Rulers

Countries Sp-Sy

Contents of this page:
Spain - Sri Lanka - The Sudan - Suriname - Swaziland - Sweden - Switzerland - Syria

Spain

       1556                Spanish Monarchy¹
 6 May 1808                the kings of the Borbón dynasty abdicate in favour of
                           Napoléon I, emperor of the French and king of Italy
 6 Jun 1808                Napoléon I proclaims his brother Joseph Napoléon, king of
                           the Two Sicilies, as king of Spain
11 Dec 1813                Borbón dynasty restored
11 Feb 1873                Spanish Republic
29 Dec 1874                Spanish Monarchy (restored)
14 Apr 1931 -  1 Apr 1939  Spanish Republic
23 Jul 1936                Spanish State (declared 28 Jul 1947 to be a kingdom)
29 Dec 1978                Spain (usually referred to as Kingdom of Spain)
Note: The dates of the rulers of the intermittent Carlista insurrections correspond to the actual presence of the rulers or their forces in the territory of the Spanish Monarchy.
Kings/Queens²
- Austria (Habsburgo) dynasty -
17 Sep 1665 -  1 Nov 1700  Carlos II "el Hechizado"           (b. 1661 - d. 1700)
 1 Nov 1700 - 16 Nov 1700  Governing Board³
- Borbón (Capet) dynasty -
16 Nov 1700 - 15 Jan 1724  Felipe V (1st time)                (b. 1683 - d. 1746)
12 Sep 1703 -  7 Sep 1714    Carlos III (in rebellion)        (b. 1685 - d. 1740)
                             (- Austria [Habsburgo] dynasty -)
15 Jan 1724 - 31 Aug 1724  Luis I                             (b. 1707 - d. 1724)
31 Aug 1724 -  6 Sep 1724  vacant
 6 Sep 1724 -  9 Jul 1746  Felipe V (2nd time)                (s.a.)
 9 Jul 1746 - 10 Aug 1759  Fernando VI                        (b. 1713 - d. 1759)
10 Aug 1759 - 14 Dec 1788  Carlos III                         (b. 1716 - d. 1788)
14 Dec 1788 - 19 Mar 1808  Carlos IV                          (b. 1748 - d. 1819)
                           (abdication retracted 21 Mar 1808,
                           final abdication 5 May 1808)
19 Mar 1808 -  6 May 1808  Fernando VII (1st time)            (b. 1784 - d. 1833)
 4 May 1808 -  6 Jun 1808  Joaquín Murat, gran duque de Berg
                           y de Cleves                        (b. 1767 - d. 1815)
                           (lieutenant-general and governor of the realm)
- Bonaparte dynasty -
 6 Jun 1808 - 11 Dec 1813  José I Napoleón                    (b. 1768 - d. 1844)
                           (left Spain 27 Jun 1813)
- Borbón (Capet) dynasty -
11 Dec 1813 - 29 Sep 1833  Fernando VII (2nd time)            (s.a.)
                           (returned to Spain 22 Mar 1814)
                             Set up by the Cortes:
11 Jun 1823 - 15 Jun 1823    Provisional Regency
                             (for "morally incapacitated" Fernando VII)
                             - Cayetano Valdés y Flores Bazán (b. 1767 - d. 1835)
                             - Gabriel de Císcar y Císcar     (b. 1760 - d. 1829)
                             - Gaspar de Vigodet
                             Set up by the invading Powers:
 9 Apr 1823 - 25 May 1823    Francisco Ramón de Eguía Letona  (b. 1750 - d. 1827)
                             (President of the Provisional Government Junta)
25 May 1823 -  1 Oct 1823    Pedro Alcántara de Toledo y
                             Salm-Salm, duque del Infantado   (b. 1768 - d. 1841)
                             (President of the Regency)
29 Sep 1833 - 30 Sep 1868  Isabel II (f)                      (b. 1830 - d. 1904)
29 Sep 1833 - 12 Oct 1840    Queen María Cristina (f)         (b. 1806 - d. 1878)
                             (regent)
 1 Oct 1833 - 31 Aug 1839    Carlos V                         (b. 1788 - d. 1855)
                             (Carlista insurrection)
12 Oct 1840 - 23 Jul 1843    Baldomero Espartero,
                             duque de la Victoria             (b. 1792 - d. 1879)
                             (president of the Provisional Regency to 10 May 1841;
                             from 10 May 1841, regent)
                             (continuing in dissidence to 30 Jul 1843)
23 Jul 1843 - 10 Nov 1843    Joaquín María López              (b. 1798 - d. 1855)
                             (president of the Government acting as regent)
   Apr 1860                  Carlos VI                        (b. 1818 - d. 1861)
                             (Carlista insurrection)
Revolutionary authorities
30 Sep 1868 -  3 Oct 1868  Pascual Madoz                      (b. 1806 - d. 1870)
                           (President of the Interim Revolutionary Junta)
 3 Oct 1868 -  8 Oct 1868  Joaquín Aguirre                    (b. 1807 - d. 1869)
                           (President of the Interim Revolutionary Junta to 5 Oct
                           1868, then President of the Revolutionary Superior Junta)
 8 Oct 1868 - 18 Jun 1869  Francisco Serrano y Domínguez,
                           duque de la Torre, conde de San
                           Antonio                            (b. 1810 - d. 1885)
                           (President of the Provisional Government to 25 Feb 1869,
                           then President of the Executive Power)
Kings
18 Jun 1869 -  2 Jan 1871  Francisco Serrano y Domínguez,
                           duque de la Torre, conde de San
                           Antonio (regent)                   (s.a.)
- Saboya-Carignan dynasty -
 2 Jan 1871 - 11 Feb 1873  Amadeo I                           (b. 1845 - d. 1890)
       1872 - 28 Feb 1876    Carlos VII                       (b. 1848 - d. 1909)
                             (Carlista insurrection)
Presidents of the Executive Power
11 Feb 1873 - 12 Feb 1873  Nicolás María Rivero               (b. 1813/14 - d. 1878)
                           (president of the National Assembly)
12 Feb 1873 - 24 Feb 1873  Estanislao Figueras y Moragas
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1819 - d. 1882)
24 Feb 1873                Cristino Martos Balbi              (b. 1830 - d. 1893)
                           (president of the National Assembly)
24 Feb 1873 - 11 Jun 1873  Estanislao Figueras y Moragas
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
11 Jun 1873 - 18 Jul 1873  Francisco Pi y Margall             (b. 1824 - d. 1901)
18 Jul 1873 -  7 Sep 1873  Nicolás Salmerón y Alonso          (b. 1838 - d. 1908)
 7 Sep 1873 -  3 Jan 1874  Emilio Castelar Ripoll             (b. 1832 - d. 1899)
 3 Jan 1874 - 30 Dec 1874  Francisco Serrano y Domínguez,
                           duque de la Torre, conde de San
                           Antonio                            (s.a.)
Kings
- Borbón dynasty -
30 Dec 1874 - 25 Nov 1885  Alfonso XII                        (b. 1857 - d. 1885)
                           (in exile to 8 Jan 1875)
25 Nov 1885 - 17 May 1886  Queen María Cristina (f) (regent)  (b. 1858 - d. 1929)
17 May 1886 - 14 Apr 1931  Alfonso XIII                       (b. 1886 - d. 1941)
17 May 1886 - 17 May 1902    Queen María Cristina (f)         (s.a.)
                             (regent)
Presidents of the (until 30 Jul 1931, Provisional) Government of the Republic
14 Apr 1931 - 14 Oct 1931  Niceto Alcalá-Zamora y Torres      (b. 1877 - d. 1949)
14 Oct 1931 - 11 Dec 1931  Manuel Azaña Díaz                  (b. 1880 - d. 1940)
Presidents (from 23 Jul 1936 in Republican Zone only)
11 Dec 1931 -  7 Apr 1936  Niceto Alcalá-Zamora y Torres      (s.a.)
 7 Apr 1936 - 11 May 1936  Diego Martínez Barrio (interim)    (b. 1883 - d. 1962)
11 May 1936 - 28 Feb 1939  Manuel Azaña Díaz                  (s.a.)
President of the National Council of Defense (Republican Zone)
 6 Mar 1939 - 27 Mar 1939  José Miaja Menant                  (b. 1878 - d. 1958)
Chairman of the National Junta of Defense (Nationalist Zone)
24 Jul 1936 -  1 Oct 1936  Miguel Cabanellas Ferrer           (b. 1862 - d. 1938)
Head of state (to 31 Mar 1939 in Nationalist Zone only)
 1 Oct 1936 - 20 Nov 1975  Francisco Franco                   (b. 1892 - d. 1975)
19 Jul 1974 -  2 Sep 1974    Prince Juan Carlos (1st time)    (b. 1938)
                             (acting for Franco)
30 Oct 1975 - 20 Nov 1975    Prince Juan Carlos (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting for Franco)
Chairman of the Regency Council
20 Nov 1975 - 22 Nov 1975  Alejandro Rodríguez de Valcárcel
                           y Nebreda                          (b. 1917 - d. 1976)
King
- Borbón dynasty -
22 Nov 1975 -              Juan Carlos I                      (s.a.)

