Rulers

Countries Ab-Am

Contents of this page:
Afghanistan - Albania - Algeria - American Samoa

Abkhazia: see under Georgia.
Abu Dhabi: see under United Arab Emirates.
Acre: see under Brazil.
Aden: see under Yemen.

Afghanistan

Note: Before 1881 there were essentially four rulers' capitals: Kabul, Herat, Kandahar, and Peshawar (the last now in Pakistan). All the rulers belong to the Abdali tribal group, whose name was changed to Dorrani on the accession of Ahmad Shah. They belong either to the Saddozay segment of the Popalzay clan (typically with the style padshah [king]) or to the Mohammadzay segment of the Barakzay clan (typically with the style amir, in full Amir al-Mo´menin [Leader of the Faithful]). The Mohammadzay also furnished the Saddozay kings frequently with top counselors, who served occasionally as regents, identified with the epithet Mohammadzay.

Kabul

Kings
- Saddozay segment -
   Jul 1747 - 16 Oct 1772  Ahmad Shah "Dorr-e Dorran"         (b. 1724 - d. 1772)
16 Oct 1772 - 18 May 1793  Timur Shah                         (b. 1748 - d. 1793)
23 May 1793 -        1801  Zaman Shah                         (b. 1770/72 - d. 1844)
25 Jul 1801 -    Jul 1803  Mahmud Shah (1st time)
13 Jul 1803 -        1809  Shoja` al-Molk Shah (1st time)     (b. c.1792 - d. 1842)
 3 May 1808 -        1808    Qaysar Shah (in rebellion)
 3 May 1809 -        1818  Mahmud Shah (2nd time)
       1818 -        1819  Soltan `Ali Shah
       1819 -        1823  Ayyub Shah
- Mohammadzay segment -
       1823                Habibollah Shah
       1823 -        1826  Soltan Mohammad Khan Mohammadzay
                           (regent)
       1826 -        1836  Dost Mohammad Khan Mohammadzay     (b. 1789 - d. 1863)
                           (regent)
Emir
- Mohammadzay segment -
       1836 -  2 Aug 1839  Dost Mohammad Khan (1st time)      (s.a.)
King
- Saddozay segment -
 8 May 1839 -  5 Apr 1842  Shoja` al-Molk Shah (2nd time)     (s.a.)
       1841 -    Apr 1842    Mohammad Zaman Khan Mohammadzay
                             (regent) (in rebellion)
Emirs
- Saddozay segment -
29 Jun 1842 - 12 Oct 1842  Fath Jang Khan
12 Oct 1842 -    Dec 1842  Shahpur Khan
- Mohammadzay segment -
   Dec 1842 -  9 Jun 1863  Dost Mohammad Khan (2nd time)      (s.a.)
       1863 -    May 1866  Shir `Ali Khan (1st time)          (b. 1825 - d. 1879)
   May 1866 -  7 Oct 1867  Mohammad Afzal Khan                (b. 1811 - d. 1867)
 7 Oct 1867 -  8 Sep 1868  Mohammad A`zam Khan                (b. 18... - d. 1869)
 8 Sep 1868 - 21 Feb 1879  Shir `Ali Khan (2nd time)          (s.a.)
21 Feb 1879 - 12 Oct 1879  Mohammad Ya`qub Khan               (b. 1849 - d. 1923)
       1879 - 31 Mar 1880  Mohammad Jan (minister-regent)     (b. ... - d. 1880)
22 Jul 1880 -  3 Oct 1901  Abdor Rahman Khan                  (b. 1844 - d. 1901)

Herat

Kings
- Saddozay segment -
   Jul 1747 -        1797  see Kabul
       1797                Mahmud Shah (1st time)
       1797 -        1818  see Kabul
       1818 -        1819  Mahmud Shah (2nd time)
       1819                see Kandahar
       1819 -        1826  Mahmud Shah (3rd time)
       1826 -    Mar 1842  Kamran Shah
   Mar 1842 -  1 Jun 1851  Yar Mohammad Khan Alikozay
                           (minister-regent)
 1 Jun 1851 - 15 Sep 1855  Sayyed Mohammad Khan Alikozay
                           (minister-regent)
15 Sep 1855 -    Jun 1856  Mohammad Yusuf Khan Mohammadzay
                           (regent)
   Jun 1856 -    Oct 1856  Isa Khan Bardorani
                           (minister-regent)
   Oct 1856 - 27 Jul 1857  occupied by Iran
Emirs
- Mohammadzay segment -
27 Jul 1857 - 26 May 1863  Soltan Ahmad Khan                  (b. ... - d. 1863)
26 May 1863 -  9 Jun 1863  see Kabul
 9 Jun 1863 -  8 Sep 1868  Shir `Ali Khan                     (s.a.)
 8 Sep 1868 - 12 Oct 1879  see Kabul
   Mar 1880 -  2 Oct 1881  Mohammad Ayyub Khan                (b. 1855 - d. 1914)

