduni                    (b. 1943)
                           (apostolic administrator)
 3 Dec 2003 - 19 Dec 2012  Emmanuel III Delly (from 24 Nov
                           2007, Cardinal Emmanuel III Delly) (b. 1927 - d. 2014)
19 Dec 2012 -  1 Feb 2013  Jacques Ishaq                      (b. 1938)
                           (apostolic administrator)
 1 Feb 2013 -              Louis Raphael I Sako               (b. 1948)

Coptic Catholic Church

 4 Aug 1741                Apostolic Vicariate for Coptic Catholics created
       1824                Maximos is granted title Patriarch for life; after his death
                           in 1831 his successors are again only named apostolic vicars
26 Nov 1895                Patriarchate restored

Patriarchs of Alexandria
15 Aug 1824 - 30 Aug 1831  Maximos II                         (b. ... - d. 1831)
15 Mar 1895 - 19 Jun 1899  Cyrille Macaire                    (b. 1867 - d. 1921)
                           (apostolic administrator)
19 Jun 1899 - 30 May 1908  Kyrillos II                        (s.a.)
       1908 - 13 Jan 1925  Maximos Sedfaoui                   (b. 1863 - d. 1925)
                           (apostolic administrator)
30 Dec 1927 -  9 Aug 1947  Marc Khouzam                       (b. 1888 - d. 1958)
                           (apostolic administrator)
 9 Aug 1947 -  2 Feb 1958  Markos II                          (s.a.)
10 May 1958 - 24 May 1986  Stephanos I (from 22 Feb 1965,
                           Cardinal Stephanos I)              (b. 1904 - d. 1987)
24 Feb 1984 -  9 Jun 1986  Andraos Ghattas                    (b. 1920 - d. 2009)
                           (apostolic administrator [for Stephanos I to 24 May 1986])
 9 Jun 1986 - 27 Mar 2006  Stephanos II (from 21 Feb 2001,
                           Cardinal Stephanos II) (= Ghattas) (s.a.)
30 Mar 2006 - 18 Jan 2013  Antonios (from 20 Nov 2010,
                           Cardinal Antonios)                 (b. 1935)
18 Jan 2013 -              Ibrahim Isaac Sidrak               (b. 1955)

Croatian Church

17 Jun 1777                Diocese of Krizevci created
       1966                See transferred to Zagreb

Bishops
21 Dec 1857 -        1881  Djordje Smiciklas                  (b. 1815 - d. 1881)
15 Mar 1883 -        1889  Elias Hranilovic                   (b. 1850 - d. 1889)
17 Dec 1891 - 18 May 1917  Iulius Drohobeczky                 (b. 1853 - d. 1934)
 1 May 1920 - 14 Apr 1940  Dionýz Njarady                     (b. 1874 - d. 1940)
       1941 -  9 Aug 1946  Janko Simrak                       (b. 1883 - d. 1946)
                           (apostolic administrator to 9 May 1942)
22 Jul 1960 -  2 Mar 1961  Gabrijel Bukatko                   (b. 1913 - d. 1981)
24 Feb 1963 - 22 Jan 1983  Joakim Segedi (auxiliary bishop)   (b. 1904 - d. 2004)
22 Jan 1983 - 25 May 2009  Slavomir Miklovs                   (b. 1934 - d. 2011)
25 May 2009 -              Nikola Kekic                       (b. 1943)

Hungarian Catholic Church

Bishops of Hajdúdorog
 5 Oct 1913 - 30 Oct 1937  István Miklóssy                    (b. 1857 - d. 1937)
14 May 1939 - 15 Jul 1972  Miklós Dudás                       (b. 1902 - d. 1972)
 8 Feb 1975 - 30 Mar 1988  Imre Timkó                         (b. 1920 - d. 1988)
30 Jun 1988 - 10 Nov 2007  Szilárd Keresztes                  (b. 1932)
 2 May 2008 -              Péter Fülöp Kocsis                 (b. 1963)

Maronite Catholic Church

      c.681                Maronite Church founded

Patriarchs of Antioch and All the East
20 May 1670 -  3 May 1704  Stephen Douaihy                    (b. 1630 - d. 17...)
       1704 - 10 Oct 1705  Gabriel
 6 Nov 1705 - 12 Feb 1733  Jacob Awad
25 Feb 1733 - 13 May 1742  Joseph Dergham Khazen
16 Mar 1743 - 12 Feb 1756  Symeon Awad
28 Feb 1756 - 29 May 1766  Toubia El-Khazen
 9 Jun 1766 - 22 Apr 1793  Joseph Stephan
                           (suspended 25 Jun 1779 - 28 Sep 1784)
10 Sep 1793 - 17 May 1795  Michel Fadel                       (b. ... - d. 1795)
14 Jun 1795 - 12 Apr 1796  Philip Gemayel                     (b. ... - d. 1796)
28 Apr 1796 -  8 Jun 1809  Youssif Tyan                       (b. 17... - d. 1820)
 8 Jun 1809 - 12 May 1823  Yuhanna El-Helou                   (b. 17... - d. 1823)
25 May 1823 - 23 May 1845  Youssif Hobeiche                   (b. ... - d. 1845)
 8 Aug 1845 -  3 Nov 1854  Youssif El-Khazen                  (b. ... - d. 1854)
12 Nov 1854 - 18 Apr 1890  Boulos Massaad                     (b. 1805? - d. 1890)
28 Apr 1890 - 24 Dec 1898  Yuhanna El-Haj                     (b. ... - d. 1898)
 6 Jan 1899 - 24 Dec 1931  Elias Hoyek                        (b. 1843 - d. 1931)
30 Apr 1932 - 19 May 1955  Antoun Arida                       (b. 1863 - d. 1955)
28 May 1955 - 11 Jan 1975  Boulos Meouchi (from 22 Feb 1965,
                           Boulos Cardinal Meouchi)           (b. 1894 - d. 1975)
 3 Feb 1975 -  3 Apr 1986  Antoine Khreich (from 2 Feb 1983,
                           Antoine Cardinal Khreich)          (b. 1907 - d. 1994)
19 Apr 1986 - 26 Feb 2011  Nasrallah Sfeir (from 26 Nov 1994,
                           Nasrallah Cardinal Sfeir)          (b. 1920)
15 Mar 2011 -              Beshara Rai (from 24 Nov 2012,
                           Beshara Cardinal Rai)              (b. 1940)

Melkite Catholic Church

 1 Oct 1724                church enters union with Rome, splitting from the
                           Antiochian Orthodox church

Patriarchs
 1 Oct 1724 - 19 Jul 1759  Cyrille VI Tanas
19 Jul 1759 -  1 Aug 1760  Athanase IV Jawhar (1st time)
 1 Aug 1760 - 15 Nov 1761  Maximos II Hakim
24 Dec 1761 - 10 Apr 1788  Théodose V Dahan
16 Feb 1765 -        1768    Athanase IV Jawhar (2nd time)
                             (anti-patriarch)
 5 May 1788 -  2 Dec 1794  Athanase IV Jawhar (3rd time)
11 Dec 1794 -  6 Aug 1796  Cyrille VII Siage
11 Sep 1796 -  2 Feb 1812  Agapios II Matar
21 Feb 1812 - 18 Nov 1812  Ignace IV Sarrouf
14 Aug 1813 - 20 Nov 1813  Athanase V Matar
10 Dec 1813 - 15 Dec 1815  Macaire IV Tawil
10 Jul 1816 - 25 Mar 1833  Ignace V Cattan
 6 Apr 1833 - 23 Aug 1855  Maximos III Mazloum
 1 Apr 1856 - 24 Sep 1864  Clément Bahous
29 Sep 1864 - 13 Jul 1897  Grégoire II Youssef-Sayour         (b. ... - d. 1897)
24 Feb 1898 - 24 Apr 1902  Pierre IV Géraigiry                (b. 1841 - d. 1902)
28 Jun 1902 - 12 Jan 1916  Cyrille VIII Geha                  (b. 1840 - d. 1916)
 6 Apr 1919 - 25 Oct 1925  Dimitrios I Cadi                   (b. 1861 - d. 1925)
 8 Dec 1925 -  8 Sep 1947  Cyrille IX Moghabghab              (b. 1855 - d. 1947)
30 Oct 1947 -  5 Nov 1967  Maximos IV Saďgh (from 22 Feb
                           1965, Cardinal Maximos IV Saďgh)   (b. 1878 - d. 1967)
22 Nov 1967 - 22 Nov 2000  Maximos V Hakim                    (b. 1908 - d. 2001)
29 Nov 2000 -              Grégoire III Laham                 (b. 1933)

Romanian Greek-Catholic Church

 7 May 1700                union with Rome
16 Nov 1853                Metropolis
 1 Dec 1948                church outlawed
       1989                church relegalized

Bishops of Alba Iulia; from 17 Aug 1723, Bishops of Alba Iulia and Fagaras;
from 1853, Archbishops of Fagaras and Alba Iulia and Metropolitans; from 16 Dec
2005, Major Archbishops of Fagaras and Alba Iulia)
       1698 -        1713  Atanasie Anghel                    (b. 16... - d. 1713)
       1715 - 29 Oct 1727  Ioan Giurgiu Patachi               (b. 1682 - d. 1727)
       1728 -        1751  Ioan Inocentiu Micu-Klein          (b. 1692 - d. 1768)
       1752 - 27 Jan 1764  Petru Pavel Aron                   (b. 1709 - d. 1764)
       1765 -        1772  Atanasie Rednic                    (b. 1722 - d. 1772)
       1772 - 13 Mar 1782  Grigore Maior                      (b. 1715 - d. 1785)
       1783 -  2 Oct 1830  Ioan Bob                           (b. 1739 - d. 1830)
       1832 - 10 Apr 1850  Ioan Lemeni                        (b. 1780 - d. 1861)
       1850 -  7 Sep 1867  Alexandru Sterca Sulutiu           (b. 1794 - d. 1867)
       1868 - 31 Jul 1892  Ioan Vancea                        (b. 1820 - d. 1892)
       1893 -        1918  Victor Mihaly de Apsa              (b. 1841 - d. 1918)
       1920 - 25 Jan 1935  Vasile Suciu                       (b. 1873 - d. 1935)
       1936 -  5 Jun 1941  Alexandru Nicolescu                (b. 1882 - d. 1941)
       1941 -        1946  Valeriu Traian Frentiu             (b. 1875 - d. 1952)
                           (apostolic administrator)
       1946 -        1948  Ioan Suciu                         (b. 1907 - d. 1953)
                           (apostolic administrator)
14 Mar 1990 - 20 Jul 1994  Alexandru Todea (from 28 Jun 1991,
                           Alexandru Cardinal Todea)          (b. 1912 - d. 2002)
20 Jul 1994 -              Lucian Muresan (from 18 Feb 2012,
                           Lucian Cardinal Muresan)           (b. 1931)

Ruthenian Catholic Church

       1646                union with Rome
       1949 -        1991  church outlawed

Bishops of Mukachevo of the Byzantines
       1690 -        1707  Iosif de Kamelis
       1707 -        1715  Ioann Iosif Gordemarsky
       1716 -        1733  Georgy Gennady Bezancy
       1733 -        1738  Simeon Olshavsky
       1738 -        1742  Georgy Gavril Blazhovsky
       1743 -        1767  Michail Manuil Olshavsky
       1767 -        1772  Ioann Bradach
       1772 -        1808  Andrey Bachinsky
       1808 -        1815  Mikhail Bradach                    (b. 1748 - d. 1815)
       1816 -        1831  Alexy Povsy                        (b. 1753 - d. 1831)
       1831 -        1837  vacant
       1837 -        1864  Vasily Popovic                     (b. 1796 - d. 1864)
       1864 -        1867  vacant
       1867 -        1874  István Pankovic                    (b. 1820 - d. 1874)
       1875 -        1891  János Pástzélyi-Kovács             (b. 1826 - d. 1891)
       1891 -        1912  Gyula Firczák                      (b. 1836 - d. 1912)
       1912 -        1924  Antal Papp                         (b. 1867 - d. 1945)
       1924 -        1931  Péter Gebey                        (b. 1864 - d. 1931)
       1932 - 31 May 1943  Alexander Stojka                   (b. 1890 - d. 1943)
       1943 -        1944  Miklós Dudás                       (b. 1902 - d. 1972)
                           (apostolic administrator)
24 Sep 1944 -  1 Nov 1947  Teodor Romzha                      (b. 1911 - d. 1947)
                           (apostolic administrator)
       1947 -        1950  Makary
                           (apostolic administrator)
16 Jan 1991 - 12 Nov 2002  Ivan Semedi                        (b. 1921 - d. 2008)
12 Nov 2002 -              Milan Sasik                        (b. 1952)
                           (apostolic administrator to 6 Jan 2003)

Syrian Catholic Church

       1662                Patriarchate created
       1702                Patriarchate abolished
       1782                Patriarchate restored

Patriarchs of Antioch
       1662 - 24 Jul 1677  Ignatius André Akhidjan            (b. ... - d. 1677)
       1677 -    Feb 1702  Ignatius Pierre VI Chaahbadine     (b. 1640 - d. 1702)
22 Jan 1782 -  4 Sep 1800  Ignatius Michael III Jarweh        (b. 1730 - d. 1800)
20 Dec 1801 -    Sep 1810  Ignatius Michael IV                (b. 1761 - d. 1816)
 2 Jan 1811 -  1 Jun 1818  Ignatius Simon II
   Feb 1820 - 16 Oct 1851  Ignatius Pierre VII                (b. ... - d. 1851)
30 Mar 1853 - 14 Mar 1864  Ignatius Antoun I
 6 Aug 1866 -  7 Mar 1874  Ignatius Philippe I                (b. 1826 - d. ...)
21 Dec 1874 -        1891  Ignatius Georges V                 (b. 1818 - d. ...)
12 Oct 1893 - 13 Sep 1897  Ignatius Behnam II                 (b. 1831 - d. ...)
 9 Oct 1898 -  7 May 1929  Ignatius Ephrem II Rahmani         (b. 1848 - d. 1929)
24 Jun 1929 - 29 Jan 1968  Ignatius Gabriel I Tappouni (from
                           16 Dec 1935, Cardinal Ignatius
                           Gabriel I Tappouni)                (b. 1879 - d. 1968)
10 Mar 1968 - 23 Jul 1998  Ignatius Antoun II Hayek           (b. 1910 - d. 2007)
13 Oct 1998 -  8 Jan 2001  Ignatius Moussa I Daoud            (b. 1930 - d. 2012)
16 Feb 2001 -  2 Feb 2008  Ignatius Pierre VIII               (b. 1930)
 2 Feb 2008 - 21 Jan 2009  Apostolic administrators
                           - Théophile Georges Kassab of
                             Homs, Hama, and Nabk             (b. 1945)
                           - Athanase Matti Shaba Matoka of
                             Baghdad                          (b. 1930)
                           - Grégoire Elias Tabé of Damascus  (b. 1941)
21 Jan 2009 -              Ignatius Joseph III                (b. 1944)

Syro-Malabar Catholic Church

       1599                St. Thomas Christians are included in the Catholic Church
16 Dec 1992                rank of Major Archbishop (head of the church) created

Major Archbishops of Ernakulam-Angamaly
16 Dec 1992 - 11 Nov 1996  Antony Cardinal Padiyara           (b. 1921 - d. 2000)
11 Nov 1996 - 23 Dec 1999  vacant
23 Dec 1999 -  1 Apr 2011  Varkey Vithayathil (from 21 Feb
                           2001, Varkey Cardinal Vithayathil) (b. 1927 - d. 2011)
 1 Apr 2011 - 26 May 2011  Mar Bosco Puthur                   (b. 1946)
                           (apostolic administrator)
26 May 2011 -              George Alencherry (from 18 Feb
                           2012, George Cardinal Alencherry)  (b. 1945)

Syro-Malankara Catholic Church

Archbishops (from 10 Jan 2005, Major Archbishops) of Trivandrum
11 Jun 1932 - 15 Jul 1953  Mar Ivanios                        (b. 1882 - d. 1953)
27 Jan 1955 - 10 Oct 1994  Benedict Mar Gregorios             (b. 1916 - d. 1994)
29 Nov 1995 - 18 Jan 2007  Cyril Mar Baselios                 (b. 1935 - d. 2007)
   Jan 2007 - 10 Feb 2007  Geevarghese Mar Divannasios        (b. 1950)
                           (administrator)
10 Feb 2007 -              Baselios Mar Cleemis (from 24 Nov
                           2012, Baselios Cardinal Cleemis)   (b. 1959)

Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church

 3 Jan 1596                union with Rome; church headed by Metropolitan of Galitzia
                           and Kiev
       1808                Metropolis of Lviv established in Austria-Hungary
       1839                Metropolis of Kiev abolished; Lviv becomes Metropolis
                           of Galitzia and Lviv
       1946                church outlawed and absorbed by Russian Orthodox Church
       1975                Major Archbishop proclaims himself a Patriarch, not approved
                           by Rome
 1 Dec 1989                church relegalized
21 Aug 2005                Metropolis moved to Kiev

Metropolitans of Kiev
       1694 - 13 Jun 1708  Lev Shliubits-Zanesky
       1708 -  3 Oct 1713  Yury Vinnitsky                     (b. ... - d. 1713)
27 Feb 1714 - 30 Nov 1728  Lev Luka Kishka                    (b. 1668 - d. 1728)
       1728 -        1746  Athanasy Sheptytsky
       1747                Theodor Liubenetsky-Rudnitsky      (b. c.1698 - d. 1751)
                           (not approved by the pope)
       1748 -        1762  Florian Grabnitsky                 (b. ... - d. 1762)
       1762 -        1778  Felician Philip Volodkovich        (b. 1697 - d. 1778)
       1778 -  4 Jun 1779  Liudvig Lev Sheptytsky             (b. 1717 - d. 1779)
       1780 - 12 Nov 1788  Iasan Yunosha-Smagazhevsky         (b. 1714 - d. 1788)
       1788 -        1805  Theodor Rostocky                   (b. 1725 - d. 1805)
       1808 -        1809  Irakly Lisovsky                    (b. 1734 - d. 1809)
       1809 -        1815  Grigory Kohanovich
       1817 -        1838  Josafat Bulgak                     (b. 1758 - d. 1838)
Metropolitans (from 1963, Major Archbishops; from 1975 also Patriarchs) of Lviv
(from 21 Aug 2005, of Kiev)
       1808 -        1814  Antony Angelovich                  (b. 1756 - d. 1814)
       1816 -        1858  Mikhail Levitsky                   (b. 1774 - d. 1858)
       1859 -        1866  Grigory Yakhimovich
       1866 -        1869  Spiridon Litvinovich
       1870 -        1882  Josyf Sembratovich
       1882 -  4 Aug 1898  Sylvester Sembratovich (from 10
                           Jan 1896, Sylvester Cardinal
                           Sembratovich)                      (b. 1836 - d. 1898)
 4 Aug 1898 - 31 Oct 1900  vacant
31 Oct 1900 -  1 Nov 1944  Andrey Sheptytsky                  (b. 1865 - d. 1944)
       1944 -  7 Sep 1984  Josyf Slipy (from 25 Jan 1965,
                           Josyf Cardinal Slipy)              (b. 1892 - d. 1984)
                           (from 11 Apr 1945 imprisoned; from 9 Feb 1963 in Rome exile)
       1972 -        1991    Volodymyr Sterniuk               (b. 1907 - d. 1997)
                             (Locum Tenens in Ukraine)
 7 Sep 1984 - 14 Dec 2000  Myroslav Ivan Lubachivsky (from
                           25 May 1985, Myroslav Ivan
                           Cardinal Lubachivsky)              (b. 1914 - d. 2000)
                           (to 30 Mar 1991 in Rome exile)
14 Dec 2000 - 10 Feb 2011  Lubomyr Husar (from 21 Feb 2001,
                           Lubomyr Cardinal Husar)            (b. 1933)
                           (Locum Tenens to 25 Jan 2001)
10 Feb 2011 - 28 Mar 2011  Ihor Vozniak (Locum Tenens)        (b. 1952)
28 Mar 2011 -              Sviatoslav Shevchuk                (b. 1970)

Old Catholic churches


Church of Utrecht

Archbishops of Utrecht
27 Apr 1723 -  3 Apr 1725  Cornelius Steenoven                (b. 1662 - d. 1725)
15 May 1725 - 13 May 1733  Cornelius Johannes Barchman
                           Wuytiers                           (b. 1693 - d. 1733)
22 Jul 1733 -  9 Jun 1739  Theodorus van der Croon            (b. 1668 - d. 1739)
 2 Jul 1739 - 31 Oct 1767  Petrus Johannes Meindaerts         (b. 1684 - d. 1767)
19 Nov 1767 - 14 Apr 1797  Gualterus Michael van Nieuwhuyzen  (b. 1722 - d. 1797)
10 May 1797 - 24 Jun 1808  Johannes Jacobus van Rhijn         (b. 1742 - d. 1808)
24 Jun 1808 - 10 Feb 1814  vacant
10 Feb 1814 - 28 Feb 1825  Willibrord van Os                  (b. 1744 - d. 1825)
14 Jul 1825 -  3 Jul 1858  Johannes van Santen                (b. 1772 - d. 1858)
 7 Jul 1858 -  4 Jul 1873  Henricus Loos                      (b. 1813 - d. 1873)
16 Dec 1874 -  8 Jan 1892  Johannes Heykamp                   (b. 1824 - d. 1892)
23 Feb 1892 -  9 Feb 1920  Gerardus Gul                       (b. 1847 - d. 1920)
 8 Mar 1920 - 10 Feb 1937  Franciscus Kenninck                (b. 1859 - d. 1937)
 6 Apr 1937 -  8 Nov 1970  Andreas Rinkel                     (b. 1889 - d. 1979)
 8 Nov 1970 - 29 Dec 1981  Marinus Kok                        (b. 1916 - d. 1999)
 6 Feb 1982 - 12 Feb 2000  Antonius Jan Glazemaker            (b. 1931)
11 Mar 2000 -              Joris A.O.L. Vercammen             (b. 1952)

Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church

 6 Jul 1945                church founded

Patriarchs
 6 Jul 1945 - 26 Mar 1961  Carlos Duarte Costa                (b. 1888 - d. 1961)
       1961 - 29 Oct 2009  Luis Fernando Castillo Mendez      (b. 1922 - d. 2009)

Old Catholic Church of the Mariavites

Minister-General
10 Oct 1907 - 29 Jan 1935  Johann Michael Kowalski            (b. 1871 - d. 1942)
Bishop-Primates
29 Jan 1935 -        1945  Klemens Maria Filip Feldman        (b. 1885 - d. 1971)
       1945 -        1953  Roman Maria Jakub Prochniewski     (b. 1872 - d. 1954)
       1953 -        1957  Waclaw Maria Bartlomiej Przysiecki (b. 1878 - d. 1961)
       1957 -        1965  Jan Maria Michel Sitek             (b. 1906 - d. 1970)
       1965 -        1972  Waclaw Maria Innocenty Golebiowski (b. 1913 - d. 1985)
       1972 -        1997  Stanislaw Maria Tymoteusz Kowalski (b. 1931 - d. 1997)
       1997 -        2007  Wlodzimierz Jaworski               (b. 1937)
       2007 -              Maria Ludwik Jablonski             (b. 1950)

Polish National Catholic Church of America

Prime Bishops
   Sep 1904 - 16 Feb 1953  Francis Hodur                      (b. 1866 - d. 1953)
                           (administrator to 29 Sep 1907)
       1953 - 17 Jul 1969  Leon Grochowski                    (b. 1886 - d. 1969)
       1969 -        1978  Thaddeus F. Zielinski              (b. 1904 - d. 1990)
       1978 -        1985  Francis Rowinski                   (b. 1918 - d. 1990)
       1985 -        2002  John F. Swantek                    (b. 1933)
 8 Oct 2002 -              Robert M. Nemkovich                (b. 1942)

North American Old Roman Catholic Church

   Oct 1916                North American Old Roman Catholic Church (NAORCC) founded
   Jan 1958                following the death of Archbishop Carfora, several
                           independent but cooperating jurisdictions are established

Archbishops
   Oct 1916 -        1919  Rudolph Francis Edward Hamilton
                           de Lorraine-Brabant, prince de
                           Landas Berghes                     (b. 1873 - d. 1920)
       1919 - 11 Jan 1958  Carmel Henry Carfora               (b. 1878 - d. 1958)
       1958                Cyrus Augustine Starkey (1st time)
       1958 -        1962  Richard Arthur Marchenna           (b. 1911 - d. 1982)
       1962 -        1965  Cyrus Augustine Starkey (2nd time)
       1965 -        1988  John Emil Schweikert
       1988 -              Theodore Joseph Rematt

North American Old Roman Catholic Church, Archdiocese of California

Archbishops
       1940 -        1985  Edgar Ramon Verostek               (b. 1909 - d. 1994)
       1985 -              Joseph Andrew Vellone

North American Old Roman Catholic Church, Archdiocese of New York

Archbishops
       1946 -        1972  Hubert Augustus Rogers             (b. 1887 - d. 1976)
       19.. -              James H. Rogers

Old Catholic Church of Canada

   Sep 1960                Diocese of Hamilton and other Canadian dioceses decide to
                           unite as an independent body (Old Catholic Church of Canada)

Presiding bishops
   Sep 1960 -  5 Mar 1962  Richard Arthur Marchenna (acting)  (s.a.)
 5 Mar 1962 -  9 Oct 1988  Robert Ritchie                     (b. 1907 - d. 1999)
 9 Oct 1988 -    Jun 2001  David Charles Thomson              (b. 1937)
   Jun 2001 -    Aug 2005  Arthur Cuthbert Keating            (b. 1926)
   Aug 2005 -              Patricia Davies (f)