Secretarios del despacho universal 11 Jul 1705 - 15 Apr 1714 Pedro Fernández del Campo y Angulo, marqués de Mejorada (b. 1656 - d. 1721) 15 Apr 1714 - 30 Nov 1714 Manuel de Vadillo y Velasco (b. 1659 - d. 1729) 30 Nov 1714 - 14 Jan 1724 José de Grimaldo y Gutiérrez de Solórzano, marqués de Grimaldo (1st time) (b. 1664 - d. 1733) 14 Jan 1724 - 4 Sep 1724 Juan Bautista Orendayn y Azpilcueta (1st time) 4 Sep 1724 - 12 Dec 1725 José de Grimaldo y Gutiérrez de Solórzano, marqués de Grimaldo (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Dec 1725 - 14 Apr 1726 Juan Guillermo Ripperdá, duque de Ripperdá (b. 1682 - d. 1737) 14 Apr 1726 - 1 Oct 1726 José de Grimaldo y Gutiérrez de Solórzano, marqués de Grimaldo (3rd time) (s.a.) 1 Oct 1726 - 21 Nov 1734 Juan Bautista Orendayn y Azpilcueta, marqués de la Paz (2nd time) First secretaries of state 21 Nov 1734 - 26 Nov 1736 José de Patiño y Rosales (b. 1666 - d. 1736) 26 Nov 1736 - 4 Dec 1746 Sebastián de la Cuadra y Llerena, marqués de Villarías (b. 1687 - d. 1766) 4 Dec 1746 - 9 Apr 1754 José de Carvajal y Lancaster (b. 1698 - d. 1754) 9 Apr 1754 - 15 May 1754 Fernando de Silva y Álvarez de Toledo, duque de Huéscar (acting) 15 May 1754 - 9 Oct 1763 Ricardo Wall y Devreux (b. 1695 - d. 1777) 9 Oct 1763 - 19 Feb 1777 Pablo Jerónimo de Grimaldi y Pallavicini, marqués de Grimaldi (b. 1706 - d. 1789) 19 Feb 1777 - 28 Feb 1792 José Moñino y Redondo, conde de Floridablanca (b. 1728 - d. 1808) 28 Feb 1792 - 15 Nov 1792 Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea y Ximenez de Urrea, conde de Aranda (b. 1718 - d. 1798) (acting) 15 Nov 1792 - 30 Mar 1798 Manuel Godoy y Álvarez de Faria, duque de Alcudia, (from 27 Sep 1795) príncipe de la Paz (b. 1767 - d. 1851) 30 Mar 1798 - 21 Feb 1799 Francisco de Saavedra y Sangronis (b. 1746 - d. 1819) (acting to 6 Sep 1798) 21 Feb 1799 - 13 Dec 1800 Mariano Luis de Urquijo y Muga (1st time) (acting) (b. 1768 - d. 1817) 13 Dec 1800 - 3 Mar 1808 Pedro Cevallos Guerra (1st time) (b. 1764 - d. 1840) 3 Mar 1808 - 19 Mar 1808 Gonzalo O'Farrill y Herrera (b. 1754 - d. 1831) (acting) 19 Mar 1808 - 7 Jul 1808 Pedro Cevallos Guerra (2nd time) (s.a.) 7 Jul 1808 - 27 Jun 1813 Mariano Luis de Urquijo y Muga (2nd time) (s.a.) 10 Oct 1813 - 17 Oct 1813 Juan O'Donojú O'Ryan (acting) (b. 1762 - d. 1821) 17 Oct 1813 - 3 Dec 1813 Fernando de Laserna (acting) 3 Dec 1813 - 4 May 1814 José Luyando (1st time) (acting) (b. 1773 - d. 1835) 4 May 1814 - 15 Nov 1814 José Miguel de Carvajal Vargas y Manrique, duque de San Carlos (b. 1771 - d. 1828) 15 Nov 1814 - 24 Jan 1816 Pedro Cevallos Guerra (3rd time) (s.a.) 24 Jan 1816 - 26 Jan 1816 Juan Esteban Lozano de Torres 26 Jan 1816 - 30 Oct 1816 Pedro Cevallos Guerra (4th time) (s.a.) 30 Oct 1816 - 14 Sep 1818 José García de León y Pizarro (b. 1770 - d. 1835) 14 Sep 1818 - 12 Jun 1819 Carlos Fernando Martínez de Irujo y Tacón, marqués de Casa Irujo (1st time) (acting) (b. 1765 - d. 1824) 12 Jun 1819 - 12 Sep 1819 Manuel González Salmón y Gómez de Torres (1st time) (acting) (b. 1778 - d. 1832) 12 Sep 1819 - 18 Mar 1820 Joaquín José Melgarejo y Saurín, duque de San Fernando de Quiroga (b. 1780 - d. 1835) 18 Mar 1820 Juan Jabat Aztal (acting) 18 Mar 1820 - 2 Mar 1821 Evaristo Pérez de Castro Brito (b. 1778 - d. 1848) 2 Mar 1821 - 23 Apr 1821 Joaquín Anduaga Cuenca (acting) 23 Apr 1821 Francisco de Paula Escudero (b. 1764 - d. 1831) (acting) 23 Apr 1821 - 8 Jan 1822 Eusebio Bardají y Azara (b. 1776 - d. 1842) 8 Jan 1822 - 24 Jan 1822 Ramón López Pelegrín (1st time) (acting) 24 Jan 1822 - 30 Jan 1822 José Gabriel de Silva y Bazán, marqués de Santa Cruz (b. 1782 - d. 1839) 30 Jan 1822 - 28 Feb 1822 Ramón López Pelegrín (2nd time) (acting) 28 Feb 1822 - 5 Aug 1822 Francisco Martínez de la Rosa (b. 1787 - d. 1862) 5 Aug 1822 - 25 Apr 1823 Evaristo Fernández San Miguel y Valledor (b. 1785 - d. 1862) (acting from 28 Feb 1823) 25 Apr 1823 - 7 May 1823 José Manuel Vadillo (acting) 7 May 1823 - 13 May 1823 Santiago Usoz y Mozí (acting) 13 May 1823 - 29 Aug 1823 José María Pando de la Riva y Ramírez de Laredo (b. 1787 - d. 1840) 29 Aug 1823 - 4 Sep 1823 Luis María de Salazar y Salazar (1st time) (acting) (b. 1758 - d. 1838) 4 Sep 1823 - 6 Sep 1823 Juan Antonio Yandiola Garay (acting) 6 Sep 1823 - 1 Oct 1823 José Luyando (2nd time) (s.a.) 25 Apr 1823 - 2 Dec 1823 Víctor Damián Sáez y Sánchez-Mayor (b. 1776 - d. 1839) (acting to 7 Aug 1823) (counter-government to 1 Oct 1823) 2 Dec 1823 - 18 Jan 1824 Carlos Fernando Martínez de Irujo y Tacón, marqués de Casa Irujo (2nd time) (s.a.) 18 Jan 1824 - 11 Jul 1824 Narciso de Heredia y Begines de los Ríos, conde de Ofalia (b. 1777 - d. 1843) 11 Jul 1824 Luis María de Salazar y Salazar (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.) 11 Jul 1824 - 24 Oct 1825 Francisco Cea Bermúdez (1st time) (b. 1779 - d. 1850) 24 Oct 1825 - 19 Aug 1826 Pedro Alcántara de Toledo y Salm-Salm, duque del Infantado (s.a.) 19 Aug 1826 - 20 Jan 1832 Manuel González Salmón y Gómez de Torres (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting to 15 Oct 1830) 20 Jan 1832 - 22 Feb 1832 Francisco Tadeo Calomarde y Arría (b. 1773 - d. 1842) (acting) 22 Feb 1832 - 1 Oct 1832 Antonio de Saavedra y Frigola, conde de Alcudia (acting) 1 Oct 1832 - 29 Nov 1832 José Cafranga Costilla (acting) 29 Nov 1832 - 15 Jan 1834 Francisco Cea Bermúdez (2nd time) (s.a.) Prime ministers (presidents of the Council of Ministers) 15 Jan 1834 - 7 Jun 1835 Francisco Martínez de la Rosa (s.a.) 7 Jun 1835 - 14 Sep 1835 José María Queipo de Llano Ruíz de Saravia, conde de Toreno (b. 1786 - d. 1843) 14 Sep 1835 - 25 Sep 1835 Miguel Ricardo de Álava Esquivel (b. 1771 - d. 1843) 25 Sep 1835 - 15 May 1836 Juan Álvarez Mendizábal (acting) (b. 1790 - d. 1853) 15 May 1836 - 14 Aug 1836 Francisco Javier Istúriz y Montero (1st time) (b. 1790 - d. 1871) 14 Aug 1836 - 18 Aug 1837 José María Calatrava (b. 1781 - d. 1846) 18 Aug 1837 - 18 Oct 1837 Baldomero Espartero, conde de Luchana (1st time) (s.a.) 18 Oct 1837 - 16 Dec 1837 Eusebio Bardají y Azara (s.a.) 16 Dec 1837 - 6 Sep 1838 Narciso de Heredia y Begines de los Ríos, conde de Ofalia (s.a.) 6 Sep 1838 - 9 Dec 1838 Bernardino Fernández de Velasco, duque de Frías (b. 1783 - d. 1851) 9 Dec 1838 Isidro Alaix (acting) (b. 1790 - d. 1853) 9 Dec 1838 - 18 Jul 1840 Evaristo Pérez de Castro Brito (b. 1771 - d. 1849) 20 Jul 1840 - 12 Aug 1840 Antonio González y González (1st time) (b. 1792 - d. 1876) 12 Aug 1840 - 28 Aug 1840 Valentín Ferraz y Barrau (b. 1793 - d. 1866) 29 Aug 1840 - 11 Sep 1840 Modesto Cortázar (acting) 11 Sep 1840 - 16 Sep 1840 Vicente Sancho (b. 1784 - d. 1868) 16 Sep 1840 - 10 May 1841 Baldomero Espartero, duque de la Victoria (2nd time) (s.a.) 10 May 1841 - 20 May 1841 Joaquín María Ferrer Cafranga 20 May 1841 - 17 Jun 1842 Antonio González y González (2nd time) (s.a.) 17 Jun 1842 - 9 May 1843 José Ramón Rodil y Gallosa, marqués de Rodil (b. 1789 - d. 1853) 9 May 1843 - 19 May 1843 Joaquín María López (1st time) (s.a.) 19 May 1843 - 23 Jul 1843 Álvaro Gómez Becerra (b. 1771 - d. 1855) 23 Jul 1843 - 20 Nov 1843 Joaquín María López (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Nov 1843 - 5 Dec 1843 Salustiano Olózaga (b. 1805 - d. 1873) 5 Dec 1843 - 3 May 1844 Luis González Bravo (1st time) (b. 1811 - d. 1871) 3 May 1844 - 12 Feb 1846 Ramón María Narváez, duque de Valencia (1st time) (b. 1800 - d. 1868) 12 Feb 1846 - 16 Mar 1846 Manuel Pando Fernández de Pinedo, marqués de Miraflores (1st time) (b. 1792 - d. 1872) 16 Mar 1846 - 5 Apr 1846 Ramón María Narváez, duque de Valencia (2nd time) (s.a.) 5 Apr 1846 - 28 Jan 1847 Francisco Javier Istúriz y Montero (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Jan 1847 - 28 Mar 1847 Carlos Martínez de Irujo, marqués de Casa Irujo, duque de Sotomayor (b. 1804 - d. 1889) 28 Mar 1847 - 31 Aug 1847 Joaquín Francisco Pacheco y Gutiérrez Calderón (b. 1808 - d. 1865) 31 Aug 1847 - 12 Sep 1847 José de Salamanca y Mayol (b. 1811 - d. 1883) 12 Sep 1847 - 4 Oct 1847 Florencio García Goyena (b. 1783 - d. 1855) 4 Oct 1847 - 19 Oct 1849 Ramón María Narváez, duque de Valencia (3rd time) (s.a.) 19 Oct 1849 - 20 Oct 1849 Serafín María de Sotto, conde de Clonard (b. 1793 - d. 1862) 20 Oct 1849 - 14 Jan 1850 Ramón María Narváez, duque de Valencia (4th time) (s.a.) 14 Jan 1850 - 14 Dec 1852 Juan Bravo Murillo (b. 1803 - d. 1873) 14 Dec 1852 - 14 Apr 1853 Federico Roncali, conde de Alcoy (b. 1801? - d. 1857) 14 Apr 1853 - 19 Sep 1853 Francisco de Lersundi y Ormaechea (b. 1817 - d. 1874) 19 Sep 1853 - 17 Jul 1854 Luis José Sartorius, conde de San Luis (b. 1820 - d. 1871) 17 Jul 1854 - 18 Jul 1854 Fernando Fernández de Córdova (1st time) (b. 1809 - d. 1883) 18 Jul 1854 - 19 Jul 1854 Ángel de Saavedra y Ramírez de Baquedano, duque de Rivas (b. 1791 - d. 1865) 19 Jul 1854 - 14 Jul 1856 Baldomero Espartero, duque de la Victoria (3rd time) (s.a.) 14 Jul 1856 - 12 Oct 1856 Leopoldo O'Donnell (1st time) (b. 1809 - d. 1867) 12 Oct 1856 - 15 Oct 1857 Ramón María Narváez, duque de Valencia (5th time) (s.a.) 15 Oct 1857 - 14 Jan 1858 Francisco Armero y Peñaranda, marqués de Nervión (b. 1804 - d. 1867) 14 Jan 1858 - 30 Jun 1858 Francisco Javier Istúriz y Montero (3rd time) (s.a.) 30 Jun 1858 - 2 Mar 1863 Leopoldo O'Donnell (2nd time) (s.a.) 2 Mar 1863 - 17 Jan 1864 Manuel Pando Fernández de Pinedo, marqués de Miraflores (2nd time) (s.a.) 17 Jan 1864 - 1 Mar 1864 Lorenzo Arrazola García (b. 1797 - d. 1873) 1 Mar 1864 - 16 Sep 1864 Alejandro Món Ménendez (b. 1801 - d. 1882) 16 Sep 1864 - 21 Jun 1865 Ramón María Narváez, duque de Valencia (6th time) (s.a.) 21 Jun 1865 - 10 Jul 1866 Leopoldo O'Donnell (3rd time) (s.a.) 10 Jul 1866 - 23 Apr 1868 Ramón María Narváez, duque de Valencia (7th time) (s.a.) 23 Apr 1868 - 19 Sep 1868 Luis González Bravo (2nd time) (s.a.) 19 Sep 1868 - 30 Sep 1868 José Gutiérrez de la Concha (b. 1809 - d. 1895) 18 Jun 1869 - 27 Dec 1870 Juan Prim y Prats, marqués de los Castillejos, conde de Reus, vizconde del Bruch (b. 1814 - d. 1870) 27 Dec 1870 - 4 Jan 1871 Juan Bautista Topete y Carballo (1st time) (acting) (b. 1821 - d. 1885) 4 Jan 1871 - 24 Jul 1871 Francisco Serrano y Domínguez, duque de la Torre, conde de San Antonio (1st time) (s.a.) 24 Jul 1871 - 5 Oct 1871 Manuel Ruíz Zorrilla (1st time) (b. 1833 - d. 1895) 5 Oct 1871 - 21 Dec 1871 José Malcampo y Monge, marqués de San Rafael, conde de Jolo (b. 1828 - d. 1880) 21 Dec 1871 - 26 May 1872 Práxedes Mateo Sagasta (1st time) (b. 1825 - d. 1903) 26 May 1872 - 4 Jun 1872 Juan Bautista Topete y Carballo (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.) 4 Jun 1872 - 13 Jun 1872 Francisco Serrano y Domínguez, duque de la Torre, conde de San Antonio (2nd time) (s.a.) 13 Jun 1872 - 16 Jun 1872 Fernando Fernández de Córdova (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.) 16 Jun 1872 - 12 Feb 1873 Manuel Ruíz Zorrilla (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Jan 1874 - 26 Feb 1874 Francisco Serrano y Domínguez, duque de la Torre, conde de San Antonio (3rd time) (s.a.) 26 Feb 1874 - 3 Sep 1874 Juan de Zavala y de la Puente, conde de Paredes de Nava, marqués de Sierra Bullones (b. 1804 - d. 1879) 3 Sep 1874 - 30 Dec 1874 Práxedes Mateo Sagasta (2nd time) (s.a.) 31 Dec 1874 - 12 Sep 1875 Antonio Cánovas del Castillo (1st time) (b. 1828 - d. 1897) 12 Sep 1875 - 2 Dec 1875 Joaquín Jovellar y Soler (b. 1819 - d. 1892) 2 Dec 1875 - 7 Mar 1879 Antonio Cánovas del Castillo (2nd time) (s.a.) 7 Mar 1879 - 9 Dec 1879 Arsenio Martínez Campos (b. 1831 - d. 1900) 9 Dec 1879 - 8 Feb 1881 Antonio Cánovas del Castillo (3rd time) (s.a.) 8 Feb 1881 - 13 Oct 1883 Práxedes Mateo Sagasta (3rd time) (s.a.) 13 Oct 1883 - 18 Jan 1884 José Posada Herrera (b. 1815 - d. 1885) 18 Jan 1884 - 27 Nov 1885 Antonio Cánovas del Castillo (4th time) (s.a.) 27 Nov 1885 - 5 Jul 1890 Práxedes Mateo Sagasta (4th time) (s.a.) 5 Jul 1890 - 11 Dec 1892 Antonio Cánovas del Castillo (5th time) (s.a.) 11 Dec 1892 - 23 Mar 1895 Práxedes Mateo Sagasta (5th time) (s.a.) 23 Mar 1895 - 8 Aug 1897 Antonio Cánovas del Castillo (6th time) (s.a.) 8 Aug 1897 - 4 Oct 1897 Marcelo de Azcárraga y Palmero (1st time) (acting to 21 Aug 1897) (b. 1832 - d. 1915) 4 Oct 1897 - 4 Mar 1899 Práxedes Mateo Sagasta (6th time) (s.a.) 4 Mar 1899 - 23 Oct 1900 Francisco Silvela y le Vielleuze (1st time) (b. 1843 - d. 1905) 23 Oct 1900 - 6 Mar 1901 Marcelo de Azcárraga y Palmero (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Mar 1901 - 6 Dec 1902 Práxedes Mateo Sagasta (7th time) (s.a.) 6 Dec 1902 - 20 Jul 1903 Francisco Silvela y le Vielleuze (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Jul 1903 - 5 Dec 1903 Raimundo Fernández Villaverde (1st time) (b. 1848 - d. 1905) 5 Dec 1903 - 16 Dec 1904 Antonio Maura y Montaner (1st time) (b. 1853 - d. 1925) 16 Dec 1904 - 27 Jan 1905 Marcelo de Azcárraga y Palmero (3rd time) (s.a.) 27 Jan 1905 - 23 Jun 1905 Raimundo Fernández Villaverde (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Jun 1905 - 1 Dec 1905 Eugenio Montero Ríos (b. 1832 - d. 1914) 1 Dec 1905 - 6 Jul 1906 Segismundo Moret y Prendergast (1st time) (b. 1838 - d. 1913) 6 Jul 1906 - 30 Nov 1906 José López Domínguez (b. 1829 - d. 1911) 30 Nov 1906 - 4 Dec 1906 Segismundo Moret y Prendergast (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Dec 1906 - 25 Jan 1907 Antonio Aguilar y Correa, marqués de la Vega de Armijo (b. 1824 - d. 1908) 25 Jan 1907 - 21 Oct 1909 Antonio Maura y Montaner (2nd time) (s.a.) 21 Oct 1909 - 9 Feb 1910 Segismundo Moret y Prendergast (3rd time) (s.a.) 9 Feb 1910 - 12 Nov 1912 José Canalejas y Méndez (b. 1854 - d. 1912) 12 Nov 1912 - 14 Nov 1912 Manuel García Prieto, marqués de Alhucemas (1st time) (b. 1859 - d. 1938) (acting) 14 Nov 1912 - 27 Oct 1913 Álvaro Figueroa y Torres Mendieta, conde de Romanones (1st time) (b. 1863 - d. 1950) 27 Oct 1913 - 9 Dec 1915 Eduardo Dato y Iradier (1st time) (b. 1856 - d. 1921) 9 Dec 1915 - 19 Apr 1917 Álvaro Figueroa y Torres Mendieta, conde de Romanones (2nd time) (s.a.) 19 Apr 1917 - 11 Jun 1917 Manuel García Prieto, marqués de Alhucemas (2nd time) (s.a.) 11 Jun 1917 - 3 Nov 1917 Eduardo Dato y Iradier (2nd time) (s.a.) 3 Nov 1917 - 22 Mar 1918 Manuel García Prieto, marqués de Alhucemas (3rd time) (s.a.) 22 Mar 1918 - 9 Nov 1918 Antonio Maura y Montaner (3rd time) (s.a.) 9 Nov 1918 - 5 Dec 1918 Manuel García Prieto, marqués de Alhucemas (4th time) (s.a.) 5 Dec 1918 - 15 Apr 1919 Álvaro Figueroa y Torres Mendieta, conde de Romanones (3rd time) (s.a.) 15 Apr 1919 - 20 Jul 1919 Antonio Maura y Montaner (4th time) (s.a.) 20 Jul 1919 - 12 Dec 1919 Joaquín Sánchez de Toca Calvo (b. 1852 - d. 1942) 12 Dec 1919 - 5 May 1920 Manuel Allendesalazar (1st time) (b. 1856 - d. 1923) 5 May 1920 - 8 Mar 1921 Eduardo Dato y Iradier (3rd time) (s.a.) 8 Mar 1921 - 13 Mar 1921 Gabino Bugallal Araujo, conde de Bugallal (b. 1861 - d. 1932) 13 Mar 1921 - 14 Aug 1921 Manuel Allendesalazar (2nd time) (s.a.) 14 Aug 1921 - 8 Mar 1922 Antonio Maura y Montaner (5th time) (s.a.) 8 Mar 1922 - 7 Dec 1922 José Sánchez Guerra y Martínez (b. 1859 - d. 1935) 7 Dec 1922 - 15 Sep 1923 Manuel García Prieto, marqués de Alhucemas (5th time) (s.a.) 15 Sep 1923 - 30 Jan 1930 Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, marqués de Estella y (from 1925) de Ajdir (b. 1870 - d. 1930) (president of the Military Directory to 3 Dec 1925) 30 Jan 1930 - 18 Feb 1931 Dámaso Berenguer, conde de Xauen (b. 1873 - d. 1953) 18 Feb 1931 - 14 Apr 1931 Juan Bautista Aznar-Cabañas (b. 1860 - d. 1933) 14 Apr 1931 - 14 Oct 1931 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora y Torres (s.a.) 14 Oct 1931 - 12 Sep 1933 Manuel Azaña Díaz (1st time) (s.a.) 12 Sep 1933 - 8 Oct 1933 Alejandro Lerroux García (1st time) (b. 1864 - d. 1949) 8 Oct 1933 - 16 Dec 1933 Diego Martínez Barrio (1st time) (s.a.) 16 Dec 1933 - 28 Apr 1934 Alejandro Lerroux García (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Apr 1934 - 4 Oct 1934 Ricardo Samper Ibáñez (b. 1881 - d. 1938) 4 Oct 1934 - 25 Sep 1935 Alejandro Lerroux García (3rd time) (s.a.) 25 Sep 1935 - 14 Dec 1935 Joaquín Chapaprieta Torregrosa (b. 1871 - d. 1951) 14 Dec 1935 - 19 Feb 1936 Manuel Portela Valladares (b. 1868 - d. 1952) 19 Feb 1936 - 10 May 1936 Manuel Azaña Díaz (2nd time) (s.a.) 10 May 1936 - 13 May 1936 Augusto Barcia Trelles (interim) (b. 1881 - d. 1961) 13 May 1936 - 19 Jul 1936 Santiago Casares Quiroga (b. 1884 - d. 1950) 19 Jul 1936 Diego Martínez Barrio (2nd time) (s.a.) 19 Jul 1936 - 4 Sep 1936 José Giral Pereira (b. 1879 - d. 1962) 4 Sep 1936 - 17 May 1937 Francisco Largo Caballero (b. 1859 - d. 1946) 17 May 1937 - 5 Mar 1939 Juan Negrín López (b. 1894 - d. 1956) Chairmen of the Technical Junta (Nationalist Zone) 3 Oct 1936 - 3 Jun 1937 Fidel Dávila Arrondo (b. 1878 - d. 1962) 3 Jun 1937 - 31 Jan 1938 Francisco Gómez Jordana (b. 1876 - d. 1944) Prime ministers (presidents of the Government) (to 31 Mar 1939 in Nationalist Zone only) 31 Jan 1938 - 9 Jun 1973 Francisco Franco (s.a.) 9 Jun 1973 - 20 Dec 1973 Luis Carrero Blanco (b. 1903 - d. 1973) 20 Dec 1973 - 2 Jan 1974 Torcuato Fernández-Miranda (b. 1915 - d. 1980) (acting) 2 Jan 1974 - 1 Jul 1976 Carlos Arias Navarro (b. 1908 - d. 1989) 1 Jul 1976 - 5 Jul 1976 Fernando de Santiago y Díaz de Mendivil (acting) (b. 1910 - d. 1994) 5 Jul 1976 - 25 Feb 1981 Adolfo Suárez González (b. 1932 - d. 2014) 25 Feb 1981 - 2 Dec 1982 Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo y Bustelo (b. 1926 - d. 2008) 2 Dec 1982 - 5 May 1996 Felipe González Márquez (b. 1942) 5 May 1996 - 17 Apr 2004 José María Aznar (b. 1953) 17 Apr 2004 - 21 Dec 2011 José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (b. 1960) 21 Dec 2011 - Mariano Rajoy (b. 1955)