Kandahar

Kings
- Saddozay segment -
   Jul 1747 - 16 Oct 1772  see Kabul
16 Oct 1772 -        1772  Solayman Shah
       1772 - 18 May 1793  see Kabul
18 May 1793 - 19 Jun 1793  Homayun Shah
19 Jun 1793 -        1804  see Kabul
       1804 -        1805  Kamran Shah
       1805 -        1808  see Kabul
       1808                Mahmud Shah (1st time)
       1808 -        1809  see Kabul
       1809 -  3 May 1809  Mahmud Shah (2nd time)
 3 May 1809 -        1818  see Kabul
       1819 -        1826  Shirdil Khan Mohammadzay (regent)
       1826 -        1839  Purdil Khan Mohammadzay (regent)
   Apr 1839 -  5 Apr 1842  Shoja` al-Molk Shah                (s.a.)
   May 1842 -        1842  Safdar Jang Khan Saddozay (regent)
       1842 -    Aug 1855  Kohandil Khan Mohammadzay (regent) (b. 18... - d. 1855)
   Aug 1855 -    Nov 1855  Mohammad Sadeq Khan Mohammadzay
                           (regent)
   Nov 1855 -    Jul 1858  Gholam Haydar Khan Mohammadzay     (b. 18... - d. 1858)
                           (regent)
   Jul 1858 -  9 Jun 1863  see Kabul
Emirs
- Mohammadzay segment -
       1863 -        1865  Mohammad Amin Khan                 (b. 18... - d. 1865)
       1865 -    Jan 1867  Shir `Ali Khan (1st time)          (s.a.)
   Jan 1867 -  7 Oct 1867  Mohammad Afzal Khan                (s.a.)
 7 Oct 1867 -    Apr 1868  Mohammad A`zam Khan                (s.a.)
   Apr 1868 -  8 Sep 1868  Shir `Ali Khan (2nd time)          (s.a.)
 8 Sep 1868 - 12 Oct 1879  see Kabul
       1880 - 21 Apr 1881  Shir `Ali Khan Barakzay
                           (minister-regent)
21 Apr 1881 - 20 Jul 1881  see Kabul
20 Jul 1881 - 22 Sep 1881  Mohammad Ayyub Khan                (s.a.)

Peshawar

       1823                incorporated into Punjab (officially May 1834)

Kings
- Saddozay segment -
   Jul 1747 -    Aug 1801  see Kabul
   Aug 1801 -    Sep 1801  Shoja` al-Molk Shah (1st time)     (s.a.)
   Sep 1801 -        1818  see Kabul
       1818                Ayyub Shah (1st time)
       1818                Shoja` al-Molk Shah (2nd time)     (s.a.)
       1818 -        1823  Ayyub Shah (2nd time)

Ghazni

Emir
- Mohammadzay segment -
24 Dec 1879 - 21 Apr 1880  Musa Jan Khan                      (b. 1868 - d. 1951)

Afghanistan since 1881

 2 Oct 1881                State of Afghanistan
 9 Jun 1926                Kingdom of Afghanistan
17 Jul 1973                Republic of Afghanistan
30 Apr 1978                Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
30 Nov 1987                Republic of Afghanistan
28 Apr 1992                Islamic State of Afghanistan
26 Oct 1997                Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
13 Nov 2001                Islamic State of Afghanistan
19 Jun 2002                Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan
26 Jan 2004                Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

General secretaries of the People's Democratic (Communist) Party
27 Dec 1979 -  4 May 1986  Babrak Karmal                      (b. 1929 - d. 1996)
 4 May 1986 - 28 Jun 1990  Mohammad Najibullah                (b. 1947 - d. 1996)

Emirs - Mohammadzay segment - 22 Jul 1880 - 3 Oct 1901 Abdor Rahman Khan (b. 1844 - d. 1901) 3 Oct 1901 - 20 Feb 1919 Habibullah Khan (b. 1872 - d. 1919) 21 Feb 1919 - 28 Feb 1919 Nasrullah Khan (b. 1875 - d. 1920) 28 Feb 1919 - 9 Jun 1926 Amanullah Khan (b. 1892 - d. 1960) Kings¹ - Mohammadzay segment - 9 Jun 1926 - 14 Jan 1929 Amanullah Shah (s.a.) 14 Jan 1929 - 17 Jan 1929 Inayatullah Shah (b. 1888 - d. 1946) Emir 17 Jan 1929 - 13 Oct 1929 Habibullah Ghazi (b. 1890? - d. 1929) 21 Jan 1929 - 23 May 1929 Amanullah Shah (s.a.) (in rebellion, at Kandahar) 28 Jan 1929 - 