Old Catholic Church of America

Archbishops
   May 1925 -        1953  Paul Francis Cope
       1953 -        1963  Francis Xavier Resch
       1963 -  1 Nov 1997  Walter Xavier Brown                (b. 1931 - d. 1998)
 1 Nov 1997 -  8 Mar 2009  James Edward Bostwick              (b. 1949 - d. 2009)
   Jun 2009 -              Sherman Randall Pius Mosley

Old Roman Catholic Church in North America

Archbishops
   May 1963 - 20 Apr 1974  Robert Alfred Burns
       1974 -  5 Jan 1975  Andrew Gordon Johnston-Cantrell
12 Apr 1975 -              Francis Peter Facione

Philippine Independent Church

 3 Aug 1902                Philippine Independent Church (Aglipayan Church) founded

Supreme Bishops
17 Oct 1902 -  1 Sep 1940  Gregorio Aglipay y Labayan         (b. 1860 - d. 1940)
14 Oct 1940 -    Jan 1946  Santiago Fonacier                  (b. 1885 - d. 1977)
   Jan 1946 -  1 Sep 1946  Gerardo Bayaca
 1 Sep 1946 -        1971  Isabelo de los Reyes, Jr.          (b. 1900 - d. 1971)
       1971 -  8 May 1981  Macario V. Ga
 8 May 1981 -  8 May 1987  Abdias de la Cruz
 8 May 1987 - 26 May 1989  Soliman Ganno                      (b. ... - d. 1989)
22 Jun 1989 -    May 1993  Tito Pasco
   May 1993 -    May 1999  Alberto B. Ramento                 (b. 1936 - d. 2006)
   May 1999 -    May 2005  Tomas A. Millamena
   May 2005 -              Godofredo J. David

Church of England

       1534                Church of England (Anglican Church) founded
Note: The sovereign of Great Britain is the head of the Church of England by the 1534 Act of Supremacy.
Archbishops of Canterbury
16 Jan 1695 - 14 Dec 1715  Thomas Tenison                     (b. 1636 - d. 1715)
16 Jan 1716 - 24 Jan 1737  William Wake                       (b. 1657 - d. 1737)
28 Feb 1737 - 10 Oct 1747  John Potter                        (b. 1674 - d. 1747)
24 Nov 1747 - 13 Mar 1757  Thomas Herring                     (b. 1693 - d. 1757)
29 Apr 1757 - 19 Mar 1758  Matthew Hutton                     (b. 1693 - d. 1758)
21 Apr 1758 -  3 Aug 1768  Thomas Secker                      (b. 1693 - d. 1768)
30 Sep 1768 - 19 Mar 1783  Frederick Cornwallis               (b. 1713 - d. 1783)
26 Apr 1783 - 18 Jan 1805  John Moore                         (b. 1733 - d. 1805)
21 Feb 1805 - 21 Jul 1828  Charles Manners Sutton             (b. 1755 - d. 1828)
15 Aug 1828 - 11 Feb 1848  William Howley                     (b. 1765 - d. 1848)
10 Mar 1848 -  6 Sep 1862  John Bird Sumner                   (b. 1780 - d. 1862)
26 Nov 1862 - 28 Oct 1868  Charles Thomas Longley             (b. 1794 - d. 1868)
30 Dec 1868 -  1 Dec 1882  Archibald Campbell Tait            (b. 1811 - d. 1882)
 3 Mar 1883 - 11 Oct 1896  Edward White Benson                (b. 1829 - d. 1896)
22 Dec 1896 - 22 Dec 1902  Frederick Temple                   (b. 1821 - d. 1902)
 6 Feb 1903 - 12 Nov 1928  Randall Thomas Davidson            (b. 1848 - d. 1930)
30 Nov 1928 - 31 Mar 1942  Cosmo Gordon Lang                  (b. 1864 - d. 1945)
17 Apr 1942 - 26 Oct 1944  William Temple                     (b. 1881 - d. 1944)
 2 Feb 1945 - 31 May 1961  Geoffrey Francis Fisher            (b. 1887 - d. 1972)
21 Jun 1961 - 15 Nov 1974  Arthur Michael Ramsey              (b. 1904 - d. 1988)
 5 Dec 1974 - 25 Jan 1980  Donald Coggan                      (b. 1909 - d. 2000)
25 Feb 1980 - 31 Jan 1991  Robert Runcie                      (b. 1921 - d. 2000)
19 Apr 1991 - 31 Oct 2002  George Carey                       (b. 1935)
 2 Dec 2002 - 31 Dec 2012  Rowan Williams                     (b. 1950)
 4 Feb 2013 -              Justin Welby                       (b. 1956)

Lutheran World Federation

Presidents
       1947 -        1952  Anders Nygren (Sweden)             (b. 1890 - d. 1978)
       1952 -        1957  Hanns Lilje (W. Germany)           (b. 1899 - d. 1977)
       1957 - 10 Aug 1963  Franklin Clark Fry (U.S.)          (b. 1900 - d. 1968)
10 Aug 1963 - 22 Jul 1970  Fredrik A. Schiotz (U.S.)          (b. 1901 - d. 1989)
22 Jul 1970 -    Jun 1977  Mikko E. Juva (Finland)            (b. 1918 - d. 2004)
   Jun 1977 -        1984  Josiah M. Kibira (Tanzania)        (b. 1925 - d. 1988)
       1984 - 17 May 1987  Zoltán Káldy (Hungary)             (b. 1919 - d. 1987)
       1987 -  8 Feb 1990  Johannes Hanselmann (W. Germany)   (b. 1927 - d. 1999)
 8 Feb 1990 - 16 Jul 1997  Gottfried Brakemeier (Brazil)      (b. 1937)
16 Jul 1997 - 31 Jul 2003  Christian Krause (Germany)         (b. 1940)
31 Jul 2003 - 24 Jul 2010  Mark S. Hanson (U.S.)              (b. 1946)
24 Jul 2010 -              Munib A. Younan (Palestine)        (b. 1950)

Evangelical Lutheran Church in America

(United) Lutheran Church in America

       1918                United Lutheran Church in America founded
28 Jun 1962                merged with three other Lutheran groups to form the
                           Lutheran Church in America

Presidents
       1918 -    Oct 1944  Frederick H. Knubel                (b. 1870 - d. 1945)
   Oct 1944 - 31 May 1968  Franklin Clark Fry                 (b. 1900 - d. 1968)
       1968 -        1978  Robert J. Marshall                 (b. 1918 - d. 2008)
       1978 -        1988  James R. Crumley                   (b. 1925)
                           (from 1980 bishop)

American Lutheran Church

       1960                three Lutheran groups merge to form the American Lutheran
                           Church

Presidents
       1960 -        1970  Fredrik A. Schiotz                 (b. 1901 - d. 1989)
       1970 - 12 Mar 1973  Kent S. Knutson                    (b. 1924 - d. 1973)
       1974 -        1988  David W. Preus                     (b. 1922)

Evangelical Lutheran Church in America

 1 Jan 1988                Lutheran Church in America and American Lutheran Church
                           merge to form the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America

Presiding Bishops
 1 Jan 1988 - 31 Oct 1995  Herbert W. Chilstrom               (b. 1931)
 1 Nov 1995 - 31 Oct 2001  H. George Anderson                 (b. 1932)
 1 Nov 2001 -              Mark S. Hanson                     (b. 1946)

Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod

Presidents
       1847 -        1850  Carl Ferdinand Wilhelm Walther
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1811 - d. 1887)
       1850 -        1864  Friedrich Conrad Dietrich Wyneken  (b. 1810 - d. 1876)
       1864 -        1878  Carl Ferdinand Wilhelm Walther
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1878 -        1899  Heinrich Christian Schwan          (b. 1819 - d. 1905)
       1899 -        1911  Franz August Otto Pieper           (b. 1852 - d. 1931)
       1911 -        1935  Friedrich Pfotenhauer              (b. 1859 - d. 1939)
       1935 -        1962  John William Behnken               (b. 1884 - d. 1968)
       1962 -        1969  Oliver Raymond Harms               (b. 1901 - d. 1980)
       1969 -        1981  Jacob Aall Otteson Preus II        (b. 1920 - d. 1994)
       1981 -        1992  Ralph Arthur Bohlmann              (b. 1932)
11 Jul 1992 - 23 Mar 2001  Alvin L. Barry                     (b. 1931 - d. 2001)
23 Mar 2001 -  8 Sep 2001  Robert T. Kuhn                     (b. 1937)
 8 Sep 2001 -              Gerald B. Kieschnick               (b. 1943)

Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod

Presidents
 8 Dec 1849 -        1860  Johannes Muehlhaeuser              (b. 1803 - d. 1867)
       1860 -        1864  John Bading (1st time)             (b. 1824 - d. 1913)
       1864 -  4 Jun 1865  Gottlieb Reim                      (b. 1828 - d. 1882)
 4 Jun 1865 -        1867  William Streissguth                (b. 1827 - d. 1915)
       1867 -        1887  John Bading (2nd time)             (s.a.)
       1887 - 22 Dec 1908  Phillip von Rohr                   (b. 1843 - d. 1908)
   Dec 1908 -        1933  Gustav Ernst Bergemann             (b. 1862 - d. 1954)
       1933 -        1953  John Brenner                       (b. 1874 - d. 1962)
       1953 - 19 Jun 1979  Oscar J. Naumann                   (b. 1909 - d. 1979)
19 Jun 1979 -        1993  Carl H. Mischke                    (b. 1922 - d. 2013)
       1993 -        2007  Karl R. Gurgel                     (b. 1941?)
       2007 -              Mark Schroeder                     (b. 1954?)

Swedish Church

Archbishops of Uppsala
       1681 -        1700  Olaus Swebilius                    (b. 1624 - d. 1700)
       1700 - 17 Feb 1709  Eric Benzelius                     (b. 1632 - d. 1709)
       1711 -        1714  Haquin Spegel                      (b. 1645 - d. 1714)
       1714 -        1730  Matthias Steuchius                 (b. 1644 - d. 1730)
       1730 - 21 Jun 1742  Johannes Steuchius                 (b. 1676 - d. 1742)
       1742 - 23 Sep 1743  Eric Benzelius d.y.                (b. 1675 - d. 1743)
       1744 -        1747  Jacob Benzelius                    (b. 1683 - d. 1747)
       1747 - 20 May 1758  Henric Benzelius                   (b. 1689 - d. 1758)
       1758 -        1764  Samuel Troilius                    (b. 1706 - d. 1764)
       1764 -        1775  Magnus Beronius                    (b. 1692 - d. 1775)
       1775 -        1786  Carl Fredrik Mennander             (b. 1712 - d. 1786)
       1786 -        1803  Uno von Troil                      (b. 1746 - d. 1803)
       1805 -        1819  Jacob Axelsson Lindblom            (b. 1746 - d. 1819)
       1819 -        1836  Carl von Rosenstein                (b. 1766 - d. 1836)
       1837 -        1839  Johan Olof Wallin                  (b. 1779 - d. 1839)
       1839 -        1851  Carl Fredrik af Wingĺrd            (b. 1781 - d. 1851)
       1852 -        1855  Hans Olof Holmström                (b. 1784 - d. 1855)
       1856 - 28 Jun 1870  Henrik Reuterdahl                  (b. 1795 - d. 1870)
       1870 -  2 Feb 1900  Anton Niklas Sundberg              (b. 1818 - d. 1900)
       1900 -        1913  Johan August Ekman                 (b. 1845 - d. 1913)
       1914 -        1931  Nathan Söderblom                   (b. 1866 - d. 1931)
       1931 -        1950  Erling Eidem                       (b. 1880 - d. 1972)
       1950 -        1958  Yngve Brilioth                     (b. 1891 - d. 1959)
       1958 -        1967  Gunnar Hultgren                    (b. 1902 - d. 1991)
 1 Oct 1967 -        1972  Ruben Josefson                     (b. 1907 - d. 1972)
       1972 -        1983  Olof Sundby                        (b. 1917 - d. 1996)
       1983 -        1993  Bertil Werkström                   (b. 1928 - d. 2010)
       1993 - 31 Jan 1997  Gunnar Weman                       (b. 1932)
 1 Feb 1997 -  2 Sep 2006  Karl Gustav Hammar                 (b. 1943)
 2 Sep 2006 -              Anders Wejryd                      (b. 1948)

Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland

Archbishops of Turku
       1690 -        1718  Johannes Gezelius nuorempi         (b. 1647 - d. 1718)
       1721 -        1728  Herman Witte                       (b. 1666 - d. 1728)
       1728 -  2 Jul 1733  Lars Tammelin                      (b. 1669 - d. 1733)
       1734 -        1748  Jonas Fahlenius                    (b. 1674 - d. 1748)
       1748 -        1755  Johan Browallius                   (b. 1707 - d. 1755)
       1757 -        1775  Carl Fredrik Mennander             (b. 1712 - d. 1786)
       1776 -        1788  Jakob Haartman                     (b. 1717 - d. 1788)
       1788 -        1802  Jakob Gadolin                      (b. 1719 - d. 1802)
       1803 -        1832  Jakob Tengström                    (b. 1755 - d. 1832)
       1833 -        1847  Erik Gabriel Melartin              (b. 1780 - d. 1847)
       1850 - 19 Feb 1884  Edvard Bergenheim                  (b. 1798 - d. 1884)
       1884 -        1898  Torsten Thure Renvall              (b. 1817 - d. 1898)
       1899 -        1930  Gustaf Johansson                   (b. 1844 - d. 1930)
       1930 -        1934  Lauri Ingman                       (b. 1868 - d. 1934)
       1935 -        1944  Erkki Kaila                        (b. 1867 - d. 1944)
       1945 -        1951  Aleksi Lehtonen                    (b. 1891 - d. 1951)
       1951 -        1964  Ilmari Salomies                    (b. 1893 - d. 1973)
       1964 -        1978  Martti Simojoki                    (b. 1908 - d. 1999)
       1978 -        1982  Mikko E. Juva                      (b. 1918 - d. 2004)
       1982 -  1 Dec 1998  John Vikström                      (b. 1931)
 6 Jan 1999 -  6 Jun 2010  Jukka Paarma                       (b. 1942)
 6 Jun 2010 -              Kari Mäkinen                       (b. 1955)

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

Presidents
 6 Apr 1830 - 27 Jun 1844  Joseph Smith, Jr.                  (b. 1805 - d. 1844)
                           (First Elder to 25 Jan 1832)
 5 Dec 1847 - 29 Aug 1877  Brigham Young                      (b. 1801 - d. 1877)
 8 Oct 1880 - 25 Jul 1887  John Taylor                        (b. 1808 - d. 1887)
 9 Apr 1889 -  2 Sep 1898  Wilford Woodruff                   (b. 1807 - d. 1898)
13 Sep 1898 - 10 Oct 1901  Lorenzo Snow                       (b. 1814 - d. 1901)
17 Oct 1901 - 19 Nov 1918  Joseph Fielding Smith              (b. 1838 - d. 1918)
23 Nov 1918 - 14 May 1945  Heber J. Grant                     (b. 1856 - d. 1945)
21 May 1945 -  4 Apr 1951  George Albert Smith                (b. 1870 - d. 1951)
 9 Apr 1951 - 18 Jan 1970  David O. McKay                     (b. 1873 - d. 1970)
23 Jan 1970 -  2 Jul 1972  Joseph Fielding Smith, Jr.         (b. 1876 - d. 1972)
 7 Jul 1972 - 26 Dec 1973  Harold B. Lee                      (b. 1899 - d. 1973)
30 Dec 1973 -  5 Nov 1985  Spencer W. Kimball                 (b. 1895 - d. 1985)
10 Nov 1985 - 30 May 1994  Ezra Taft Benson                   (b. 1899 - d. 1994)
 4 Jun 1994 -  3 Mar 1995  Howard W. Hunter                   (b. 1907 - d. 1995)
12 Mar 1995 - 27 Jan 2008  Gordon B. Hinckley                 (b. 1910 - d. 2008)
 4 Feb 2008 -              Thomas S. Monson                   (b. 1927)

Community of Christ

 6 Apr 1860                Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
 6 Apr 2001                renamed Community of Christ

Presidents
 6 Apr 1860 - 10 Dec 1914  Joseph Smith III                   (b. 1832 - d. 1914)
 5 May 1915 - 20 Mar 1946  Frederick Madison Smith            (b. 1874 - d. 1946)
 6 Apr 1946 - 14 Jun 1958  Israel Alexander Smith             (b. 1876 - d. 1958)
 6 Oct 1958 -  3 Apr 1978  W. Wallace Smith                   (b. 1900 - d. 1989)
 5 Apr 1978 - 15 Apr 1996  Wallace B. Smith                   (b. 1929)
15 Apr 1996 -  1 Dec 2004  W. Grant McMurray                  (b. 1945)
 3 Jun 2005 -              Stephen M. Veazey                  (b. 1957?)

Seventh-day Adventists

Presidents of the General Conference
20 May 1863 - 17 May 1865  John Byington                      (b. 1798 - d. 1887)
17 May 1865 - 14 May 1867  James White (1st time)             (b. 1821 - d. 1881)
14 May 1867 - 18 May 1869  John N. Andrews                    (b. 1829 - d. 1883)
18 May 1869 - 29 Dec 1871  James White (2nd time)             (s.a.)
29 Dec 1871 - 10 Aug 1874  George I. Butler (1st time)        (b. 1834 - d. 1918)
10 Aug 1874 -  6 Oct 1880  James White (3rd time)             (s.a.)
 6 Oct 1880 - 17 Oct 1888  George I. Butler (2nd time)        (s.a.)
17 Oct 1888 - 19 Feb 1897  Ole A. Olsen                       (b. 1845 - d. 1915)
19 Feb 1897 -  2 Apr 1901  George A. Irwin                    (b. 1844 - d. 1913)
 2 Apr 1901 - 11 May 1922  Arthur G. Daniells                 (b. 1858 - d. 1935)
11 May 1922 - 28 May 1930  William A. Spicer                  (b. 1865 - d. 1952)
28 May 1930 - 26 May 1936  Charles H. Watson                  (b. 1877 - d. 1962)
26 May 1936 - 10 Jul 1950  J. Lamar McElhany                  (b. 1880 - d. 1959)
10 Jul 1950 - 24 May 1954  William H. Branson                 (b. 1887 - d. 1961)
24 May 1954 - 16 Jun 1966  Reuben R. Figuhr                   (b. 1896 - d. 1983)
16 Jun 1966 -  3 Jan 1979  Robert H. Pierson                  (b. 1911 - d. 1989)
 3 Jan 1979 -  5 Jul 1990  Neal C. Wilson                     (b. 1920 - d. 2010)
 5 Jul 1990 -  1 Mar 1999  Robert S. Folkenberg               (b. 1941)
 1 Mar 1999 - 25 Jun 2010  Jan Paulsen                        (b. 1935)
25 Jun 2010 -              Ted N.C. Wilson                    (b. 1950)

Jehovah's Witnesses

       1872                International Bible Students Association
       1884                Zion's Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society
       1896                Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society
       1931                Jehovah's Witnesses

Presidents
       1872 - 31 Oct 1916  Charles Taze Russell               (b. 1852 - d. 1916)
 6 Jan 1917 -  8 Jan 1942  Joseph Franklin Rutherford         (b. 1869 - d. 1942)
13 Jan 1942 -  8 Jun 1977  Nathan Homer Knorr                 (b. 1905 - d. 1977)
22 Jun 1977 - 22 Dec 1992  Frederick W. Franz                 (b. 1893 - d. 1992)
30 Dec 1992 -  7 Oct 2000  Milton G. Henschel                 (b. 1920 - d. 2003)
 7 Oct 2000 -              Don Adams                          (b. 1925?)

Salvation Army

Generals
 2 Jul 1865 -        1912  William Booth                      (b. 1829 - d. 1912)
       1912 -  9 Jan 1929  Bramwell Booth                     (b. 1856 - d. 1929)
13 Feb 1929 -        1934  Edward Higgins                     (b. 1882 - d. 1947)
       1934 -        1939  Evangeline Booth (f)               (b. 1865 - d. 1950)
       1939 -        1946  George Carpenter                   (b. 1872 - d. 1948)
21 Jun 1946 -        1954  Albert Orsborn                     (b. 1886 - d. 1967)
 1 Jul 1954 -        1963  Wilfred Kitching                   (b. 1893 - d. 1977)
23 Oct 1963 -        1969  Frederick Coutts                   (b. 1899 - d. 1986)
23 Jul 1969 -  5 Jul 1974  Erik Wickberg                      (b. 1904 - d. 1996)
 6 Jul 1974 -        1977  Clarence Wiseman                   (b. 1907 - d. 1985)
 5 Jul 1977 -        1981  Arnold Brown                       (b. 1913 - d. 2002)
       1981 -  8 Jul 1986  Jarl Wahlström                     (b. 1918 - d. 1999)
 9 Jul 1986 -  9 Jul 1993  Eva Burrows (f)                    (b. 1929)
 9 Jul 1993 - 18 May 1994  Bramwell Tillsley                  (b. 1931)
23 Jul 1994 - 23 Jul 1999  Paul Rader                         (b. 1934)
23 Jul 1999 - 12 Nov 2002  John Gowans                        (b. 1934 - d. 2012)
13 Nov 2002 -  1 Apr 2006  John Larsson                       (b. 1938)
 2 Apr 2006 -  2 Apr 2011  Shaw Clifton                       (b. 1945)
 2 Apr 2011 - 13 Jun 2013  Linda Bond (f)                     (b. 1946)
13 Jun 2013 -              André Cox (acting to 3 Aug 2013)   (b. 1954)

Grace Communion International

   Oct 1933                Radio Church of God founded
 5 Jan 1968                renamed Worldwide Church of God
 3 Apr 2009                renamed Grace Communion International

Pastors-general
       1933 - 16 Jan 1986  Herbert W. Armstrong               (b. 1892 - d. 1986)
       1986 - 23 Sep 1995  Joseph W. Tkach                    (b. 1927 - d. 1995)
       1995 -              Joseph Tkach, Jr.                  (b. 1951)

New Apostolic Church

Chief apostles
 6 Dec 1895 - 20 Jan 1905  Fritz Krebs                        (b. 1832 - d. 1905)
21 Jan 1905 - 20 Sep 1930  Hermann Niehaus                    (b. 1848 - d. 1932)
21 Sep 1930 -  6 Jul 1960  Johann Gottfried Bischoff          (b. 1871 - d. 1960)
 7 Jul 1960 - 15 Feb 1975  Walter Schmidt                     (b. 1891 - d. 1981)
15 Feb 1975 -  8 Nov 1978  Ernst Streckeisen                  (b. 1905 - d. 1978)
18 Nov 1978 -  3 Mar 1988  Hans Urwyler                       (b. 1925 - d. 1994)
 3 Mar 1988 - 15 May 2005  Richard Fehr                       (b. 1939 - d. 2013)
15 May 2005 - 19 May 2013  Wilhelm Leber                      (b. 1947)
19 May 2013 -              Jean-Luc Schneider                 (b. 1959)

Assemblies of God

General chairmen
       1914                Eudorus N. Bell (1st time)         (b. 1866 - d. 1923)
       1914 -        1915  Archibald P. Collins               (b. 1861 - d. 1921)
       1915 -        1920  John W. Welch (1st time)           (b. 1859 - d. 1939)
       1920 - 15 Jun 1923  Eudorus N. Bell (2nd time)         (s.a.)
       1923 -        1925  John W. Welch (2nd time)           (s.a.)
       1925 -        1927  William T. Gaston                  (b. 1886 - d. 1956)
General superintendents
       1927 -        1929  William T. Gaston                  (s.a.)
       1929 -        1949  Ernest S. Williams                 (b. 1885 - d. 1981)
       1949 -  8 Jul 1952  Wesley R. Steelberg                (b. 1902 - d. 1952)
       1952 -        1953  Gayle F. Lewis                     (b. 1898 - d. 1979)
       1953 -        1959  Ralph M. Riggs                     (b. 1895 - d. 1971)
       1959 -        1985  Thomas F. Zimmerman                (b. 1912 - d. 1991)
       1986 -        1993  G. Raymond Carlson                 (b. 1918 - d. 1999)
15 Nov 1993 -  8 Oct 2007  Thomas E. Trask                    (b. 1936)
 8 Oct 2007 -              George O. Wood

Orthodox churches

Note: In the Orthodox Church there are 15 independent (autocephalous) church units, each with its own patriarch, archbishop, or metropolitan. In the traditional order of honour amongst the Orthodox churches (that is, the order through which their primates are mentioned in the liturgy when more than 3 metropolitans are present), they are: Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, Russia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Georgia, Cyprus, Greece, Poland, Albania, Czech Lands and Slovakia, and America. The Church of Constantinople and its patriarch have only a status of "first among equals." Note that the dates here, as on this site in general, are according to the Gregorian calendar.
(Much of the information here has been kindly provided by
Dimitrios Kiminas, author of The Ecumenical Patriarchate: A History of Its Metropolitanates with Annotated Hierarch Catalogs, who may be contacted for further questions relating to the Orthodox churches.)

Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople

       c.36                Church of Byzantium founded by Apostle Andrew
  1 May 330                inauguration of Constantinople
                           (foundation stone set 3 Nov 324)

Ecumenical Patriarchs
 Ap/My 1694 - 19 Aug 1702  Kallinikos II (3rd time)           (b. c.1630 - d. 1702)
   Aug 1702 - 28 Oct 1707  Gavriil III                        (b. 16... - d. 1707)
31 Oct?1707 -  5 Nov?1707  Neophytos V                        (b. 16... - d. 17...)
 5 Nov?1707 -    Jun 1709  Kyprianos I (1st time)             (b. 16... - d. 1714)
   Jun 1709                Kyrillos IV (1st time)             (b. 16... - d. 1728)
   Jun 1709 -    Dec 1711  Athanasios V                       (b. 16... - d. af.1718)
15 Dec 1711 -    Nov 1713  Kyrillos IV (2nd time)             (s.a.)
   Nov 1713 - 11 Mar 1714  Kyprianos I (2nd time)             (s.a.)
11 Mar 1714 -  3 Apr 1716  Kosmas III                         (b. 16... - d. 1736)
   Apr 1716 - 30 Nov 1726  Ieremias III (1st time)            (b. 16... - d. 1735)
12 Jan 1718 - 28 Jan 1718    Kyrillos of Proussa              (b. 16... - d. 1724)
                             (in opposition)
30 Nov 1726     (hours)    Kallinikos III                     (b. 16... - d. 1726)
 1 Dec 1726 -    Sep 1732  Paisios II (1st time)              (b. 16... - d. 1756)
26 Sep 1732 -  Mr/Ap 1733  Ieremias III (2nd time)            (s.a.)
 Mr/Ap 1733 -    Oct 1734  Seraphim I                         (b. 16... - d. 17...)
 8 Oct 1734 -  Au/Se 1740  Neophytos VI (1st time)            (b. 16... - d. 1747)
 Au/Se 1740 -  My/Jn 1743  Paisios II (2nd time)              (s.a.)
 My/Jn 1743 -  Mr/Ap 1744  Neophytos VI (2nd time)            (s.a.)
 Mr/Ap 1744 -  9 Oct 1748  Paisios II (3rd time)              (s.a.)
 9 Oct 1748 -    Jun 1751  Kyrillos V (1st time)              (b. 17... - d. 1775)
   Jun 1751 -    Sep 1752  Paisios II (4th time)              (s.a.)
18 Sep 1752 - 27 Jan 1757  Kyrillos V (2nd time)              (s.a.)
27 Jan 1757 -  2 Aug 1757  Kallinikos IV                      (b. 1713 - d. 1791)
 2 Aug 1757 -  6 Apr 1761  Seraphim II                        (b. ... - d. 1781/82)
 6 Apr 1761 -  1 Jun 1763  Ioannikios III                     (b. ... - d. 1793)
 4 Jun 1763 - 16 Nov 1768  Samouil I (1st time)               (b. c.1700 - d. 1775)
16 Nov 1768 -    Apr 1769  Meletios II                        (b. c.1700 - d. af.1777)
22 Apr 1769 - 27 Nov 1773  Theodosios II                      (b. 17... - d. c.1785)
28 Nov 1773 -  4 Jan 1775  Samouil I (2nd time)               (s.a.)
 4 Jan 1775 - 19 Oct 1780  Sophronios II                      (b. 17... - d. 1780)
19 Oct 1780 - 10 Jul 1785  Gavriil IV                         (b. 17... - d. 1785)
   Jul 1785 - 11 May 1789  Prokopios I                        (b. 1734 - d. 1812)
12 May 1789 - 12 Mar 1794  Neophytos VII (1st time)           (b. 17... - d. 18...)
14 Mar 1794 - 30 Apr 1797  Gerasimos III                      (b. 17... - d. c.1800)
30 Apr 1797 - 29 Dec 1798  Grigorios V (1st time)             (b. 1746 - d. 1821)
30 Dec 1798 - 29 Jun 1801  Neophytos VII (2nd time)           (s.a.)
29 Jun 1801 -  4 Oct 1806  Kallinikos V (1st time)            (b. 17... - d. 18...)
 5 Oct 1806 - 22 Sep 1808  Grigorios V (2nd time)             (s.a.)
22 Sep 1808 -  5 May 1809  Kallinikos V (2nd time)            (s.a.)
 5 May 1809 - 16 Mar 1813  Ieremias IV                        (b. 17... - d. 1824)
16 Mar 1813 - 25 Dec 1818  Kyrillos VI                        (b. 1775 - d. 1821)
26 Dec 1818 - 22 Apr 1821  Grigorios V (3rd time)             (s.a.)
22 Apr 1821 -  8 Aug 1822  Evgenios II                        (b. 1780? - d. 1822)
 9 Aug 1822 - 21 Jul 1824  Anthimos III                       (b. 17... - d. 1842)
21 Jul 1824 -  8 Oct 1826  Chrysanthos I                      (b. 1768 - d. 1834)
 8 Oct 1826 - 17 Jul 1830  Agathangelos I                     (b. 17... - d. 1831)
18 Jul 1830 - 30 Aug 1834  Konstantios I                      (b. 1770 - d. 1859)
30 Aug 1834 -  8 Oct 1835  Konstantios II                     (b. 1760? - d. 1859)
 9 Oct 1835 -  3 Mar 1840  Grigorios VI (1st time)            (b. 1798 - d. 1881)
 3 Mar 1840 - 18 May 1841  Anthimos IV (1st time)             (b. 1788 - d. 1878)
18 May 1841 - 24 Jun 1842  Anthimos V                         (b. 17... - d. 1842)
26 Jun 1842 - 30 Apr 1845  Germanos IV (1st time)             (b. 1788 - d. 1853)
30 Apr 1845 - 10 Dec 1845  Meletios III                       (b. 1772? - d. 1845)
16 Dec 1845 - 30 Oct 1848  Anthimos VI (1st time)             (b. 1782 - d. 1878)
30 Oct 1848 - 11 Nov 1852  Anthimos IV (2nd time)             (s.a.)
13 Nov 1852 - 28 Sep 1853  Germanos IV (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 6 Oct 1853 -  3 Oct 1855  Anthimos VI (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 3 Oct 1855 - 13 Jul 1860  Kyrillos VII                       (b. 1800? - d. 1872)
19 Jul 1860 - 16 Oct 1860  Ioannikios of Nikaia               (b. ... - d. 1879)
                           (Locum Tenens)
16 Oct 1860 - 21 Jul 1863  Ioakim II (1st time)               (b. 1802 - d. 1878)
23 Jul 1863 -  2 Oct 1863  Meletios of Raskopresreni          (b. ... - d. 1895)
                           (Locum Tenens)
 2 Oct 1863 - 16 Dec 1866  Sophronios III                     (b. 1798 - d. 1899)
17 Dec 1866 - 22 Feb 1867  Neophytos of Korytsa               (b. ... - d. 1874)
                           (Locum Tenens)
22 Feb 1867 - 22 Jun 1871  Grigorios VI (2nd time)            (s.a.)
23 Jun 1871 - 17 Sep 1871  Dionysios of Didymotichon          (b. 1820 - d. 1891)
                           (Locum Tenens)
17 Sep 1871 - 12 Oct 1873  Anthimos VI (3rd time)             (s.a.)
12 Oct 1873 -  5 Dec 1873  Seraphim of Arta (Locum Tenens)    (b. ... - d. 1894)
 5 Dec 1873 - 16 Aug 1878  Ioakim II (2nd time)               (s.a.)
19 Aug 1878 - 16 Oct 1878  Agathangelos of Ephesos
                           (1st time) (Locum Tenens)          (b. 1818 - d. 1893)
16 Oct 1878 - 11 Apr 1884  Ioakim III (1st time)              (b. 1834 - d. 1912)
11 Apr 1884 - 13 Oct 1884  Agathangelos of Ephesos
                           (2nd time) (Locum Tenens)          (s.a.)
13 Oct 1884 - 26 Nov 1886  Ioakim IV                          (b. 1837 - d. 1887)
28 Nov 1886 -  4 Feb 1887  Ioannis of Kaisaria (Locum Tenens) (b. 1834 - d. 1902)
 4 Feb 1887 - 25 Aug 1891  Dionysios V                        (s.a.)
28 Aug 1891 -  8 Nov 1891  Dorotheos of Velegrades            (b. ... - d. 1924)
                           (Locum Tenens)
 8 Nov 1891 -  6 Nov 1894  Neophytos VIII                     (b. 1832 - d. 1909)
 7 Nov 1894 -  1 Feb 1895  Nathanail of Prousa (1st time)     (b. ... - d. 1910)
                           (Locum Tenens)
 1 Feb 1895 - 10 Feb 1897  Anthimos VII                       (b. 1827 - d. 1913)
10 Feb 1897 - 14 Apr 1897  Konstantinos of Ephesos            (b. 1833 - d. 1914)
                           (Locum Tenens)
14 Apr 1897 -  9 Apr 1901  Konstantinos V                     (s.a.)
12 Apr 1901 -  7 Jun 1901  Nathanail of Prousa (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                           (Locum Tenens)
 7 Jun 1901 - 26 Nov 1912  Ioakim III (2nd time)              (s.a.)
 3 Dec 1912 - 10 Feb 1913  Germanos of Amasia (Locum Tenens)  (b. 1866 - d. 1935)
10 Feb 1913 - 25 Oct 1918  Germanos V                         (b. 1835 - d. 1920)
25 Oct 1918 - 19 Mar 1921  Dorotheos of Prousa (Locum Tenens) (b. 1861 - d. 1921)
   Mar 1921 -  8 Dec 1921  Nikolaos of Kaisaria (1st time)    (b. 1862 - d. 1927)
                           (Locum Tenens)
 8 Dec 1921 - 20 Sep 1923  Meletios IV                        (b. 1871 - d. 1935)
                           (in exile from 10 Jul 1923)
10 Jul 1923 -  2 Oct 1923  Nikolaos of Kaisaria (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                           (Head of Synod)
 2 Oct 1923 -  6 Dec 1923  Kallinikos of Kyzikos (1st time)   (b. 1855 - d. 1934)
                           (Head of Synod)
 6 Dec 1923 - 17 Nov 1924  Grigorios VII                      (b. 1855 - d. 1924)
17 Nov 1924 - 24 Nov 1924  Kallinikos of Kyzikos (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                           (Head of Synod)
24 Nov 1924 - 17 Dec 1924  Vasilios of Nikaia (Head of Synod) (b. 1846 - d. 1929)
17 Dec 1924 - 22 May 1925  Konstantinos VI                    (b. 1860 - d. 1930)
                           (in exile from 30 Jan 1925)
22 May 1925 - 13 Jul 1925  Nikolaos of Kaisaria (3rd time)    (s.a.)
                           (Head of Synod)
13 Jul 1925 - 29 Sep 1929  Vasilios III                       (s.a.)
29 Sep 1929 -  7 Oct 1929  Kallinikos of Kyzikos (3rd time)   (s.a.)
                           (Head of Synod)
 7 Oct 1929 - 29 Dec 1935  Photios II                         (b. 1874 - d. 1935)
29 Dec 1935 - 18 Jan 1936  Veniamin of Iraklia                (b. 1871 - d. 1946)
                           (Head of Synod)
18 Jan 1936 - 17 Feb 1946  Veniamin I                         (s.a.)
17 Feb 1946 - 20 Feb 1946  Maximos of Chalkidon               (b. 1897 - d. 1972)
                           (Head of Synod)
20 Feb 1946 - 18 Oct 1948  Maximos V                          (s.a.)
18 Oct 1948 -  1 Nov 1948  Thomas of Chalkidon                (b. 1889 - d. 1966)
                           (Head of Synod)
 1 Nov 1948 -  7 Jul 1972  Athinagoras I                      (b. 1886 - d. 1972)
 7 Jul 1972 - 16 Jul 1972  Meliton of Chalkidon               (b. 1913 - d. 1989)
                           (Head of Synod)
16 Jul 1972 -  2 Oct 1991  Dimitrios I                        (b. 1914 - d. 1991)
 2 Oct 1991 - 22 Oct 1991  Vartholomaios of Chalkidon         (b. 1940)
                           (Head of Synod)
22 Oct 1991 -              Vartholomaios I                    (s.a.)

Patriarchate of Alexandria

       c.43                Church of Alexandria founded by Apostle Mark

Popes and Patriarchs
 3 Nov 1688 - 31 Jan 1710  Gerasimos II                       (b. 16... - d. 1714)
 2 Feb 1710 -  Ja/Fe 1712  Samouil I (1st time)               (b. 1661 - d. 1723)
 Ja/Fe 1712 -  Ja/Fe 1714  Kosmas II (1st time)               (b. 16... - d. 1736)
 Ja/Fe 1714 -    Sep 1723  Samouil I (2nd time)               (s.a.)
23 Sep 1723 -  9 Dec 1736  Kosmas II (2nd time)               (s.a.)
16 Mar 1737 - 14 Jun 1746  Kosmas III                         (b. 16... - d. 1746)
29 Aug 1746 - 20 Jul 1766  Mattheos I                         (b. c.1700 - d. 1775)
23 Jul 1766 -  1 Jul 1783  Kyprianos I                        (b. 1723? - d. 1783)
 1 Jul 1783 - 17 Aug 1788  Gerasimos III                      (b. 17... - d. 1788)
24 Sep 1788 - 21 Sep 1805  Parthenios II                      (b. 1735 - d. 1805)
21 Nov 1805 - 26 Oct 1825  Theophilos III                     (b. 1764 - d. 1833)
10 Nov 1825 - 20 Sep 1845  Ierotheos I                        (b. 17... - d. 1845)
 9 Oct 1845 - 11 Feb 1847  Artemios I                         (b. 17... - d. 1858)
 2 May 1847 - 13 Jan 1858  Ierotheos II                       (b. 17... - d. 1858)
 7 Feb 1858 -  5 Jun 1861  Kallinikos I                       (b. 1800 - d. 1889)
 5 Jun 1861 - 12 Jan 1866  Iakovos I (or II)                  (b. 1803 - d. 1866)
16 Jan 1866 - 17 Jan 1866  Chrysanthos of Pentapolis          (b. ... - d. 1874)
                           (Locum Tenens)
17 Jan 1866 - 31 Mar 1869  Nikanor I                          (b. ... - d. 1870)
   Dec 1866 - 22 Feb 1868    Evgenios Xiropotamitis           (b. ... - d. 1875)
                             (Locum Tenens) (in opposition)
31 Mar 1869 -  2 Apr 1869  Nilos of Pentapolis (Locum Tenens) (b. c.1800 - d. 1887)
 2 Apr 1869 - 28 Oct 1870  Nilos I                            (s.a.)
                           (in opposition after 11 Jun 1870)
11 Jun 1870 -  3 Sep 1899  Sophronios IV                      (b. 1798 - d. 1899)
 3 Sep 1899 - 22 Jan 1900  Meletios Apostolopoulos            (b. ... - d. 1919)
                           (Locum Tenens)
22 Jan 1900 -  4 Sep 1925  Photios I                          (b. 1853 - d. 1925)
 4 Sep 1925 - 20 May 1926  Theophanis of Tripolis (1st time)  (b. 1864 - d. 1954)
                           (Locum Tenens)
20 May 1926 - 28 Jul 1935  Meletios II                        (b. 1871 - d. 1935)
 4 Aug 1935 - 11 Feb 1936  Theophanis of Tripolis (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                           (Locum Tenens)
11 Feb 1936 -  3 Mar 1939  Nikolaos V                         (b. 1876 - d. 1939)
 3 Mar 1939 - 21 Jun 1939  Theophanis of Tripolis (3rd time)  (s.a.)
                           (Locum Tenens)
21 Jun 1939 - 16 Nov 1966  Christophoros II                   (b. 1876 - d. 1967)
16 Nov 1966 - 10 May 1968  Konstantinos of Leontopolis        (b. 1887 - d. 1980)
                           (Locum Tenens)
10 May 1968 -  9 Jul 1986  Nikolaos VI                        (b. 1915 - d. 1986)
 9 Jul 1986 - 27 Feb 1987  Varnavas of Pilousion              (b. 1921 - d. 1993)
                           (Locum Tenens)
27 Feb 1987 - 23 Jul 1996  Parthenios III                     (b. 1919 - d. 1996)
23 Jul 1996 - 21 Feb 1997  Pavlos of Ioannoupolis             (b. 1920 - d. 2013)
                           (Locum Tenens)
21 Feb 1997 - 11 Sep 2004  Petros VII                         (b. 1949 - d. 2004)
18 Sep 2004 -  9 Oct 2004  Petros of Axomi (Locum Tenens)     (b. 1932)
 9 Oct 2004 -              Theodoros II                       (b. 1954)

Patriarchate of Antioch

       c.44                Church of Antioch founded by Apostle Peter

Patriarchs
       1684 - 16 Feb 1720  Kyrillos VI (2nd time)             (b. 1657 - d. 1720)
 5 Jul 1686 -  Oc/No 1694    Athanasios III (1st time)        (b. 16... - d. 1724)
                             (in opposition)
16 Feb 1720 - 24 Jul 1724  Athanasios III (2nd time)          (s.a.)
 8 Oct 1724 - 24 Mar 1766  Silvestros I                       (b. ... - d. 1766)
 9 May 1766 - 16 Jul 1767  Philimon I                         (b. ... - d. 1767)
17 Aug 1767 - 26 Dec 1791  Daniil I                           (b. 1736? - d. 1793)
26 Dec 1791 -  1 Aug 1813  Anthemios I                        (b. 17... - d. 1813)
   Aug 1813 -  3 Mar 1823  Seraphim I                         (b. 17... - d. 1823)
25 May 1823 -  6 Jul 1850  Methodios I                        (b. 1771 - d. 1850)
21 Oct 1850 - 28 Mar 1885  Ierotheos I                        (b. 1800 - d. 1885)
28 Mar 1885 -  3 Jun 1885  Seraphim of Irinoupolis (1st time) (b. ... - d. 1906)
                           (Locum Tenens)
 3 Jun 1885 - 24 Apr 1891  Gerasimos I                        (b. 1839 - d. 1897)
24 Apr 1891 - 14 Oct 1891  Seraphim of Irinoupolis (2nd time) (s.a.)
                           (Locum Tenens)
14 Oct 1891 - 12 Feb 1898  Spyridon I                         (b. 1839 - d. 1921)
 7 Jan 1898 -  8 Mar 1899  Germanos of Tarsos (Locum Tenens)  (b. 18... - d. 1911)
                           (in opposition to 12 Feb 1898)
24 May 1898 - 27 Apr 1899  Meletios of Laodikia               (b. 1839 - d. 1906)
                           (Locum Tenens)
                           (in opposition to 8 Mar 1899)
27 Apr 1899 - 21 Feb 1906  Meletios II                        (s.a.)
21 Feb 1906 - 29 Jun 1906  Athanasios of Emessa               (b. 1853 - d. 1924)
                           (Locum Tenens)
29 Jun 1906 - 12 Dec 1928  Grigorios IV                       (b. 1859 - d. 1928)
12 Dec 1928 -  9 Feb 1931  Arsenios of Laodikia               (b. 1861 - d. 1933)
                           (Locum Tenens)
 9 Feb 1931 - 15 Jan 1933  Arsenios II                        (s.a.)
12 Feb 1931 - 17 Jun 1958  Alexandros III                     (b. 1869 - d. 1958)
                           (in opposition to 15 Jan 1933)
17 Jun 1958 - 14 Nov 1958  Theodosios of Tripolis             (b. 1886 - d. 1970)
                           (Locum Tenens)
14 Nov 1958 - 19 Sep 1970  Theodosios VI                      (s.a.)
19 Sep 1970 - 25 Sep 1970  Ilias of Aleppo (Locum Tenens)     (b. 1914 - d. 1979)
25 Sep 1970 - 21 Jun 1979  Ilias IV                           (s.a.)
21 Jun 1979 -  2 Jul 1979  Ilias of Tripolis (Locum Tenens)   (b. 1925 - d. 2009)
 2 Jul 1979 -  5 Dec 2012  Ignatios IV                        (b. 1920 - d. 2012)
 7 Dec 2012 - 17 Dec 2012  Saba of Bosra-Hauran and Jabal
                           al-Arab (Locum Tenens)
17 Dec 2012 -              Ioannis Xš                         (b. 1955)
1 The number X adopted by this patriarch appears to be based on a rather erroneous list showing the last holder of his name as IX. As the latter was patriarch in the 12th century, the facts are obscure; however, studies by Venance Grumel ("Les patriarches grecs d'Antioche du nom de Jean" [Echos d'Orient 1933] and "Jean ou Denys? Note sur un patriarche d'Antioche" [Revue des études byzantines 1951]) indicate that the correct number of the patriarch of 2012 would be VI or VII.

Patriarchate of Jerusalem

       c.44                Church of Jerusalem founded by Apostle James

Patriarchs
 2 Feb 1669 - 18 Feb 1707  Dositheos II                       (b. 1641 - d. 1707)
19 Feb 1707 - 18 Feb 1731  Chrysanthos I                      (b. 1663 - d. 1731)
 Fe/Mr 1731 -  Mr/Ap 1737  Meletios I                         (b. 16... - d. 17...)
 Mr/Ap 1737 - 28 Oct 1766  Parthenios I                       (b. 1685 - d. 1770)
   Dec 1766 - 26 Apr 1770  Ephraim II                         (b. ... - d. 1770)
28 Apr 1770 -  4 Jan 1775  Sophronios V                       (b. 17... - d. 1780)
 Jn/Jl 1775 - 13 Nov 1787  Avramios I                         (b. 17... - d. 1787)
13 Nov 1787 -  3 Nov 1788  Prokopios I                        (b. 17... - d. 1788)
 4 Nov 1788 - 22 Nov 1808  Anthimos I                         (b. 1717 - d. 1808)
22 Nov 1808 - 15 Jan 1827  Polykarpos I                       (b. 17... - d. 1827)
28 Jan 1827 - 28 Dec 1844  Athanasios V                       (b. 17... - d. 1844)
28 Mar 1845 - 18 Nov 1872  Kyrillos II                        (b. 1792 - d. 1877)
14 Dec 1872 - 28 Dec 1872  Prokopios of Petra (Locum Tenens)  (b. ... - d. 1880)
28 Dec 1872 - 10 Mar 1875  Prokopios II                       (s.a.)
10 Mar 1875 - 19 May 1875  Iosaph of Philadelphia             (b. ... - d. 1888)
                           (Locum Tenens)
19 May 1875 - 23 Jun 1882  Ierotheos I                        (b. ... - d. 1882)
23 Jun 1882 - 25 Oct 1882  Nikiphoros of Petra (1st time)     (b. 1817 - d. 1909)
                           (Locum Tenens)
25 Oct 1882 -  3 Jan 1883  Photios I (not consecrated)        (b. 1853 - d. 1925)
 3 Jan 1883 - 16 Aug 1883  Nikiphoros of Petra (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                           (Locum Tenens)
16 Aug 1883 - 11 Aug 1890  Nikodimos I                        (b. 1827 - d. 1910)
14 Aug 1890 - 11 Mar 1891  Nikiphoros of Petra (3rd time)     (s.a.)
                           (Locum Tenens)
11 Mar 1891 - 21 Feb 1897  Gerasimos I                        (b. 1839 - d. 1897)
21 Feb 1897 - 22 Jul 1897  Damianos of Philadelphia           (b. 1848 - d. 1931)
                           (Locum Tenens)
22 Jul 1897 - 26 Dec 1908  Damianos I (1st time)              (s.a.)
26 Dec 1908 - 27 Dec 1908  Commission
                           - Meletios of Tiverias             (b. 1838 - d. 1909)
                           - Meletios of Iordanis             (b. 1851 - d. 1918)
                           - Nikodimos of Lydda               (b. 1846 - d. 1932)
27 Dec 1908 - 23 Feb 1909  Meletios of Tiverias               (s.a.)
                           (Locum Tenens)
23 Feb 1909 -  1 Mar 1909  Theophanis of Nazaret              (b. 1857 - d. 1914)
                           (Locum Tenens)
 1 Mar 1909 - 19 Sep 1918  Damianos I (2nd time)              (s.a.)
                           (in exile from 19 Nov 1917)
19 Sep 1918 -  5 Jan 1919  Porphyrios of Sinai (Locum Tenens) (b. 1859 - d. 1926)
 5 Jan 1919 - 14 Aug 1931  Damianos I (3rd time)              (s.a.)
14 Aug 1931 -  1 Oct 1934  Keladion of Ptolemais              (b. 1870 - d. 1944)
                           (Locum Tenens)
 1 Oct 1934 - 22 Jul 1935  Meliton of Madava (Locum Tenens)   (b. ... - d. 1943)
22 Jul 1935 - 31 Dec 1955  Timotheos I                        (b. 1878 - d. 1955)
 1 Jan 1956 - 29 Jan 1957  Athinagoras of Sevastia            (b. 1894 - d. 1966)
                           (Locum Tenens)
29 Jan 1957 - 11 Dec 1980  Venediktos I                       (b. 1892 - d. 1980)
   Dec 1980 - 16 Feb 1981  Germanos of Petra (Locum Tenens)   (b. 1920 - d. 1991)
16 Feb 1981 - 19 Dec 2000  Diodoros I                         (b. 1923 - d. 2000)
20 Dec 2000 - 13 Aug 2001  Kornilios of Petra (1st time)      (b. 1936)
                           (Locum Tenens)
13 Aug 2001 - 24 May 2005  Irinaios I                         (b. 1939)
 6 May 2005 - 30 May 2005  Commission
                           (in opposition to 24 May 2005)
                           - Kornilios of Petra               (s.a.)
                           - Vasilios of Kaisaria             (b. 1923 - d. 2012)
                           - Isychios of Kapitolias           (b. 1944)
30 May 2005 - 22 Aug 2005  Kornilios of Petra (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                           (Locum Tenens)
22 Aug 2005 -              Theophilos III                     (b. 1952)