The "Resistance" 1808-14

   May 1808                the abdication of Fernando VII on 6 May 1808 is not
                           recognized by the "Resistance"; Supreme Governing Juntas
                           are established in the provinces, ultimately numbering 18,
                           as well as in the Indies, ruling in the name of Fernando VII
25 Sep 1808                the Supreme Central Governing Junta is established, ruling
                           in the name of Fernando VII, and gradually superseding the
                           previously established Juntas
31 Jan 1810                a Supreme Council of Regency is established, governing in
                           the name of Fernando VII
10 May 1814                after the return of Fernando VII the Regency is dissolved

Presidents of the Supreme Central Governing Junta
25 Sep 1808 - 30 Dec 1808  José Moñino y Redondo, conde de
                           Floridablanca                      (s.a.)
                           (interim to 1 Oct 1808)
30 Dec 1808 -  1 Nov 1809  Vicente Isabel Osorio de Moscoso
                           y Álvarez de Toledo, marqués de
                           Astorga                            (b. 1777 - d. 1837)
                           (acting to 1 May 1809)
 1 Nov 1809 - 31 Jan 1810  Juan Acisclo de Vera y Delgado,
                           arzobispo de Laodicea              (b. 1761 - d. 1818)
Presidents of the Supreme Council of Regency
 1 Feb 1810 - 29 May 1810  Francisco Javier Castaños y
                           Aragorri                           (b. 1758 - d. 1852)
29 May 1810 - 26 Sep 1810  Pedro de Quevedo y Quintano,
                           obispo de Orense                   (b. 1736 - d. 1818)
27?Sep 1810 - 28 Oct 1810  Francisco de Saavedra y Sangronis  (s.a.)
Presidents of the Council of Regency
28 Oct 1810 -  8 Dec 1810  Pedro Agar y Bustillo (1st time)   (b. 1760 - d. 1822)
 8 Dec 1810 -  8 Apr 1811  Joaquín Blake y Joyes              (b. 1739 - d. 1827)
 8 Apr 1811 -  8 Aug 1811  Pedro Agar y Bustillo (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 8 Aug 1811 -  8 Dec 1811  Gabriel de Císcar y Císcar         (b. 1760 - d. 1829)
 8 Dec 1811 - 22 Jan 1812  Pedro Agar y Bustillo (3rd time)   (s.a.)
Presidents of the Regency
22 Jan 1812 - 15 Jun 1812  Joaquín de Mosquera y Figueroa     (b. 1748 - d. 1830)
15 Jun 1812 - 15 Dec 1812? Pedro Alcántara de Toledo y
                           Salm-Salm, duque del Infantado     (s.a.)
15 Dec 1812?-  8 Mar 1813  Juan María de Villavicencio        (b. 1755 - d. 1830)
President of the (to 22 Mar 1813, Provisional) Regency
 8 Mar 1813 - 10 May 1814  Cardenal Luis María de Borbón y
                           Vallabriga, arzobispo de Toledo,
                           primado de las Españas             (b. 1777 - d. 1823)

First secretaries of state 15 Oct 1808 - 5 Jan 1809 Pedro Cevallos Guerra (s.a.) 5 Jan 1809 - 13 Oct 1809 Martín de Garay Perales (acting) (b. 1760 - d. 1822) 13 Oct 1809 - 30 Oct 1809 Pedro Rivero (acting) 30 Oct 1809 - 31 Jan 1810 Francisco de Saavedra y Sangronis (s.a.) 31 Jan 1810 - 20 Mar 1810 Nicolás Ambrosio de Garro y Arizcún, marqués de las Hormazas (acting) 20 Mar 1810 - 6 Feb 1812 Eusebio Bardají y Azara (s.a.) (acting to 27 May 1810) 6 Feb 1812 - 12 May 1812 José García de León y Pizarro (s.a.) (acting) 12 May 1812 - 23 Jun 1812 Ignacio de la Pezuela y Sánchez (b. ... - d. 1850) (acting) 23 Jun 1812 - 27 Sep 1812 Carlos Fernando Martínez de Irujo y Tacón, marqués de Casa Irujo (s.a.) 27 Sep 1812 - 11 Jul 1813 Pedro Gómez-Labrador Avelo (b. 1765 - d. 1850) 11 Jul 1813 - 10 Oct 1813 Antonio Cano Manuel y Ramírez de Arellano (acting)

Spanish Republic in exile

Presidents
       1940 - 17 Aug 1945  Álvaro de Albornoz y Liminiana     (b. 1879 - d. 1954)
                           (acting)
17 Aug 1945 -  1 Jan 1962  Diego Martínez Barrio              (s.a.)
11 Feb 1962 - 16 Nov 1970  Luis Jiménez de Asúa               (b. 1889 - d. 1970)
   Nov 1970 -  1 Jul 1977  José Maldonado González            (b. 1900 - d. 1985)

Prime ministers 4 Mar 1939 - 17 Aug 1945 Juan Negrín López (s.a.) 17 Aug 1945 - 9 Feb 1947 José Giral Pereira (s.a.) 9 Feb 1947 - 8 Aug 1947 Rodolfo Llopis Ferrándiz (b. 1895 - d. 1983) 8 Aug 1947 - 13 Aug 1951 Álvaro de Albornoz y Liminiana (s.a.) 13 Aug 1951 - 9 May 1960 Félix Gordón Ordás (b. 1885 - d. 1973) 9 May 1960 - 28 Feb 1962 Emilio Herrera Linares (b. 1876 - d. 1967) 28 Feb 1962 - 28 Feb 1971 Claudio Sánchez-Albornoz y Menduiña (b. 1893 - d. 1984) 28 Feb 1971 - 23 Jul 1977 Fernando Valera Aparicio (b. 1899 - d. 1982)
¹What we usually think of as Spain had no constitutional identity until 1808. The style Monarquía Española gradually came into use for the whole complex, while several of the component units maintained (in some cases fanatically) their political identity, with their own Cortes, their own charters of rights (fueros), etc. Españas (or Españas e Indias) more closely reflects usage before 1808 than España.
²In official documents, the ruler used a full style that included effective and titular non-Hispanic titles (e.g., Archduke of Austria); the following is a typical form, while variants are not uncommon: Por la gracia de Dios, Rey/Reina de Castilla, de León, de Aragón, de las dos Sicilias, de Jerusalén, de Navarra, de Granada, de Toledo, de Valencia, de Galicia, de Mallorca, de Menorca, de Sevilla, de Cerdeña, de Córdoba, de Córcega, de Murcia, de Jaén, del Algarve, de Algeciras, de Gibraltar, de las Islas Canarias, de las Indias Orientales y Occidentales, de las Islas y Tierrafirme del Continente Oceánico, Archiduque/Archiduquesa de Austria, Duque/Duquesa de Borgoña, de Brabante y de Milán, Conde/Condesa de Abspurg, de Flandes, del Tirol y de Barcelona, Señor/Señora de Vizcaya y de Molina, etc. The following short style gradually comes into official use before 1808: Por la gracia de Dios Rey/Reina de las Españas y de las Indias.
³The Governing Board (Junta de Gobierno) had no formal chairman, but only one of its members was con voto de calidad, i.e., with "preferred vote," namely the widow of Carlos II: María Ana de Baviera-Neoburgo y Hesse-Darmstadt, Reina de las Españas y de las Indias (b. 1667 - d. 1740).

Navarra

The part of the old kingdom of Navarra that remained after 1512 under the Spanish rulers continued to be a kingdom in more than name until 16 Aug 1841. A significant symbol of this fact is that in Navarra the kings were proclaimed with a different numbering than in the Spanish Monarchy, as follows:
in Spain      in Navarra

Carlos II     Carlos V
Felipe V      Felipe VII
Luis I        Luis II
Fernando VI   Fernando II
Carlos III    Carlos VI
Carlos IV     Carlos VII
Fernando VII  Fernando III
Carlos V      Carlos VIII (Carlist rebellion)
Isabel II     Isabel I
Of course this separate identity was disrupted 6 May 1808 - 11 Dec 1813 during the Napoleonic wars.
Spanish Guinea: see Equatorial Guinea.
Spanish Sahara: see Western Sahara.

Sri Lanka

       1653 -        1796  Ceylon a Dutch colony
   Aug 1795                British East India Company rule
 1 Jan 1802                British crown colony
 4 Feb 1948                independence (Dominion of Ceylon)
22 May 1972                Republic of Sri Lanka
 7 Sep 1978                Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka

Governors
22 Feb 1697 - 26 Nov 1702  Gerrit de Heere                    (b. 1657 - d. 1702)
11 May 1703 - 22 Nov 1707  Cornelis Joannes Simonsz
22 Nov 1707 -  5 Dec 1716  Hendrick Becker
 5 Dec 1716 - 21 Jun 1723  Isaak Augustyn Rumpf
21 Jun 1723 - 12 Jan 1724  Arnold Mold (acting)
12 Jan 1724 - 19 Oct 1725  Johannes Hertenberg
19 Oct 1725 - 16 Sep 1726  Jan Paulus Schagen (acting)
16 Sep 1726 - 27 Aug 1729  Petrus Vuyst                       (b. ... - d. 1729)
27 Aug 1729 - 25 Aug 1732  Stephanus Versluys
25 Aug 1732 -  2 Dec 1732  Gualterus Woutersz (acting)
 2 Dec 1732 - 27 Jan 1734  Jacob Christian Pielaat
                           (commissioner)
27 Jan 1734 -  7 Jun 1736  Diederick van Domburg              (b. ... - d. 1736)
 7 Jun 1736 - 23 Jul 1736  Jan Maccare (acting)
23 Jul 1736 - 12 Mar 1740  Gustaaf Willem baron van Imhoff    (b. 1705 - d. 1750)
12 Mar 1740 -  8 Jan 1742  Willem Maurits Bruyninck
 8 Jan 1742 - 11 May 1743  Daniel Overbeek
11 May 1743 -  6 May 1751  Julius Valentyn Stein van
                           Gollenesse
 6 May 1751 - 26 Feb 1752  Gerrard Joan Vreeland
26 Feb 1752 - 10 Sep 1752  Jacob de Jong (acting)
10 Sep 1752 - 17 Mar 1757  Joan Gideon Loten                  (b. 1710 - d. 1789)
17 Mar 1757 - 17 Sep 1762  Jan Schreuder
17 Sep 1762 -  1 Apr 1765  Lubbert Jan baron van Eck          (b. 1719 - d. 1765)
13 May 1765 -  7 Aug 1765  Anthony Mooyart (acting)
 7 Aug 1765 -  6 Feb 1785  Iman Willem Falck                  (b. 1736 - d. 1785)
 7 Feb 1785 - 15 Jul 1794  Willem Jacob van der Graaf         (b. ... - d. 1794)
15 Jul 1794 - 16 Feb 1796  Johan Gerrard van Angelbeek        (b. 1727 - d. 1799)
Military governors
   Aug 1795 -  1 Mar 1796  Patrick Alexander Agnew            (b. 1765 - d. 1813)
                           (in Trincomalee)
 1 Mar 1796 -  1 Jan 1797  James Stewart
 1 Jan 1797 -  2 Jul 1797  Welbore Ellis Doyle                (b. 1758 - d. 1797)
 2 Jul 1797 - 12 Jul 1797  Peter Bonnevaux                    (b. c.1752 - d. 1797)
12 Jul 1797 - 12 Oct 1798  Pierre Frédéric de Meuron          (b. 1788 - d. 1813)
Resident
12 Feb 1796 - 12 Oct 1798  Robert Andrews
Governors
12 Oct 1798 - 19 Jul 1805  Frederick North                    (b. 1766 - d. 1827)
19 Jul 1805 - 19 Mar 1811  Thomas Maitland                    (b. 1759 - d. 1824)
19 Mar 1811 - 11 Mar 1812  John Wilson (1st time) (acting)    (b. 1780 - d. 1856)
11 Mar 1812 -  1 Feb 1820  Robert Brownrigg                   (b. 1759 - d. 1833)
 1 Feb 1820 -  2 Feb 1822  Edward Barnes (1st time) (acting)  (b. 1776 - d. 1838)
 2 Feb 1822 -  6 Nov 1822  Edward Paget                       (b. 1775 - d. 1849)
 6 Nov 1822 - 18 Jan 1824  James Campbell (acting)
18 Jan 1824 - 13 Oct 1831  Edward Barnes (2nd time)           (s.a.)
13 Oct 1831 - 23 Oct 1831  John Wilson (2nd time) (acting)    (s.a.)
23 Oct 1831 -  7 Nov 1837  Robert Wilmot-Horton               (b. 1784 - d. 1841)
 7 Nov 1837 - 15 Apr 1841  James Alexander Stewart Mackenzie  (b. 1776 - d. 1843)
15 Apr 1841 - 19 Apr 1847  Colin Campbell                     (b. 1776 - d. 1847)
19 Apr 1847 - 29 May 1847  James Emerson Tennent (acting)     (b. 1804 - d. 1869)
29 May 1847 - 18 Oct 1850  George Byng, Viscount Torrington   (b. 1812 - d. 1884)
18 Oct 1850 - 27 Nov 1850  Charles Justin MacCarthy
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1820 - d. 1864)
27 Nov 1850 - 18 Jan 1855  Sir George William Anderson        (b. 1791 - d. 1857)
18 Jan 1855 - 11 May 1855  Charles Justin MacCarthy
                           (2nd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
11 May 1855 - 30 Jun 1860  Henry George Ward                  (b. 1797 - d. 1860)
30 Jun 1860 - 30 Jul 1860  Henry Frederick Lockyer (acting)   (b. 1797 - d. 1860)
30 Jul 1860 - 22 Oct 1860  Charles Edmund Wilkinson (acting)  (b. 1807 - d. 1870)
22 Oct 1860 -  1 Dec 1863  Charles Justin MacCarthy
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Dec 1863 - 21 Mar 1865  Terence O'Brien (acting)
21 Mar 1865 -  4 Jan 1872  Sir Hercules Robinson              (b. 1824 - d. 1897)
                           (acting to 16 May 1865)
 4 Jan 1872 -  4 Mar 1872  Henry Turner Irving (acting)       (b. 1833 - d. 1923)
 4 Mar 1872 -  4 Sep 1877  William Henry Gregory              (b. 1817 - d. 1892)
 4 Sep 1877 - 10 Jul 1883  Sir James Robert Longden           (b. 1827 - d. 1891)
10 Jul 1883 -  3 Dec 1883  John Douglas (acting)
 3 Dec 1883 - 28 May 1890  Sir Arthur Charles Hamilton-Gordon (b. 1829 - d. 1912)
28 May 1890 - 24 Oct 1895  Arthur Elibank Havelock            (b. 1844 - d. 1908)
24 Oct 1895 - 10 Feb 1896  Edward Noël Walker (acting)        (b. 1842 - d. 1908)
10 Feb 1896 - 19 Nov 1903  Joseph West Ridgeway               (b. 1844 - d. 1930)
19 Nov 1903 -  3 Dec 1903  Edward F. im Thurn (acting)        (b. 1852 - d. 1932)
 3 Dec 1903 - 11 Jul 1907  Sir Henry Arthur Blake             (b. 1840 - d. 1918)
11 Jul 1907 - 24 Aug 1907  Hugh Clifford (1st time)           (b. 1866 - d. 1941)
                           (acting)
24 Aug 1907 - 24 Jan 1913  Sir Henry Edward McCallum          (b. 1852 - d. 1919)
24 Jan 1913 - 18 Oct 1913  Reginald Edward Stubbs (1st time)  (b. 1876 - d. 1947)
                           (acting)
18 Oct 1913 -  4 Dec 1915  Robert Chalmers                    (b. 1858 - d. 1938)
 4 Dec 1915 - 15 Apr 1916  Reginald Edward Stubbs (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                           (acting)
15 Apr 1916 - 24 Mar 1918  Sir John Anderson                  (b. 1858 - d. 1918)
24 Mar 1918 - 10 Sep 1918  Reginald Edward Stubbs (3rd time)  (s.a.)
                           (acting)
10 Sep 1918 -  1 Apr 1925  Sir William Henry Manning          (b. 1863 - d. 1932)
 1 Apr 1925 - 18 Oct 1925  Cecil Clementi (acting)            (b. 1875 - d. 1947)
18 Oct 1925 - 30 Nov 1925  Edward Bruce Alexander (acting)    (b. 1872 - d. 1955)
30 Nov 1925 -    Jun 1927  Sir Hugh Clifford (2nd time)       (s.a.)
   Jun 1927 - 20 Aug 1928  Arthur George Murchison Fletcher   (b. 1878 - d. 1954)
                           (acting)
20 Aug 1928 - 11 Feb 1931  Sir Herbert James Stanley          (b. 1872 - d. 1953)
11 Feb 1931 - 11 Apr 1931  Bernard Henry Bourdillon (acting)  (b. 1883 - d. 1948)
11 Apr 1931 - 20 Sep 1933  Sir Graeme Thomson                 (b. 1875 - d. 1933)
20 Sep 1933 - 23 Dec 1933  Francis Graeme Tyrrell (acting)    (b. 1876 - d. 1964)
23 Dec 1933 - 30 Jun 1937  Reginald Edward Stubbs (4th time)  (s.a.)
30 Jun 1937 - 16 Oct 1937  Maxwell MacLagan Wedderburn        (b. 1883 - d. 1953)
                           (acting)
16 Oct 1937 - 19 Sep 1944  Sir Andrew Caldecott               (b. 1884 - d. 1951)
19 Sep 1944 -  4 Feb 1948  Sir Henry Monck-Mason Moore        (b. 1887 - d. 1964)
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
 4 Feb 1948 - 29 Jun 1949  Sir Henry Monck-Mason Moore        (s.a.)
29 Jun 1949 -  6 Jul 1949  Sir Arthur Wijeyewardene (acting)  (b. 1887 - d. 1964)
 6 Jul 1949 - 17 Jul 1954  Herwald Ramsbotham, Baron Soulbury (b. 1887 - d. 1971)
17 Jul 1954 -  2 Mar 1962  Sir Oliver Goonetilleke            (b. 1892 - d. 1978)
 2 Mar 1962 - 22 May 1972  William Gopallawa                  (b. 1897 - d. 1981)
Presidents
22 May 1972 -  4 Feb 1978  William Gopallawa                  (s.a.)
 4 Feb 1978 -  2 Jan 1989  Junius Richard Jayewardene         (b. 1906 - d. 1996)
 2 Jan 1989 -  1 May 1993  Ranasinghe Premadasa               (b. 1924 - d. 1993)
 1 May 1993 - 12 Nov 1994  Dingiri Banda Wijetunga            (b. 1922 - d. 2008)
                           (acting to 7 May 1993)
12 Nov 1994 - 19 Nov 2005  Chandrika Kumaratunga (f)          (b. 1945)
19 Nov 2005 -              Mahinda Rajapakse                  (b. 1945)