29 Mar 1929 Sardar Ali Ahmad Khan (b. 1883 - d. 1929) (in rebellion, at Jalalabad) 1929 - 15 Jul 1929? Sardar Ali Ahmad Khan (s.a.) (in rebellion, at Kandahar) 1929 - 17 Oct 1929 Mohammad Nadir Khan (b. 1880 - d. 1933) (in rebellion, at Khost) Kings¹ - Mohammadzay segment - 17 Oct 1929 - 8 Nov 1933 Mohammad Nadir Shah (s.a.) 8 Nov 1933 - 17 Jul 1973 Mohammad Zahir Shah (b. 1914 - d. 2007) President 17 Jul 1973 - 27 Apr 1978 Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan (b. 1909 - d. 1978) Chairman of the Military Council 27 Apr 1978 - 30 Apr 1978 Abdul Qadir (b. 1944) Presidents of the Revolutionary Council 30 Apr 1978 - 16 Sep 1979 Nur Mohammad Taraki (b. 1917 - d. 1979) 16 Sep 1979 - 27 Dec 1979 Hafizullah Amin (b. 1929 - d. 1979) 27 Dec 1979 - 24 Nov 1986 Babrak Karmal (s.a.) 24 Nov 1986 - 30 Sep 1987 Haji Mohammad Chamkani (b. 1947) 30 Sep 1987 - 30 Nov 1987 Mohammad Najibullah (s.a.) Presidents 30 Nov 1987 - 16 Apr 1992 Mohammad Najibullah (s.a.) 16 Apr 1992 - 28 Apr 1992 Abdul Rahim Hatef (acting) (b. 1926 - d. 2013) 28 Apr 1992 - 28 Jun 1992 Sibghatullah Mojadedi (interim) (b. 1925) 28 Jun 1992 - 27 Sep 1996 Burhanuddin Rabbani (b. 1940 - d. 2011) (continues in rebellion after 27 Sep 1996, largely retaining international recognition) Heads of the Supreme Council² 27 Sep 1996 - 16 Apr 2001 Mullah Mohammad Rabbani (b. 1956 - d. 2001) 16 Apr 2001 - 13 Nov 2001 Mawlawi Abdul Kabir (acting) Presidents 13 Nov 2001 - 22 Dec 2001 Burhanuddin Rabbani (s.a.) (returns to Kabul 17 Nov 2001) 22 Dec 2001 - Hamid Karzai (b. 1957) (chairman of the Interim Administration to 19 Jun 2002)
Prime ministers 25 Oct 1927 - Jan 1929 Sardar Shir Ahmad (b. 1885 - d. 19...) Jan 1929 - 1 Nov 1929 Shir Giyan (b. ... - d. 1929) 14 Nov 1929 - May 1946 Sardar Mohammad Hashim Khan (b. c.1885 - d. 1953) May 1946 - 7 Sep 1953 Sardar Shah Mahmud Khan (b. 1890 - d. 1959) 7 Sep 1953 - 10 Mar 1963 Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan (s.a.) 10 Mar 1963 - 2 Nov 1965 Mohammad Yusuf (b. 1917 - d. 1998) 2 Nov 1965 - 11 Oct 1967 Mohammad Hashim Maiwandwal (b. 1919 - d. 1973) 11 Oct 1967 - 1 Nov 1967 Abdullah Yaqta (interim) 1 Nov 1967 - 9 Jun 1971 Mohammad Nur Ahmad Etemadi (b. 1921 - d. 1979) 9 Jun 1971 - 12 Dec 1972 Abdul Zahir (b. 1910 - d. 1982) 12 Dec 1972 - 17 Jul 1973 Mohammad Musa Shafiq (b. 1932 - d. 1979) 1 May 1978 - 27 Mar 1979 Nur Mohammad Taraki (s.a.) 27 Mar 1979 - 27 Dec 1979 Hafizullah Amin (s.a.) 27 Dec 1979 - 11 Jun 1981 Babrak Karmal (s.a.) 11 Jun 1981 - 26 May 1988 Sultan Ali Keshtmand (1st time) (b. 1935) 26 May 1988 - 21 Feb 1989 Mohammad Hassan Sharq (b. 1925) 21 Feb 1989 - 8 May 1990 Sultan Ali Keshtmand (2nd time) (s.a.) 8 May 1990 - 15 Apr 1992 Fazal Haq Khaliqyar (b. 1934 - d. 2004) 6 Jul 1992 - 15 Aug 1992 Abdul Sabur Farid Kuhestani (b. 1952 - d. 2007) 17 Jun 1993 - 28 Jun 1994 Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (1st time) (b. 1947) Nov 1994 - 1995 Arsala Rahmani (acting) (b. 1937 - d. 2012) 1995 - 26 Jun 1996 Ahmad Shah Ahmadzai (acting) (b. 1944) 26 Jun 1996 - 27 Sep 1996 Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (2nd time) (s.a.) (continues under Burhanuddin Rabbani to 11 Aug 1997) 11 Aug 1997 - 21 Aug 1997 Abdul Rahim Ghafoorzai (b. 1946? - d. 1997) (under Burhanuddin Rabbani)
¹Title Padshah-i Afghanistan (Dari language); De Afghanistan Bacha (Pashto language, official from 1937).
²As indicated by the country's 1997 name change, the de facto leader during the Taliban rule (27 Sep 1996 - 13 Nov 2001) was Taliban leader Mullah Mohammad Omar (b. 1959/62), styled Amir al-Mo´menin.
Ajman: see under United Arab Emirates.
Åland Islands: see under Finland.
Alawite Territory: see under Syria.