Russian Orthodox Church

        988                Metropolis of Kiev founded
       1318                See transferred to Moscow
       1448                autocephaly
 2 Feb 1589                See elevated to Patriarchate by Constantinople
25 Feb 1721                Patriarchate abolishedš
10 Sep 1917                Patriarchate restored

Patriarchs of Moscow and All Russia
 3 Sep 1690 - 27 Oct 1700  Adrian I                           (b. 1637 - d. 1700)
27 Oct 1700 - 27 Dec 1701  Trifily of Krutitsy                (b. ... - d. 1702)
                           (Locum Tenens)
27 Dec 1701 -  8 Dec 1722  Stefan of Ryazan                   (b. 1658 - d. 1722)
                           (Locum Tenens; from 25 Feb 1721, Head of Synod)
Metropolitans of Moscow˛
12 Sep 1742 - 21 Jun 1745  Iosif                              (b. ... - d. 1745)
21 Jun 1745 - 25 Jun 1754  Platon I                           (b. ... - d. 1754)
25 Jun 1754 -  2 Nov 1757  Ilarion of Krutitsy (Locum Tenens)
 2 Nov 1757 - 29 Apr 1767  Timofey                            (b. 1698 - d. 1767)
29 Jan 1768 - 27 Sep 1771  Amvrosy                            (b. 1708 - d. 1771)
27 Sep 1771 - 31 Jan 1775  Samuil of Krutitsy (Locum Tenens)
31 Jan 1775 - 25 Jun 1811  Platon II                          (b. 1737 - d. 1811)
25 Jun 1811 - 15 Mar 1819  Avgustin                           (b. 1766 - d. 1819)
27 Mar 1819 -  1 Jul 1821  Serafim                            (b. 1763 - d. 1843)
15 Jul 1821 -  1 Dec 1867  Filaret                            (b. 1784 - d. 1867)
17 Jan 1868 - 12 Apr 1879  Innokenty                          (b. 1797 - d. 1879)
20 Apr 1879 - 21 Jun 1882  Makary I                           (b. 1816 - d. 1882)
 9 Jul 1882 - 29 Nov 1891  Ioanniky                           (b. 1826 - d. 1900)
29 Nov 1891 - 13 Aug 1893  Leonty                             (b. 1822 - d. 1893)
21 Aug 1893 - 23 Feb 1898  Sergy                              (b. 1820 - d. 1898)
 5 Mar 1898 -  6 Dec 1912  Vladimir                           (b. 1848 - d. 1918)
 8 Dec 1912 -  2 Apr 1917  Makary II                          (b. 1835 - d. 1926)
26 Aug 1917 - 23 Nov 1917  Tikhon                             (b. 1865 - d. 1925)
Metropolitans of St. Petersburg
12 Sep 1742 - 13 Feb 1745  Nikodim                            (b. ... - d. 1751)
21 Mar 1745 -  3 May 1750  Feodosy                            (b. 1696 - d. 1750)
 6 May 1750 - 28 Apr 1761  Silvestr                           (b. 1701 - d. 1761)
26 Sep 1761 -  5 Aug 1762  Veniamin                           (b. ... - d. 1785)
 5 Aug 1762 -  3 Oct 1770  Gavriil I                          (b. 1708 - d. 1783)
 3 Oct 1770 - 27 Oct 1799  Gavriil II                         (b. 1730 - d. 1801)
27 Oct 1799 -  7 Apr 1818  Amvrosy                            (b. 1742 - d. 1818)
 7 Apr 1818 -  5 Apr 1821  Mikhail                            (b. 1762 - d. 1821)
 1 Jul 1821 - 29 Jan 1843  Serafim                            (b. 1763 - d. 1843)
29 Jan 1843 - 28 Nov 1848  Antony                             (b. 1789 - d. 1848)
 2 Dec 1848 - 29 Sep 1856  Nikanor                            (b. 1787 - d. 1856)
13 Oct 1856 - 29 Jun 1860  Grigory                            (b. 1784 - d. 1860)
13 Jul 1860 - 19 Sep 1892  Isidor                             (b. 1799 - d. 1892)
30 Oct 1892 - 17 Dec 1898  Pallady                            (b. 1827 - d. 1898)
 6 Jan 1899 - 15 Nov 1912  Antony                             (b. 1846 - d. 1912)
 6 Dec 1912 -  6 Dec 1915  Vladimir                           (b. 1848 - d. 1918)
 6 Dec 1915 - 19 Mar 1917  Pitirim                            (b. 1857 - d. 1919)
Metropolitans of Kiev
       1721 -        1917  see Orthodox Church of Ukraine
Patriarchs of Moscow and All Russia
23 Nov 1917 -  7 Apr 1925  Tikhon I                           (s.a.)
                           (imprisoned May 1922 - 25 Jun 1923)
   May 1922 -    Jun 1922    Agafangel of Yaroslavl
                             (Locum Tenens)
12 Apr 1925 - 10 Oct 1937  Pyotr of Krutitsy                  (b. 1862 - d. 1937)
                           (Locum Tenens)
                             Acting for Pyotr:
14 Dec 1925 -  8 Dec 1926    Sergy of Nizhny Novgorod
                             (1st time)                       (b. 1867 - d. 1944)
 8 Dec 1926 - 29 Dec 1926    Iosif of Leningrad               (b. 1872 - d. 1937)
29 Dec 1926 - 12 Apr 1927    Serafim of Uglitsesk             (b. 1881 - d. 1937)
12 Apr 1927 - 10 Oct 1937    Sergy of Nizhny Novgorod
                             (from 27 Apr 1934, Sergy of
                             Moscow) (2nd time)               (s.a.)
10 Oct 1937 -  8 Sep 1943  Sergy of Moscow                    (s.a.)
                           (Locum Tenens)
 8 Sep 1943 - 15 May 1944  Sergy I                            (s.a.)
15 May 1944 -  2 Feb 1945  Aleksy of Leningrad                (b. 1877 - d. 1970)
                           (Locum Tenens)
 2 Feb 1945 - 17 Apr 1970  Aleksy I                           (s.a.)
18 Apr 1970 -  2 Jun 1971  Pimen of Krutitsy (Locum Tenens)   (b. 1910 - d. 1990)
 2 Jun 1971 -  3 May 1990  Pimen I                            (s.a.)
 3 May 1990 -  7 Jun 1990  Filaret of Kiev (Locum Tenens)     (b. 1929)
 7 Jun 1990 -  5 Dec 2008  Aleksy II                          (b. 1929 - d. 2008)
 6 Dec 2008 - 27 Jan 2009  Kirill of Smolensk and Kaliningrad (b. 1946)
                           (Locum Tenens)
27 Jan 2009 -              Kirill I                           (s.a.)
šThe Russian Church was then administered by the Holy Synod in which the Metropolitans of Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Kiev were permanent members. This Synod was recognized as the Patriarchate of Russia by the rest of Orthodoxy.
˛Full titles: Metropolitans of Moscow and Vladimir (1742-48); Metropolitans of Moscow and Sevsk (1748-64); Metropolitans of Moscow and Kaluga (1764-99); Metropolitans of Moscow and Kolomna (1799-1917).

Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia

       1921                Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia established
                           (also called Russian Orthodox Church Abroad)
17 May 2007                church unification act signed reestablishing canonical ties
                           with the Russian Orthodox Church

Metropolitans
       1921 - 10 Aug 1936  Antony                             (b. ... - d. 1936)
       1936 - 31 May 1964  Anastassy                          (b. 1873 - d. 1965)
31 May 1964 - 21 Nov 1985  Filaret                            (b. 1903 - d. 1985)
   Jan 1986 - 24 Oct 2001  Vitaly                             (b. 1910 - d. 2006)
24 Oct 2001 - 16 Mar 2008  Laurus                             (b. 1928 - d. 2008)
 5 Nov 2001 - 25 Sep 2006    Vitaly (in opposition)           (s.a.)
16 Mar 2008 -              Hilarion                           (b. 1948)
                           (Locum Tenens to 12 May 2008)

Serbian Orthodox Church

16 Aug 1219                autocephaly granted by Constantinople
11 Apr 1346                unilateral elevation of See to Patriarchate (Pec)
       1379                Patriarchate recognized by Constantinople
       1459                Patriarchate abolished by Constantinople
       1557                Patriarchate restored by Constantinople
22 Sep 1766                Patriarchate abolished by Constantinople
29 Aug 1831                autonomy restored by Constantinople
 1 Nov 1879                autocephaly restored by Constantinople
12 Sep 1920                Patriarchate restored by Constantinople

Patriarchs
       1693 - 27 Aug 1710  Kalinik I Skopljanac               (b. ... - d. 1710)
                           (coadjutor 1691-93)
17 Jan 1711 -  4 May 1712  Atanasije I Ljubojevic             (b. ... - d. 1712)
17 Oct 1712 -        1725  Mojsije Rajovic                    (b. ... - d. 1726)
       1725 -        1739  Arsenije IV Jovanovic              (b. 1698 - d. 1748)
 My/Jn 1739 -        1746  Joanikije III Karadza              (b. ... - d. 1793)
                           (coadjutor 1737-39)
       1747 - 12 Apr 1752  Atanasije II Gavrilovic            (b. ... - d. 1752)
   Apr 1752 -    May 1752  Gavrilo II Sarajevac               (b. ... - d. 1752)
 My/Jn 1752 -        1754  Gavrilo III Nikolin (1st time)     (b. ... - d. 1779)
       1754 -        1756  Vikentije Stefanovic
       1756 -  Jn/Jl 1757  Pajsije II Grk
 Jn/Jl 1757 -  Mr/Ap 1758  Gavrilo III Nikolin (2nd time)     (s.a.)
 Mr/Ap 1758 -        1763  Kirilo II Grk
       1763 -    Apr 1765  Vasilije Jovanovic Brkic           (b. 1719 - d. 1772)
       1765 - 22 Sep 1766  Kalinik II Grk
Metropolitans of Belgrade (under Ecumenical Patriarchate)
       1766 - 12 Jul 1784  Jeremija Papazoglu
 Jl/Au 1785 -        1791  Dionizije I Papazoglu              (b. 1750 - d. 1828)
 Se/Oc 1791 - 28 Feb 1801  Metodije                           (b. ... - d. 1801)
 Ap/My 1801 -  Se/Oc 1813  Leontije Lambrovic                 (b. 177... - d. 1822)
       1809 -        1811    Hadzi Melentije Stevanovic       (b. 1766 - d. 1824)
                             (in opposition)
       1813 -        1815  Dionizije II Niski                 (b. ... - d. 1815)
 No/De 1815 -  Au/Se 1825  Agatangel                          (b. ... - d. 1831)
       1815 -        1816    Melentije Pavlovic               (b. 1776 - d. 1833)
                             (in opposition)
 Au/Se 1825 - 26 Feb 1827  Kiril                              (b. ... - d. 1827)
 Mr/Ap 1827 -        1830  Antim                              (b. 1759 - d. 1852)
Metropolitans of Serbia
29 Aug 1831 - 23 Jun 1833  Melentije Pavlovic                 (s.a.)
   Dec 1833 -  Ja/Fe 1859  Petar Jovanovic                    (b. 1800 - d. 1864)
 6 Aug 1859 - 30 Oct 1881  Mihailo II Jovanovic (1st time)    (b. 1826 - d. 1898)
30 Oct 1881 -  1 Apr 1883  Mojsije Veresic of Timok           (b. 1835 - d. 1896)
                           (Locum Tenens)
 1 Apr 1883 -    May 1889  Teodosije Mraovic                  (b. 1815 - d. 1892)
18 May 1889 - 17 Feb 1898  Mihailo II Jovanovic (2nd time)    (s.a.)
27 Feb 1898 -  1 Jun 1905  Inokentije Pavlovic                (b. 1840 - d. 1905)
 1 Sep 1905 - 25 Nov 1920  Dimitrije Pavlovic                 (b. 1846 - d. 1930)
Patriarchs of the Serbs
25 Nov 1920 -  6 Apr 1930  Dimitrije                          (s.a.)
12 Apr 1930 - 24 Jul 1937  Varnava                            (b. 1880 - d. 1937)
24 Jul 1937 - 21 Feb 1938  Dositej Vasic of Zagreb            (b. 1887 - d. 1945)
                           (Locum Tenens)
21 Feb 1938 -  7 May 1950  Gavrilo V                          (b. 1881 - d. 1950)
                           (German prisoner 25 May 1941 - 1945)
25 May 1941 - 14 Nov 1946    Josif Cvijovic of Skopje         (b. 1878 - d. 1957)
                             (Locum Tenens)
 7 May 1950 -  1 Jul 1950  Arsenije Bradvarevic of Montenegro (b. 1883 - d. 1963)
                           (Locum Tenens)
 1 Jul 1950 -  5 Jul 1958  Vikentije                          (b. 1890 - d. 1958)
 5 Jul 1958 - 14 Sep 1958  Hrizostom Vojnovic of Branicevo    (b. 1911 - d. 1989)
                           (Locum Tenens)
14 Sep 1958 -  1 Jul 1989  German                             (b. 1899 - d. 1991)
 1 Jul 1989 -  1 Dec 1990  Jovan Pavlovic of Zagreb           (b. 1936)
                           (Locum Tenens)
 1 Dec 1990 - 15 Nov 2009  Pavle                              (b. 1914 - d. 2009)
13 Nov 2007 - 22 Jan 2010  Amfilohije Radovic of Montenegro   (b. 1938)
                           (acting [for Pavle to 15 Nov 2009];
                           president of the Synod from 17 May 2008)
22 Jan 2010 -              Irinej                             (b. 1930)

Serbian Orthodox Church inside Austrian Empire

       1691                autocephaly proclaimed
       1710                autonomy granted by Patriarchate of Pec
 Se/Oc 1766                autocephaly proclaimed
15 Dec 1848                Patriarchate proclaimed (recognized only by Russian
                           Church)
   Sep 1920                autocephaly abolished; merged with Serbian Church

Metropolitan of Sent Andreja
       1691 - 27 Oct 1706  Arsenije III Carnojevic            (b. 1633 - d. 1706)
Metropolitans of Krusedol
 6 Jan 1708 - 20 Jun 1708  Isaija Djakovic                    (b. ... - d. 1708)
       1708 - 27 Apr 1709  Stefan Metohijac                   (b. ... - d. 1709)
23 Apr 1710 -  7 Jan 1711  Sofronije Podgoricanin             (b. ... - d. 1711)
Metropolitans of Karlovci
 6 May 1713 - 23 Oct 1725  Vikentije I Popovic                (b. ... - d. 1725)
 1 Apr 1727 - 27 Jul 1730  Mojsije I Petrovic                 (b. 1677 - d. 1730)
27 Jul 1730 - 22 Mar 1731  Nikolaj Dimitrijevic               (b. ... - d. 1744)
                           (Locum Tenens)
22 Mar 1731 -  6 Jun 1737  Vikentije II Jovanovic             (b. 1689 - d. 1737
       1737 - 18 Jan 1748  Arsenije IV Jovanovic Sakabenta    (b. 1698 - d. 1748)
 2 Sep 1748 - 22 Jan 1749  Isaija Antonovic                   (b. 1687 - d. 1749)
16 Jul 1749 - 15 Aug 1768  Pavle Nenadovic                    (b. 1699 - d. 1768)
 7 Sep 1769 - 23 May 1773  Jovan Djordjevic                   (b. ... - d. 1773)
       1773 -        1774  Mojsije Putnik (1st time)          (b. 1728 - d. 1790)
                           (Locum Tenens)
30 May 1774 - 18 Feb 1780  Vikentije III Jovanovic Vidak      (b. 1730 - d. 1780)
       1780 - 21 Jun 1781  Mojsije Putnik (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                           (Locum Tenens)
21 Jun 1781 - 28 Jun 1790  Mojsije II Putnik                  (s.a.)
28 Jun 1790 -        1790  Petar Petrovic (Locum Tenens)      (b. ... - d. 1800)
       1790 -  4 Oct 1836  Stefan I Stratimirovic             (b. 1757 - d. 1836)
       1836 - 23 Nov 1837  Stefan Stankovic (Locum Tenens)    (b. 1788 - d. 1841)
23 Nov 1837 - 31 Jul 1841  Stefan II Stankovic                (s.a.)
       1841 -    Aug 1842  Georgije Hranislav (Locum Tenens)  (b. 1775 - d. 1843)
   Aug 1842 - 15 Dec 1848  Josif Rajacic                      (b. 1785 - d. 1861)
Metropolitans of Karlovci and Patriarchs of the Serbs
15 Dec 1848 -  1 Dec 1861  Josif Rajacic                      (s.a.)
 1 Dec 1861 -  7 Jan 1870  Samuilo Masirevic                  (b. 1803 - d. 1870)
                           (Locum Tenens to 25 Jul 1864)
       1870 -        1872  Arsenije Stojkovic (Locum Tenens)  (b. 1804 - d. 1892)
       1872 -        1874  Nikanor Grujic (Locum Tenens)      (b. 1810 - d. 1887)
31 Jul 1874 - 11 Dec 1879  Prokopije Ivankovic                (b. 1809 - d. 1881)
11 Dec 1879 - 26 Nov 1888  German Andjelic                    (b. 1822 - d. 1888)
                           (Locum Tenens to 1882)
   Dec 1888 - 17 Jun 1907  Georgije Brankovic                 (b. 1830 - d. 1907)
                           (Locum Tenens to 1 May 1890)
       1908 -  1 Sep 1913  Lukijan Bogdanovic                 (b. 1867 - d. 1913)
                           (Locum Tenens to 22 Sep 1908)
       1913                Miron Nikolic (1st time)           (b. 1846 - d. 1941)
                           (Locum Tenens)
       1913 -        1914  Mihailo Grujic (Locum Tenens)      (b. 1861 - d. 1914)
       1914 -        1919  Miron Nikolic (2nd time)           (s.a.)
                           (Locum Tenens)
       1919 -    Sep 1920  Georgije Letic                     (b. 1872 - d. 1935)
                           (Locum Tenens; coadjutor 1918-19)

Orthodox Church of Romania

15 Dec 1864                unilateral declaration of autocephaly
 7 May 1885                autocephaly recognized by Constantinople
 4 Feb 1925                See elevated to Patriarchate by Constantinople

Metropolitans of Hungaro-Walachia (under Ecumenical Patriarchate)
   May 1679 -  7 Feb 1708  Theodosios (2nd time)              (b. 1620 - d. 1708)
 8 Feb 1708 -  Se/Oc 1716  Anthimos                           (b. 1650 - d. 1716)
 Se/Oc 1716 -        1719  Mitrofanis II                      (b. ... - d. 1720)
30 Aug 1719 - 22 Dec 1731  Daniil II                          (b. 1665 - d. 1731)
 Ja/Fe 1732 -  4 Oct 1738  Stephanos II                       (b. 1680 - d. 1738)
18 Nov 1738 - 27 Jun 1753  Neophytos I                        (b. 1690 - d. 1753)
       1753 -        1760  Philaretos I                       (b. ... - d. 1760)
 8 Aug 1760 - 29 Sep 1787  Grigorios II                       (b. 1710 - d. 1787)
12 Oct 1787 - 14 Sep 1792  Kosmas                             (b. ... - d. 1792)
17 Sep 1792 -  6 Oct 1793  Philaretos II                      (b. 1735 - d. 1794)
 6 Oct 1793 - 27 Jan 1810  Dositheos                          (b. 1734 - d. 1826)
17 May 1810 -Au/Se/Oc1812  Ignatios II                        (b. 1765 - d. 1829)
28 Dec 1812 - 13 May 1819  Nektarios                          (b. ... - d. 1825)
   May 1819 -  Ap/My 1821  Dionysios II                       (b. 1769 - d. 1831)
16 Jan 1823 -  4 Jul 1834  Grigorios III                      (b. 1765 - d. 1834)
 3 Aug 1834 - 11 Jul 1840  Commission
                           - Ilarion of Arges                 (b. 1777 - d. 1845)
                           - Neophytos of Ramnic              (b. 1787 - d. 1850)
                           - Kaisarios of Buzau               (b. 1784 - d. 1846)
11 Jul 1840 - 27 Aug 1849  Neophytos II                       (s.a.)
 5 Oct 1850 - 29 Jan 1865  Nifon II                           (b. 1789 - d. 1875)
Metropolitans of Hungaro-Walachia and Primates of All Romania
29 Jan 1865 - 17 May 1875  Nifon                              (s.a.)
12 Jun 1875 - 14 Aug 1886  Calinic                            (b. 1822 - d. 1886)
 4 Dec 1886 - 10 Apr 1893  Iosif (1st time)                   (b. 1829 - d. 1909)
30 May 1893 -  1 Jun 1896  Ghenadie                           (b. 1836 - d. 1918)
18 Dec 1896 -  6 Feb 1909  Iosif (2nd time)                   (s.a.)
18 Feb 1909 - 11 Jul 1911  Athanasie                          (b. 1856 - d. 1931)
27 Feb 1912 - 14 Jan 1919  Conon                              (b. 1837 - d. 1922)
18 Dec 1919 -  4 Feb 1925  Miron                              (b. 1868 - d. 1939)
Patriarchs of All Romania
 4 Feb 1925 -  7 Mar 1939  Miron                              (s.a.)
30 Jun 1939 - 27 Feb 1948  Nicodim                            (b. 1865 - d. 1948)
24 May 1948 - 26 Mar 1977  Justinian                          (b. 1901 - d. 1977)
12 Jun 1977 - 31 Jul 1986  Iustin                             (b. 1910 - d. 1986)
 9 Nov 1986 - 30 Jul 2007  Teoctist                           (b. 1915 - d. 2007)
31 Jul 2007 - 12 Sep 2007  Daniel of Moldavia and Bucovina    (b. 1951)
                           (Locum Tenens)
12 Sep 2007 -              Daniel                             (s.a.)