Prime ministers 24 Sep 1947 - 22 Mar 1952 Don Stephen Senanayake (b. 1884 - d. 1952) 26 Mar 1952 - 12 Oct 1953 Dudley Shelton Senanayake (1st time) (b. 1911 - d. 1973) 12 Oct 1953 - 12 Apr 1956 Sir John Kotelawala (b. 1897 - d. 1980) 12 Apr 1956 - 26 Sep 1959
S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike (b. 1899 - d. 1959) 26 Sep 1959 - 21 Mar 1960 Wijayananda Dahanayake (b. 1902 - d. 1997) 21 Mar 1960 - 21 Jul 1960 Dudley Shelton Senanayake (2nd time) (s.a.) 21 Jul 1960 - 25 Mar 1965 Sirimavo Bandaranaike (f) (1st time) (b. 1916 - d. 2000) 25 Mar 1965 - 29 May 1970 Dudley Shelton Senanayake (3rd time) (s.a.) 29 May 1970 - 23 Jul 1977 Sirimavo Bandaranaike (f) (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Jul 1977 - 6 Feb 1978 Junius Richard Jayewardene (s.a.) 6 Feb 1978 - 3 Mar 1989 Ranasinghe Premadasa (s.a.) 3 Mar 1989 - 7 May 1993 Dingiri Banda Wijetunga (s.a.) 7 May 1993 - 19 Aug 1994 Ranil Wickremesinghe (1st time) (b. 1949) 19 Aug 1994 - 14 Nov 1994 Chandrika Kumaratunga (f) (s.a.) 14 Nov 1994 - 10 Aug 2000 Sirimavo Bandaranaike (f) (3rd time) (s.a.) 10 Aug 2000 - 9 Dec 2001 Ratnasiri Wickremanayake (1st time) (b. 1933) 9 Dec 2001 - 6 Apr 2004 Ranil Wickremesinghe (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Apr 2004 - 21 Nov 2005 Mahinda Rajapakse (s.a.) 21 Nov 2005 - 21 Apr 2010 Ratnasiri Wickremanayake (2nd time) (s.a.) 21 Apr 2010 - D.M. Jayaratne (b. 1931)

Udarata

       1469                Kingdom of Udarata established (often referred to as
                           Kingdom of Kandy by the name of its capital)
 2 Mar 1815 -    Jul 1817  occupied by U.K. (colony of Ceylon)
   Oct 1818                incorporated into colony of Ceylon

Kings
- Dinajara dynasty -
       1687 -        1707  Vimala Dharmasurya II
       1707 - 13 May 1739  Viraparakkama Narendrasimha        (b. ... - d. 1739)
- Nayakkar dynasty -
       1739 - 11 Aug 1747  Sri Vijaya Rajasimha               (b. ... - d. 1747)
12 Aug 1747 -  2 Jan 1782  Kirtisri Rajasimha                 (b. ... - d. 1782)
       1782 - 12 Aug 1798  Sri Rajadhirajasimha               (b. ... - d. 1798)
       1798 - 17 Feb 1803  Sri Vikrama Rajasimha (1st time)   (b. 1780 - d. 1832)
17 Feb 1803 - 24 Jun 1803  Muttusami                          (b. 17... - d. 1803)
24 Jun 1803 -  2 Mar 1815  Sri Vikrama Rajasimha (2nd time)   (s.a.)
   Jul 1817 -    Oct 1818  Kirtisri Doraisami

Stellaland: see under South Africa.
Straits Settlements: see under Singapore.

Sudan, The

       1821/22             Egyptian occupation and annexation
29 Jun 1881                Mahdiya established (Mahdi's "emergence")
 2 Sep 1898                Mahdiya extinguished
19 Jan 1899                Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (condominium)
 1 Jan 1956                independence (Republic of The Sudan)
25 May 1969                Democratic Republic of The Sudan
15 Dec 1985                Republic of The Sudan

Mahdi
29 Jun 1881 - 22 Jun 1885  Muhammad Ahmad                     (b. 1844 - d. 1885)
Khalifa
22 Jun 1885 -  2 Sep 1898  `Abd Allah                         (b. 1846 - d. 1899)
Governors-general
19 Jan 1899 - 22 Dec 1899  Horatio Herbert Kitchener,
                           Baron Kitchener                    (b. 1850 - d. 1916)
22 Dec 1899 - 31 Dec 1916  Sir Reginald Wingate               (b. 1861 - d. 1953)
 1 Jan 1917 - 20 Nov 1924  Sir Lee Oliver Fitzmaurice Stack   (b. 1868 - d. 1924)
21 Nov 1924 -  5 Jan 1925  Wasey Sterry (acting)              (b. 1866 - d. 1955)
 5 Jan 1925 -  6 Jul 1926  Sir Geoffrey Francis Archer        (b. 1882 - d. 1964)
31 Oct 1926 - 10 Jan 1934  Sir John Loader Maffey             (b. 1877 - d. 1969)
10 Jan 1934 - 19 Oct 1940  Sir George Stewart Symes           (b. 1882 - d. 1962)
19 Oct 1940 -  8 Apr 1947  Sir Hubert Jervoise Huddleston     (b. 1880 - d. 1950)
 8 Apr 1947 - 29 Mar 1954  Sir Robert George Howe             (b. 1893 - d. 1981)
29 Mar 1954 - 12 Dec 1955  Sir Alexander Knox Helm            (b. 1893 - d. 1964)
Presidents
 1 Jan 1956 - 17 Nov 1958  Sovereignty Council
                           - Abdel Fattah Muhammad
                             al-Maghrabi
                           - Muhammad Ahmad Yasin
                           - Ahmad Muhammad Salih             (b. 1896 - d. 1971)
                           - Muhammad Othman al-Dardiri
                           - Siricio Iro Wani
18 Nov 1958 - 15 Nov 1964  Ibrahim Abboud                     (b. 1900 - d. 1983)
                           (chairman Supreme Council of the Armed Forces to 31 Oct 1964)
15 Nov 1964 -  3 Dec 1964  Sirr al-Khatim al-Khalifa (acting) (b. 1919 - d. 2006)
 3 Dec 1964 - 10 Jun 1965  Committee of Sovereignty
                           (chair rotating weekly)
                           - Abdel Halim Muhammad (1st time)  (b. 1910 - d. 2009)
                           - Tijani al-Mahi                   (b. 1911 - d. 1970)
                           - Mubarak Shaddad                  (b. 1913)
                           - Ibrahim Yusuf Sulayman
                             (to 31 May 1965)
                           - Luigi Adwok (1st time)           (b. 1929 - d. 2010)
                             (from Dec 1964)
10 Jun 1965 -  8 Jul 1965  Committee of Sovereignty
                           (chair rotating weekly)
                           - Ismail al-Azhari                 (b. 1900 - d. 1969)
                           - Abdullah al-Fadil al-Mahdi       (b. 1892 - d. 1966)
                           - Luigi Adwok (2nd time)           (s.a.)
                             (to 14 Jun 1965)
                           - Abdel Halim Muhammad (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                           - Khidr Hamad
 8 Jul 1965 - 25 May 1969  Ismail al-Azhari                   (s.a.)
                           (chairman Sovereignty Council)
25 May 1969 - 19 Jul 1971  Gaafar Nimeiry (1st time)          (b. 1930 - d. 2009)
                           (chairman Revolutionary Command Council)
19 Jul 1971 - 22 Jul 1971  Babiker al-Nur Osman
                           (chairman Revolutionary Council)
22 Jul 1971 -  6 Apr 1985  Gaafar Nimeiry (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                           (chairman Revolutionary Command Council to 12 Oct 1971)
 6 Apr 1985 -  6 May 1986  Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab         (b. 1934)
                           (Commander-in-Chief to 9 Apr 1985, then
                           chairman Transitional Military Council)
 6 May 1986 - 30 Jun 1989  Ahmad al-Mirghani                  (b. 1941 - d. 2008)
                           (chairman Supreme Council)
30 Jun 1989 -              Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir        (b. 1944)
                           (president of Revolutionary Command Council for
                           National Salvation to 16 Oct 1993)

Prime ministers 6 Jan 1954 - 5 Jul 1956 Ismail al-Azhari (s.a.) 5 Jul 1956 - 17 Nov 1958 Abdullah Khalil (b. 1892 - d. 1970) 18 Nov 1958 - 31 Oct 1964 Ibrahim Abboud (s.a.) 31 Oct 1964 - 10 Jun 1965 Sirr al-Khatim al-Khalifa (s.a.) 10 Jun 1965 - 27 Jul 1966 Muhammad Ahmad Mahgoub (1st time) (b. 1908 - d. 1976) 27 Jul 1966 - 18 May 1967 Sadiq al-Mahdi (1st time) (b. 1935) 18 May 1967 - 25 May 1969 Muhammad Ahmad Mahgoub (2nd time) (s.a.) 25 May 1969 - 27 Oct 1969 Babiker Awadalla (b. 1917) 28 Oct 1969 - 9 Aug 1976 Gaafar Nimeiry (1st time) (s.a.) 9 Aug 1976 - 10 Sep 1977 Rashid Bakr (b. 1930) 10 Sep 1977 - 6 Apr 1985 Gaafar Nimeiry (2nd time) (s.a.) 22 Apr 1985 - 6 May 1986 al-Jazuli Dafalla (b. 1935) 6 May 1986 - 30 Jun 1989 Sadiq al-Mahdi (2nd time) (s.a.)

Taqali

14 Jul 1884 -        1898  annexed by the Mahdiya, but rulers continue in rebellion
       1969                state extinguished

Kings (title Woster or Makk)
        ... -        1783  `Umar Abu Zintar walad al-Jayli
       1783 -        1800  Isma`il walad Muhammad
       1800 -        1820  Abu Bakr walad Isma`il
       1820 -        1835  `Umar walad Abi Bakr
       1835 -        1840  Ahmad walad Abi Bakr
       1840 -        1843  al-Maryud walad Isma`il
       1843 -        1864  Nasir walad Abi Bakr
       1864 - 14 Jul 1884  Adam Umm Dabbalu walad `Umar
                           al-`Arabi
       1884 -        1898  `Ali Abu Zanayt walad Adam
       1898 -        1916  Mustafa al-Jayli walad Adam
       1916 -        1920  Abu Bakr walad al-Jayli
       1920 -        1969  Adam walad al-Jayli

Darfur

       1445                Kayra Fur dynasty established
23 Oct 1874                occupied by Egypt
       1889 -        1898  annexed to the Mahdiya
22 May 1916                state extinguished
23 Apr 2007                Transitional Darfur Regional Authority inaugurated

Sultans
- Kayra Fur dynasty -
       1785 -        1799  `Abd ar-Rahman ar-Rashid
       1799 -        1839  Muhammad al-Fadl
       1839 -    Apr 1873  Muhammad al-Husayn
       1839 -        1843    Muhammad Abu Madyan (in rebellion)
21 Apr 1873 - 23 Oct 1874  Ibrahim Qarad Koyko
       1874                Hasab Allah
       1874 -        1875  Sayf ad-Din Bush
       1877 -        1880  Sayf ad-Din Muhammad Harun ar-Rashid
       1880 -        1884  `Abd Allah Dud Banja
       1887 - 14 Feb 1888  Yusuf
       1888 -        1891  Abu´l Khayrat
       1891 -        1908    Sanin al-Husayn (in rebellion)
21 Mar 1899 - 22 May 1916  `Ali Dinar ibn Zakariyya           (b. c.1865 - d. 1916)
Chairmen of the Transitional Darfur Regional Authority
23 Apr 2007 -  5 Dec 2010  Minni Arkou Minawi                 (b. c.1970)
 5 Dec 2010 - 21 Sep 2011  Shartai Jaafar Abdel Hakam
Chairman of the Darfur Regional Authority
21 Sep 2011 -              Tijani al-Sissi

Dar al-Masalit

       1884                state established
       1921                state extinguished

Sultans
       1884 -        1889  Isma`il ibn `Abd an-Nabi
       1889 -        1907  Abu Bakr ibn Isma`il
       1907 -        1910  Taj ad-Din Muhammad ibn Isma`il
       1910 -        1921  Bahr ad-Din Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr

Dar Qimr

Sultans
       18.. -        1879  Abu Bakr
       1879 -        1935  Idris ibn Abi Bakr                 (b. 1859 - d. 1935)
       1935 -        1945  Hashim ibn Idris                   (b. 1873 - d. 19...)