Albania

       1478                part of Ottoman Empire
28 Nov 1912                independence
 7 Mar 1914                Albanian Principality
31 Jan 1925                Albanian Republic (proclaimed 22 Jan 1925)
 1 Sep 1928                Albanian Kingdom
 7 Apr 1939                invaded by Italy; personal union with Italy to 1943
11 Jan 1946                People's Republic of Albania
28 Dec 1976                People's Socialist Republic of Albania
30 Apr 1991                Republic of Albania

First secretaries of the Albanian Communist Party (from Nov 1948, Albanian Party
of Labour)
 8 Nov 1941 - 11 Apr 1985  Enver Hoxha                        (b. 1908 - d. 1985)
                           (until 17 Jul 1954 general secretary)
11 Apr 1985 - 13 Apr 1985  Vangjel Çërrava                    (b. 1941)
                           + Lenka Çuko (f)                   (b. 1938)
                           + Simon Stefani                    (b. 1929 - d. 2000)
                           (secretaries)
13 Apr 1985 -  4 May 1991  Ramiz Alia                         (b. 1925 - d. 2011)

Chairman of the National Assembly 28 Nov 1912 - 29 Nov 1912 Ismail Qemali Bej (b. 1844 - d. 1919) Chairman of the Provisional Government 29 Nov 1912 - 22 Jan 1914 Ismail Qemali Bej (s.a.) 12 Oct 1913 - 12 Feb 1914 Esat Pashë Toptani (b. 1863 - d. 1920) (chairman Council of Elders of Central Albania, in opposition in Durrës) Chairman of the Central Government 22 Jan 1914 - 7 Mar 1914 Fejzi Bej Alizoti (b. 1876 - d. 1945) Sovereign Prince 7 Mar 1914 - 3 Sep 1914 Wilhelm zu Wied (b. 1876 - d. 1945) Chairman of the Administrative Commission 3 Sep 1914 - Sep 1914 Qamil Musa Haxhi Feza Chairman of the General Council Sep 1914 - 5 Oct 1914 Mustafa Bej Ndroqi Chairmen of the Provisional Government 5 Oct 1914 - 24 Feb 1916 Esat Pashë Toptani (s.a.) 24 Feb 1916 - 28 Dec 1918 no national government 28 Dec 1918 - 28 Jan 1920 Turhan Pashë Permeti (b. 1839? - d. 1927) Chairman of the National Government 28 Jan 1920 - 30 Jan 1920 Sulejman Bej Delvina (b. 1882 - d. 1932) 30 Jan 1920 - 25 Dec 1921 High Council - Aqif Pashë Biçaku (b. 18... - d. 1926) (to 22 Dec 1921) - Luigj Bumçi (b. 1872 - d. 1945) (to 22 Dec 1921) - Abdi Bej Toptani (b. 1864 - d. 1942) - Mihal Turtulli 25 Dec 1921 - 31 Jan 1925 High Council - Omer Pashë Vrioni (to 22 Jan 1922) - Ndoc Pistulli (to 22 Jan 1922) - Sotir Peci (b. 1873 - d. 1932) - Refik Bej Toptani - Xhafer Ypi (b. 1880 - d. 1940) (from 2 Dec 1922) - Gjon Çoba (from 2 Dec 1922) 2 Jul 1924 - 24 Dec 1924 Fan Noli (b. 1882 - d. 1965) (acting for High Council) President 31 Jan 1925 - 1 Sep 1928 Amet Zogu (b. 1895 - d. 1961) Kings (title Mbret i Shqiptarëve; 1939-43 Mbret i Shqipërisë) 1 Sep 1928 - 8 Apr 1939 Zog I (s.a.) 9 Apr 1939 - 12 Apr 1939 Xhafer Ypi (s.a.) (chairman Provisional Administration Committee) 12 Apr 1939 - 16 Apr 1939 Shefqet Bej Vërlaci (b. 1877 - d. 1946) (acting head of state) 16 Apr 1939 - 3 Sep 1943 Vittorio Emanuele III (b. 1869 - d. 1947) Lieutenants-general, representing Vittorio Emanuele III: 22 Apr 1939 - Mar 1943 Francesco Jacomoni di San Savino (b. 1894 - d. 1973) Mar 1943 - Sep 1943 Alberto Pariani (b. 1876 - d. 1955) 14 Sep 1943 - 20 Oct 1943 Ibrahim Bej Biçaku (b. 1905 - d. 1977) (chairman Provisional Executive Committee) 20 Oct 1943 - 25 Oct 1944 Mehdi Bej Frashëri (b. 1872 - d. 1963) (chairman High Council of Regency) Chairmen of the Presidium of the People's Assembly 26 May 1944 - 1 Aug 1953 Omer Nishani (b. 1887 - d. 1954) (chairman Presidium of Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation to 12 Jan 1946; chairman Presidium of Constituent Assembly 12 Jan - 14 Mar 1946) 1 Aug 1953 - 22 Nov 1982 Haxhi Lleshi (b. 1913 - d. 1998) 22 Nov 1982 - 30 Apr 1991 Ramiz Alia (s.a.) Presidents 30 Apr 1991 - 3 Apr 1992 Ramiz Alia (s.a.) 3 Apr 1992 - 6 Apr 1992 Kastriot Islami (acting) (b. 1952) 6 Apr 1992 - 9 Apr 1992 Pjetër Arbnori (acting) (b. 1935 - d. 2006) 9 Apr 1992 - 24 Jul 1997 Sali Berisha (b. 1944) 24 Jul 1997 (hours) Skënder Gjinushi (acting) (b. 1949) 24 Jul 1997 - 24 Jul 2002 Rexhep Meidani (b. 1944) 24 Jul 2002 - 24 Jul 2007 Alfred Moisiu (b. 1929) 24 Jul 2007 - 24 Jul 2012 Bamir Topi (b. 1957) 24 Jul 2012 - Bujar Nishani (b. 1966)
Prime ministers 27 Mar 1920 - 14 Nov 1920 Sulejman Bej Delvina (s.a.) 10 Dec 1920 - 19 Oct 1921 Ilias Bej Vrioni (1st time) (b. 18... - d. 1932) 19 Oct 1921 - 6 Dec 1921 Pandeli Evangjeli (1st time) (b. 1859 - d. af.1939) 7 Dec 1921 - 12 Dec 1921 Hasan Bej Pristina (b. 1873 - d. 1933) 12 Dec 1921 - 30 Dec 1921 Idhomene Kosturi (b. 1873 - d. 1943) 30 Dec 1921 - 4 Dec 1922 Xhafer Ypi (s.a.) 4 Dec 1922 - 5 Mar 1924 Amet Zogu (1st time) (s.a.) 5 Mar 1924 - 2 Jun 1924 Shefqet Bej Vërlaci (1st time) (s.a.) 2 Jun 1924 - 16 Jun 1924 Ilias Bej Vrioni (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 Jun 1924 - 26 Dec 1924 Fan Noli (s.a.) 26 Dec 1924 - 6 Jan 1925 Ilias Bej Vrioni (3rd time) (s.a.) 6 Jan 1925 - 30 Jan 1925 Amet Zogu (2nd time) (s.a.) 10 Sep 1928 - 5 Mar 1930 Koço Kota (1st time) (b. 1889 - d. 1947) 5 Mar 1930 - 22 Oct 1935 Pandeli Evangjeli (2nd time) (s.a.) 22 Oct 1935 - 9 Nov 1936 Mehdi Bej Frashëri (s.a.) 9 Nov 1936 - 8 Apr 1939 Koço Kota (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Apr 1939 - 4 Dec 1941 Shefqet Bej Vërlaci (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Dec 1941 - 19 Jan 1943 Mustafa Merlika-Kruja (b. 1887 - d. 1958) 19 Jan 1943 - 13 Feb 1943 Eqrem Bej Libohova (1st time) (b. 1882 - d. 1948) 13 Feb 1943 - 12 May 1943 Maliq Bushati (b. 1880 - d. 1946) 12 May 1943 - 9 Sep 1943 Eqrem Bej Libohova (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Nov 1943 - 18 Jul 1944 Rexhep Mitrovica (b. 1888 - d. 1967) 18 Jul 1944 - 7 Sep 1944 Fiqri Dine (b. ... - d. 1960) 7 Sep 1944 - 26 Oct 1944 Ibrahim Bej Biçaku (s.a.) Chairmen of the Council of Ministers 22 Oct 1944 - 20 Jul 1954 Enver Hoxha (s.a.) 20 Jul 1954 - 18 Dec 1981 Mehmet Shehu (b. 1913 - d. 1981) 18 Dec 1981 - 22 Feb 1991 Adil Çarçani (b. 1922 - d. 1997) (acting to 15 Jan 1982) Prime ministers 22 Feb 1991 - 5 Jun 1991 Fatos Nano (1st time) (b. 1952) 5 Jun 1991 - 10 Dec 1991 Ylli Bufi (b. 1948) 10 Dec 1991 - 13 Apr 1992 Vilson Ahmeti (b. 1951) 13 Apr 1992 - 11 Mar 1997 Aleksandër Meksi (b. 1939) 11 Mar 1997 - 24 Jul 1997 Bashkim Fino (b. 1962) 24 Jul 1997 - 2 Oct 1998 Fatos Nano (2nd time) (s.a.) 2 Oct 1998 - 29 Oct 1999 Pandeli Majko (1st time) (b. 1967) 29 Oct 1999 - 22 Feb 2002 Ilir Meta (b. 1969) 22 Feb 2002 - 31 Jul 2002 Pandeli Majko (2nd time) (s.a.) 31 Jul 2002 - 11 Sep 2005 Fatos Nano (3rd time) (s.a.) 11 Sep 2005 - 15 Sep 2013 Sali Berisha (s.a.) 15 Sep 2013 - Edi Rama (b. 1964)