Orthodox Church of Bulgaria

        911                unilateral elevation of See to Patriarchate (Preslav)
        927                Patriarchate recognized by Constantinople (Dristra)
        971                Patriarchate abolished by Constantinople
        976                unilateral elevation of See to Patriarchate (Ohrid)
       1018                Patriarchate abolished by Constantinople
       1235                Patriarchate restored (Turnovo)
       1393                Patriarchate abolished
11 Mar 1870                unilateral establishment of Autocephalous Exarchate
22 Feb 1945                autocephaly recognized by Constantinople
10 May 1953                unilateral elevation of See to Patriarchate
 1 Aug 1961                Patriarchate recognized by Constantinople

Metropolitans of Turnovo (under Ecumenical Patriarchate)
      *1697*               Theodosios
      *1708 -        1714  Dionysios IV                       (b. ... - d. 1714)
       1714 -        1722  Iosiph II
       1722 -        1739  Nikiphoros
       1739 -  Ja/Fe 1751  Anthimos II
 Ja/Fe 1751 -    Jan 1764  Theophilos                         (b. ... - d. 1764)
   Jan 1764 -  Ja/Fe 1770  Parthenios                         (b. ... - d. 1777)
 Ja/Fe 1770 -    Dec 1791  Kallinikos                         (b. ... - d. 1791)
De1791/Ja1792-23 Feb 1797  Mattheos (1st time)                (b. ... - d. 1802)
23 Feb 1797 -  3 Nov 1797  Philotheos                         (b. ... - d. 1816)
 3 Nov 1797 -        1802  Mattheos (2nd time)                (s.a.)
 Mr/Ap 1802 -        1805  Daniil                             (b. ... - d. 1805)
 Ja/Fe 1806 -  Jn/Jl 1817  Makarios II                        (b. ... - d. 1830)
 Jn/Jl 1817 - 16 Jun 1821  Ioannikios                         (b. ... - d. 1821)
 Jn/Jl 1821 -  7 Jul 1827  Ilarion (1st time)                 (b. ... - d. 1838)
 7 Jul 1827 -  No/De 1830  Konstantios                        (b. 1760? - d. 1859)
 No/De 1830 -        1838  Ilarion (2nd time)                 (s.a.)
 Fe/Mr 1838 - 10 May 1840  Panaretos                          (b. ... - d. 1878)
 My/Jn 1840 -  Jn/Jl 1846  Neophytos (1st time)               (b. ... - d. af.1874)
 Jn/Jl 1846 -        1848  Athanasios II                      (b. ... - d. 1848)
 Au/Se 1848 -  7 Feb 1858  Neophytos (2nd time)               (s.a.)
 7 Feb 1858 -        1878  Grigorios                          (b. 1801 - d. 1882)
                           (in exile from 1872)
Exarchs of the Bulgarians
24 Feb 1872 - 28 Feb 1872  Ilarion                            (b. 1800 - d. 1884)
28 Feb 1872 - 24 Apr 1877  Antim                              (b. 1816 - d. 1888)
 6 May 1877 -  3 Jul 1915  Iosif                              (b. 1840 - d. 1915)
Provisional Heads of the Holy Synod
       1915 -        1918  Parteni of Sofia                   (b. 1845 - d. 1918)
       1918 -        1920  Vasili of Dorostolum               (b. 1847 - d. 1927)
       1920 -        1921  Boris of Ohrid                     (b. 1875 - d. 1938)
       1921 -        1927  Maksim of Plovdiv                  (b. 1850 - d. 1938)
28 Mar 1928 -  3 May 1930  Kliment of Vratsa                  (b. 1873 - d. 1930)
       1930 - 16 Oct 1944  Neofit of Vidin                    (b. 1868 - d. 1971)
16 Oct 1944 - 21 Jan 1945  Stefan of Sofia                    (b. 1878 - d. 1957)
Exarch of the Bulgarians
21 Jan 1945 -  8 Sep 1948  Stefan                             (s.a.)
Provisional Heads of the Holy Synod
 8 Nov 1948 -  4 Jan 1949  Mikhail of Dorostolum              (b. 1884 - d. 1961)
       1949 -  3 Jan 1951  Paisi of Vratsa                    (b. 1888 - d. 1974)
 3 Jan 1951 - 10 May 1953  Kiril of Plovdiv                   (b. 1901 - d. 1971)
Patriarchs of All Bulgaria
10 May 1953 -  7 Mar 1971  Kiril                              (s.a.)
 4 Jul 1971 -  6 Nov 2012  Maksim                             (b. 1914 - d. 2012)
 4 Jul 1996 -  1 Oct 1998    Pimen (in opposition)            (b. 1906 - d. 1999)
 6 Nov 2012 - 10 Nov 2012  Grigorii (acting)                  (b. 1950)
10 Nov 2012 - 24 Feb 2013  Kiril of Varna (Locum Tenens)      (b. 1954 - d. 2013)
24 Feb 2013 -              Neofit                             (b. 1945)

Orthodox Church of Georgia

        467                autonomy granted by Antioch
        750                autocephaly granted by Antioch
       1008                adoption of the Catholicos-Patriarch title
12 Jul 1811                Patriarchate abolished by Russia
25 Mar 1917                Patriarchate restored
31 Oct 1943                autocephaly recognized by Russia
 3 Mar 1990                Patriarchate recognized by Constantinople

Catholicos-Patriarchs of Iberia
       1696 -        1700  Ioan VII (2nd time)                (b. ... - d. 1700)
       1700 -        1703  Evdemoz II
       1704 -        1730  Domenti IV (1st time)              (b. ... - d. 1741)
       1725 -        1737  Besarion
                           (Locum Tenens for exiled Domenti IV to 1730)
       1737 -        1739  Kirile
       1739 -        1741  Domenti IV (2nd time)              (s.a.)
       1742 -        1744  Nikoloz VIII
       1744 - 27 Dec 1755  Anton I (1st time)                 (b. 1721 - d. 1788)
   Dec 1755 -        1764  Ioseb                              (b. ... - d. 1770)
       1764 - 14 Jan 1788  Anton I (2nd time)                 (s.a.)
       1788 - 22 Jun 1811  Anton II                           (b. 1762 - d. 1827)
Exarchs of Georgia (appointed by the Russian Church)
20 Jul 1811 - 26 May 1817  Varlaam                            (b. ... - d. 1830)
26 May 1817 - 31 Jul 1821  Theophilakt                        (b. 1765 - d. 1821)
13 Oct 1821 - 17 Mar 1832  Iona                               (b. 1763 - d. 1849)
24 Mar 1832 - 25 Jul 1834  Moisey                             (b. 1783 - d. 1834)
13 Sep 1834 - 24 Nov 1844  Evgeniy                            (b. 1784 - d. 1862)
24 Nov 1844 - 13 Mar 1858  Isidor                             (b. 1799 - d. 1892)
13 Mar 1858 - 20 Dec 1877  Evseviy                            (b. 1809 - d. 1879)
20 Dec 1877 -  9 Jul 1882  Ioannikiy                          (b. 1826 - d. 1900)
28 Jul 1882 - 11 Oct 1887  Pavel                              (b. 1827 - d. 1892)
11 Oct 1887 - 30 Oct 1892  Palladiy                           (b. 1827 - d. 1898)
30 Oct 1892 -  5 Mar 1898  Vladimir                           (b. 1848 - d. 1918)
 5 Mar 1898 - 23 Nov 1901  Flavian                            (b. 1840 - d. 1915)
23 Nov 1901 - 14 Jul 1905  Alexiy I                           (b. 1837 - d. 1914)
14 Jul 1905 - 22 Jun 1906  Nikolay                            (b. 1852 - d. 1914)
22 Jun 1906 - 10 Jun 1908  Nikon                              (b. 1861 - d. 1908)
20 Dec 1909 - 22 Sep 1913  Innokentiy                         (b. 1862 - d. 1913)
17 Oct 1913 -  2 Jun 1914  Alexiy II                          (b. 1853 - d. 1914)
 9 Jul 1914 -  6 Dec 1915  Pitirim                            (b. 1858 - d. 1919)
18 Dec 1915 - 26 Aug 1917  Platon                             (b. 1866 - d. 1934)
       1917 - 30 Sep 1917  Leonide (Locum Tenens)             (b. 1862 - d. 1921)
Catholicos-Patriarchs of All Georgia
30 Sep 1917 - 17 Jun 1918  Kirion III                         (b. 1854 - d. 1918)
28 Nov 1918 - 11 Jun 1921  Leonide                            (s.a.)
 7 Sep 1921 - 29 Mar 1927  Ambrosi                            (b. 1861 - d. 1927)
       1923 -        1926    Kalistrate                       (b. 1866 - d. 1952)
                             (Locum Tenens during imprisonment of Ambrosi)
 4 Jul 1927 - 10 Jun 1932  Kristefore III                     (b. ... - d. 1932)
21 Jun 1932 -  3 Feb 1952  Kalistrate                         (s.a.)
 5 Apr 1952 - 10 Jan 1960  Melkisedek III                     (b. 1872 - d. 1960)
20 Feb 1960 -  8 Apr 1972  Efrem II                           (b. 1896 - d. 1972)
 2 Jul 1972 -  9 Nov 1977  Davit V                            (b. 1903 - d. 1977)
 9 Nov 1977 - 23 Dec 1977  Ilia of Sukhumi (Locum Tenens)     (b. 1933)
23 Dec 1977 -              Ilia II                            (s.a.)

Orthodox Church of Western Georgia

     c.1470                autocephaly granted by Antioch
       1814                merged into Georgian Exarchate by Russia

Catholicos of Imeretia and Abkhazia (self-styled Catholicos-Patriarch)
       1696 -        1742  Gregori II                         (b. ... - d. 1742)
       1742 -        1769  Besarion
       1769 -        1776  Iosif
       1776 - 10 Jun 1795  Maxim II                           (b. ... - d. 1795)
       1795 -        1814  Dosifei of Kutaisi (Locum Tenens)  (b. ... - d. 1820)

Orthodox Church of Cyprus

30 Jul  431                autocephaly granted by Antioch
       1260                abolition of Orthodox hierarchy by western rulers
       1571                restoration of Orthodox hierarchy

Archbishops of Nea Justiniana and All Cyprus
       1694 -        1705  Germanos II
       1705 -        1710  Athanasios II                      (b. 16... - d. 1724)
24 Feb 1707 -        1718  Iakovos II
                           (in opposition to 1710)
       1718 -        1734  Silvestros                         (b. ... - d. 1734)
       1734 -        1745  Philotheos (1st time)              (b. c.1700 - d. 1759)
 6 Mar 1745 -  Jn/Jl 1745  Neophytos III                      (b. ... - d. 1745)
       1745 -  Jn/Jl 1759  Philotheos (2nd time)              (s.a.)
       1759 -  Au/Se 1761  Paisios (1st time)                 (b. 1712 - d. 1767)
       1761 -        1762  Kyprianos (Locum Tenens)           (b. 1723? - d. 1783)
 4 May 1762 - 12 Jan 1767  Paisios (2nd time)                 (s.a.)
 Ja/Fe 1767 - 10 Nov 1783  Chrysanthos (1st time)             (b. ... - d. 1810)
 No/De 1783 -        1784  Ioannikios (not consecrated)
       1784 -  Jn/Jl 1810  Chrysanthos (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 Jn/Jl 1810 - 21 Jul 1821  Kyprianos                          (b. 1756 - d. 1821)
   Dec 1821 -  2 Jun 1824  Ioakim
19 Jun 1824 -        1827  Damaskinos                         (b. ... - d. 1846)
       1827 - 25 Oct 1840  Panaretos                          (b. ... - d. 1842)
26 Oct 1840 - 15 Apr 1849  Ioannikios                         (b. ... - d. 1849)
 Ap/My 1849 -  5 Aug 1854  Kyrillos I                         (b. ... - d. 1854)
 Au/Se 1854 - 16 Aug 1865  Makarios I                         (b. ... - d. 1865)
16 Aug 1865 -  Au/Se 1865  Lavrentios of Paphos               (b. ... - d. 1869)
                           (Locum Tenens)
 Au/Se 1865 - 23 May 1900  Sophronios III                     (b. 1825 - d. 1900)
23 May 1900 -  3 Mar 1908  vacant
 3 Mar 1908 -  3 Mar 1910  Kyrillos II (1st time)             (b. 1859 - d. 1933)
21 Apr 1909 - 19 Jul 1916  Kyrillos II                        (b. 1844 - d. 1916)
                           (in opposition to 3 Mar 1910)
19 Jul 1916 - 24 Nov 1916  Iakovos of Paphos (Locum Tenens)   (b. 1872 - d. 1929)
24 Nov 1916 - 16 Nov 1933  Kyrillos III (2nd time)            (s.a.)
18 Nov 1933 - 20 Jun 1947  Leontios of Paphos (Locum Tenens)  (b. 1896 - d. 1947)
20 Jun 1947 - 26 Jul 1947  Leontios                           (s.a.)
26 Jul 1947 - 24 Dec 1947  Makarios of Kyrenia                (b. 1870 - d. 1950)
                           (Locum Tenens)
24 Dec 1947 - 28 Jun 1950  Makarios II                        (s.a.)
28 Jun 1950 - 18 Oct 1950  Kleopas of Paphos (Locum Tenens)   (b. 1878 - d. 1951)
18 Oct 1950 - 13 Apr 1973  Makarios III (1st time)            (b. 1913 - d. 1977)
13 Apr 1973 -  8 Jul 1973  Gennadios of Paphos (Locum Tenens) (b. 1893 - d. 1986)
 8 Jul 1973 -  3 Aug 1977  Makarios III (2nd time)            (s.a.)
 3 Aug 1977 - 12 Nov 1977  Chrysostomos of Paphos             (b. 1927 - d. 2007)
                           (Locum Tenens)
12 Nov 1977 - 17 May 2006  Chrysostomos I                     (s.a.)
17 May 2006 -  5 Nov 2006  Chrysostomos of Paphos             (b. 1941)
                           (Locum Tenens [de facto from 27 Apr 2002])
 5 Nov 2006 -              Chrysostomos II                    (s.a.)

Orthodox Church of Greece

 4 Aug 1833                unilateral declaration of autocephaly
11 Jul 1850                autocephaly recognized by Constantinople
31 Dec 1923                See elevated to Archdiocese

Metropolitans of Athens (under Ecumenical Patriarchate)
       1699 -        1703  Kyrillos II                        (b. ... - d. 1722?)
 Oc/No 1703 -        1713  Meletios II                        (b. 1661 - d. 1714)
       1713 -        1734  Iakovos II
       1734 -    Jan 1741  Zacharias                          (b. ... - d. 1741)
15 Jan 1741 -        1756  Anthimos VI (1st time)             (b. c.1714 - d. 1764)
       1756 -        1760  Athanasios III
       1760 - 23 Jan 1764  Anthimos VI (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 Ja/Fe 1764 -        1771? Vartholomaios (1st time)           (b. ... - d. 1781)
       1771?-        1774  Neophytos IV
       1774 - 15 Nov 1781  Vartholomaios (2nd time)           (s.a.)
11 Dec 1781 -  Jn/Jl 1785  Venediktos (1st time)              (b. 17... - d. af.1806)
 Jn/Jl 1785 -  No/De 1787  Athanasios IV (1st time)           (b. 17... - d. 1799)
 3 Dec 1787 - 30 Sep 1789  Venediktos (2nd time)              (s.a.)
30 Sep 1789 -  No/De 1789  Athanasios IV (2nd time)           (s.a.)
 No/De 1789 -  Oc/No 1796  Venediktos (3rd time)              (s.a.)
 Oc/No 1796 - 28 Sep 1799  Athanasios IV (3rd time)           (s.a.)
   Oct 1799 -  Fe/Mr 1820  Grigorios III                      (b. 17... - d. 1821)
 Fe/Mr 1820 - 23 May 1823  Dionysios II                       (b. 17... - d. 1823)
23 May 1823 -  Se/Oc 1827  vacant
 Se/Oc 1827 -  Mr/Ap 1828  Grigorios IV                       (b. 17... - d. 1828)
 Mr/Ap 1828 - 27 Jul 1833  Anthimos VII                       (b. 17... - d. 1836)
Metropolitans of Athens and All Greece
 2 Dec 1833 - 10 Jan 1862  Neophytos V                        (b. 1762 - d. 1862)
                           (Bishop of Attiki to 11 Jul 1850)
13 Jan 1862 -  2 Aug 1862  Misail                             (b. 1789 - d. 1862)
 8 Aug 1862 - 15 Jul 1873  Theophilos                         (b. 1780 - d. 1873)
 9 Aug 1873 - 15 May 1874  Antonios                           (b. 1825 - d. 1892)
 8 Jun 1874 - 11 Feb 1889  Prokopios I                        (b. 1813 - d. 1889)
11 Feb 1889 - 17 Jul 1889  Panaretos of Messinia              (b. 1839 - d. 1897)
                           (Locum Tenens)
17 Jul 1889 - 30 Jan 1896  Germanos II                        (b. 1844 - d. 1896)
30 Jan 1896 - 12 Oct 1896  Nikandros of Argolida              (b. 1836 - d. 1912)
                           (Locum Tenens)
13 Oct 1896 - 23 Oct 1896  Parthenios of Akarnania            (b. 1836 - d. 1914)
                           (Locum Tenens)
23 Oct 1896 - 21 Nov 1901  Prokopios II                       (b. 1837 - d. 1902)
21 Nov 1901 - 13 Oct 1902  Methodios of Syros (Locum Tenens)  (b. 1833 - d. 1903)
14 Oct 1902 - 17 Nov 1902  Theoklitos of Monemvasia           (b. 1848 - d. 1931)
                           (Locum Tenens)
17 Nov 1902 - 11 Oct 1917  Theoklitos I (1st time)            (s.a.)
11 Oct 1917 - 13 Mar 1918  Efthymios of Fanarion (1st time)   (b. 1847 - d. 1934)
                           (Locum Tenens)
13 Mar 1918 - 29 Nov 1920  Meletios III                       (b. 1871 - d. 1935)
29 Nov 1920 - 16 Dec 1922  Theoklitos I (2nd time)            (s.a.)
16 Dec 1922 -  8 Mar 1923  Efthymios of Fanarion (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                           (Locum Tenens)
 8 Mar 1923 - 31 Dec 1923  Chrysostomos I                     (b. 1868 - d. 1938)
Archbishops of Athens and All Greece
31 Dec 1923 - 22 Oct 1938  Chrysostomos I                     (s.a.)
22 Oct 1938 -  5 Nov 1938  Amvrosios of Fthiotida (1st time)  (b. 1880 - d. 1958)
                           (Locum Tenens)
 5 Nov 1938 -  1 Dec 1938  Damaskinos (1st time)              (b. 1891 - d. 1949)
 1 Dec 1938 - 12 Dec 1938  Amvrosios of Fthiotida (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                           (Locum Tenens)
12 Dec 1938 -  2 Jul 1941  Chrysanthos                        (b. 1881 - d. 1949)
 2 Jul 1941 - 20 May 1949  Damaskinos (2nd time)              (s.a.)
20 May 1949 -  4 Jun 1949  Ioakim of Xanthi (Locum Tenens)    (b. 1875 - d. 1953)
 4 Jun 1949 - 21 Mar 1956  Spyridon                           (b. 1873 - d. 1956)
21 Mar 1956 - 29 Mar 1956  Alexandros of Veria (Locum Tenens) (b. 1878 - d. 1958)
29 Mar 1956 - 26 Jul 1957  Dorotheos III                      (b. 1888 - d. 1957)
26 Jul 1957 -  7 Aug 1957  Ierotheos of Aitoloakarnania       (b. 1877 - d. 1961)
                           (Locum Tenens)
 7 Aug 1957 -  8 Jan 1962  Theoklitos II                      (b. 1890 - d. 1962)
 8 Jan 1962 - 13 Jan 1962  Germanos of Mantinia (1st time)    (b. 1880 - d. 1964)
                           (Locum Tenens)
13 Jan 1962 - 25 Jan 1962  Iakovos III                        (b. 1895 - d. 1984)
25 Jan 1962 - 14 Feb 1962  Germanos of Mantinia (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                           (Locum Tenens)
14 Feb 1962 - 11 May 1967  Chrysostomos II                    (b. 1880 - d. 1968)
11 May 1967 - 14 May 1967  Konstantinos of Patra              (b. 1901 - d. 1975)
                           (Head of Extraordinary Synod)
14 May 1967 - 12 Dec 1973  Ieronymos I                        (b. 1905 - d. 1988)
12 Dec 1973 - 12 Jan 1974  Georgios of Kalavryta              (b. 1903 - d. 1978)
                           (Locum Tenens)
12 Jan 1974 - 10 Apr 1998  Seraphim                           (b. 1913 - d. 1998)
10 Apr 1998 - 28 Apr 1998  Chrysostomos of Messinia           (b. 1918 - d. 2007)
                           (Locum Tenens)
28 Apr 1998 - 28 Jan 2008  Christodoulos                      (b. 1939 - d. 2008)
28 Jan 2008 -  7 Feb 2008  Seraphim of Karystia               (b. 1929)
                           (Locum Tenens)
 7 Feb 2008 -              Ieronymos II                       (b. 1938)

Orthodox Church of Poland

       1921                semi-autonomy granted by Russia
13 Nov 1924                autocephaly granted by Constantinople
22 Jun 1948                autocephaly recognized by Russia

Exarch of Poland
27 Sep 1921 - 30 Jan 1922  Jerzy                              (b. 1872 - d. 1923)
Metropolitans of Warsaw and All Poland
30 Jan 1922 -  6 Feb 1923  Jerzy                              (s.a.)
27 Feb 1923 - 17 Apr 1947  Dionizyš                           (b. 1876 - d. 1960)
17 Apr 1947 -  7 Aug 1951  Tymoteusz of Bialystok and Gdansk
                           (1st time) (Locum Tenens)          (b. 1901 - d. 1962)
 7 Aug 1951 -  8 Dec 1959  Makaryš                            (b. 1884 - d. 1961)
 8 Dec 1959 -  5 May 1961  Tymoteusz of Bialystok and Gdansk
                           (2nd time) (Locum Tenens)          (s.a.)
 5 May 1961 - 20 May 1962  Tymoteusz                          (s.a.)
24 May 1962 - 25 May 1965  Jerzy of Lódz and Poznan
                           (1st time) (Locum Tenens)          (b. 1900 - d. 1979)
25 May 1965 - 26 Mar 1969  Stefan                             (b. 1891 - d. 1969)
26 Mar 1969 -  1 Mar 1970  Jerzy of Lódz and Poznan
                           (2nd time) (Locum Tenens)          (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1970 - 11 Feb 1998  Bazyli                             (b. 1914 - d. 1998)
11 Feb 1998 - 12 May 1998  Sawa of Bialystok and Gdansk
                           (Locum Tenens)                     (b. 1938)
12 May 1998 -              Sawa                               (s.a.)
šConstantinople continued to recognize Dionizy as metropolitan until his death 15 Mar 1960 and never recognized Makary, who was recognized by the Russian Church. After the death of Dionizy, Constantinople recognized Tymoteusz.

Orthodox Church of Albania

       13..                control of Metropolitanate of Dyrrachion passes from
                           Patriarchate of Constantinople to Archdiocese of Ohrid
23 Sep 1922                unilateral declaration of autocephaly
30 Mar 1937                autocephaly granted by Constantinople
22 Nov 1967 -    Nov 1990  religious practice outlawed in Albania

Metropolitans of Durrës (under Archdiocese of Ohrid)
       1694 - 26 Jan 1702  Kosmas                             (b. 1643 - d. 1702)
26 Jan 1702 - 27 Jan 1767  under direct administration of Archbishop of Ohrid (except
                           for two known brief periods when hierarch was appointed)
  *Jun 1740*               Nikitas II
  *Jul 1761*               Neophytos
Metropolitans of Gora and Durrës (under Ecumenical Patriarchate)
31 Jan 1767 -        1772  Grigorios II
 My/Jn 1772 -        1783  Konstantios                        (b. ... - d. 1783)
 Ap/My 1783 -  Ja/Fe 1805  Efthymios                          (b. ... - d. 1805)
 Ja/Fe 1805 -  My/Jn 1820  Samouil                            (b. ... - d. 1830)
Metropolitans of Durrës (under Ecumenical Patriarchate)
 My/Jn 1820 -  Jl/Au 1833  Chrysanthos                        (b. ... - d. 1846)
 Jl/Au 1833 -        1837  Gerasimos                          (b. ... - d. 1837)
De1837/Ja1838-       1844  Anthimos II                        (b. ... - d. 1844)
 Mr/Ap 1844 -        1845  Anthimos III                       (b. ... - d. 1845)
 Jl/Au 1845 - 18 Nov 1858  Ioannikios                         (b. ... - d. 1859)
18 Nov 1858 - 22 Nov 1858  Gennadios                          (b. ... - d. 1876)
22 Nov 1858 -  Ja/Fe 1859  Afxentios                          (b. ... - d. 1865)
 2 Feb 1859 - 24 Jan 1867  Iosiph                             (b. ... - d. 1867)
20 Mar 1867 -  Mr/Ap 1899  Vissarion                          (b. ... - d. 1899)
17 May 1899 - 23 Oct 1906  Prokopios                          (b. ... - d. 1923)
23 Oct 1906 - 28 Feb 1911  Ioannis                            (b. ... - d. 1913)
28 Feb 1911 - 20 Jan 1925  Iakovos                            (b. 1878 - d. 1958)
                           (in exile since 8 Nov 1921)
Metropolitans of Tiranë (not recognized by other Orthodox churches)
 4 Dec 1923 - 24 Dec 1924  Theofan                            (b. 1882 - d. 1965)
   Dec 1924 - 18 Feb 1929  Jerotheu of Korçë (Locum Tenens)   (b. 1875 - d. 1953)
18 Feb 1929 - 27 May 1936  Visarion                           (b. 1887 - d. 1965)
Archbishops of Tiranë, Durrës and All Albania
 3 Apr 1937 - 25 Dec 1948  Kristoforš                         (b. 1882 - d. 1958)
25 Aug 1949 -  4 Mar 1966  Paisiš                             (b. 1882 - d. 1966)
   Apr 1966 - 22 Nov 1967  Damianš                            (b. 1893 - d. 1973)
 8 Jan 1991 - 24 Jun 1992  Anastas of Androusa (Exarch)       (b. 1929)
24 Jun 1992 -              Anastas                            (s.a.)
šConstantinople continued to recognize Kristofor as archbishop until his death 19 Jun 1958 and never recognized Paisi or Damian, who were only recognized by the Russian Church. The Russian Church continued to recognize Damian as archbishop until his death 18 Oct 1973.

Orthodox Church of Czech Lands and Slovakia

 3 Mar 1923                autonomy under Constantinople
23 Nov 1951                autocephaly under Russia
27 Aug 1998                autocephaly recognized by Constantinople

Archbishop of All Czechoslovakia
 4 Apr 1923 -        1948  Sabbazdš                           (b. 1880 - d. 1959)
Exarch of the Patriarchate of Moscow in Czechoslovakia
 4 May 1946 -  9 Dec 1951  Jelevferijš                        (b. 1892 - d. 1959)
                           (in opposition to 1948)
Metropolitans of All Czechoslovakia (later, of the Czech Lands and Slovakia)
 9 Dec 1951 - 28 Nov 1955  Jelevferijš                        (s.a.)
17 May 1956 -        1964  Jánš                               (b. 1901 - d. 1975)
25 Oct 1964 - 30 Dec 1999  Dorotej                            (b. 1913 - d. 1999)
14 Apr 2000 - 30 Jan 2006  Nikolaj                            (b. 1927 - d. 2006)
 2 May 2006 - 12 Apr 2013  Krystof                            (b. 1953)
12 Apr 2013 -  9 Dec 2013  Simeon of Brno and Olomouc         (b. 1926)
                           (Locum Tenens)
 9 Dec 2013 - 11 Jan 2014  Rostislav of Presov                (b. 1978)
                           (Locum Tenens)
11 Jan 2014 -              Rostislav                          (s.a.)
šConstantinople continued to recognize Sabbazd as archbishop until his death 14 Nov 1959 and never recognized Jelevferij, who was recognized by the Russian Church. Constantinople recognized Ján only after the death of Sabbazd (the Russian Church never recognized Sabbazd).