Abyei

Chief administrators
31 Aug 2008 - 30 Dec 2009  Arop Moyak
30 Dec 2009 - 21 May 2011  Deng Arop Kuol
 7 Jun 2011 -              Ahmed Hussein al-Imam

Sulu: see under Philippines.

Suriname

       1667                Dutch colony (Dutch Guiana)
       1804 - 27 Feb 1816  British rule
       1828 -        1848  united with Netherlands Antilles as Dutch West Indies
20 Sep 1948                renamed Suriname
25 Nov 1975                independence (Republic of Suriname [also spelled
                           Surinam until 23 Jan 1978])

Chairman of the National Military Council (de facto leader)
25 Feb 1980 - 25 Jan 1988  Dési Bouterse                      (b. 1945)

Governors (of the Dutch West India Company) 14 May 1696 - 2 Mar 1707 Paulus van der Veen 2 Mar 1707 - 27 Sep 1707 William de Gruyter (b. 16... - d. 1707) 27 Sep 1707 - 19 Jan 1710 Francis Anthonie de Rayneval (1st time) (acting) 19 Jan 1710 - 28 Jul 1715 Johan de Goyer (b. 16... - d. 1715) 28 Jul 1715 - 22 Jan 1716 Francis Anthonie de Rayneval (2nd time) (acting) 22 Jan 1716 - 4 Oct 1717 Johan de Mahony (b. 16... - d. 1717) 4 Oct 1717 - 2 Mar 1718 Francis Anthonie de Rayneval (3rd time) (acting) 2 Mar 1718 - 4 Sep 1721 Jan Coetier (b. 16... - d. 1721) 4 Sep 1721 - 1 Mar 1722 Francis Anthonie de Rayneval (4th time) (acting) Governors-general 1 Mar 1722 - 17 Sep 1727 Hendrik Temminck (b. ... - d. 1727) 17 Sep 1727 - 9 Nov 1728 Francis Anthonie de Rayneval (acting) 9 Nov 1728 - 26 Jan 1734 Karel Emilius Henry de Cheusses (b. ... - d. 1734) 26 Jan 1734 - 11 Dec 1734 Johan Fredrik Cornelis de Vries (1st time) (acting) 11 Dec 1734 - 26 Jan 1735 Jacob Alexander Henry de Cheusses 26 Jan 1735 - 4 Mar 1735 Johan Fredrik Cornelis de Vries (2nd time) (acting) 4 Mar 1735 - 22 Dec 1735 Council 22 Dec 1735 - 11 Aug 1737 Johan Raye van Brenelerwaard 11 Aug 1737 - 15 Oct 1742 Gerrit van de Schepper (b. ... - d. 1742) 15 Oct 1742 - 23 Apr 1751 Johan Jacob Mauricius (b. 1692 - d. 1768) 23 Apr 1751 - 7 Sep 1752 Hendrik Ernst baron van Spörcke (b. ... - d. 1752) (acting) 7 Sep 1752 - 22 Oct 1754 Wigbold Crommelin (1st time) (b. 1712 - d. 1789) (acting) 22 Oct 1754 - 24 Aug 1756 Pieter Albert van der Meer (b. ... - d. 1756) 24 Aug 1756 - 21 Jan 1757 Jan Nepveu (1st time) (acting) (b. 1719 - d. 1779) 21 Jan 1757 - 22 Nov 1768 Wigbold Crommelin (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting to 20 Sep 1757) 22 Nov 1768 - 27 Feb 1779 Jan Nepveu (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting to 8 Mar 1770) 27 Feb 1779 - 23 Sep 1783 Bernard Texier (b. ... - d. 1783) 23 Sep 1783 - 24 Dec 1784 Wolphert Jacob Beeldsnijder Matroos (acting) 24 Dec 1784 - 15 Jun 1790 Jan Gerhard Wichers 15 Jun 1790 - 4 Dec 1802 Juriaan François Frederici (b. 1751 - d. 1812) (acting to 24 Aug 1792) 4 Dec 1802 - 9 Dec 1803 Willem Otto Blois van Treslong (acting) 9 Dec 1803 - 9 May 1804 Pierre Beranger (commissioner-general) 9 May 1804 - 15 Apr 1805 Sir Charles Green 15 Apr 1805 - 27 Sep 1808 William Carlyon Hughes (b. 17... - d. 1808) (lieutenant governor) 27 Sep 1808 - 4 May 1809 Sir John Wardlau Bar (acting) 4 May 1809 - 8 Nov 1811 Charles Ferdinand Bentinck (b. 1764 - d. 1811) (chief commissioner) 8 Nov 1811 - 27 Feb 1816 Pinson Bonham (acting) (b. 1762 - d. 1855) 27 Feb 1816 - 18 Jul 1816 Willem Benjamin van Panhuys (b. 17... - d. 1816) 18 Jul 1816 - 1 Apr 1822 Cornelis Reinhard Vaillant (acting) 1 Apr 1822 - 12 Oct 1827 Abraham de Veer (b. 1767 - d. 1838) 12 Oct 1827 - 1 Aug 1828 Johannes van den Bosch (b. 1780 - d. 1844) (commissioner-general) 1 Aug 1828 - 19 Dec 1831 Paulus Roelof Cantz'laar (b. ... - d. 1831) 19 Dec 1831 - 5 Jun 1838 Evert Ludolph baron van Heeckeren (acting to 6 May 1832) 5 Jun 1838 - 16 Jul 1839 Philippus de Kanter (1st time) (acting) 16 Jul 1839 - 31 Mar 1842 Julius Constantijn Rijk (b. 1787 - d. 1854) 31 Mar 1842 - 15 Nov 1842 Philippus de Kanter (2nd time) (acting) 15 Nov 1842 - 16 Jul 1845 Burchard Joan Elias (b. 1799 - d. 1871) 16 Jul 1845 - 13 Oct 1845 Philippus de Kanter (3rd time) (acting) 13 Oct 1845 - 1 Mar 1852 Reinier Frederik baron van Raders (b. 1794 - d. 1868) 1 Mar 1852 - 14 Jun 1852 Philippus de Kanter (4th time) (acting) 14 Jun 1852 - 22 Jun 1852 Coenrad Barends (acting) 22 Jun 1852 - 25 Aug 1855 Johann George Otto Stuart von Schmidt auf Altenstadt (b. 1806 - d. 1857) 25 Aug 1855 - 11 Aug 1859 Charles Pierre Schimpf (b. 1813 - d. 1886) 11 Aug 1859 - 29 Jun 1867 Reinhart Frans van Lansberge (b. 1804 - d. 1873) 29 Jun 1867 - 1 Aug 1873 Willem Hendrik Johan van Idsinga (b. 1822 - d. 1896) 1 Aug 1873 - 1 Nov 1882 Cornelis Ascanius van Sypesteyn (b. 1823 - d. 1892) 11 Nov 1882 - 30 Jul 1885 Johannes Herbert August Willem baron van Heerdt tot Eversberg (b. 1829 - d. 1893) 30 Jul 1885 - 18 Jul 1888 Hendrik Jan Smidt (b. 1831 - d. 1917) 18 Jul 1888 - 30 Jan 1889 Warmolt Tonckens (1st time) (b. 1848 - d. 1922) (acting) 30 Jan 1889 - 27 Jun 1891 Maurits Adriaan de Savornin Lohman (b. 1832 - d. 1899) 27 Jun 1891 - 12 May 1896 Titus van Asch van Wijck (b. 1849 - d. 1902) 12 May 1896 - 4 Oct 1902 Warmolt Tonckens (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Oct 1902 - 12 Sep 1905 Cornelis Lely (b. 1854 - d. 1929) 12 Sep 1905 - 18 Nov 1905 David Hendrick Havelaar (acting) 18 Nov 1905 - 28 Feb 1908 Alexander Willem Frederik Idenburg (b. 1861 - d. 1935) 28 Feb 1908 - 10 Aug 1908 Pieter Hofstede Crull (1st time) (acting) 10 Aug 1908 - 30 Jun 1911 Dirk Fock (b. 1858 - d. 1941) 30 Jun 1911 - 14 Jul 1911 Louis Marie Rollin Couquerque 14 Jul 1911 - 17 Oct 1911 Pieter Hofstede Crull (2nd time) (acting) 17 Oct 1911 - 25 Nov 1916 Willem Dirk Hendrik baron van Asbeck (b. 1858 - d. 1935) 25 Nov 1916 - 25 Nov 1919 Gerard Johan Staal (1st time) (b. 1870 - d. 1936) 25 Nov 1919 - 15 Jul 1920 Lambertus Johannes Rietberg (1st time) 15 Jul 1920 - 16 Dec 1920 Gerard Johan Staal (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 Dec 1920 - 23 May 1921 Lambertus Johannes Rietberg (2nd time) 23 May 1921 - 21 May 1924 Aarnoud Jan Anne Aleid baron van Heemstra (1st time) (b. 1871 - d. 1957) 21 May 1924 - 18 Sep 1924 Lambertus Johannes Rietberg (3rd time) 18 Sep 1924 - 21 Feb 1925 Jan Luchies Nysingh 21 Feb 1925 - 1 Apr 1928 Aarnoud Jan Anne Aleid baron van Heemstra (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Apr 1928 - 16 Aug 1933 Bram Rutgers (b. 1884 - d. 1966) 16 Aug 1933 - 3 Jan 1944 Johannes Coenraad Kielstra (b. 1878 - d. 1951) 16 Aug 1935 - 12 Apr 1936 Johannes Cornelis Brons (1st time) (acting for Kielstra) (b. 1884 - d. 1964) Sep 1938 - Jan 1939 Johannes Cornelis Brons (2nd time) (acting for Kielstra) (s.a.) 3 Jan 1944 - 2 Aug 1948 Johannes Cornelis Brons (3rd time) (s.a.) 2 Aug 1948 - 2 Dec 1949 Willem Huender (b. 1900 - d. 1963) 2 Dec 1949 - 11 Feb 1956 Jan Klaasesz (b. 1907 - d. 1997) 11 Feb 1956 - 18 Mar 1962 Jan van Tilburg (b. 1900 - d. 1977) 19 Mar 1962 - 22 Aug 1964 Archibald Currie (b. 1889 - d. 1986) (acting to 1 May 1963) 22 Aug 1964 - 26 Feb 1965 François Haverschmidt (acting) (b. 1906 - d. 1987) 26 Feb 1965 - 12 Aug 1968 Henri Lucien de Vries (b. 1909 - d. 1987) 12 Aug 1968 - 25 Nov 1975 Johan Ferrier (b. 1910 - d. 2010) Presidents 25 Nov 1975 - 13 Aug 1980 Johan Ferrier (s.a.) 13 Aug 1980 - 15 Aug 1980 Dési Bouterse (1st time) (s.a.) (National Army Commander) 15 Aug 1980 - 4 Feb 1982 Hendrick R. Chin A Sen (b. 1934 - d. 1999) 4 Feb 1982 - 8 Feb 1982 Dési Bouterse (2nd time) (s.a.) (National Army Commander) 8 Feb 1982 - 25 Jan 1988 L.F. Ramdat Misier (acting) (b. 1926 - d. 2004) 25 Jan 1988 - 24 Dec 1990 Ramsewak Shankar (b. 1937) 24 Dec 1990 - 29 Dec 1990 Ivan Graanoogst (National Army Commander) 29 Dec 1990 - 16 Sep 1991 Johan Kraag (b. 1913 - d. 1996) 16 Sep 1991 - 15 Sep 1996 Ronald Venetiaan (1st time) (b. 1936) 15 Sep 1996 - 12 Aug 2000 Jules Wijdenbosch (b. 1941) 12 Aug 2000 - 12 Aug 2010 Ronald Venetiaan (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Aug 2010 - Dési Bouterse (3rd time) (s.a.)
Prime ministers 1949 - 1951 Julius Caesar de Miranda (b. 1906 - d. 1956) 5 Apr 1951 - 4 Jun 1951 Jacques Adam Drielsma (b. 1886 - d. 1975) 4 Jun 1951 - 6 Sep 1952 Johannes A.E. Buiskool (b. 1899 - d. 1960) 6 Sep 1952 - 4 Dec 1952 Adriaan Alberga (b. 1887 - d. 1952) 4 Dec 1952 - 16 Apr 1955 Archibald Currie (s.a.) (acting to 20 Aug 1954) 16 Apr 1955 - 16 Jul 1958 Johan Ferrier (s.a.) 16 Jul 1958 - Jun 1963 Severinus Désiré Emanuels (b. 1910) Jun 1963 - 5 Mar 1969 Johan Adolf Pengel (b. 1916 - d. 1970) 5 Mar 1969 - 20 Nov 1969 Arthur J. May (acting) (b. 1903 - d. ...) 20 Nov 1969 - 24 Dec 1973 Jules Sedney (b. 1922) 24 Dec 1973 - 25 Feb 1980 Henck Arron (b. 1936 - d. 2000) 15 Mar 1980 - Dec 1980 Hendrick R. Chin A Sen (s.a.) 31 Mar 1982 - 9 Dec 1982 Henry Neyhorst (b. 1940) 26 Feb 1983 - 8 Jan 1984 Errol Alibux (b. 1948) 3 Feb 1984 - 17 Jul 1986 Wim Udenhout (b. 1937) 17 Jul 1986 - 7 Apr 1987 Pretaapnarian Radhakishun (b. 1935 - d. 2001) 7 Apr 1987 - 26 Jan 1988 Jules Wijdenbosch (s.a.) Vice presidents (chairing the Council of Ministers ex officio) 26 Jan 1988 - 24 Dec 1990 Henck Arron (s.a.) 7 Jan 1991 - 16 Sep 1991 Jules Wijdenbosch (s.a.) 16 Sep 1991 - 15 Sep 1996 Jules Ajodhia (1st time) (b. 1945) 15 Sep 1996 - 12 Aug 2000 Pretaapnarian Radhakishun (s.a.) 12 Aug 2000 - 12 Aug 2005 Jules Ajodhia (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Aug 2005 - 12 Aug 2010 Ram Sardjoe (b. 1935) 12 Aug 2010 - Robert Ameerali (b. 1962?)

Svalbard: see under Norway.
Svania: see under Georgia.

Swaziland

 6 Jul 1902                British protectorate
25 Apr 1967                autonomy
 6 Sep 1968                independence

Paramount chiefs
- Nkosi Dlamini dynasty -
        ... -        1780  Ngwane III
       1780                Queen Ndwandwe (f) (regent)
       1780 -        1815  Zikodze                            (b. c.1760 - d. 1815)
       1815                Queen Mndzebele (f) (regent)
       1815 -        1836  Ngwane IV = Sobhuza I              (b. c.1795 - d. 1836)
       1836 -        1840  Queen Lojiba Simelane (f) (regent)
       1840 -    Jul 1868  Mavuso II = Mswati II              (b. c.1821 - d. 1868)
   Jul 1868 -    Jun 1875  Queen Thandile Ndwandwe (f)        (b. c.1806 - d. c.1875)
                           (regent)
   Jun 1875 -  7 Oct 1889  Dlamini IV                         (b. c.1855 - d. 1889)
 7 Oct 1889 -        1894  Queen Tibati Nkambule (f) (regent)
   Feb 1895 - 10 Dec 1899  Ngwane V                           (b. c.1875 - d. 1899)
10 Dec 1899 - 22 Dec 1921  Queen Labotsibeni Gwamile Mdluli
                           (f) (regent)                       (b. c.1858 - d. 1925)
22 Dec 1921 -  6 Sep 1968  Sobhuza II                         (b. 1899 - d. 1982)
Kings
- Nkosi Dlamini dynasty -
 6 Sep 1968 - 21 Aug 1982  Sobhuza II                         (s.a.)
21 Aug 1982 -  9 Aug 1983  Queen Dzeliwe (f) (regent)         (b. c.1927 - d. 2003)
 9 Aug 1983 - 18 Aug 1983  Prince Sozisa Dlamini              (b. ... - d. 1992)
                           ("Authorized Person")
18 Aug 1983 - 25 Apr 1986  Queen Ntombi (f) (regent)          (b. c.1950)
25 Apr 1986 -              Mswati III                         (b. 1968)