Alderney: see under Guernsey.
Aleppo: see under Syria.

Algeria

       1536                Ottoman rule
       1671                rule of semi-autonomous deys
       1711                deys recognized as governors by the Ottomans
       1830                French occupation
       1842                French annexation
 3 Jul 1962                independence (Algerian State)
25 Sep 1962                People's Democratic Algerian Republic

Military commanders
 5 Jul 1830 -  3 Sep 1830  Louis de Bourmont                  (b. 1773 - d. 1846)
 3 Sep 1830 - 21 Mar 1831  Bertrand, comte Clauzel            (b. 1772 - d. 1842)
21 Mar 1831 -  6 Dec 1831  Pierre, baron Berthezène           (b. 1775 - d. 1847)
 6 Dec 1831 - 29 Apr 1833  René Savary, duc de Rovigo         (b. 1774 - d. 1833)
22 Nov 1832 -    Dec 1843    Abd-el-Kader                     (b. 1808 - d. 1883)
                             (Amir al-Mu´minin [also styled Sultan], in rebellion)
29 Apr 1833 - 27 Jul 1834  Théophile, baron Voirol            (b. 1781 - d. 1853)
Governors-general
27 Jul 1834 -  8 Jul 1835  Jean-Baptiste Drouet, comte
                           d'Erlon                            (b. 1765 - d. 1844)
 8 Jul 1835 - 12 Feb 1837  Bertrand, comte Clauzel            (s.a.)
12 Feb 1837 - 13 Oct 1837  Charles Denys, comte de Damrémont  (b. 1783 - d. 1837)
 1 Dec 1837 -        1840  Sylvain Charles, comte Valée       (b. 1773 - d. 1846)
22 Feb 1841 - 27 Sep 1847  Thomas Robert Bugeaud, marquis
                           de la Piconnerie, (from 1844)
                           duc d'Isly                         (b. 1784 - d. 1849)
 1 Sep 1845 -  6 Jul 1847    Louis Juchault de Lamoricière    (b. 1806 - d. 1865)
                             (acting for Bugeaud)
 6 Jul 1847 - 27 Sep 1847    Marie-Alphonse Bedeau            (b. 1804 - d. 1863)
                             (acting for Bugeaud)
27 Sep 1847 - 24 Feb 1848  Henri Eugène Philippe Louis
                           d'Orléans, duc d'Aumale            (b. 1822 - d. 1897)
24 Feb 1848 - 29 Apr 1848  Louis Eugène Cavaignac             (b. 1802 - d. 1857)
29 Apr 1848 -  9 Sep 1848  Nicolas Anne Théodule Changarnier  (b. 1793 - d. 1877)
 9 Sep 1848 - 22 Oct 1850  Viala, baron Charon                (b. 1794 - d. 1880)
22 Oct 1850 - 10 May 1851  Alphonse Henri, comte d'Hautpoul   (b. 1789 - d. 1865)
10 May 1851 - 11 Dec 1851  Aimable Jean Jacques Pélissier
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1794 - d. 1864)
11 Dec 1851 - 31 Aug 1858  Jacques Louis César Alexandre,
                           comte de Randon                    (b. 1795 - d. 1871)
Military commanders
31 Aug 1858 - 24 Apr 1859  Patrice Maurice de Mac-Mahon       (b. 1808 - d. 1893)
24 Apr 1859 - 17 Aug 1859  Philippe Antoine Gues-Viller       (b. 1791 - d. 1865)
17 Aug 1859 - 24 Nov 1860  Edmond Charles de Martimprey       (b. 1808 - d. 1883)
Governors-general
24 Nov 1860 - 22 May 1864  Aimable Jean Jacques Pélissier,
                           duc de Malakoff (2nd time)         (s.a.)
22 May 1864 -  1 Sep 1864  Edmond Charles de Martimprey       (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 1 Sep 1864 - 27 Jul 1870  Patrice Maurice de Mac-Mahon       (s.a.)
27 Jul 1870 - 23 Oct 1870  Louis, baron Durrieu (acting)      (b. 1812 - d. 1877)
23 Oct 1870 - 16 Nov 1870  Jean Louis Marie Walsin-Esterhazy  (b. 1804 - d. 1871)
                           (acting)
Extraordinary commissioners
16 Nov 1870 -  8 Feb 1871  Charles du Bouzet                  (b. 1817 - d. 1883)
 8 Feb 1871 - 29 Mar 1871  Alexis Lambert                     (b. 1829 - d. 1877)
Governors-general
29 Mar 1871 - 10 Jun 1873  Louis Henri, comte de Gueydon      (b. 1809 - d. 1886)
10 Jun 1873 - 15 Mar 1879  Antoine Chanzy                     (b. 1823 - d. 1883)
15 Mar 1879 - 26 Nov 1881  Albert Grévy (acting)              (b. 1834 - d. 1899)
26 Nov 1881 - 18 Apr 1891  Louis Tirman                       (b. 1837 - d. 1899)
18 Apr 1891 -  1 Oct 1897  Jules Cambon                       (b. 1845 - d. 1935)
 1 Oct 1897 - 26 Jul 1898  Louis Lépine                       (b. 1846 - d. 1933)
26 Jul 1898 -  3 Oct 1900  Édouard Laferrières                (b. 1813 - d. 1901)
 3 Oct 1900 - 18 Jun 1901  Charles Jonnart (1st time)         (b. 1857 - d. 1927)
                           (acting)
18 Jun 1901 - 11 Apr 1903  Paul Révoil                        (b. 1856 - d. 1914)
11 Apr 1903 -  5 May 1903  Maurice Varnier (acting)           (b. 1851 - d. 19...)
 5 May 1903 - 22 May 1911  Charles Jonnart (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                           (acting)
22 May 1911 - 29 Jan 1918  Charles Lutaud                     (b. 1855 - d. 1921)