Orthodox Church in America

       1840                a Russian Orthodox diocese is founded in Sitka, Alaska
       1872                See transferred to San Francisco
       1905                See transferred to New York
       1924                unilateral declaration of autonomy
       1946                autonomy under Russia
10 Apr 1970                autocephaly granted by Russia (not recognized by the
                           Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople and the
                           majority of the Orthodox Churches)

Bishops
       1840 -        1858  Innocent                           (b. 1797 - d. 1879)
29 Mar 1859 -  9 Nov 1866  Peter                              (b. 1820 - d. 1889)
 9 Nov 1866 - 10 Jun 1870  Paul                               (b. 1813 - d. 1877)
 5 Jul 1870 - 12 Apr 1877  John                               (b. 1836 - d. 1914)
17 Dec 1878 - 30 Jun 1882  Nestor                             (b. 1825 - d. 1882)
20 Dec 1887 -  8 Jun 1891  Vladimir                           (b. 1852 - d. 1931)
 8 Jun 1891 -    Sep 1891  Nicholas (I)                       (b. 1849 - d. 1896)
                           (did not go to America)
29 Sep 1891 -        1898  Nicholas (II)                      (b. 1851 - d. 1915)
       1898 -        1905  Tikhon                             (b. 1865 - d. 1925)
Archbishops of All America and Canada
       1905 - 25 Jan 1907  Tikhon                             (s.a.)
 6 Jun 1907 - 20 Mar 1914  Platon                             (b. 1866 - d. 1934)
29 Jul 1914 - 25 Feb 1919  Evdokim                            (b. 1869 - d. 1935)
                           (left America 6 Aug 1917)
25 Feb 1919 -  7 Jun 1922  Alexander                          (b. 1876 - d. 1960)
                           (administrator 6 Aug 1917 - 25 Feb 1919)
Metropolitans of All America and Canada
 7 Jun 1922 - 20 Apr 1934  Platon                             (s.a.)
                           (administrator to 7 Nov 1922)
   Apr 1934 - 27 Jun 1950  Theophilus                         (b. 1874 - d. 1950)
                           (Locum Tenens to 22 Nov 1934)
27 Jun 1950 - 14 May 1965  Leonty                             (b. 1876 - d. 1965)
                           (Locum Tenens to 6 Dec 1950)
14 May 1965 - 25 Oct 1977  Ireney                             (b. 1892 - d. 1981)
                           (Locum Tenens to 23 Sep 1965)
15 May 1974 - 25 Oct 1977    Sylvester (administrator)        (b. 1914 - d. 2000)
25 Oct 1977 - 21 Jul 2002  Theodosius                         (b. 1933)
22 Jul 2002 -  4 Sep 2008  Herman                             (b. 1932)
                           (administrator 1 May - 1 Sep 2001)
 4 Sep 2008 - 12 Nov 2008  Dmitri of Dallas and the South     (b. 1923 - d. 2011)
                           (Locum Tenens)
12 Nov 2008 -  9 Jul 2012  Jonah                              (b. 1959)
 9 Jul 2012 - 13 Nov 2012  Nathaniel of Detroit and the
                           Romanian Episcopate (Locum Tenens) (b. 1940)
13 Nov 2012 -              Tikhon                             (b. 1966)

Orthodox Church of Mount Sinai

       1567                autonomy under Patriarchate of Jerusalem

Archbishops of Sinai
 Se/Oc 1671 -  Fe/Ma 1702  Ioannikios I                       (b. ... - d. 1703)
 Se/Oc 1702 - 13 Feb 1706  Kosmas                             (b. 16... - d. 1736)
 7 May 1707 -        1720  Athanasios                         (b. ... - d. 1720)
  *Oct 1720 -        1727  Ioannikios II                      (b. ... - d. 1727)
  *Oct 1729 -        1747  Nikiphoros                         (b. ... - d. af.1747)
  *Apr 1748 -        1758  Konstantios I                      (b. ... - d. 1758)
  *Oct 1759 - 23 Jan 1790  Kyrillos I                         (b. c.1700 - d. 1790)
  *Sep 1794 -  Jn/Jl 1797  Dorotheos                          (b. ... - d. 1797)
 Jn/Jl 1802 - 17 Jan 1859  Konstantios II                     (b. 1770 - d. 1859)
19 Jan 1859 -  5 Sep 1867  Kyrillos II                        (b. ... - d. 1882)
 2 Feb 1867 - 21 Apr 1885  Kallistratos                       (b. 1818 - d. 1885)
21 Aug 1885 - 20 Apr 1904  Porphyrios I                       (b. 1838 - d. 1909)
 7 May 1904 - 14 Jul 1926  Porphyrios II                      (b. 1859 - d. 1926)
11 Aug 1926 - 24 Nov 1968  Porphyrios III                     (b. 1878 - d. 1968)
 4 Jan 1969 - 11 Sep 1973  Grigorios                          (b. 1912 - d. 1973)
10 Dec 1973 -              Damianos                           (b. 1935)

Montenegrin Orthodox Church

 Se/Oc 1766                autocephaly proclaimed (recognized only by Russian
                           Church)
   Aug 1920                autocephaly abolished; merged with Serbian Church

Metropolitans (vladikas)
 Se/Oc 1766 -  9 Mar 1781  Sava II                            (b. 1700 - d. 1781)
10 Mar 1781 -    Mar 1782  Arsenije II Plamenac               (b. 1700 - d. 1784)
                           (Locum Tenens)
   Mar 1782 - 30 Oct 1830  Petar I                            (b. 1747 - d. 1830)
                           (consecrated 24 Oct 1784)
30 Oct 1830 - 31 Oct 1851  Petar II                           (b. 1813 - d. 1851)
                           (consecrated 18 Aug 1833)
 1 Nov 1851 - 13 Jan 1852  Pero Petrovic-Njegos               (b. 1811 - d. 1854)
                           (Locum Tenens)
13 Jan 1852 - 13 Mar 1852  Danilo II                          (b. 1826 - d. 1860)
                           (not consecrated)
Metropolitans
       1853 -    Aug 1860  Nikanor Ivanovic-Njegos            (b. ... - d. 1894)
                           (consecrated Dec 1858/Jan 1859)
17 Aug 1860 - 27 Jan 1882  Ilarion Roganovic                  (b. 1828 - d. 1882)
                           (consecrated 4 Jun 1863)
18 Dec 1882 - 26 Apr 1884  Visarion III Ljubisa               (b. 1823 - d. 1884)
   Jun 1884 - 12 Oct 1920  Mitrofan Ban                       (b. 1841 - d. 1920)
                           (consecrated 30 Apr 1885; coadjutor 1877-84)

Orthodox Church of Finland

26 Nov 1918                unilateral declaration of autonomy
   Feb 1921                autonomy under Russia
 7 Jul 1923                autonomy under Ecumenical Patriarchate
       1957                Russia recognizes autonomy under Ecumenical Patriarchate

Archbishop of Vyborg and All Finland
26 Nov 1918 -        1925  Serafim                            (b. 1879 - d. 1959)
Archbishops of Karelia and All Finland
       1925 -  1 Jul 1960  Herman                             (b. 1878 - d. 1961)
29 Aug 1960 - 16 Sep 1987  Paavali                            (b. 1914 - d. 1989)
15 Oct 1987 -  1 Oct 2001  Johannes                           (b. 1923 - d. 2010)
25 Oct 2001 -              Leo                                (b. 1948)

Orthodox Church of Estonia

28 Jun 1920                autonomy under Russia
 7 Jul 1923                autonomy under Ecumenical Patriarchate
30 Mar 1941                autonomy abolished by Russia
30 Jun 1941                autonomy under Ecumenical Patriarchate restored
 9 Mar 1945                autonomy abolished by Russia
13 Apr 1978                autonomous status deemed inactive by Constantinople
24 Feb 1996                autonomy under Ecumenical Patriarchate restored

Archbishop of Tallinn and All Estonia
14 Sep 1920 -  7 Jul 1923  Aleksander                         (b. 1872 - d. 1953)
Metropolitans of Tallinn and All Estonia
 7 Jul 1923 - 18 Oct 1953  Aleksander                         (s.a.)
                           (in exile from Sep 1944)
   Oct 1953 - 15 Oct 1962  Athinagoras I of Thyatira and
                           Great Britain (Locum Tenens)       (b. 1885 - d. 1962)
10 Dec 1963 - 13 Apr 1978  Athinagoras II of Thyatira and
                           Great Britain (Locum Tenens)       (b. 1912 - d. 1979)
20 Feb 1996 - 16 Mar 1999  Johannes of Finland (Locum Tenens) (b. 1923 - d. 2010)
16 Mar 1999 -              Stephanos                          (b. 1940)

Orthodox Church of Latvia

   Jul 1921                autonomy under Russia
   Feb 1936                autonomy under Ecumenical Patriarchate
30 Mar 1941                autonomy abolished by Russia
20 Jul 1941                autonomy under Ecumenical Patriarchate restored
15 Jul 1942                autonomy abolished by Russia

Archbishops of Riga and All Latvia
   Jul 1921 - 12 Oct 1934  Janis                              (b. 1876 - d. 1934)
12 Oct 1934 - 17 Mar 1936  vacant
Metropolitan of Riga and All Latvia
17 Mar 1936 -  5 Oct 1955  Augustins                          (b. 1873 - d. 1955)
                           (in exile from Sep 1944)

Orthodox Church of Japan

       1880                a Russian Orthodox diocese is founded in Tokyo
       1945                unilateral declaration of autonomy
10 Apr 1970                autonomy under Russia
                           (not recognized by the Ecumenical Patriarchate)

Bishop
       1880 -        1906  Nicholas                           (b. 1836 - d. 1912)
Metropolitans of All Japan
       1906 -        1912  Nicholas                           (s.a.)
       1912 -        1945  Sergius                            (b. 1871 - d. 1945)
       1946 -        1952  Benjamin
       1952 -        1962  Ireneus                            (b. ... - d. 1962)
14 Oct 1962 - 28 Mar 1972  Vladimir                           (b. 1922 - d. 1997)
28 Mar 1972 -  9 May 1999  Theodosius                         (b. 1935 - d. 1999)
 5 Mar 2000 -  6 May 2000  Peter                              (b. 1931 - d. 2000)
 6 May 2000 -              Daniel                             (b. 1938)

Orthodox Church of China

       1686                first Orthodox community established in China
   May 1957                autonomy under Russia (not recognized by the Ecumenical
                           Patriarchate)

Bishop of Peking and All China
30 May 1957 -  3 Jan 1962  Basil                              (b. 1888 - d. 1962)
 3 Jan 1962 -  3 Mar 1965  Simeon of Shanghai                 (b. 1886 - d. 1965)
                           (de facto Locum Tenens)
 3 Mar 1965 -              vacant

Orthodox Church of Ukraine

 1 Oct 1990                autonomy under Russia

Metropolitans of Kiev
31 Aug 1690 - 22 Aug 1707  Varlaam I                          (b. ... - d. 1707)
15 Aug 1708 -  1 Jul 1718  Ioasaf I                           (b. ... - d. 1718)
 1 Jul 1718 - 30 May 1722  vacant
30 May 1722 -  1 Dec 1730  Varlaam II                         (b. ... - d. 1751)
24 Apr 1731 -  2 Nov 1747  Raphail                            (b. 1677 - d. 1747)
21 Mar 1748 -  2 Nov 1757  Timothei                           (b. 1698 - d. 1767)
 2 Nov 1757 - 19 Jun 1770  Arseniy I                          (b. 1704 - d. 1770)
 3 Oct 1770 - 19 Aug 1783  Gavriil I                          (b. 1708 - d. 1783)
 3 Oct 1783 - 16 Jan 1796  Samuil                             (b. 1731 - d. 1796)
12 Apr 1796 - 13 Sep 1799  Ierofei                            (b. 1727 - d. 1799)
10 Oct 1799 -  2 Sep 1803  Gavriil II                         (b. 1746 - d. 1821)
23 Dec 1803 -  5 Feb 1822  Serapion                           (b. 1747 - d. 1824)
 5 Feb 1822 -  7 Mar 1837  Eugene                             (b. 1769 - d. 1837)
30 Apr 1837 -  2 Jan 1858  Filaret I                          (b. 1779 - d. 1858)
13 Mar 1858 - 13 Jul 1860  Isidor                             (b. 1799 - d. 1892)
13 Jul 1860 - 10 May 1876  Arseniy II                         (b. 1797 - d. 1876)
17 May 1876 - 10 Feb 1882  Filofei                            (b. 1808 - d. 1882)
16 Feb 1882 - 13 Oct 1891  Plato                              (b. 1803 - d. 1891)
29 Nov 1891 - 20 Jun 1900  Ioannikiy                          (b. 1826 - d. 1900)
26 Aug 1900 -  4 Feb 1903  Feognost II                        (b. 1829 - d. 1903)
14 Feb 1903 - 17 Nov 1915  Flavian                            (b. 1840 - d. 1915)
 6 Dec 1915 -  6 Feb 1918  Vladimir I                         (b. 1848 - d. 1918)
30 May 1918 - 10 Aug 1936  Antoniy II                         (b. 1863 - d. 1936)
                           (from 1919 in exile, from 1924 not recognized)
       1919 -        1921    Nazary of Cherkass               (b. 1852 - d. af.1928)
                             (Locum Tenens)
       1921 -        1924    Michael of Grodno and Brest      (b. 1862 - d. 1929)
                             (Locum Tenens)
       1924 - 30 Mar 1929  Michael III                        (s.a.)
   Apr 1930 -  1 Feb 1932  Dmitriy                            (b. 1869 - d. 1932)
21 Mar 1932 - 26 Jun 1934  Sergiy                             (b. 1889 - d. 1943)
26 Jun 1934 - 10 Nov 1937  Konstantin III                     (b. 1871 - d. 1937)
15 Jul 1941 - 28 Jan 1944  Nikolai II                         (b. 1892 - d. 1961)
12 Feb 1944 - 30 Mar 1964  Ioann V                            (b. 1877 - d. 1968)
30 Mar 1964 - 24 Apr 1966  Ioasaf II                          (b. 1903 - d. 1966)
14 Mar 1966 -  1 Oct 1990  Filaret II                         (b. 1929)
Metropolitans of Kiev and All Ukraine
 1 Oct 1990 -  2 Apr 1992  Filaret II                         (s.a.)
27 May 1992 -              Vladimir II                        (b. 1935)

Orthodox Church of Macedonia

       1018                autocephalous Archdiocese of Ohrid under the Ecumenical
                           Patriarchate established by Byzantine Emperor Vasilios II
27 Jan 1767                autocephaly abolished by Constantinople
 6 Oct 1958                autonomy under Serbia
16 Jul 1967                unilateral elevation to autocephaly results in schism
                           (see Macedonian Orthodox Church-Archbishopric of Ohrid)
24 May 2005                autonomy under Serbia

Archbishops of Ohrid
18 Jun 1699 -        1702  Raphail
       1702 -        1703  Germanos II
       1703 -        1706  Ignatios III (2nd time)
       1706 -        1707  Dionysios II (1st time)
       1707 -  My/Jn 1708  Zosimas II (2nd time)
 8 Jun 1708 -        1709  Methodios I
       1709 -    Jul 1714  Dionysios II (2nd time)
27 Jul 1714 - 16 Jul 1718  Philotheos
16 Jul 1718 -  2 Nov 1745  Ioasaph II                         (b. ... - d. 1745)
24 Jan 1746 -        1752  Iosiph (1st time)
       1752 -        1753  Dionysios III (1st time)
       1753 -        1756  Iosiph (2nd time)
       1756 -        1757  Dionysios III (2nd time)
       1757 -        1759  Methodios II
 Mr/Ap 1759 -        1763  Kyrillos                           (b. ... - d. 1765)
       1763 -  My/Jn 1763  Ieremias                           (b. ... - d. 1763)
 My/Jn 1763 -        1764  Ananias                            (b. ... - d. 1764)
       1764 - 27 Jan 1767  Arsenios II
Metropolitans of Skopje (under Ecumenical Patriarchate)
       1767 -  6 Nov 1775  Anthimos II
 6 Nov 1775 - 19 Oct 1799  Zacharias
11 Nov 1799 -        1820  Anthimos III                       (b. ... - d. 1820)
 Mr/Ap 1820 -        1823  Ioasaph                            (b. ... - d. 1823)
 Au/Se 1823 -  Jn/Jl 1828  Ananias                            (b. 1788 - d. 1854)
 Jn/Jl 1828 -  Ja/Fe 1831  Neophytos                          (b. ... - d. 1831)
 Ja/Fe 1831 -  Jl/Au 1832  Gennadios
 Jl/Au 1832 -  Jn/Jl 1844  Gavriil III
 Jn/Jl 1844 - 11 Mar 1868  Ioakim                             (b. ... - d. 1868)
23 Mar 1868 - 15 Aug 1891  Paisios                            (b. 1806 - d. 1892)
15 Aug 1891 - 28 Nov 1896  Methodios II                       (b. ... - d. 1896)
30 Nov 1896 - 31 Oct 1899  Amvrosios                          (b. 1854 - d. 1931)
31 Oct 1899 -        1903  Firmilianos                        (b. 1852 - d. 1903)
28 Jan 1904 -  5 Feb 1905  Sevastianos                        (b. 1869 - d. 1905)
24 Oct 1905 -        1915  Vikentios                          (b. 1853 - d. 1915)
Metropolitans of Skopje (under Serbian Patriarchate)
17 Nov 1920 - 12 Apr 1930  Varnava Rosic                      (b. 1880 - d. 1937)
   Jan 1932 -  3 Jul 1957  Josif Cvijovic                     (b. 1878 - d. 1957)
Archbishops of Ohrid and Metropolitans of Skopje
 6 Oct 1958 - 19 Jul 1967  Dositej II Stojkovski              (b. 1906 - d. 1981)
24 May 2005 -              Jovan VI Vraniskovski              (b. 1966)
26 Jul 2005 -  3 Mar 2006    Marko Kimev of Dremvica          (b. 1977)
                             (acting for imprisoned Jovan)
 8 Aug 2006 -  1 May 2007    Marko Kimev of Dremvica          (s.a.)
                             + Joakim Jovcevski of Polog and
                             Kumanovo                         (b. 1949)
                             (acting for imprisoned Jovan)

Orthodox Church of Crete

27 Oct 1900                semi-autonomy under Ecumenical Patriarchate
28 Feb 1967                See elevated to Archdiocese

Metropolitans of Crete
       1699 -        1701  Arsenios II
       1702 -        1711? Ioasaph                            (b. ... - d. 1747)
       1711 -        1715  Konstantios (1st time)             (b. ... - d. 1725)
       1715 -        1718  Gerasimos I
18 Dec 1718 -        1722  Konstantios (2nd time)             (s.a.)
       1723 -        1725  Daniil
       1725 - 13 Jan 1756  Gerasimos II
17 Feb 1756 -        1769  Gerasimos III
       1769 -    May 1786  Zacharias
30 May 1786 - 16 May 1800  Maximos                            (b. ... - d. 1800)
 6 Jun 1800 -  6 Jul 1821  Gerasimos IV                       (b. 17... - d. 1821)
 Mr/Ap 1823 -  5 Sep 1830  Kallinikos III                     (b. ... - d. 1830)
 9 Feb 1831 -  1 Aug 1839  Meletios I                         (b. 1801 - d. 1839)
 Au/Se 1839 - 21 Sep 1839  Porphyrios                         (b. ... - d. 1852)
 Se/Oc 1839 - 24 Feb 1842  Kallinikos IV
13 Mar 1842 -De1843/Ja1844 Kallinikos V                       (b. ... - d. 1845)
De1843/Ja1844- 5 Sep 1850  Chrysanthos                        (b. ... - d. 1869)
 5 Sep 1850 - 26 Dec 1850  Sophronios I                       (b. ... - d. 1855)
29 Dec 1850 -  9 Sep 1856  Dionysios I                        (b. ... - d. 1860)
 9 Sep 1856 - 28 Jul 1858  Ioannikios                         (b. ... - d. 1858)
 7 Aug 1858 - 28 Nov 1868  Dionysios II                       (b. 1820 - d. 1891)
28 Nov 1868 -  5 Dec 1874  Meletios II (1st time)             (b. 1817 - d. 1882)
 5 Dec 1874 - 21 Jun 1877  Sophronios II                      (b. ... - d. 1890)
21 Jun 1877 - 25 Aug 1882  Meletios II (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 2 Oct 1882 -  2 Mar 1897  Timotheos I                        (b. 1841 - d. 1897)
24 May 1898 - 14 Apr 1920  Evmenios II                        (b. 1850 - d. 1920)
 7 Mar 1922 - 25 Apr 1933  Titos II                           (b. 1859 - d. 1933)
22 Jul 1933 -  3 Jan 1941  Timotheos II                       (b. 1876 - d. 1941)
 8 Apr 1941 - 12 Jan 1950  Vasilios V                         (b. 1872 - d. 1950)
23 May 1950 - 28 Feb 1967  Evgenios                           (b. 1912 - d. 1978)
Archbishops of Crete
28 Feb 1967 -  7 Feb 1978  Evgenios                           (s.a.)
10 Mar 1978 - 26 Jul 2006  Timotheos III                      (b. 1915 - d. 2006)
30 Aug 2006 -              Irinaios                           (b. 1933)

Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America

       1865                a Greek Orthodox diocese is founded in New Orleans, La.
31 Mar 1908                Greek Orthodox Church of America placed under
                           jurisdiction of Autocephalous Church of Greece
17 Aug 1918                Archdiocese under the Church of Greece
14 Mar 1922                Greek Orthodox Church of America reverts to the
                           jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Constantinople
 9 May 1922                Archdiocese under Ecumenical Patriarchate

Exarchs of Synod of Church of Greece
 4 Aug 1918 - 30 Oct 1918  Meletios of Athens                 (b. 1871 - d. 1935)
                           (returned to the U.S. in Feb 1921, overseeing the affairs of
                           the American Church as Meletios of Athens [not recognizing
                           his dethronement from the See of Athens] and after 8 Dec 1921
                           as Ecumenical Patriarch Meletios IV, until his departure for
                           Constantinople on 14 Jan 1922)
30 Oct 1918 -  2 Jul 1921  Alexandros of Rodostolon           (b. 1876 - d. 1942)
                           (continues in opposition to 14 Mar 1922)
 2 Jul 1921 - 14 Mar 1922  Germanos of Monemvasia             (b. 1870 - d. 1935)
                           (continues in opposition to 4 Feb 1923)
Patriarchal Exarch
14 Mar 1922 -  9 May 1922  Alexandros of Rodostolon           (s.a.)
Archbishops of America
 9 May 1922 - 19 Jun 1930  Alexandros                         (s.a.)
   Feb 1924 - 19 Jun 1930    Vasilios (in opposition)         (b. 1887 - d. 1941)
 9 Apr 1930 -  9 Feb 1931  Damaskinos of Korinthos (Exarch)   (b. 1891 - d. 1949)
 9 Feb 1931 - 24 Feb 1931  Kallistos of San Francisco         (b. 1878 - d. 1940)
                           (Locum Tenens until arrival of Athinagoras in U.S.)
12 Aug 1930 -  1 Nov 1948  Athinagoras                        (b. 1886 - d. 1972)
   Nov 1948 - 24 Dec 1949  Germanos of Nyssa (1st time)       (b. 1897 - d. 1993)
                           (Locum Tenens until arrival of Michail in U.S.)
 7 Jun 1949 - 20 Sep 1949  Timotheos                          (b. 1880 - d. 1949)
11 Oct 1949 - 13 Jul 1958  Michail                            (b. 1892 - d. 1958)
   Jul 1958 - 31 Mar 1959  Germanos of Nyssa (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                           (Locum Tenens until arrival of Iakovos in U.S.)
14 Feb 1959 - 29 Jul 1996  Iakovos                            (b. 1911 - d. 2005)
30 Jul 1996 - 18 Aug 1999  Spyridon                           (b. 1944)
19 Aug 1999 -              Dimitrios                          (b. 1928)

Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia

       1897                Greek Orthodox dioceses founded in Sydney and Melbourne
31 Mar 1908                Greek Orthodox Church of Australia placed under
                           jurisdiction of Autocephalous Church of Greece
14 Mar 1922                Greek Orthodox Church of Australia reverts to the
                           jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Constantinople
 9 Feb 1924                Metropolis under Ecumenical Patriarchate
25 Aug 1959                Archdiocese under Ecumenical Patriarchate

Metropolitans of Australia
 9 Feb 1924 - 17 Apr 1926  Christophoros (1st time)           (b. 1871 - d. 1958)
17 Apr 1926 - 24 Jun 1926  Ioakim                             (b. 1883 - d. 1962)
24 Jun 1926 -  4 Feb 1928  Christophoros (2nd time)           (s.a.)
   Mar 1928 - 30 Nov 1931  Theophylaktos Papathanasopoulos    (b. 1891 - d. 1958)
                           (Locum Tenens)
30 Nov 1931 - 16 Jan 1947  Timotheos                          (b. 1880 - d. 1949)
22 Apr 1947 -  8 Aug 1958  Theophylaktos                      (s.a.)
   Aug 1958 - 24 Feb 1959  Athenagoras I of Thyatira and
                           Great Britain (Exarch)             (b. 1885 - d. 1962)
Archbishops of Australia
24 Feb 1959 - 27 Feb 1968  Iezekiel (1st time)                (b. 1913 - d. 1987)
27 Feb 1968 - 28 Oct 1968  Dionysios of Nazianzos             (b. 1916 - d. 2008)
                           (Locum Tenens)
28 Oct 1968 - 12 Aug 1969  Iakovos of Philadelphia (Exarch)   (b. 1920 - d. 1971)
12 Aug 1969 -  5 Aug 1974  Iezekiel (2nd time)                (s.a.)
 5 Aug 1974 - 13 Feb 1975  Panteleimon of Theoupolis          (b. 1936)
                           (Locum Tenens)
13 Feb 1975 -              Stylianos                          (b. 1935)

Schismatic Orthodox churches


Croatian Orthodox Church

   Apr 1942                regime of independent Croatia erects its own autocephalous
                           church for the Orthodox within its borders; not recognized
                           by any other church except the Romanian Orthodox Church
   May 1945                remnants merged back into Serbian Orthodox Church

Metropolitan
 7 Jun 1942 -    May 1945  Germogen                           (b. 1861 - d. 1945)

Macedonian Orthodox Church-Archbishopric of Ohrid

19 Jul 1967                unilateral declaration of autocephaly (Macedonian Orthodox Church)
12 Nov 2009                Macedonian Orthodox Church-Archbishopric of Ohrid

Archbishops of Ohrid
19 Jul 1967 - 20 May 1981  Dositej II                         (b. 1906 - d. 1981)
18 Aug 1981 - 15 Jun 1986  Angelarij                          (b. 1911 - d. 1986)
   Oct 1986 -  9 Jun 1993  Gavril II                          (b. 1921 - d. 1996)
 9 Jun 1993 -  4 Dec 1993  Timotej of Australia               (b. 1951)
                           + Stefan of Bregalnica             (b. 1955)
                           + Mihail of Povardarie             (b. 1912 - d. 1999)
                           (administrators)
 4 Dec 1993 -  6 Jul 1999  Mihail                             (s.a.)
10 Oct 1999 -              Stefan                             (s.a.)