Prime ministers 16 May 1967 - 31 Mar 1976 Prince Makhosini Dlamini (b. 1914 - d. 1978) 31 Mar 1976 - 25 Oct 1979 Maphevu Dlamini (b. 1922 - d. 1979) 25 Oct 1979 - 23 Nov 1979 Ben Nsibandze (acting) (b. 1931) 23 Nov 1979 - 25 Mar 1983 Prince Mabandla N.F. Dlamini (b. 1930) 25 Mar 1983 - 6 Oct 1986 Prince Bhekimpi Dlamini (b. 1924 - d. 1999) 6 Oct 1986 - 12 Jul 1989 Sotsha Dlamini (b. 1940) 12 Jul 1989 - 25 Oct 1993 Obed Dlamini (b. 1937) (acting to 18 Jul 1989) 25 Oct 1993 - 4 Nov 1993 Andreas Fakudze (acting) 4 Nov 1993 - 8 May 1996 Prince Jameson Mbilini Dlamini (b. 1932 - d. 2008) 8 May 1996 - 26 Jul 1996 Sishayi Nxumalo (acting) (b. 1936 - d. 2000) 26 Jul 1996 - 29 Sep 2003 Sibusiso Barnabas Dlamini (1st time) (b. 1942) 29 Sep 2003 - 26 Nov 2003 Paul Shabangu (acting) (b. 1943?) 26 Nov 2003 - 18 Sep 2008 Themba Dlamini (b. 1950) 18 Sep 2008 - 23 Oct 2008 Bheki Dlamini (acting) (b. 1952?) 23 Oct 2008 - Sibusiso Barnabas Dlamini (2nd time) (s.a.) British resident commissioners (from 3 Oct 1963, commissioners) (subordinated to the High Commissioner for Southern Africa to 3 Oct 1963) 1902 - 1907 Francis Enraght-Moony (b. 1865 - d. 1943) 1907 - 1916 Robert Thorne Coryndon (b. 1870 - d. 1925) 1917 - 1928 Sir de Symons Montagu George Honey (b. 1872 - d. 1945) Oct 1928 - 1 Apr 1935 Thomas Ainsworth-Dickson (b. 1881 - d. 1935) Oct 1935 - 1937 Allan Graham Marwick (b. 1877 - d. 1966) Nov 1937 - 1942 Charles Lamb Bruton (b. 1890 - d. 1969) 30 Sep 1942 - 1946 Eric Kellett Featherstone (b. 1896 - d. 1965) 25 Aug 1946 - 1951 Edward Betham Beetham (b. 1905 - d. 1979) 1951 - 1956 David Loftus Morgan (b. 1904 - d. 1976) 1956 - 1964 Brian Allan Marwick (from 1963, Sir Brian Allan Marwick) (b. 1908 - d. 1992) 1964 - 1968 Francis Alfred Loyd (from 1965, Sir Francis Alfred Loyd) (b. 1916 - d. 2006)

Sweden

   Mar 1388                Kingdom of Sweden
 4 Nov 1814 -  7 Jun 1905  personal union with Norway

Kings/Queens¹
- Pfalz-Zweibrücken (Wittelsbach) dynasty -
15 Apr 1697 - 11 Dec 1718  Karl XII                           (b. 1682 - d. 1718)
11 Dec 1718 -  2 Feb 1719  Arvid Bernhard Gustafson Horn,
                           greve Horn av Ekebyholm            (b. 1664 - d. 1742)
                           (Chancellery President)
 2 Feb 1719 -  4 Apr 1720  Ulrica Eleonora (f)                (b. 1688 - d. 1741)
- Hessen (Brabant) dynasty -
 4 Apr 1720 -  5 Apr 1751  Fredrik I                          (b. 1676 - d. 1751)
- Holsten-Gottorp dynasty -
 5 Apr 1751 - 12 Feb 1771  Adolf Fredrik                      (b. 1710 - d. 1771)
12 Feb 1771 - 29 Mar 1792  Gustaf III                         (b. 1746 - d. 1792)
29 Mar 1792 - 10 May 1809  Gustaf IV Adolf                    (b. 1778 - d. 1837)
                           (arrested 13 Mar 1809; abdicates 29 Mar 1809, but is held
                           to reign until 10 May 1809)
10 May 1809 -  5 Feb 1818  Karl XIII                          (b. 1748 - d. 1818)
                           (regent [as Karl, hertig av Södermanland] 10 May [de facto
                           from 13 Mar] - 6 Jun 1809)
- Bernadotte dynasty -
 5 Feb 1818 -  8 Mar 1844  Karl XIV Johan                     (b. 1763 - d. 1844)
 8 Mar 1844 -  8 Jul 1859  Oscar I                            (b. 1799 - d. 1859)
 8 Jul 1859 - 18 Sep 1872  Karl XV                            (b. 1826 - d. 1872)
18 Sep 1872 -  8 Dec 1907  Oscar II                           (b. 1829 - d. 1907)
 8 Dec 1907 - 29 Oct 1950  Gustaf V                           (b. 1858 - d. 1950)
29 Oct 1950 - 15 Sep 1973  Gustaf VI Adolf                    (b. 1882 - d. 1973)
15 Sep 1973 -              Carl XVI Gustaf                    (b. 1946)

Chancellery presidents 1680 - 12 Jul 1702 Bengt greve Oxenstierna af Korsholm och Wasa (b. 1623 - d. 1702) (acting to 1685) 12 Jul 1702 - 1705 Carl greve Piper (acting) (b. 1647 - d. 1716) 1705 - 4 May 1709 Nils greve Gyldenstolpe (b. 1642 - d. 1709) May 1709 - 1739 Arvid Bernhard Gustafson Horn, greve Horn av Ekebyholm (s.a.) (acting to 10 Apr 1719) 1739 - 9 Dec 1746 Carl Gyllenborg (b. 1679 - d. 1746) 9 Dec 1746 - Mar 1752 Carl Gustaf greve Tessin (b. 1695 - d. 1770) (acting to 5 Dec 1747) Mar 1752 - 1761 Andreas Johan friherre von Höpken (b. 1712 - d. 1789) 1761 - 1765 Claes greve Ekeblad (1st time) (b. 1708 - d. 1771) 1765 - 7 Mar 1768 Carl Gustaf greve Löwenhielm (b. 1701 - d. 1768) 1768 - 1769 Fredrik friherre von Friesendorff (b. 1707 - d. 1770) (acting) 1769 - 1771 Claes greve Ekeblad (2nd time) (s.a.) 1771 - 1772 Ulrik greve Scheffer (1st time) (b. 1716 - d. 1799) 22 Apr 1772 - 22 Aug 1772 Joachim friherre von Düben (b. 1708 - d. 1786) 22 Aug 1772 - 1783 Ulrik greve Scheffer (2nd time) (s.a.) Jun 1783 - 1785 Gustaf Philip greve Creutz (b. 1731 - d. 1785) 1785 - 1786 Malte friherre Ramel (acting) 1786 - 1787 Emanuel De Geer (b. 17... - d. 1803) 1787 - 1789 Johan Gabriel greve Oxenstierna af Korsholm och Wasa (acting) (b. 1750 - d. 1818) 1789 - Nov 1790 Carl Wilhelm greve von Düben (b. 1724 - d. 1790) (acting) Nov 1790 - 1792 Ulrich Gustaf Frank (acting) (b. 1736 - d. 1811) 1792 Evert Wilhelm friherre Taube af Odenkat (acting) (b. 1737 - d. 1799) 15 May 1792 - 1793 Christofer Bogislaus Zibet (1st time) (b. 1740 - d. 1809) 16 Jul 1792 - 14 Dec 1797 Fredrik friherre Sparre (b. 1731 - d. 1803) (first chancellor) Aug 1793 - 1799 Nils Anton Augustus greve Barck (b. 1760 - d. 1822) 5 Oct 1799 - 1801 Christofer Bogislaus Zibet (2nd time) (s.a.) 1801 - 1809 Fredrik Wilhelm von Ehrenheim, (from 1805) friherre Ehrenheim (b. 1753 - d. 1828) Prime ministers for justice² 9 Jun 1809 - 5 Apr 1810 Carl Axel greve Trolle-Wachtmeister (b. 1754 - d. 1810) 25 Jun 1810 - 18 Aug 1829 Fredrik greve Gyllenborg (b. 1767 - d. 1829) 31 Aug 1829 - 6 Feb 1840 Mathias greve Rosenblad (b. 1758 - d. 1847) 6 Feb 1840 - 28 Mar 1840 Hans Gabriel Trolle-Wachtmeister (b. 1782 - d. 1871) (did not take office) 28 Mar 1840 - 5 Sep 1840 Arvid greve Posse (1st time) (b. 1792 - d. 1850) 5 Sep 1840 - 5 Jan 1843 Carl Törnebladh (b. 1774 - d. 1844) (acting to 14 Jan 1841) 5 Jan 1843 - 28 Dec 1844 Lars Herman friherre Gyllenhaal till Härlingstorp (b. 1790 - d. 1858) 28 Dec 1844 - 9 Mar 1846 Johan friherre Nordenfalk (b. 1769 - d. 1846) 23 Mar 1846 - 10 Apr 1848 Arvid greve Posse (2nd time) (s.a.) 10 Apr 1848 - 25 Sep 1856 Gustaf Adolf Vive greve Sparre af Söfdeborg (b. 1802 - d. 1886) 25 Sep 1856 - 7 Apr 1858 Claës Efraim Günther (b. 1799 - d. 1861) 7 Apr 1858 - 3 Jun 1870 Louis Gerhard friherre De Geer af Finspång (1st time) (b. 1818 - d. 1896) 3 Jun 1870 - 8 Apr 1874 Axel Gustaf Adlercreutz (b. 1821 - d. 1886) 4 May 1874 - 11 May 1875 Eduard Carleson (b. 1820 - d. 1884) 11 May 1875 - 20 Mar 1876 Louis Gerhard friherre De Geer af Finspång (2nd time) (s.a.) Prime ministers for foreign affairs² 15 Mar 1809 - 8 Jun 1824 Lars friherre von Engeström (from 1813, Lars greve von Engeström) (b. 1751 - d. 1826) 8 Jun 1824 - 15 May 1837 Gustaf greve af Wetterstedt (b. 1776 - d. 1837) 18 Jun 1837 - 30 Jan 1838 Adolf Göran greve Mörner af Morlanda (acting) (b. 1773 - d. 1838) 7 Mar 1838 - 11 Jul 1842 Gustaf Nils Algernon Adolph friherre Stierneld (1st time) (b. 1791 - d. 1868) 11 Jul 1842 - 10 Apr 1848 Albrecht (from 1843, friherre) Ihre (b. 1797 - d. 1877) (acting [for Stierneld from 5 Sep 1840] to 29 Dec 1842) 10 Apr 1848 - 8 Sep 1856 Gustaf Nils Algernon Adolph friherre Stierneld (2nd time) (s.a.) 8 Sep 1856 - 16 Mar 1858 Elias friherre Lagerheim (b. 1791 - d. 1864) 16 Mar 1858 - 4 Jun 1868 Ludvig friherre Manderström (from 1860, Ludvig greve Manderström) (b. 1806 - d. 1873) 4 Jun 1868 - 14 Oct 1871 Carl greve Wachtmeister af Johannishus (b. 1823 - d. 1871) 10 Nov 1871 - 17 Dec 1872 Baltzar greve von Platen (b. 1804 - d. 1875) 17 Dec 1872 - 20 Mar 1876 Oscar Magnus Fredrik Björnstjerna (b. 1819 - d. 1905) Prime ministers 20 Mar 1876 - 19 Apr 1880 Louis Gerhard friherre De Geer af Finspång (s.a.) 19 Apr 1880 - 13 Jun 1883 Arvid Rutger Fredriksson greve Posse (b. 1820 - d. 1901) 13 Jun 1883 - 16 May 1884 Carl Johan Thyselius (b. 1811 - d. 1891) 16 May 1884 - 6 Feb 1888 Robert Themptander (b. 1844 - d. 1897) 6 Feb 1888 - 12 Oct 1889 Gillis friherre Bildt (b. 1820 - d. 1894) 12 Oct 1889 - 10 Jul 1891 Gustaf friherre Åkerhielm af Margrethelund (b. 1833 - d. 1900) 10 Jul 1891 - 12 Sep 1900 Erik Gustaf Boström (1st time) (b. 1842 - d. 1907) 12 Sep 1900 - 5 Jul 1902 Fredrik Wilhelm friherre von Otter (b. 1833 - d. 1910) 5 Jul 1902 - 13 Apr 1905 Erik Gustaf Boström (2nd time) (s.a.) 13 Apr 1905 - 2 Aug 1905 Johan Olof Ramstedt (b. 1852 - d. 1935) 2 Aug 1905 - 8 Nov 1905 Christian Lundeberg (b. 1842 - d. 1911) 8 Nov 1905 - 29 May 1906 Karl Albert Staaff (1st time) (b. 1860 - d. 1915) 29 May 1906 - 7 Oct 1911 Salomon Arvid Achates Lindman (1st time) (b. 1862 - d. 1936) 7 Oct 1911 - 16 Feb 1914 Karl Albert Staaff (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 Feb 1914 - 30 Mar 1917 Hjalmar Hammarskjöld (b. 1862 - d. 1953) 30 Mar 1917 - 19 Oct 1917 Karl Johan Gustaf Swartz (b. 1858 - d. 1926) 19 Oct 1917 - 10 Mar 1920 Nils Edén (b. 1871 - d. 1945) 10 Mar 1920 - 27 Oct 1920 Karl Hjalmar Branting (1st time) (b. 1860 - d. 1925) 27 Oct 1920 - 23 Feb 1921 Gerhard Louis friherre De Geer af Finspång (b. 1854 - d. 1935) 23 Feb 1921 - 13 Oct 1921 Oscar von Sydow (b. 1873 - d. 1936) 13 Oct 1921 - 29 Apr 1923 Karl Hjalmar Branting (2nd time) (s.a.) 29 Apr 1923 - 19 Oct 1924 Ernst Trygger (b. 1857 - d. 1943) 19 Oct 1924 - 25 Jan 1925 Karl Hjalmar Branting (3rd time) (s.a.) 25 Jan 1925 - 6 Jun 1926 Rickard Sandler (b. 1884 - d. 1964) 6 Jun 1926 - 1 Oct 1928 Carl Gustaf Ekman (1st time) (b. 1872 - d. 1945) 1 Oct 1928 - 6 Jun 1930 Salomon Arvid Achates Lindman (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Jun 1930 - 6 Aug 1932 Carl Gustaf Ekman (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Aug 1932 - 26 Sep 1932 Felix Teodor Hamrin (b. 1875 - d. 1937) 26 Sep 1932 - 19 Jun 1936 Per Albin Hansson (1st time) (b. 1885 - d. 1946) 19 Jun 1936 - 28 Sep 1936 Axel Pehrsson-Bramstorp (b. 1883 - d. 1954) 28 Sep 1936 - 6 Oct 1946 Per Albin Hansson (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Oct 1946 - 11 Oct 1946 Östen Undén (acting) (b. 1886 - d. 1974) 11 Oct 1946 - 14 Oct 1969 Tage Fritiof Erlander (b. 1901 - d. 1985) 14 Oct 1969 - 7 Oct 1976 Olof Palme (1st time) (b. 1927 - d. 1986) 7 Oct 1976 - 13 Oct 1978 Thorbjörn Fälldin (1st time) (b. 1926) 13 Oct 1978 - 9 Oct 1979 Ola Ullsten (b. 1931) 9 Oct 1979 - 7 Oct 1982 Thorbjörn Fälldin (2nd time) (s.a.) 7 Oct 1982 - 28 Feb 1986 Olof Palme (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Feb 1986 - 3 Oct 1991 Ingvar Carlsson (1st time) (b. 1934) (acting to 12 Mar 1986) 3 Oct 1991 - 7 Oct 1994 Carl Bildt (b. 1949) 7 Oct 1994 - 21 Mar 1996 Ingvar Carlsson (2nd time) (s.a.) 21 Mar 1996 - 6 Oct 2006 Göran Persson (b. 1949) 6 Oct 2006 - Fredrik Reinfeldt (b. 1965)
¹Royal style to 19 Sep 1973: Sveriges, Götes och Vendes Konung/Drottning ("King/Queen of Sweden, the Goths and the Wends"); from 19 Sep 1973 simply Sveriges Konung.
²During the period 1809-76 there were two heads of government, called Prime Minister for Justice and Prime Minister for Foreign Affairs. These were equal in status, but soon the Prime Minister for Justice evolved as the leading force of the government, being informally called Chancellor from 1858.