29 Jan 1918 - 29 Aug 1919  Charles Jonnart (3rd time)         (s.a.)
                           (acting)
29 Aug 1919 - 28 Jul 1921  Jean Baptiste Eugène Abel          (b. 1863 - d. 1921)
28 Jul 1921 - 17 Apr 1925  Théodore Steeg                     (b. 1868 - d. 1950)
17 Apr 1925 - 12 May 1925  Henri Dubief (acting)
12 May 1925 - 20 Nov 1927  Maurice Viollette                  (b. 1870 - d. 1960)
20 Nov 1927 - 18 Dec 1930  Pierre Bordes                      (b. 1870 - d. 1943)
18 Dec 1930 - 21 Sep 1935  Jules Carde                        (b. 1874 - d. 1949)
21 Sep 1935 - 20 Jul 1940  Georges Le Beau                    (b. 1879 - d. 1962)
20 Jul 1940 - 16 Jul 1941  Jean Abrial                        (b. 1879 - d. 1962)
16 Jul 1941 - 20 Nov 1941  Maxime Weygand                     (b. 1867 - d. 1965)
20 Nov 1941 - 20 Jan 1943  Yves Chatel                        (b. 1885 - d. 1944)
20 Jan 1943 -  3 Jun 1943  Marcel Peyrouton                   (b. 1887 - d. 1983)
 3 Jun 1943 -  8 Sep 1944  Georges Catroux                    (b. 1877 - d. 1969)
 8 Sep 1944 - 11 Feb 1948  Yves Chataigneau                   (b. 1891 - d. 1961)
11 Feb 1948 -  9 Mar 1951  Marcel Edmond Naegelen             (b. 1892 - d. 1978)
12 Apr 1951 - 26 Jan 1955  Roger Léonard                      (b. 1898 - d. 1987)
26 Jan 1955 -  1 Feb 1956  Jacques Soustelle                  (b. 1912 - d. 1990)
Resident ministers
 1 Feb 1956 -  9 Feb 1956  Georges Catroux                    (s.a.)
 9 Feb 1956 - 13 May 1958  Robert Lacoste                     (b. 1898 - d. 1989)
13 May 1958 -  1 Jun 1958  André Mutter                       (b. 1901 - d. 1973)
13 May 1958 - 23 May 1958    Jacques Massu                    (b. 1908 - d. 2002)
                             (president of the Committee of Public Safety,
                             in rebellion)
23 May 1958 -  7 Jun 1958    Jacques Massu                    (s.a.)
                             + Chérif Sid Cara                (b. 1902 - d. 1999)
                             (presidents of the Central Committee of Public Safety,
                             in rebellion)
Delegates-general
 7 Jun 1958 - 12 Dec 1958  Raoul Salan                        (b. 1899 - d. 1984)
12 Dec 1958 - 23 Nov 1960  Paul Delouvrier                    (b. 1914 - d. 1995)
23 Nov 1960 - 19 Mar 1962  Jean Morin                         (b. 1916 - d. 2008)
21 Apr 1961 - 25 Apr 1961    Directorate (in rebellion)
                             - Maurice Challe                 (b. 1905 - d. 1979)
                             - André Zeller                   (b. 1898 - d. 1979)
                             - Edmond Jouhaud                 (b. 1905 - d. 1995)
                             - Raoul Salan                    (s.a.)
High commissioner
19 Mar 1962 -  3 Jul 1962  Christian Fouchet                  (b. 1911 - d. 1974)
Chairman of the Provisional Executive
 7 Apr 1962 - 25 Sep 1962  Abderrahmane Farès                 (b. 1911 - d. 1991)
Chairman of the National Constituent Assembly
25 Sep 1962 - 29 Sep 1962  Ferhat Abbas                       (b. 1899 - d. 1985)
Presidents
29 Sep 1962 - 19 Jun 1965  Ahmed Ben Bella                    (b. 1918 - d. 2012)
                           (head of state as prime minister to 20 Sep 1963)
19 Jun 1965 - 27 Dec 1978  Houari Boumedienne                 (b. 1932? - d. 1978)
                           (chairman Revolutionary Council to 11 Dec 1976)
27 Dec 1978 -  9 Feb 1979  Rabah Bitat (interim)              (b. 1925 - d. 2000)
 9 Feb 1979 - 11 Jan 1992  Chadli Bendjedid                   (b. 1929 - d. 2012)
11 Jan 1992 - 14 Jan 1992  Abdelmalek Benhabyles              (b. 1921)
                           (chairman Constitutional Council)
14 Jan 1992 - 31 Jan 1994  High State Committee
                           - Khaled Nezzar                    (b. 1937)
                           - Ali Haroun                       (b. 1927)
                           - Tedjini Haddam                   (b. 1921 - d. 2000)
                           - Ali Kafi                         (b. 1928 - d. 2013)
                             (chairman from 2 Jul 1992)
                           - Mohamed Boudiaf                  (b. 1919 - d. 1992)
                             (16 Jan - 29 Jun 1992)
                             (chairman)
                           - Redha Malek                      (b. 1931)
                             (from 2 Jul 1992)
31 Jan 1994 - 27 Apr 1999  Liamine Zéroual                    (b. 1941)
                           (Head of State to 27 Nov 1995)
27 Apr 1999 -              Abdelaziz Bouteflika               (b. 1937)