Orthodox Church of Belorussia

23 Jul 1922                autonomy under Russia
10 Aug 1927                unilateral declaration of autocephaly
       1946                autonomy abolished by Russia

Metropolitans of Minsk and All Belorussia
23 Jul 1922 -        1931  Melchizedek
       1931 - 28 Aug 1942  vacant?
28 Aug 1942 -        1946  Panteleimon

Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church

   Jun 1990                unilateral declaration of Patriarchate (not recognized
                           by any other Orthodox church)
       1993                the Ukrainian Orthodox Church-Kiev Patriarchate, which
                           was created in an earlier split but also claimed Mstyslav
                           as its patriarch, now elects its own patriarch

Patriarchs
 5 Jun 1990 - 11 Jun 1993  Mstyslav                           (b. 1898 - d. 1993)
 7 Sep 1993 - 25 Feb 2000  Dimitri                            (b. 1915 - d. 2000)
25 Feb 2000 - 15 Sep 2000  Igor (Locum Tenens)
15 Sep 2000 -              Mefody (acting)                    (b. 1949)

Ukrainian Orthodox Church-Kiev Patriarchate

Patriarchs
21 Oct 1993 - 14 Jul 1995  Volodymyr                          (b. 1926 - d. 1995)
22 Oct 1995 -              Filaret                            (b. 1929)

Montenegrin Orthodox Church

       1993                autocephaly proclaimed (not recognized)

Metropolitans (vladikas)
31 Oct 1993 - 24 Dec 1996  Antonije Abramovic                 (b. 1919 - d. 1996)
 6 Jan 1997 -              Mihailo Dedeic                     (b. 1938)

Church of the Genuine Orthodox Christians of Greece

       1937                split into two hostile synods
       1984                split in line 1 creating line 3
       1985                split in line 1 creating line 4
       1985                split in line 1 creating line 5
       1995                split in line 2 creating line 6
       1996                split in line 3 creating line 7

Archbishops
- Line 1 -
26 May 1935 - 20 Sep 1955  Chrysostomos I                     (b. 1870 - d. 1955)
20 Sep 1955 -  9 Dec 1960  vacant
 9 Dec 1960 -  1 Dec 1963  Akakios                            (b. ... - d. 1963)
   Dec 1963 -        1984  Afxentios                          (b. ... - d. 1994)
       1985 - 19 Sep 2010  Chrysostomos II                    (b. 1920 - d. 2010)
- Line 2 -
   May 1938 - 16 Jul 1943  Germanos                           (b. ... - d. 1944)
   Jul 1943 - 14 May 1950  Matthaios                          (b. ... - d. 1950)
       1950 -        1958  Demetrios
       1958 -        1972  Agathangelos
       1972 -        2003  Andreas
12 Jun 2003 -              Nikolaos
- Line 3 -
       1984 -    Nov 1994  Afxentios                          (s.a.)
       1995 -              Maximos
- Line 4 -
       1985 -        19..  Dorotheos                          (b. ... - d. 19...)
       19.. -              Isaias
- Line 5 -
18 Apr 1985 - 30 May 2013  Kyprianos                          (b. 1935 - d. 2013)
                           (president of the Holy Synod in Resistance)
   Oct 2007 -              Kyprianos of Oreoi                 (b. 1948)
                           (acting [for Kyprianos to 30 May 2013])
- Line 6 -
       1995 -              Grigorios
- Line 7 -
       1996 -              Athanasios

Old Calendar Church of Romania

Metropolitans
13 Apr 1955 -        1956  Galaction                          (b. ... - d. 1956)
       1956 -        1985  Glicherie                          (b. 1891 - d. 1985)
       1985 -    Apr 1992  Sylvester                          (b. ... - d. 1992)
       1992 -              Vlasie

Old Believers

       1666                split from Russian Orthodox Church
       1847                hierarchy established
       1923                another group of Old Believers obtains a hierarchy

Belaya Krynitsa hierarchy

Archbishops of Moscow
       1847 -        1863  Sofrony
       1863 - 20 Nov 1881  Antony                             (b. ... - d. 1881)
       1863 -        1870    Antony Guslitsky (in opposition)
       1871 -        1912    Iov (in opposition)
       1881 - 20 Sep 1898  Savvaty                            (b. ... - d. 1898)
       1898 -  7 May 1915  Ioann
       1915 -        1934  Melety
       1934 - 12 Apr 1938  Vikenty of Kazan (Locum Tenens)
       1938 -        1940  vacant
       1940 - 23 Feb 1952  Irinarch                           (b. ... - d. 1952)
       1952 - 12 Dec 1960  Flavian                            (b. ... - d. 1960)
       1961 -        1970  Iosif
       1970 - 29 Jan 1986  Nikodim
       1986 -        1988  Alimpy                             (b. 1929 - d. 2003)
Metropolitans of Moscow and All Russia
       1988 - 31 Dec 2003  Alimpy                             (s.a.)
 3 Jan 2004 - 12 Feb 2004  Ioann of Kostroma and Yaroslavl
                           (1st time) (Locum Tenens)          (b. 1926)
12 Feb 2004 - 10 Aug 2005  Andrian                            (b. 1951 - d. 2005)
11 Aug 2005 - 18 Oct 2005  Ioann of Kostroma and Yaroslavl
                           (2nd time) (Locum Tenens)          (s.a.)
18 Oct 2005 -              Kornily                            (b. 1947)

Novozybkov hierarchy

Archbishops of Novozybkov, Moscow and All Russia
 4 Nov 1923 -  1 Sep 1934  Nikola                             (b. 1853 - d. 1934)
 1 Sep 1934 -  2 Sep 1937  Stefan                             (b. 1858 - d. 1937)
                           (Locum Tenens to Jul 1935)
   May 1938 -        1944  Mikhail                            (b. 1860 - d. 1944)
14 Oct 1944 - 27 Aug 1956  Ioann                              (b. 1868 - d. 1956)
       1956 -        1965  Epifany
       1965 -        1969  Ieyermiya
       1969 -        1980  Pavel
       1980 -    Feb 1996  Gennady
   Feb 1996 -  4 May 2000  Aristarkh                          (b. 1907 - d. 2000)
                           (Locum Tenens to 9 Jun 1996)
 9 May 2000 -              Aleksandr                          (b. 1957)
                           (titled Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia from 3 Mar 2002)

Pomorian Church

Supreme Old Believer Council (Vilnius)

       1925 -        1939  headed the church in Poland
       1944                restored as supreme in Lithuania

Chairmen
       1925 -        1939  Arseny Pimenov
 7 Jan 1939 -    Sep 1939  Boris Pimenov (1st time)
       1943 -        1944  Boris Pimenov (2nd time)
       1944 -        1948  Ivan Romanov
       1948 -        1965  Fyodor Kuznetsov
       1965 -        1969  Iosif Nikitin
       1969 -        1993  Ivan Yegorov
       1993 -        1998  Vladimir Vasilyev
       1998 -        2001  Evstignei Nikitin
       2001 -        2002  Andrey Kartashev
       1995 -              Nikolay Pilnikov
                           (in opposition to 2002)

Central Old Believer Council (Kaunas)

       1922 -        1944  headed the church in Lithuania
       1940                stopped functioning
       1942                restored
       1944                merged into Supreme Old Believer Council (Vilnius)

Chairmen
       1922 -        1934  Vasily Prozorov
       1934 -  2 Apr 1938  Anatoly Efremov
22 Apr 1938 -        1940  Ivan Prozorov
       1942 -        1944  Boris Leonov

Central Council of Old Believer Pomorian Church in Belarus

Chairman
       2001 -              Petr Orlov

Supreme Old Believer Pomorian Church Council in Poland

Chairmen
       1983 -        1993  Leonid Pimenov
       1993 -              Feodosij Novichenko

Renewal Church

spring 1922                some Renewal-type churches split from the Russian Orthodox
                           Church
   end 1923                almost all of them merge in one Renewal Church (also called
                           Living Church)
       1946                last communities return to Russian Orthodox Church

Metropolitans
       1923 -        1925  Evdokim                            (b. 1869 - d. 1935)
       1925 -  6 May 1930  Veniamin                           (b. 1855 - d. 1930)
       1930 -        1941  Vitaly                             (b. 1870 - d. 1950)
       1941 - 25 Jul 1946  Aleksandr                          (b. 1889 - d. 1946)

Eastern non-Chalcedonian churches

Armenian Apostolic Church

         43                church founded
        506                synod of Armenian Church rejects Council of Chalcedon
       1815                See of Aluank' abolished

Catholicoses of All Armenians (at Etchmiadzin)
       1691 -        1705  Nahapet I
       1706 -        1714  Alek'sandr I
       1715 -        1725  Astuatsatur I
       1726 -        1729  Karapet II
       1730 -        1734  Abraham II
       1734 -        1737  Abraham III
       1737 -        1751  Lazar I
       1751 -        1753  Minas I
       1753 -        1755  Alek'sandr II
       1755                Sahak V
                           (elected but never consecrated)
       1755 -        1759  vacant
       1759 -        1763  Yakob V
       1763 -        1780  Simeon
       1780 -        1799  Lukas
       1800 -        1801  Hovsep' Arlut'ean                  (b. 17... - d. 1801)
                           (elected but never consecrated)
       1801 -        1807  Dawit' V
       1802 -        1808    Daniel (in opposition)
 6 Nov 1810 -  8 Oct 1830  Yeprem                             (b. ... - d. 1835)
30 Jun 1831 - 25 May 1842  Hovhannes VIII                     (b. ... - d. 1842)
13 Apr 1843 - 13 Feb 1857  Nerses V                           (b. 1761 - d. 1857)
17 May 1858 -        1865  Matevos I                          (b. ... - d. 1865)
16 Sep 1866 -  6 Dec 1882  Gevorg IV                          (b. 1813 - d. 1882)
       1882 -        1885  vacant
18 Jul 1885 - 16 Apr 1891  Makar                              (b. 1813 - d. 1891)
 5 May 1892 - 29 Oct 1907  Mkrtich                            (b. 1820 - d. 1907)
30 Oct 1908 - 11 Dec 1910  Matevos II                         (b. 1845 - d. 1910)
11 Dec 1910 -  8 May 1930  Gevorg V                           (b. 1847 - d. 1930)
                           (Locum Tenens to 13 Dec 1911)
 8 May 1930 - 12 Apr 1938  Khoren                             (b. 1893 - d. 1938)
                           (Locum Tenens to 12 Nov 1932)
12 Apr 1938 -  9 May 1954  Gevorg VI                          (b. 1868 - d. 1954)
                           (Locum Tenens to Jun 1945)
 2 Oct 1955 - 17 Aug 1994  Vazgen                             (b. 1908 - d. 1994)
 4 Apr 1995 - 29 Jun 1999  Karekin I                          (b. 1932 - d. 1999)
 4 Jul 1999 -  4 Nov 1999  Nerses Pozapalyan (acting)         (b. 1937)
 4 Nov 1999 -              Karekin II                         (b. 1951)

Catholicoses of Aluank'
       1676 -        1701  Eremia II
       1702 -        1728  Esayi Hasan-Jalalean
       1706 -        1763    Nerses V (anti-catholicos)
       1763 -        1765    Israyel I (anti-catholicos)
       1763 -        1786  Hovhannes X Hasan-Jalalean
       1794 -        1810  Simeon V
       1810 -        1815  Sargis Hasan-Jalalean              (b. ... - d. 1828)

Catholicoses of Cilicia
       1694 -        1705  Matevos I
       1705 -        1721  Hovhannes V
       1721 -        1729  Krikor III
       1729 -        1731  Hovhannes VI
       1731 -        1737  Ghougas I
       1737 -        1758  Mikael I
       1758 -        1770  Gabriel I
       1771 -        1784  Yeprem I
       1784 -        1796  Teotoros I
       1797 -        1822  Giragos I
       1822 -        1833  Yeprem II
       1833 -        1855  Mikael II
       1855 -        1865  Giragos II
       1866 -        1871  Giragos (Locum Tenens)
       1871 -        1894  Mkrtich I
       1895                Grigor (Locum Tenens)
       1902 -        1939  Sahak II
       1940                Bedros II
       1940 -        1942  Eghishe (Locum Tenens)
       1942 -        1945  Khad (1st time) (Locum Tenens)
       1943 - 21 Jun 1952  Karekin I                          (b. ... - d. 1952)
       1952 -    Oct 1955  Khad (2nd time) (Locum Tenens)
   Oct 1955 - 20 Feb 1956  Khoren (Locum Tenens)       (b. ... - d. 1983)
20 Feb 1956 - 18 Feb 1963  Zareh I                            (b. 1914? - d. 1963)
12 May 1963 -  9 Feb 1983  Khoren I                           (s.a.)
 9 Feb 1983 -  5 Apr 1995  Karekin II                         (b. 1932 - d. 1999)
28 Jun 1995 -              Aram I                             (b. 1947)

Coptic Church

       c.43                Church of Alexandria founded by Apostle Mark
        451                Egyptian hierarchy rejects Council of Chalcedon

Popes and Patriarchs
18 Mar 1676 - 15 Jun 1718  Yoannis XVI                        (b. ... - d. 1718)
19 Aug 1718 -  2 Apr 1726  Petros VI                          (b. ... - d. 1726)
12 Jan 1727 - 29 Apr 1745  Yoannis XVII                       (b. ... - d. 1745)
30 May 1745 - 18 May 1769  Markos VIII                        (b. ... - d. 1769)
13 Oct 1769 -  7 Jun 1796  Yoannis XVIII                      (b. ... - d. 1796)
 6 Sep 1796 - 21 Dec 1809  Markos IX                          (b. ... - d. 1809)
24 Dec 1809 -  5 Apr 1852  Petros VII                         (b. ... - d. 1852)
 4 Jun 1854 - 31 Jan 1861  Kyrillos IV                        (b. ... - d. 1861)
15 Jun 1862 - 19 Jan 1870  Dimitrios II                       (b. ... - d. 1870)
19 Jan 1870 -  1 Nov 1874  Markos of Alexandria and Beheirah
                           (Locum Tenens)
 1 Nov 1874 -  7 Aug 1927  Kyrillos V                         (b. 1831? - d. 1927)
 7 Aug 1927 -  7 Dec 1928  Yoannis of Beheirah and Minufiyah  (b. 1855 - d. 1942)
                           (Locum Tenens)
16 Dec 1928 - 22 Jun 1942  Yoannis XIX                        (s.a.)
22 Jun 1942 -  4 Feb 1944  Yusab of Jirja (Locum Tenens)      (b. 1880 - d. 1956)
 4 Feb 1944 - 31 Aug 1945  Makari III                         (b. ... - d. 1945)
   Aug 1945 - 12 Jun 1946  Athanasios of Bani Suef (1st time)
                           (Locum Tenens)
12 Jun 1946 - 13 Nov 1956  Yusab II                           (s.a.)
13 Nov 1956 -  3 May 1959  Athanasios of Bani Suef (2nd time)
                           (Locum Tenens)
 3 May 1959 -  9 Mar 1971  Kyrillos VI                        (b. 1902 - d. 1971)
 9 Mar 1971 - 31 Oct 1971  Antonios of Suhaj (Locum Tenens)
31 Oct 1971 - 17 Mar 2012  Shenuda III                        (b. 1923 - d. 2012)
18 Mar 2012 -  4 Nov 2012  Pakhomios of Beheirah              (b. 1935)
                           (Locum Tenens)
 4 Nov 2012 -              Tawadros II                        (b. 1952)

Ethiopian Church

      c.330                Christianity introduced as state religion
        451                Ethiopians follow Copts on rejection of Chalcedon
28 Jun 1959                See elevated to Patriarchate by Coptic Church

Metropolitans of Ethiopia
       1694 -        1716  Markos
     c.1718 -        1745  Christodoulos
     c.1747 -        1770  Yoannis
       1770 -        1803  Yusab
      *1808*               Makari
       1816 -        1829  Kyrillos
       1841 -        1866  Selama III
       1868 -        1876  Athanasios
       1876 -        1889  Petros
       1889 -        1926  Mattheos                           (b. 18... - d. 1926)
 2 Jun 1927 -        1936  Kyrillos (1st time)                (b. ... - d. 1950)
       1936 -        1939  Abraham                            (b. ... - d. 1939)
       1939 -        1945  Yohannis                           (b. ... - d. 1946)
       1945 - 10 Oct 1950  Kyrillos (2nd time)                (s.a.)
14 Jan 1951 - 28 Jun 1959  Basilios                           (b. ... - d. 1970)
Patriarchs of Ethiopia
28 Jun 1959 - 12 Oct 1970  Basilios                           (s.a.)
 9 May 1971 - 18 Feb 1976  Theophilos                         (b. ... - d. 1979)
 7 Jul 1976 -  5 Jun 1988  Tekle Haimanot                     (b. 1917 - d. 1988)
29 Aug 1988 -    Sep 1991  Merkurios                          (b. 1938)
                           (continues in U.S. exile)
   Sep 1991 -  5 Jul 1992  Yacob (Locum Tenens)               (b. 1926 - d. 2003)
 5 Jul 1992 - 16 Aug 2012  Paulos                             (b. 1935 - d. 2012)
20 Aug 2012 - 28 Feb 2013  Natnael of Arsi (Locum Tenens)     (b. 1931)
28 Feb 2013 -              Mathias                            (b. 1941)

Eritrean Church

28 Sep 1993                autocephaly granted by Coptic Church
   Apr 1998                See elevated to Patriarchate by Coptic Church

Archbishop of Asmara
28 Sep 1993 -  8 May 1998  Philipos                           (b. 1905 - d. 2002)
Patriarchs of Eritrea
 8 May 1998 - 18 Sep 2002  Philipos                           (s.a.)
18 Sep 2002 -  1 Dec 2003  Yacob                              (b. 1926 - d. 2003)
                           (Locum Tenens to 5 Dec 2002)
 1 Dec 2003 - 13 Jan 2006š Antonios                           (b. 1927)
                           (Locum Tenens to 5 Mar 2004)
       2006 -              Dioscoros
                           (Head of the Holy Synod to 19 Apr 2007)
šHe was deposed in Eritrea, but does not recognize this, nor has the action been recognized by the Coptic Church.

Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church

       1665                united with Syrian Orthodox Church
       1912                declaration of autocephaly
       1975                Syrian Patriarch appoints a rival Catholicos

Catholicoses of the East
14 Sep 1912 -  2 May 1913  Baselios Paulose I                 (b. 1836 - d. 1913)
 2 May 1913 - 30 Apr 1925  vacant
30 Apr 1925 - 17 Dec 1928  Baselios Geevarghese I             (b. 1870 - d. 1928)
15 Feb 1929 -  3 Jan 1964  Baselios Geevarghese II            (b. 1874 - d. 1964)
12 May 1964 - 24 Sep 1975  Baselios Augen I                   (b. 1884 - d. 1975)
- "Patriarch faction" -
 7 Sep 1975 -  1 Sep 1996  Baselios Paulose II                (b. 1914 - d. 1996)
   Sep 1996 - 22 Feb 1999  Gregorios Mar Geevarghese          (b. 1933 - d. 1999)
                           (Locum Tenens)
   Feb 1999 - 26 Jul 2002  Dionysios Mar Thomas               (b. 1929)
                           (Locum Tenens)
26 Jul 2002 -              Baselios Thomas I                  (s.a.)
- "Catholicos faction" -
27 Oct 1975 - 27 Apr 1991  Baselios Marthoma Mathews I        (b. 1907 - d. 1996)
29 Apr 1991 - 30 Oct 2005  Baselios Marthoma Mathews II       (b. 1915 - d. 2006)
31 Oct 2005 - 31 Oct 2010  Baselios Marthoma Didymos I        (b. 1920)
 1 Nov 2010 -              Baselios Marthoma Paulose II       (b. 1946)

Syrian Orthodox Church

       c.44                Church of Antioch founded by Apostle Peter
        451                part of Antiochian Church rejects Council of Antioch

Patriarchs of Antioch and All the East
       1687 -        1708  Ignatius George II
       1709 -        1723  Ignatius Isaac Azar
       1723 -        1745  Ignatius Shukr Allah II
       1745 -        1768  Ignatius George III
       1768 -    Jul 1780  Ignatius George IV                 (b. ... - d. 1780)
       1782 -        1817  Ignatius Matthew
       1817 -        1819  Ignatius Yunan
       1819 -        1836  Ignatius George V
       1838 -        1847  Ignatius Elias II
       1847 -        1871  Ignatius Jacob II
       1872 -  7 Oct 1894  Ignatius Peter IV                  (b. ... - d. 1894)
       1895 -        1905  Ignatius Abdul Masih II            (b. 18... - d. 1914/15)
18 Aug 1906 - 26 Nov 1916  Ignatius Abdallah II               (b. 1833 - d. 1916)
25 Feb 1917 - 13 Feb 1932  Ignatius Elias III                 (b. 1867 - d. 1932)
30 Jan 1933 - 23 Jun 1957  Ignatius Afram I Barsoum           (b. 1887 - d. 1957)
27 Oct 1957 - 25 Jun 1980  Ignatius Jacob III                 (b. 1912 - d. 1980)
14 Sep 1980 - 21 Mar 2014  Ignatius Zakka I Iwas              (b. 1932 - d. 2014)

Assyrian Church of the East

         35                church founded by Apostle Thomas
        310                bishop of Seleucie-Ctesiphon unites church and becomes
                           Catholicos of the East
        410                title Patriarch adopted
       1450                post of Patriarch becomes hereditary
       1692                a second line of Patriarchs is created by Shimoun, who
                           abandons union with Rome
       1804                the original line of Patriarchs becomes extinct
       1968                a schism occurs creating another line of Patriarchs

Patriarchs
- Line 1 -
       1660 - 17 May 1700  Eliyya X Yohannan Marogin          (b. 1645 - d. 17...)
       1700 - 14 Dec 1722  Eliyya XI Marogin
25 Dec 1722 - 12 Apr 1778  Eliyya XII Dinkha                  (b. 1700 - d. ...)
       1778 -        1804  Eliyya XIII Isho-Yab
- Line 2 -
       1692 -        1700  Shimoun XIII Dinkha
       1700 -        1740  Shimoun XIV Sleman
       1740 -        1780  Shimoun XV Maqdassi
       1780 -        1820  Shimoun XVI Yohanan
       1820 -        1861  Shimoun XVII Abraham
       1861 - 16 Mar 1903  Shimoun XVIII Rouel                (b. ... - d. 1903)
30 Mar 1903 - 16 Mar 1918  Shimoun XIX Benyamin               (b. 1887 - d. 1918)
23 Apr 1918 - 27 Apr 1920  Shimoun XX Paulos                  (b. 1890 - d. 1920)
       1918 -        1927    Locum Tenentes
                             - Mar Yosip Khnanishu of Rustaqa (b. 1893 - d. 1977)
                             - Mar Abimaleck Timotheus of
                               India (for a part of this
                               period during the 1920s)       (b. 1875 - d. 1945)
20 Jun 1920 -  6 Nov 1975  Shimoun XXI Ishaya                 (b. 1908 - d. 1975)
17 Oct 1976 -              Mar Dinkha IV                      (b. 1935)
- Line 3 -
   Sep 1968 -  7 Sep 1969  Mar Thoma Darmo                    (b. ... - d. 1969)
   Sep 1969 -    Feb 1970  Mar Addai of Baghdad               (b. 1946)
                           (Locum Tenens)
   Feb 1970 -              Mar Addai II                       (s.a.)