Skåne

26 Feb 1658                ceded by Denmark to Sweden in the Treaty of Roskilde;
                           king of Sweden adds the style of Duke of Skåne
       1720                autonomy abolished
 9 Feb 1801 - 27 Mar 1809  office of governor-general restored

Governors
 4 Jul 1698 - 27 Dec 1705  Carl Gustaf greve Rehnskiöld       (b. 1651 - d. 1722)
27 Dec 1705 -        1711  Magnus greve Stenbock              (b. 1664 - d. 1717)
                           (governor-general)
       1711 -        1716  Jacob friherre Burenskiöld         (b. 1655 - d. 1738)
       1716 -        1717  Carl Gustaf Skytte                 (b. 164... - d. 1717)
28 Jun 1717 -        1719  Carl Gustaf greve Hård             (b. 1674 - d. 1744)
 9 Feb 1801 - 27 Mar 1809  Johan Kristoffer friherre Toll     (b. 1734 - d. 1817)
                           (governor-general)

Switzerland

 8 Feb 1649                Peace of Westphalia treaties go into effect, recognizing
                           the sovereign independence of the full members of the
                           Swiss Confederation
12 Apr 1798                proclamation of Helvetic Republic, One and Indivisible
10 Mar 1803                Napoléon's "Mediation" reestablishes the Swiss
                           Confederation; canton sovereignty largely restored
21 Nov 1848                Federal Constitution goes into effect

Presidents of the Executive Directory
22 Apr 1798 - 31 May 1798  Johann Lukas Legrand               (b. 1755 - d. 1836)
 1 Jun 1798 -  1 Jul 1798  Urs Viktor Oberlin (1st time)      (b. 1747 - d. 1818)
 2 Jul 1798 - 31 Jul 1798  Pierre Maurice Glayre (1st time)   (b. 1743 - d. 1819)
 1 Aug 1798 - 31 Aug 1798  Frédéric César de La Harpe
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1754 - d. 1838)
 1 Sep 1798 - 30 Sep 1798  Peter Ochs (1st time)              (b. 1752 - d. 1821)
 1 Oct 1798 - 21 Nov 1798  Frédéric César de La Harpe
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
22 Nov 1798 - 12 Jan 1799  Urs Viktor Oberlin (2nd time)      (s.a.)
13 Jan 1799 -  5 Mar 1799  Pierre Maurice Glayre (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 6 Mar 1799 - 26 Apr 1799  David Ludwig Bay                   (b. 1749 - d. 1832)
27 Apr 1799 - 23 Jun 1799  Peter Ochs (2nd time)              (s.a.)
24 Jun 1799 -  4 Sep 1799  Frédéric César de La Harpe
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
 5 Sep 1799 - 17 Nov 1799  François Pierre Savary             (b. 1750 - d. 1821)
18 Nov 1799 -  7 Jan 1800  Johann Rudolf Dolder               (b. 1753 - d. 1807)
President of the Provisional Executive Power
 7 Jan 1800 - 11 Jan 1800  Johann Rudolf Dolder               (s.a.)
Presidents of the Provisional Executive Commission
12 Jan 1800 - 27 May 1800  Johann Rudolf Dolder               (s.a.)
28 May 1800 - 25 Jun 1800  Karl Albrecht Frisching            (b. 1734 - d. 1801)
26 Jun 1800 - 23 Jul 1800  François Pierre Savary             (s.a.)
24 Jul 1800 -  8 Aug 1800  Johann Konrad Finsler              (b. 1765 - d. 1839)
Presidents of the Provisional Executive Council
 9 Aug 1800 - 30 Sep 1800  Karl Albrecht Frisching (1st time) (s.a.)
 1 Oct 1800 - 31 Oct 1800  Johann Rudolf Dolder (1st time)    (s.a.)
 1 Nov 1800 - 30 Nov 1800  Karl Friedrich Zimmermann
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1765 - d. 1823)
 1 Dec 1800 - 31 Dec 1800  Johann Jakob Schmid (1st time)     (b. 1765 - d. 1828)
 1 Jan 1801 - 31 Jan 1801  Vinzenz Rüttimann (1st time)       (b. 1769 - d. 1844)
 1 Feb 1801 - 28 Feb 1801  François Pierre Savary (1st time)  (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1801 - 31 Mar 1801  Karl Albrecht Frisching (2nd time) (s.a.)
 1 Apr 1801 - 30 Apr 1801  Johann Rudolf Dolder (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 1 May 1801 - 31 May 1801  Karl Friedrich Zimmermann
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jun 1801 - 30 Jun 1801  François Pierre Savary (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jul 1801 - 31 Jul 1801  Johann Jakob Schmid (2nd time)     (s.a.)
 1 Aug 1801 - 31 Aug 1801  Vinzenz Rüttimann (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 1 Sep 1801 - 30 Sep 1801  Paulus Usteri                      (b. 1768 - d. 1831)
 1 Oct 1801 - 27 Oct 1801  Johann Rudolf Dolder (3rd time)    (s.a.)
President of the Provisional Executive
28 Oct 1801 - 22 Nov 1801  Johann Rudolf Dolder               (s.a.)
Erster Landammann/Premier Landamman
23 Nov 1801 -  6 Feb 1802  Aloys Reding von Biberegg          (b. 1765 - d. 1818)
Landammänner/Landammans
 6 Feb 1802 - 20 Apr 1802  Aloys Reding von Biberegg          (s.a.)
20 Apr 1802 -  5 Jul 1802  Vinzenz Rüttimann (acting)         (s.a.)
 5 Jul 1802 -  8 Mar 1803  Johann Rudolf Dolder               (s.a.)
Heads of the Confederation (the chief magistrates of the canton hosting the Diet),
with the title Landammann der Schweiz/Landamman de la Suisse/Landamano della Svizzera
10 Mar 1803 - 31 Dec 1803  Louis d'Affry (1st time)           (b. 1743 - d. 1810)
 1 Jan 1804 - 31 Dec 1804  Niklaus Rudolf von Wattenwyl
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1760 - d. 1832)
 1 Jan 1805 - 31 Dec 1805  Peter Josef Johann Anton von
                           Glutz-Ruchti                       (b. 1754 - d. 1835)
 1 Jan 1806 - 31 Dec 1806  Andreas Merian                     (b. 1742 - d. 1811)
 1 Jan 1807 - 31 Dec 1807  Hans von Reinhard (1st time)       (b. 1755 - d. 1835)
 1 Jan 1808 - 31 Dec 1808  Vinzenz Rüttimann (1st time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1809 - 31 Dec 1809  Louis d'Affry (2nd time)           (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1810 - 31 Dec 1810  Niklaus Rudolf von Wattenwyl
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1811 - 31 Dec 1811  Heinrich Daniel Balthasar Josef
                           Grimm von Wartenfels               (b. 1754 - d. 1821)
 1 Jan 1812 - 31 Dec 1812  Peter Burckhardt                   (b. 1742 - d. 1817)
 1 Jan 1813 - 31 Dec 1813  Hans von Reinhard (2nd time)       (s.a.)
Presidents of the Diet
 6 Apr 1814 -        1814  Hans von Reinhard (1st time)       (s.a.)
24 Jun 1814 - 12 Dec 1814  Hans Konrad von Escher vom Luchs   (b. 1743 - d. 1814)
12 Dec 1814 - 21 Dec 1814  Johann Konrad Finsler (interim)    (s.a.)
21 Dec 1814 - 31 Dec 1815  David von Wyss II (1st time)       (b. 1763 - d. 1839)
 1 Jan 1816 - 31 Dec 1816  Hans von Reinhard (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1817 - 31 Dec 1817  Niklaus Rudolf von Wattenwyl
                           (1st time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1818 - 31 Dec 1818  Niklaus Friedrich von Mülinen
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1760 - d. 1833)
 1 Jan 1819 - 31 Dec 1819  Josef Karl Xaver Leopold Leodegar
                           Amrhyn (1st time)                  (b. 1777 - d. 1848)
 1 Jan 1820 - 31 Dec 1820  Vinzenz Rüttimann (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1821 - 31 Dec 1821  David von Wyss II (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1822 - 31 Dec 1822  Hans von Reinhard (3rd time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1823 - 31 Dec 1823  Niklaus Rudolf von Wattenwyl
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1824 - 31 Dec 1824  Niklaus Friedrich von Mülinen
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1825 - 31 Dec 1825  Josef Karl Xaver Leopold Leodegar
                           Amrhyn (2nd time)                  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1826 - 31 Dec 1826  Vinzenz Rüttimann (3rd time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1827 - 31 Dec 1827  David von Wyss II (3rd time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1828 - 31 Dec 1828  Hans von Reinhard (4th time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1829 - 31 Dec 1829  Niklaus Rudolf von Wattenwyl
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1830 - 31 Dec 1830  Emanuel Friedrich von Fischer      (b. 1786 - d. 1870)
 1 Jan 1831 - 31 Dec 1831  Josef Karl Xaver Leopold Leodegar
                           Amrhyn (3rd time)                  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1832 - 31 Dec 1832  Eduard Pfyffer von Altishoven      (b. 1782 - d. 1834)
 1 Jan 1833 - 31 Dec 1833  Johann Jakob Hess (1st time)       (b. 1791 - d. 1854)
 1 Jan 1834 - 31 Dec 1834  Konrad Melchior Hirzel             (b. 1793 - d. 1843)
 1 Jan 1835 - 31 Dec 1835  Franz Karl von Tavel               (b. 1801 - d. 1865)
 1 Jan 1836 - 31 Dec 1836  Karl Friedrich Tscharner
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1772 - d. 1844)
 1 Jan 1837 - 31 Dec 1837  Josef Karl Xaver Leopold Leodegar
                           Amrhyn (4th time)                  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1838 - 31 Dec 1838  Georg Jakob Kopp                   (b. 1786 - d. 1859)
 1 Jan 1839 - 31 Dec 1839  Johann Jakob Hess (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1840 - 31 Dec 1840  Johann Konrad von Muralt           (b. 1779 - d. 1869)
 1 Jan 1841 - 31 Dec 1841  Johann Karl Friedrich Neuhaus      (b. 1796 - d. 1849)
 1 Jan 1842 - 31 Dec 1842  Karl Friedrich Tscharner
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1843 - 31 Dec 1843  Rudolf Rüttimann
 1 Jan 1844 - 31 Dec 1844  Konstantin Siegwart-Müller         (b. 1801 - d. 1869)
 1 Jan 1845 -  2 Apr 1845  Johann Heinrich Emmanuel Mousson   (b. 1803 - d. 1869)
 2 Apr 1845 - 31 Dec 1845  Jonas Furrer                       (b. 1805 - d. 1861)
 1 Jan 1846 - 31 Dec 1846  Johann Ulrich Zehnder              (b. 1798 - d. 1877)
 1 Jan 1847 - 28 May 1847  Alexander Ludwig Funk (1st time)   (b. 1806 - d. 1871)
28 May 1847 -  5 Nov 1847  Ulrich Ochsenbein (1st time)       (b. 1811 - d. 1890)
 5 Nov 1847 -  2 Dec 1847  Johann Rudolf Schneider (acting)   (b. 1804 - d. 1880)
 2 Dec 1847 - 31 May 1848  Ulrich Ochsenbein (2nd time)       (s.a.)
31 May 1848 - 20 Nov 1848  Alexander Ludwig Funk (2nd time)   (s.a.)
Presidents
21 Nov 1848 - 31 Dec 1849  Jonas Furrer (1st time)       FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1850 - 31 Dec 1850  Henri Druey                   FDP  (b. 1799 - d. 1855)
 1 Jan 1851 - 31 Dec 1851  Martin J. Munzinger           FDP  (b. 1791 - d. 1855)
 1 Jan 1852 - 31 Dec 1852  Jonas Furrer (2nd time)       FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1853 - 31 Dec 1853  Wilhelm Matthias Näff         FDP  (b. 1802 - d. 1881)
 1 Jan 1854 - 31 Dec 1854  Friedrich Frey-Herosé
                           (1st time)                    FDP  (b. 1801 - d. 1873)
 1 Jan 1855 - 31 Dec 1855  Jonas Furrer (3rd time)       FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1856 - 31 Dec 1856  Jakob Stämpfli (1st time)     FDP  (b. 1820 - d. 1879)
 1 Jan 1857 - 31 Dec 1857  Constant Fornerod (1st time)  FDP  (b. 1819 - d. 1899)
 1 Jan 1858 - 31 Dec 1858  Jonas Furrer (4th time)       FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1859 - 31 Dec 1859  Jakob Stämpfli (2nd time)     FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1860 - 31 Dec 1860  Friedrich Frey-Herosé
                           (2nd time)                    FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1861 - 31 Dec 1861  Melchior Josef Martin Knüsel
                           (1st time)                    FDP  (b. 1813 - d. 1889)
 1 Jan 1862 - 31 Dec 1862  Jakob Stämpfli (3rd time)     FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1863 - 31 Dec 1863  Constant Fornerod (2nd time)  FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1864 - 31 Dec 1864  Jakob Dubs (1st time)         FDP  (b. 1822 - d. 1879)
 1 Jan 1865 - 31 Dec 1865  Karl Schenk (1st time)        FDP  (b. 1823 - d. 1895)
 1 Jan 1866 - 31 Dec 1866  Melchior Josef Martin Knüsel
                           (2nd time)                    FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1867 - 31 Dec 1867  Constant Fornerod (3rd time)  FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1868 - 31 Dec 1868  Jakob Dubs (2nd time)         FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1869 - 31 Dec 1869  Emil Welti (1st time)         FDP  (b. 1825 - d. 1899)
 1 Jan 1870 - 31 Dec 1870  Jakob Dubs (3rd time)         FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1871 - 31 Dec 1871  Karl Schenk (2nd time)        FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1872 - 31 Dec 1872  Emil Welti (2nd time)         FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1873 - 31 Dec 1873  Paul Cérésole                 FDP  (b. 1832 - d. 1905)
 1 Jan 1874 - 31 Dec 1874  Karl Schenk (3rd time)        FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1875 - 31 Dec 1875  Johann Jakob Scherer          FDP  (b. 1825 - d. 1878)
 1 Jan 1876 - 31 Dec 1876  Emil Welti (3rd time)         FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1877 - 31 Dec 1877  Joachim Heer                  FDP  (b. 1825 - d. 1879)
 1 Jan 1878 - 31 Dec 1878  Karl Schenk (4th time)        FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1879 - 31 Dec 1879  Bernhard Hammer (1st time)    FDP  (b. 1822 - d. 1907)
 1 Jan 1880 - 31 Dec 1880  Emil Welti (4th time)         FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1881 - 31 Dec 1881  Numa Droz (1st time)          FDP  (b. 1844 - d. 1899)
 1 Jan 1882 - 31 Dec 1882  Simeon Bavier                 FDP  (b. 1825 - d. 1896)
 1 Jan 1883 - 31 Dec 1883  Louis Ruchonnet (1st time)    FDP  (b. 1834 - d. 1893)
 1 Jan 1884 - 31 Dec 1884  Emil Welti (5th time)         FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1885 - 31 Dec 1885  Karl Schenk (5th time)        FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1886 - 31 Dec 1886  Adolf Deucher (1st time)      FDP  (b. 1831 - d. 1912)
 1 Jan 1887 - 31 Dec 1887  Numa Droz (2nd time)          FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1888 - 27 Nov 1888  Wilhelm Friedrich Hertenstein FDP  (b. 1825 - d. 1888)
27 Nov 1888 - 31 Dec 1889  Bernhard Hammer (2nd time)    FDP  (s.a.)
                           (acting to 31 Dec 1888)
 1 Jan 1890 - 31 Dec 1890  Louis Ruchonnet (2nd time)    FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1891 - 31 Dec 1891  Emil Welti (6th time)         FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1892 - 31 Dec 1892  Walter Hauser (1st time)      FDP  (b. 1837 - d. 1902)
 1 Jan 1893 - 31 Dec 1893  Karl Schenk (6th time)        FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1894 - 31 Dec 1894  Emil Frey                     FDP  (b. 1838 - d. 1922)
 1 Jan 1895 - 31 Dec 1895  Joseph Zemp (1st time)        CVP  (b. 1834 - d. 1908)
 1 Jan 1896 - 31 Dec 1896  Adrien Lachenal               FDP  (b. 1849 - d. 1918)
 1 Jan 1897 - 31 Dec 1897  Adolf Deucher (2nd time)      FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1898 - 31 Dec 1898  Eugène Ruffy                  FDP  (b. 1854 - d. 1919)
 1 Jan 1899 - 31 Dec 1899  Eduard Müller (1st time)      FDP  (b. 1848 - d. 1919)
 1 Jan 1900 - 31 Dec 1900  Walter Hauser (2nd time)      FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1901 - 31 Dec 1901  Ernst Brenner (1st time)      FDP  (b. 1856 - d. 1911)
 1 Jan 1902 - 31 Dec 1902  Joseph Zemp (2nd time)        CVP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1903 - 31 Dec 1903  Adolf Deucher (3rd time)      FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1904 - 31 Dec 1904  Robert Comtesse (1st time)    FDP  (b. 1847 - d. 1922)
 1 Jan 1905 - 31 Dec 1905  Marc-Émile Ruchet (1st time)  FDP  (b. 1853 - d. 1912)
 1 Jan 1906 - 31 Dec 1906  Ludwig Forrer (1st time)      FDP  (b. 1845 - d. 1921)
 1 Jan 1907 - 31 Dec 1907  Eduard Müller (2nd time)      FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1908 - 31 Dec 1908  Ernst Brenner (2nd time)      FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1909 - 31 Dec 1909  Adolf Deucher (4th time)      FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1910 - 31 Dec 1910  Robert Comtesse (2nd time)    FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1911 - 31 Dec 1911  Marc-Émile Ruchet (2nd time)  FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1912 - 31 Dec 1912  Ludwig Forrer (2nd time)      FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1913 - 31 Dec 1913  Eduard Müller (3rd time)      FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1914 - 31 Dec 1914  Arthur Hoffmann               FDP  (b. 1857 - d. 1927)
 1 Jan 1915 - 31 Dec 1915  Giuseppe Motta (1st time)     CVP  (b. 1871 - d. 1940)
 1 Jan 1916 - 31 Dec 1916  Camille Decoppet              FDP  (b. 1862 - d. 1925)
 1 Jan 1917 - 31 Dec 1917  Edmund Schulthess (1st time)  FDP  (b. 1868 - d. 1944)
 1 Jan 1918 - 31 Dec 1918  Felix Calonder                FDP  (b. 1863 - d. 1952)
 1 Jan 1919 - 31 Dec 1919  Gustave Ador                  LPS  (b. 1845 - d. 1928)
 1 Jan 1920 - 31 Dec 1920  Giuseppe Motta (2nd time)     CVP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1921 - 31 Dec 1921  Edmund Schulthess (2nd time)  FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1922 - 31 Dec 1922  Robert Haab (1st time)        FDP  (b. 1865 - d. 1939)
 1 Jan 1923 - 31 Dec 1923  Karl Alfred Scheurer          FDP  (b. 1872 - d. 1929)
 1 Jan 1924 - 31 Dec 1924  Ernest Chuard                 FDP  (b. 1857 - d. 1942)
 1 Jan 1925 - 31 Dec 1925  Jean-Marie Musy (1st time)    CVP  (b. 1876 - d. 1952)
 1 Jan 1926 - 31 Dec 1926  Heinrich Häberlin (1st time)  FDP  (b. 1868 - d. 1947)
 1 Jan 1927 - 31 Dec 1927  Giuseppe Motta (3rd time)     CVP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1928 - 31 Dec 1928  Edmund Schulthess (3rd time)  FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1929 - 31 Dec 1929  Robert Haab (2nd time)        FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1930 - 31 Dec 1930  Jean-Marie Musy (2nd time)    CVP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1931 - 31 Dec 1931  Heinrich Häberlin (2nd time)  FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1932 - 31 Dec 1932  Giuseppe Motta (4th time)     CVP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1933 - 31 Dec 1933  Edmund Schulthess (4th time)  FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1934 - 31 Dec 1934  Marcel Pilet-Golaz (1st time) FDP  (b. 1889 - d. 1958)
 1 Jan 1935 - 31 Dec 1935  Rudolf Minger                 SVP  (b. 1881 - d. 1955)
 1 Jan 1936 - 31 Dec 1936  Albert Meyer                  FDP  (b. 1870 - d. 1953)
 1 Jan 1937 - 31 Dec 1937  Giuseppe Motta (5th time)     CVP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1938 - 31 Dec 1938  Johannes Baumann              FDP  (b. 1874 - d. 1953)
 1 Jan 1939 - 31 Dec 1939  Philipp Etter (1st time)      CVP  (b. 1891 - d. 1977)
 1 Jan 1940 - 31 Dec 1940  Marcel Pilet-Golaz (2nd time) FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1941 - 31 Dec 1941  Ernst Wetter                  FDP  (b. 1877 - d. 1965)
 1 Jan 1942 - 31 Dec 1942  Philipp Etter (2nd time)      CVP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1943 - 31 Dec 1943  Enrico Celio (1st time)       CVP  (b. 1889 - d. 1980)
 1 Jan 1944 - 31 Dec 1944  Walter Stampfli               FDP  (b. 1884 - d. 1965)
 1 Jan 1945 - 31 Dec 1945  Eduard von Steiger (1st time) SVP  (b. 1881 - d. 1962)
 1 Jan 1946 - 31 Dec 1946  Karl Kobelt (1st time)        FDP  (b. 1891 - d. 1968)
 1 Jan 1947 - 31 Dec 1947  Philipp Etter (3rd time)      CVP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1948 - 31 Dec 1948  Enrico Celio (2nd time)       CVP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1949 - 31 Dec 1949  Ernst Nobs                    SPS  (b. 1886 - d. 1957)
 1 Jan 1950 - 31 Dec 1950  Max Petitpierre (1st time)    FDP  (b. 1899 - d. 1994)
 1 Jan 1951 - 31 Dec 1951  Eduard von Steiger (2nd time) SVP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1952 - 31 Dec 1952  Karl Kobelt (2nd time)        FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1953 - 31 Dec 1953  Philipp Etter (4th time)      CVP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1954 - 31 Dec 1954  Rodolphe Rubattel             FDP  (b. 1896 - d. 1961)
 1 Jan 1955 - 31 Dec 1955  Max Petitpierre (2nd time)    FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1956 - 31 Dec 1956  Markus Feldmann               SVP  (b. 1897 - d. 1958)
 1 Jan 1957 - 31 Dec 1957  Hans Streuli                  FDP  (b. 1892 - d. 1970)
 1 Jan 1958 - 31 Dec 1958  Thomas Holenstein             CVP  (b. 1896 - d. 1962)
 1 Jan 1959 - 31 Dec 1959  Paul Chaudet (1st time)       FDP  (b. 1904 - d. 1977)
 1 Jan 1960 - 31 Dec 1960  Max Petitpierre (3rd time)    FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1961 - 31 Dec 1961  Friedrich Traugott Wahlen     SVP  (b. 1899 - d. 1985)
 1 Jan 1962 - 31 Dec 1962  Paul Chaudet (2nd time)       FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1963 - 31 Dec 1963  Willy Spühler (1st time)      SPS  (b. 1902 - d. 1990)
 1 Jan 1964 - 31 Dec 1964  Ludwig von Moos (1st time)    CVP  (b. 1910 - d. 1990)
 1 Jan 1965 - 31 Dec 1965  Hans Peter Tschudi (1st time) SPS  (b. 1913 - d. 2002)
 1 Jan 1966 - 31 Dec 1966  Hans Schaffner                FDP  (b. 1908 - d. 2004)
 1 Jan 1967 - 31 Dec 1967  Roger Bonvin (1st time)       CVP  (b. 1907 - d. 1982)
 1 Jan 1968 - 31 Dec 1968  Willy Spühler (2nd time)      SPS  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1969 - 31 Dec 1969  Ludwig von Moos (2nd time)    CVP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1970 - 31 Dec 1970  Hans Peter Tschudi (2nd time) SPS  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1971 - 31 Dec 1971  Rudolf Gnägi (1st time)       SVP  (b. 1917 - d. 1985)
 1 Jan 1972 - 31 Dec 1972  Nello Celio                   FDP  (b. 1914 - d. 1995)
 1 Jan 1973 - 31 Dec 1973  Roger Bonvin (2nd time)       CVP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1974 - 31 Dec 1974  Ernst Brugger                 FDP  (b. 1914 - d. 1998)
 1 Jan 1975 - 31 Dec 1975  Pierre Graber                 SPS  (b. 1908 - d. 2003)
 1 Jan 1976 - 31 Dec 1976  Rudolf Gnägi (2nd time)       SVP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1977 - 31 Dec 1977  Kurt Furgler (1st time)       CVP  (b. 1924 - d. 2008)
 1 Jan 1978 - 31 Dec 1978  Willi Ritschard               SPS  (b. 1918 - d. 1983)
 1 Jan 1979 - 31 Dec 1979  Hans Hürlimann                CVP  (b. 1918 - d. 1994)
 1 Jan 1980 - 31 Dec 1980  Georges-André Chevallaz       FDP  (b. 1915 - d. 2002)
 1 Jan 1981 - 31 Dec 1981  Kurt Furgler (2nd time)       CVP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1982 - 31 Dec 1982  Fritz Honegger                FDP  (b. 1917 - d. 1999)
 1 Jan 1983 - 31 Dec 1983  Pierre Aubert (1st time)      SPS  (b. 1927)
 1 Jan 1984 - 31 Dec 1984  Leon Schlumpf                 SVP  (b. 1925 - d. 2012)
 1 Jan 1985 - 31 Dec 1985  Kurt Furgler (3rd time)       CVP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1986 - 31 Dec 1986  Alphons Egli                  CVP  (b. 1924)
 1 Jan 1987 - 31 Dec 1987  Pierre Aubert (2nd time)      SPS  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1988 - 31 Dec 1988  Otto Stich (1st time)         SPS  (b. 1927 - d. 2012)
 1 Jan 1989 - 31 Dec 1989  Jean-Pascal Delamuraz
                           (1st time)                    FDP  (b. 1936 - d. 1998)
 1 Jan 1990 - 31 Dec 1990  Arnold Koller (1st time)      CVP  (b. 1933)
 1 Jan 1991 - 31 Dec 1991  Flavio Cotti (1st time)       CVP  (b. 1939)
 1 Jan 1992 - 31 Dec 1992  René Felber                   SPS  (b. 1933)
 1 Jan 1993 - 31 Dec 1993  Adolf Ogi (1st time)          SVP  (b. 1942)
 1 Jan 1994 - 31 Dec 1994  Otto Stich (2nd time)         SPS  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1995 - 31 Dec 1995  Kaspar Villiger (1st time)    FDP  (b. 1941)
 1 Jan 1996 - 31 Dec 1996  Jean-Pascal Delamuraz
                           (2nd time)                    FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1997 - 31 Dec 1997  Arnold Koller (2nd time)      CVP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1998 - 31 Dec 1998  Flavio Cotti (2nd time)       CVP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1999 - 31 Dec 1999  Ruth Dreifuss (f)             SPS  (b. 1940)
 1 Jan 2000 - 31 Dec 2000  Adolf Ogi (2nd time)          SVP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 2001 - 31 Dec 2001  Moritz Leuenberger (1st time) SPS  (b. 1946)
 1 Jan 2002 - 31 Dec 2002  Kaspar Villiger (2nd time)    FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 2003 - 31 Dec 2003  Pascal Couchepin (1st time)   FDP  (b. 1942)
 1 Jan 2004 - 31 Dec 2004  Joseph Deiss                  CVP  (b. 1946)
 1 Jan 2005 - 31 Dec 2005  Samuel Schmid                 SVP  (b. 1947)
 1 Jan 2006 - 31 Dec 2006  Moritz Leuenberger (2nd time) SPS  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 2007 - 31 Dec 2007  Micheline Calmy-Rey (f)
                           (1st time)                    SPS  (b. 1945)
 1 Jan 2008 - 31 Dec 2008  Pascal Couchepin (2nd time)   FDP  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 2009 - 31 Dec 2009  Hans-Rudolf Merz              FDP  (b. 1942)
 1 Jan 2010 - 31 Dec 2010  Doris Leuthard (f)            CVP  (b. 1963)
 1 Jan 2011 - 31 Dec 2011  Micheline Calmy-Rey (f)
                           (2nd time)                    SPS  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 2012 - 31 Dec 2012  Eveline Widmer-Schlumpf (f)   BDP  (b. 1956)
 1 Jan 2013 - 31 Dec 2013  Ueli Maurer                   SVP  (b. 1950)
 1 Jan 2014 -              Didier Burkhalter             FDP  (b. 1960)
Party abbreviations: BDP=Civic Democratic Party of Switzerland, CVP=Christian Democratic People's Party (before 1912 Catholic Conservative Party, 1912-57 Swiss Conservative People's Party, 1957-70 Conservative Christian Social People's Party), FDP=Liberal-Democratic Party or predecessors, LPS=Liberal Party of Switzerland or predecessors, SPS=Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, SVP=Swiss People's Party (1921-71 Peasants', Business, and Citizens' Party)