Presidents of the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic (in Tunis exile to 3 Jul 1962) 19 Sep 1958 - 27 Aug 1961 Ferhat Abbas (s.a.) 27 Aug 1961 - 25 Sep 1962 Benyoucef Ben Khedda (b. 1920 - d. 2003) Prime ministers 29 Sep 1962 - 20 Sep 1963 Ahmed Ben Bella (s.a.) 8 Mar 1979 - 22 Jan 1984 Mohamed Ben Ahmed Abdelghani (b. 1927 - d. 1996) 22 Jan 1984 - 5 Nov 1988 Abdelhamid Brahimi (b. 1936) 5 Nov 1988 - 9 Sep 1989 Kasdi Merbah (b. 1938 - d. 1993) 9 Sep 1989 - 5 Jun 1991 Mouloud Hamrouche (b. 1943) 5 Jun 1991 - 8 Jul 1992 Sid Ahmed Ghozali (b. 1937) 8 Jul 1992 - 21 Aug 1993 Belaid Abdessalam (b. 1928) 21 Aug 1993 - 11 Apr 1994 Redha Malek (s.a.) 11 Apr 1994 - 31 Dec 1995 Mokdad Sifi (b. 1940) 31 Dec 1995 - 15 Dec 1998 Ahmed Ouyahia (1st time) (b. 1952) 15 Dec 1998 - 23 Dec 1999 Smail Hamdani (b. 1930) 23 Dec 1999 - 27 Aug 2000 Ahmed Benbitour (b. 1946) 27 Aug 2000 - 5 May 2003 Ali Benflis (b. 1944) 5 May 2003 - 24 May 2006 Ahmed Ouyahia (2nd time) (s.a.) 24 May 2006 - 23 Jun 2008 Abdelaziz Belkhadem (b. 1945) 23 Jun 2008 - 3 Sep 2012 Ahmed Ouyahia (3rd time) (s.a.) 3 Sep 2012 - 13 Mar 2014 Abdelmalek Sellal (1st time) (b. 1948) 13 Mar 2014 - 28 Apr 2014 Youcef Yousfi (b. 1941) 28 Apr 2014 - Abdelmalek Sellal (2nd time) (s.a.)

Kel Ahaggar

     c.1750                Kel Ahaggar Tuareg confederation established
       1903                under French suzerainty
       1962                confederation not recognized by independent Algeria
       1975                confederation terminated

Rulers (title Amenokal)
- Kel Rela "tobol" -
       17.. -        17..  Salah
       17.. -        17..  Muhammad al-Khir ag Salah
       17.. -        17..  Sidi ag Muhammad al-Khir
       17.. -        1790  Yunus ag Sidi
       1790 -        1830  Ag Mama ag Sidi
       1830 -        1877  al-Hajj Ahmad
       1877 -        1900  Aytarel ag Muhammad Biskra
       1900 -        1905  Attici ag Amellal
       1905 - 27 Dec 1920  Musa ag Amastan                    (b. 1867 - d. 1920)
       1920 - 26 Mar 1941  Akhamuk ag Ihemma                  (b. 1874 - d. 1941)
       1941 -        1950  Meslar ag Amayas                   (b. ... - d. 1950)
       1950 -        1975  Bayy ag Akhamuk                    (b. ... - d. 1975)

American Samoa

17 Apr 1900                Tutuila ceded to United States
16 Jul 1904                Manu'a ceded to United States
 2 Apr 1909                the Tui Manu'a lineage becomes extinct
17 Jul 1911                U.S. Naval Station Tutuila renamed American Samoa
20 Feb 1929                U.S. Congress formally accepts the cession of Tutuila and
                           Manu'a by their chiefs, with retroactive effect to 16 Jul 1904