Malabar Independent Syrian Church

Metropolitans
       1772 - 10 Jul 1802  Kattumangattu Abraham Mar
                           Koorilose I                        (b. 17... - d. 1802)
       1802 -        1807  Kattumangattu Geevarghese Mar
                           Koorilose II
       1807 -        1811  Cheeran Skaria Mar Philexenos I
       1811 -        1829  Kidanagan Geevarghese Mar
                           Philexenos II
       1829 -        1856  Koothoor Geevarghese Mar
                           Koorilose III
       1856 -        1888  Alathoor Panakkal Joseph Mar
                           Koorilose IV
       1888 -        1898  Maliyekkal Joseph Mar Athanasios I
       1898 -        1935  Karumamkuzhi Geevarghese Mar
                           Koorilose V
       1935 -        1947  Koothoor Kuriakose Mar Koorilose
                           VI
       1948 -        1967  Cheeran Geevarghese Mar Koorilose
                           VII
       1967 -        1977  Ayyamkulangara Paulose Mar
                           Philexenos III
       1978 -        1986  Koothoor Mathew Mar Koorilose VIII
27 Aug 1986 - 28 May 2001  Alathoor Panakkal Joseph Mar
                           Koorilose IX                       (b. 1951)
28 May 2001 -              Cyril Mar Baselius I

Judaism

Ottoman Empire/Turkey

Chief rabbis (title Hahambasi)
       1677 -        1715  Hayim Kamhi
       1715 -        1717  Yehuda Ben Rey
       1717 -        1720  Samuel Levi
       1720 -        1745  Abraham Rozanes
       1745 -        1762  Salomon Hayim Alfandari
       1762 -        1780  Mayir Ishaki
       1780 -        1800  Eliyaho Palombo
       1800 -        1835  Hayim Yakup Benyakar
       1835 -        1839  Abraham Levi
       1839 -        1841  Samuel Hayim
       1841 -        1854  Moiz Fresko
       1854 -        1870  Yakup Avigdor
       1870 -        1872  Yakir Geron
       1872 -        1909  Mose Levi
       1909 -        1920  Hayim Nahum
       1920 -        1922  Sabetay Levi
       1922 -        1926  Isak Ariel
       1926 -        1931  Hayyim Moshe Bejerano
       1931 -        1940  Hayim Izak Shaki
       1940 -        1960  Rafael David Saban
       1961 - 14 Jul 2002  David Asseo                        (b. 1914 - d. 2002)
14 Jul 2002 -              Isak Haleva                        (b. 1940)
                           (acting to 19 Dec 2002)

Palestine/Israel

Ashkenazi chief rabbis
23 Feb 1921 -  1 Sep 1935  Abraham Isaac Kook                 (b. 1865 - d. 1935)
       1936 - 25 Jul 1959  Isaac Halevi Herzog                (b. 1888 - d. 1959)
       1963 -        1972  Isar Yehuda Unterman               (b. 1886 - d. 1976)
       1972 -        1983  Shlomo Goren                       (b. 1917 - d. 1994)
       1983 -        1993  Avraham Shapira                    (b. 1913 - d. 2007)
       1993 -  3 Apr 2003  Israel Meir Lau                    (b. 1937)
 3 Apr 2003 - 14 Apr 2003  She'ar-Yashuv Cohen (acting)       (b. 1927)
14 Apr 2003 - 14 Aug 2013  Yona Metzger                       (b. 1953)
14 Aug 2013 -              David Lau                          (b. 1966)
Sephardic chief rabbis (also styled Rishon Le-Zion)
23 Feb 1921 - 26 May 1939  Ya'akov Meir                       (b. 1856 - d. 1939)
       1939 -  4 Sep 1953  Benzion Uziel                      (b. 1880 - d. 1953)
       1955 -        1972  Yitzhak Nissim                     (b. 1896 - d. 1981)
       1972 -        1983  Ovadiah Yosef                      (b. 1920 - d. 2013)
       1983 -        1993  Mordechai Eliyahu                  (b. 1929 - d. 2010)
       1993 -  3 Apr 2003  Eliahu Bakshi-Doron                (b. 1941)
 3 Apr 2003 - 14 Apr 2003  She'ar-Yashuv Cohen (acting)       (s.a.)
14 Apr 2003 - 14 Aug 2013  Shlomo Amar                        (b. 1948)
14 Aug 2013 -              Yitzhak Yosef                      (b. 1952)

Chabad Chassidism

     c.1780                Chabad movement of orthodox Judaism founded
       1994                no new leader appointed

Leaders, called Lubavitcher Rebbe
     c.1780 -        1812  Shneur Zalman                      (b. 1745 - d. 1812)
       1812 -        1827  Dovber Shneuri                     (b. 1773 - d. 1827)
       1827 -        1866  Menachem Mendel                    (b. 1789 - d. 1866)
       1866 -        1882  Shmuel                             (b. 1834 - d. 1882)
       1882 -        1920  Sholom Dovber                      (b. 1860 - d. 1920)
       1920 - 28 Jan 1950  Yosef Yitzhak Schneerson           (b. 1880 - d. 1950)
28 Jan 1950 - 12 Jun 1994  Menachem Mendel Schneerson         (b. 1902 - d. 1994)

World Jewish Congress

Presidents
       1936 - 19 Apr 1949  Stephen S. Wise                    (b. 1874 - d. 1949)
       1949 -        1977  Nahum Goldmann (acting to 1953)    (b. 1895 - d. 1982)
       1977 -        1979  Philip M. Klutznick                (b. 1907 - d. 1999)
       1979 - 10 Jun 2007  Edgar M. Bronfman                  (b. 1929 - d. 2013)
                           (acting to Jan 1981)
10 Jun 2007 -              Ronald S. Lauder                   (b. 1944)

Muslim Caliphate

Note: Of the three styles that usually combine to make up the style of a caliph, Khalifat Rasul Allah (successor/substitute of the Messenger of God) originates with Abu Bakr (632), Amir al-Mu´minin (Commander of the Faithful) originates with `Umar (634), and Imam (prayer leader) only becomes a formal part in 817. The claim that, upon the Ottoman displacement of the last holder of the office, 23 Jan 1517, the office and style of Khalifat Rasul Allah, Amir al-Mu´minin (Halife-i Resulullah, Emirülmüminin in Ottoman Turkish) devolved on the ruler of the Ottoman Empire is spurious. However, it was eventually and gradually accepted, and was given constitutional sanction 1876 (effective 1908). Upon the extinction of this polity 1 Nov 1922, its ruler, Mehmet Vahidettin, continued to be recognized as holding the above-mentioned office, till his deposition from it and subsequent replacement in it by Abdülmecit; he in turn was deposed, and the office abolished, on 3 Mar 1924. A last attempt at restoring the office and style with ecumenical recognition was made by Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi, king of Hejaz, who assumed both 11 Mar 1924 and held them until his passing the kingship to his son Ali ibn Hussein al-Hashimi, who did not adopt the khalifal office and style.
Caliphs
 6 Feb 1695 - 22 Aug 1703  Mustafa II "Gazi"                  (b. 1664 - d. 1703)
22 Aug 1703 -  1 Oct 1730  Ahmet III                          (b. 1673 - d. 1736)
 2 Oct 1730 - 13 Dec 1754  Mahmut I "Gazi," "Kambur"          (b. 1696 - d. 1754)
14 Dec 1754 - 30 Oct 1757  Osman III                          (b. 1696 - d. 1757)
30 Oct 1757 - 21 Jan 1774  Mustafa III                        (b. 1717 - d. 1774)
21 Jan 1774 -  7 Apr 1789  Abdülhamit I                       (b. 1725 - d. 1789)
 7 Apr 1789 - 29 May 1807  Selim III "Cilhandar," "Ilhami"    (b. 1761 - d. 1808)
29 May 1807 - 28 Jul 1808  Mustafa IV                         (b. 1779 - d. 1808)
28 Jul 1808 -  1 Jul 1839  Mahmut II "Adlî"                   (b. 1785 - d. 1839)
 1 Jul 1839 - 25 Jun 1861  Abdülmecit I "Gazi"                (b. 1823 - d. 1861)
25 Jun 1861 - 30 May 1876  Abdülaziz I                        (b. 1830 - d. 1876)
30 May 1876 - 31 Aug 1876  Murat V                            (b. 1840 - d. 1904)
31 Aug 1876 - 27 Apr 1909  Abdülhamit II "Gazi," "Kanli,"
                           "Bedros"                           (b. 1842 - d. 1918)
27 Apr 1909 -  3 Jul 1918  Mehmet V Resat "Gazi"              (b. 1844 - d. 1918)
 3 Jul 1918 - 18 Nov 1922  Mehmet VI Vahidettin               (b. 1861 - d. 1926)
24 Nov 1922 -  3 Mar 1924  Abdülmecit II                      (b. 1868 - d. 1944)
11 Mar 1924 -  3 Oct 1924  Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi         (b. 1854 - d. 1931)

Isma`ilia

Imams
       1818 - 12 Apr 1881  Aga Khan I                         (b. 1800 - d. 1881)
       1881 - 17 Aug 1885  Aga Khan II                        (b. 1830 - d. 1885)
       1885 - 11 Jul 1957  Aga Khan III                       (b. 1877 - d. 1957)
12 Jul 1957 -              Aga Khan IV                        (b. 1936)

Dawoodi Bohra

Leaders (title Dai al-Mutlaq)
       1692 -        1711  Syedna Musa Kalimuddin
       1711 -        1719  Syedna Nur Mohammed Nuruddin
       1719 -        1738  Syedna Ismail Badruddin
       1738 -        1756  Syedna Ibrahim Wajihuddin
       1756 -        1780  Syedna Hebatullah al-Moayyad Fiddin
       1780 -        1787  Syedna Abdultayeb Zakiuddin
       1787 -        1799  Syedna Yusuf Najmuddin
       1799 -        1817  Syedna Abdeali Saifuddin
       1817 -        1821  Syedna Mohammed Izzuddin
       1821 -        1836  Syedna Taiyeb Zainuddin
       1836 -        1840  Syedna Mohammed Badruddin
       1840 -        1885  Syedna Abdulqadir Najmuddin
       1885 -        1891  Syedna Abdulhusain Husamuddin
       1891 -        1905  Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin
       1905 -        1915  Syedna Abdullah Badruddin
       1915 - 12 Nov 1965  Syedna Taher Saifuddin             (b. 1888 - d. 1965)
13 Nov 1965 - 17 Jan 2014  Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin        (b. 1915 - d. 2014)
17 Jan 2014 -              Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin          (b. 1946)
   Jan 2014 -                Syedna Khuzaima Qutbuddin        (b. 1940)
                             (in opposition)

Baha´i Faith

       1844                Babi movement founded
       1866                Baha´i Faith separated; the original Babist movement
                           subsequently fades into obscurity

Leaders
       1844 -  9 Jul 1850  Mirza Ali Muhammad "Bab"           (b. 1819 - d. 1850)
       1850 -         ...  Mirza Yahya Nuri "Sobh-e Azal"     (b. 1831 - d. 1912)
       1866 - 29 May 1892  Mirza Hussein Ali "Bahaullah"      (b. 1817 - d. 1892)
 7 Jun 1892 - 28 Nov 1921  Abbas Effendi "Abdul Baha"         (b. 1844 - d. 1921)
 3 Jan 1922 -  4 Nov 1957  Shoghi Effendi Rabbani (Guardian)  (b. 1897 - d. 1957)
 4 Nov 1957 - 28 Apr 1963  "the Hands of the Cause of God"
                           (a group of initially 27), of whom
                           9 are chosen as Custodians of the
                           Baha´i World Faith on 25 Nov 1957:
                           - Ruhiyyih Rabbani (f)             (b. 1910 - d. 2000)
                           - Charles Mason Remey              (b. 1874 - d. 1974)
                             (to 26 Jul 1960)
                           - Amelia E. Collins (f)            (b. 1873 - d. 1962)
                             (to 1 Jan 1962)
                           - Leroy C. Ioas                    (b. 1896 - d. 1965)
                           - Hasan Balyuzi                    (b. 1908 - d. 1980)
                           - Ali Akbar Furutan                (b. 1905 - d. 2003)
                           - Jalal Khazeh                     (b. 1897 - d. 1989)
                           - Paul E. Haney                    (b. 1909 - d. 1982)
                           - Adelbert Mühlschlegel            (b. 1897 - d. 1980)
28 Apr 1963 -              "Universal House of Justice"
                           (9 members)
                           - Lutfullah Hakim (to 1968)        (b. 1888 - d. 1968)
                           - Amoz Gibson (to 1982)            (b. 1918 - d. 1982)
                           - Charles Wolcott (to 1987)        (b. 1906 - d. 1987)
                           - David Hofman (to 1988)           (b. 1908 - d. 2003)
                           - H. Borrah Kavelin (to 1988)      (b. 1906 - d. 1988)
                           - Hugh Chance (to 1993)            (b. 1911 - d. 1998)
                           - Hushmand Fatheazam (to 2003)     (b. 1924 - d. 2013)
                           - Ali Nakhjavani (to 2003)         (b. 1919)
                           - Ian Semple (to 2005)             (b. 1928 - d. 2011)
                           - David Ruhe (1968-93)             (b. 1914 - d. 2005)
                           - Glenford Eckleton Mitchell       (b. 1935)
                             (1982-2008)
                           - Peter Jamel Khan (1987-2010)     (b. 1936 - d. 2011)
                           - Adib Taherzadeh (1988-2000)      (b. 1921 - d. 2000)
                           - Hooper Cameron Dunbar            (b. 1937)
                             (1988-2010)
                           - Farzam Arbab (1993-2013)         (b. 1941)
                           - James Douglas Martin (1993-2005) (b. 1929)
                           - Kiser Barnes (2000-13)           (b. 1943)
                           - Hartmut Grossmann (2003-08)      (b. 1933)
                           - Firaydoun Javaheri (from 2003)
                           - Paul Lample (from 2005)
                           - Payman Mohajer (from 2005)
                           - Gustavo Correa (from 2008)
                           - Shahriar Razavi (from 2008)
                           - Stephen Birkland (from 2010)
                           - Stephen Hall (from 2010)
                           - Chuungu Malitonga (from 2013)
                           - Ayman Rouhani (from 2013)

Baha´is Under the Hereditary Guardianship

 8 Apr 1960                Charles Mason Remey issues a proclamation claiming
                           he is the second Guardian

Guardians
 8 Apr 1960 - 14 Feb 1974  Charles Mason Remey                (s.a.)
14 Feb 1974 - 19 Oct 1991  Donald Harvey                      (b. 1923 - d. 1991)
19 Oct 1991 -              Jacques Soghomonian

Orthodox Baha´i Faith

12 Nov 1969                split from Baha´is Under the Hereditary Guardianship

Guardian
12 Nov 1969 -  1 Sep 2013  Joel Bray Marangella               (b. 1918 - d. 2013)

Ahmadiyya

23 Mar 1889                Ahmadiyya movement founded
       1914                split into two branches, one remaining in Qadian, today
                           known as Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam (jamaat-i ahmadiyya),
                           and one being established in Lahore, known as the ahmadiyya
                           anjuman ishaat-i Islam

Mahdi
23 Mar 1889 - 26 May 1908  Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad          (b. 1835 - d. 1908)
Khalifas
27 May 1908 - 13 Mar 1914  Maulana Hakim Nur-ud-Din           (b. 1841 - d. 1914)
14 Mar 1914 -  7 Nov 1965  Hazrat Mirza Bashir-ud-Din Mahmud
                           Ahmad                              (b. 1889 - d. 1965)
 8 Nov 1965 -  9 Jun 1982  Hazrat Hafiz Mirza Nasir Ahmad     (b. 1909 - d. 1982)
10 Jun 1982 - 19 Apr 2003  Hazrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad           (b. 1928 - d. 2003)
22 Apr 2003 -              Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad         (b. 1950)

Lahore branch

Emirs
   Apr 1914 - 13 Oct 1951  Maulana Muhammad Ali               (b. 1874 - d. 1951)
       1951 - 15 Nov 1981  Maulana Sadr-ud-Din                (b. ... - d. 1981)
       1981 - 15 Nov 1996  Saeed Ahmad Khan                   (b. 1900? - d. 1996)
       1996 - 14 Oct 2002  Asghar Hameed                      (b. 1919 - d. 2002)
 3 Nov 2002 -              Abdul Karim Saeed                  (b. 1945)

Nation of Islam

   Aug 1930                community founded which comes to be called Nation of Islam
       1975                renamed American Bilalian Community
       1976                renamed World Community of al-Islam in the West
   Mar 1978                a group breaks away, calling itself again Nation of Islam
       1980                original group renamed American Muslim Mission
   May 1985                American Muslim Mission dissolved

Leaders
   Aug 1930 -    Jun 1934  Wallace D. Fard                    (b. c.1877 - d. 1934?)
   Jun 1934 - 25 Feb 1975  Elijah Muhammad                    (b. 1897 - d. 1975)
26 Feb 1975 -    May 1985  Wallace D. Muhammad
                           (from 1976, Warith Deen Muhammad)  (b. 1933 - d. 2008)
   Mar 1978 -              Louis Farrakhan                    (b. 1933)

Tibetan Buddhism

Dge-lugs-pa sect

     c.1400                Dge-lugs-pa (Yellow Hat) sect founded

Dalai Lamas
 8 Dec 1697 - 27 Jun 1706  Rin-chen-blo-bzang-rig-'dzins-
                           tshangs-dbyangs-rgya-mtsho
                           (6th Dalai Lama)                   (b. 1683 - d. 1706)
16 Oct 1720 - 22 Mar 1757  rGyal-dbang-blo-bzang-bskal-
                           bzang-rgya-mtsho (7th Dalai Lama)  (b. 1708 - d. 1757)
                           (ritually presumed to have ruled from 1708)
28 Aug 1762 - 19 Nov 1804  Blo-bzang-'jam-dpal-rgya-mtsho
                           (8th Dalai Lama)                   (b. 1758 - d. 1804)
 5 Mar 1808 - 26 Mar 1815  Blo-bzang-lung-rtogs-rgya-mtsho
                           (9th Dalai Lama)                   (b. 1806 - d. 1815)
 6 Feb 1822 - 30 Sep 1837  Blo-bzang-tshul-khrims-rgya-mtsho
                           (10th Dalai Lama)                  (b. 1816 - d. 1837)
29 Sep 1841 - 31 Jan 1856  Blo-bzang-mkhas'-grub-rgya-mtsho
                           (11th Dalai Lama)                  (b. 1838 - d. 1856)
26 Feb 1858 - 25 Apr 1875  Ngag-dbang-blo-bzang-'phrin-las-
                           rgya-mtsho (12th Dalai Lama)       (b. 1856 - d. 1875)
12 Feb 1878 - 17 Dec 1933  Ngag-dbang-blo-bzang-thub-bstan-
                           rgya-mtsho-'jigs-bral-dbang-phyug-
                           phyogs-las-rnam-rgyal
                           (13th Dalai Lama)                  (b. 1876 - d. 1933)
                           (30 Jul 1904 - Dec 1909 and 25 Feb 1910 - Jun 1912 in exile)
25 Aug 1939 -              rJe-btsun-'Jam-dpal-ngag-dbang-
                           blo-bzang-ye-shes-bstan-'dzin-
                           rgya-mtsho (14th Dalai Lama)       (b. 1935)
                           (from 31 Mar 1959 in exile)
Panchen Lamas
       16.. -        1737  Blo-bzang-ye-shes
                           (5th Panchen Lama)                 (b. 1663 - d. 1737)
       17.. -    Nov 1780  Blo-bzang-dpal-ldan-ye-shes
                           (6th Panchen Lama)                 (b. 1737 - d. 1780)
       17.. -        1854  Blo-bzang-bstan-pa'i-nyi-ma
                           (7th Panchen Lama)                 (b. 1781 - d. 1854)
       18.. -        1882  Bs-tan-pa'i-dbang-phyug
                           (8th Panchen Lama)                 (b. 1854 - d. 1882)
       18.. -  1 Dec 1937  Chos-kyi-nyi-ma
                           (9th Panchen Lama)                 (b. 1883 - d. 1937)
       1943 - 28 Jan 1989  Bskal-bzang Tshe-brtan
                           (10th Panchen Lama)                (b. 1938 - d. 1989)
14 May 1995 -              Dge-'dun-chos-kyi-nyi-ma
                           (11th Panchen Lama)                (b. 1989)
                           (under arrest from 17 May 1995)
29 Nov 1995 -                Rgyal-mtshan-nor-bu              (b. 1989)
                             (rival installed by Chinese government)

Karma-Kagyu sect

       10..                Karma-Kagyu (Black Hat) sect founded

Karmapa Lamas
       16.. -        1702  Yeshe Dorje
                           (11th Karmapa Lama)                (b. 1676 - d. 1702)
       17.. -        1732  Changchub Dorje
                           (12th Karmapa Lama)                (b. 1703 - d. 1732)
       17.. -        1797  Dudul Dorje
                           (13th Karmapa Lama)                (b. 1733 - d. 1797)
        ... -        1868  Thegchog Dorje
                           (14th Karmapa Lama)                (b. 1798 - d. 1868)
       18.. -        1922  Khakhyab Dorje
                           (15th Karmapa Lama)                (b. 1871 - d. 1922)
       19.. -  5 Nov 1981  Rangjung Rigpe Dorje
                           (16th Karmapa Lama)                (b. 1924 - d. 1981)
                           (from 1959 in exile)
   Mar 1994 -              Trinley Thaye Dorje
                           (17th Karmapa Lama)                (b. 1983)
                           (recognized by the Shamarpa Lama, the second highest
                           in the Karma-Kagyu hierarchy)
                           (in exile)
27 Sep 1992 -                Ugyen Trinley Dorje              (b. 1985)
                             (rival recognized by China and the Dalai Lama)
                             (from 28 Dec 1999 in exile)

Sakya sect

       1073                Sakya sect founded

Throne holders
       1685 -        1711  Duchod Labrangpa Jamgon Kunga
                           Tashi                              (b. 1656 - d. 1711)
       1711 -        1741  Duchod Labrangpa Jamyang Sonam
                           Rinchen                            (b. 1705 - d. 1741)
       1741 -        1783  Duchod Labrangpa Sachen Kunga
                           Lodroe                             (b. 1729 - d. 1783)
       1783 -        1806  Duchod Labrangpa Jamgon Wangdue
                           Nyingpo                            (b. 1763 - d. 1809)
       1806 -        1843  Dolma Phodrang Padma Dudul
                           Wangchuk                           (b. 1792 - d. 1853)
       1843 -        1845  Phuntsog Phodrang Jamgon Dorje
                           Rinchen                            (b. 1819 - d. 1867)
       1846 -        1865  Dolma Phodrang Thegchen Tashi
                           Rinchen                            (b. 1824 - d. 1865)
       1866 -        1882  Phuntsog Phodrang Ngawang Kunga
                           Sonam                              (b. 1842 - d. 1882)
       1883 -        1899  Dolma Phodrang Kunga Nyingpo
                           Samphel Norbu                      (b. 1850 - d. 1899)
       1901 -        1915  Phuntsog Phodrang Zamling Chegu
                           Wangdu                             (b. 1855 - d. 1919)
       1915 -        1936  Dolma Phodrang Dragshul Thinley
                           Rinchen                            (b. 1871 - d. 1936)
       1937 -        1950  Phuntsog Phodrang Ngawang Thutob
                           Wangchuk                           (b. 1900 - d. 1950)
       1951 -              Dolma Phodrang Ngawang Kunga
                           Thegchen Palbar Thinley Samphel
                           Wangi Gyalpo                       (b. 1945)

Tibetan Buddhist Mongolia

Bogdo gegeen (Mongolian and ceremonial Tibetan-language names)
       1635 -        1723  Zanabazar Öndur gegeen Luvsadambiyjaltsan
                           = Blo-bzang-bstan-pa'i-rgyal-mtshan
       1724 -        1757  Luvsandambiydonmi
                           = Blo-bzang-bstan-pa'i-srgon-me
       1758 -        1773  Ishdambiynyam
                           = Ye-shes-bstan-pa'i-nyi-ma
       1775 -        1813  Luvsantüvdenvanchug
                           = Blo-bzang-thub-bstan-dbang-phyug
       1815 -        1841  Luvsanchültimjigmed
                           = Blo-bzang-tshul-khrim-'jigs-med
       1843 -        1848  Luvsantüvdenchoyjijaltsan
                           = Blo-bzang-dpal-ldan-bstan-pa
       1850 -        1868  Agvaanchoyjivanchugperenlaijamts
                           = Ngag-dbang-chos-kyi-dbang-phyug-
                           'phrin-las-rgya-mtsho
       1870 - 20 May 1924  Agvaanluvsanchoyjindanzanvaanchigbalsambuu
                           = Ngag-dbang-blo-bzang-chos-rje-
                           nyi-ma-bstan-'dzin-dbang-phyug
                           rJe-btsun-dam-pa Bla-ma            (b. 1869 - d. 1924)
       1991 -  1 Mar 2012  Jambalnamdolchoyjijantsan          (b. 1932 - d. 2012)
                           (residing in India)

Soka Gakkai

18 Nov 1930                Soka Gakkai sect of Nichiren Buddhism founded

Presidents
18 Nov 1930 - 18 Nov 1944  Tsunesaburo Makiguchi              (b. 1871 - d. 1944)
 3 May 1951 -  2 Apr 1958  Josei Toda                         (b. 1900 - d. 1958)
 3 May 1960 - 24 Apr 1979  Daisaku Ikeda                      (b. 1928)
24 Apr 1979 - 18 Jul 1981  Hiroshi Hojo                       (b. 1923 - d. 1981)
18 Jul 1981 -  9 Nov 2006  Einosuke Akiya                     (b. 1930)
 9 Nov 2006 -              Minoru Harada                      (b. 1941)

Sikhism

 7 Oct 1708                death of the last personal guru (who proclaimed that after
                           him the Sikh guru was to be the holy book Adi Granth)

Guru
       1675 -  7 Oct 1708  Gobind Singh                       (b. 1666 - d. 1708)

Svetambara

25 Mar 1760                Terapanthi sect of Svetambara Jainism founded

Leaders (Acaryas)
25 Mar 1760 - 30 Aug 1803  Bhiksu                             (b. 1726 - d. 1803)
       1803 -        1821  Bharimal                           (b. 1747 - d. 1821)
       1821 -        1850  Raycand                            (b. 1790 - d. 1850)
       1851 -        1881  Jitmal                             (b. 1803 - d. 1881)
       1881 -        1892  Maghraj                            (b. 1840 - d. 1892)
       1892 -        1897  Maniklal                           (b. 1855 - d. 1897)
       1897 -        1909  Dalcand                            (b. 1852 - d. 1909)
       1909 -        1936  Kaluram                            (b. 1877 - d. 1936)
       1936 -    Mar 1994  Tulsi                              (b. 1914 - d. 1997)
   Mar 1994 -  9 May 2010  Mahaprajna                         (b. 1920 - d. 2010)
 9 May 2010 -              Mahashraman                        (b. 1962)