Kings/Queens (title Tui Manu'a)
- Moa'atoa dynasty -
     c.1828                Taalolomana Fanaese
     c.1836                Tauveve
     c.1888                Tauilima Alalamua
 1 Jul 1891 - 29 Oct 1895  Matelita (f)                       (b. 1872? - d. 1895)
       1899 -  2 Apr 1909  Elisara                            (b. 18... - d. 1909)
Commandants
17 Feb 1900 - 27 Nov 1901  Benjamin Franklin Tilley           (b. 1848 - d. 1907)
27 Nov 1901 - 16 Dec 1902  Uriel Sebree                       (b. 1848 - d. 1922)
16 Dec 1902 -  5 May 1903  Henry Minett (acting)              (b. 1857 - d. 1952)
 5 May 1903 - 30 Jan 1905  Edmund Beardsley Underwood         (b. 1853 - d. 1928)
Governors
30 Jan 1905 - 21 May 1908  Charles Brainard Taylor Moore      (b. 1853 - d. 1923)
21 May 1908 - 10 Nov 1910  John Frederick Parker              (b. 18... - d. 1911)
10 Nov 1910 - 14 Mar 1913  William Michael Crose              (b. 1867 - d. 1929)
14 Mar 1913 - 14 Jul 1913  Nathan Woodworth Post (1st time)   (b. 1881 - d. 1938)
                           (acting)
14 Jul 1913 -  2 Oct 1914  Clark Daniel Stearns               (b. 1870 - d. af.1941)
 2 Oct 1914 -  6 Dec 1914  Nathan Woodworth Post (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 6 Dec 1914 -  1 Mar 1915  Charles Armijo Woodruff (acting)   (b. 1884 - d. 1945)
 1 Mar 1915 - 10 Jun 1919  John Martin Poyer                  (b. 1861 - d. 1922)
10 Jun 1919 -  3 Nov 1920  Warren Jay Terhune                 (b. 1869 - d. 1920)
11 Nov 1920 -  1 Mar 1922  Waldo A. Evans                     (b. 1869 - d. 1936)
 1 Mar 1922 -  4 Sep 1923  Edwin Taylor Pollock               (b. 1870 - d. 1943)
 4 Sep 1923 - 17 Mar 1925  Edward Stanley Kellogg             (b. 1870 - d. 1948)
17 Mar 1925 -  9 Sep 1927  Henry Francis Bryan                (b. 1865 - d. 1944)
 9 Sep 1927 -  2 Aug 1929  Stephen Victor Graham              (b. 1874 - d. 19...)
 2 Aug 1929 - 24 Mar 1931  Gatewood Sanders Lincoln
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1875 - d. 1957)
24 Mar 1931 - 22 Apr 1931  James Sutherland Spore (acting)    (b. 1885 - d. 1937)
22 Apr 1931 - 17 Jul 1931  Arthur Tenney Emerson (acting)
17 Jul 1931 - 12 May 1932  Gatewood Sanders Lincoln
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
12 May 1932 - 10 Apr 1934  George Bertram Landenberger        (b. 1879 - d. 1936)
10 Apr 1934 - 17 Apr 1934  Thomas Calloway Latimore (acting)  (b. 1890 - d. 1942)
17 Apr 1934 - 15 Jan 1936  Otto Carl Dowling                  (b. 1887 - d. 1946)
15 Jan 1936 - 20 Jan 1936  Thomas Benjamin Fitzpatrick        (b. 1896 - d. 1974)
                           (acting)
20 Jan 1936 -  3 Jun 1938  MacGillivray Milne                 (b. 1882 - d. 1959)
26 Jun 1938 - 30 Jul 1940  Edward William Hanson              (b. 1889 - d. 19...)
30 Jul 1940 -  8 Aug 1940  Jesse Rink Wallace (acting)        (b. 1899 - d. 1961)
 8 Aug 1940 -  5 Jun 1942  Laurence Wild                      (b. 1890 - d. 1971)
17 Jan 1942 - 25 Apr 1942  Henry L. Larsen                    (b. 1890 - d. 1962)
                           (military governor)
 5 Jun 1942 -  8 Feb 1944  John Gould Moyer                   (b. 1893 - d. 1976)
 8 Feb 1944 - 27 Jan 1945  Allen Hobbs                        (b. 1899 - d. 1960)
27 Jan 1945 -  3 Sep 1945  Ralph Waldo Hungerford             (b. 1896 - d. 1977)
 3 Sep 1945 - 10 Sep 1945  Samuel Wakefield Canan (acting)    (b. 1898 - d. 1964)
10 Sep 1945 - 22 Apr 1947  Harold Alexander Houser            (b. 1897 - d. 1981)
22 Apr 1947 - 15 Jun 1949  Vernon Huber                       (b. 1899 - d. 1967)
 7 Jul 1949 - 23 Feb 1951  Thomas Francis Darden, Jr.         (b. 1900 - d. 1961)
23 Feb 1951 - 20 Jun 1952  Phelps Phelps                      (b. 1897 - d. 1981)
16 Jul 1952 - 23 Nov 1952  John C. Elliott                    (b. 1919 - d. 2001)
28 Nov 1952 -  4 Mar 1953  James Arthur Ewing
 4 Mar 1953 -  5 Aug 1953  Lawrence M. Judd                   (b. 1887 - d. 1968)
 1 Oct 1953 - 15 Oct 1956  Richard Barrett Lowe               (b. 1902 - d. 1972)
15 Oct 1956 - 24 May 1961  Peter Tali Coleman (1st time)      (b. 1919 - d. 1997)
24 May 1961 - 31 Jul 1967  Hyrum Rex Lee (1st time)           (b. 1910 - d. 2001)
 1 Aug 1967 - 31 Jul 1969  Owen Stuart Aspinall               (b. 1927 - d. 1997)
 1 Aug 1969 - 14 Oct 1974  John Morse Haydon                  (b. 1920)
15 Oct 1974 -  6 Feb 1975  Frank C. Mockler (acting)          (b. 1909 - d. 1993)
 6 Feb 1975 - 30 Sep 1976  Earl B. Ruth                       (b. 1916 - d. 1989)
 1 Oct 1976 - 27 May 1977  Frank Barnett
28 May 1977 -  3 Jan 1978  Hyrum Rex Lee (2nd time)           (s.a.)
 3 Jan 1978 -  3 Jan 1985  Peter Tali Coleman (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 3 Jan 1985 -  2 Jan 1989  A.P. Lutali (1st time)             (b. 1919 - d. 2002)
 2 Jan 1989 -  3 Jan 1993  Peter Tali Coleman (3rd time)      (s.a.)
 3 Jan 1993 -  3 Jan 1997  A.P. Lutali (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 3 Jan 1997 - 26 Mar 2003  Tauese P. Sunia                    (b. 1941 - d. 2003)
26 Mar 2003 -  3 Jan 2013  Togiola Tulafono                   (b. 1947)
                           (acting to 7 Apr 2003)
 3 Jan 2013 -              Lolo Matalasi Moliga               (b. 1949)

Swains Island

13 Oct 1856                settlement founded by an American
 4 Mar 1925                annexed to American Samoa

Leaders
13 Oct 1856 -  4 Dec 1878  Eli Hutchinson Jennings            (b. 1814 - d. 1878)
 4 Dec 1878 - 25 Oct 1891  Malia Jennings (f)                 (b. ... - d. 1891)
25 Oct 1891 - 24 Oct 1920  Eli Hutchinson Jennings, Jr.       (b. 1863 - d. 1920)
24 Oct 1920 -    Aug 1921  Ann Eliza Jennings (f)             (b. 1897 - d. 1921)
                           + Alexander Jennings
   Aug 1921 -  4 Mar 1925  Alexander Jennings