Syria

       1516                part of Ottoman Empire
30 Sep 1918                independence
 8 Mar 1920                Kingdom of Syria
 1 Dec 1920                State of Damascus and State of Aleppo
28 Jun 1922                Union of Syrian States
29 Sep 1923 -  1 Jan 1944  League of Nations mandate
 1 Jan 1925                State of Syria
11 Jun 1932                Syrian Republic
10 Jul 1939                State of Syria
21 Jun 1941 - 17 Apr 1946  occupied by British and French troops
16 Sep 1941                Syrian Republic
27 Sep 1941                independence
22 Feb 1958                part of United Arab Republic (see Egypt)
28 Sep 1961                Syrian Arab Republic

Heads of Government
30 Sep 1918                Muhammad Said al-Jazairi
30 Sep 1918 -  5 Oct 1918  Ali Rida Pasha al-Rikabi           (b. 1864 - d. 1943)
 5 Oct 1918 -  8 Mar 1920  Faysal ibn Hussein al-Hashimi      (b. 1885 - d. 1933)
King
 8 Mar 1920 - 28 Jul 1920  Faysal ibn Hussein al-Hashimi      (s.a.)
Acting heads of state
28 Jul 1920 - 21 Aug 1920  Ala ad-Din ad-Durubi Pasha         (b. 18... - d. 1920)
 6 Sep 1920 - 30 Nov 1920  Jamil al-Ulshi                     (b. 1883 - d. 1951)
Governor (State of Damascus)
 1 Dec 1920 - 28 Jun 1922  Haqqi Bey al-Azm                   (b. 1864 - d. 1955)
Governor (State of Aleppo)
 1 Dec 1920 - 28 Jun 1922  Kamil Pasha al-Kudsi
Heads of State
28 Jun 1922 - 21 Dec 1925  Subhi Bey Barakat al-Khalidi       (b. c.1886 - d. 1939)
 9 Feb 1926 - 28 Apr 1926  François Pierre-Alype (acting)     (b. 1886 - d. 1956)
28 Apr 1926 - 15 Feb 1928  Damad-i Shahriyari Ahmad Nami Bey  (b. 1873 - d. 1962)
15 Feb 1928 - 19 Nov 1931  Shaykh Taj ad-Din al-Hasani        (b. 1885 - d. 1943)
                           (acting)
Presidents
11 Jun 1932 - 21 Dec 1936  Muhammad Ali Bey al-Abid           (b. 1868 - d. 1939)
21 Dec 1936 -  7 Jul 1939  Hashim al-Atassi (1st time)        (b. 1875 - d. 1960)
 7 Jul 1939 - 10 Jul 1939  Nasuhi al-Bukhari (acting)         (b. c.1881 - d. 1961)
10 Jul 1939 -  4 Apr 1941  Bahij ad-Din al-Khatib             (b. 1895 - d. 1981)
                           (chairman Council of Commissioners)
 4 Apr 1941 - 16 Sep 1941  Khalid al-Azm (acting)             (b. 1903 - d. 1965)
16 Sep 1941 - 17 Jan 1943  Shaykh Taj ad-Din al-Hasani        (s.a.)
17 Jan 1943 - 25 Mar 1943  Jamil al-Ulshi (acting)            (s.a.)
25 Mar 1943 - 17 Aug 1943  Ata Bey al-Ayyubi (Head of State)  (b. 1877 - d. 1951)
17 Aug 1943 - 30 Mar 1949  Shukri al-Kuwatli (1st time)       (b. 1891 - d. 1967)
30 Mar 1949 - 14 Aug 1949  Husni az-Zaim                      (b. 1897 - d. 1949)
14 Aug 1949 - 15 Aug 1949  Sami al-Hinnawi                    (b. 1896 - d. 1950)
                           (chairman Supreme Military Council)
15 Aug 1949 -  2 Dec 1951  Hashim al-Atassi (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                           (Head of State)
 2 Dec 1951 -  3 Dec 1951  Adib al-Shishakli (1st time)       (b. 1909 - d. 1964)
                           (chairman Supreme Military Council)
 3 Dec 1951 - 11 Jul 1953  Fawzi as-Silu (Head of State)      (b. 1905 - d. 1972)
11 Jul 1953 - 25 Feb 1954  Adib al-Shishakli (2nd time)       (s.a.)
26 Feb 1954 - 28 Feb 1954  Maamun al-Kuzbari (1st time)       (b. 1914 - d. 1998)
                           (acting)
28 Feb 1954 -  6 Sep 1955  Hashim al-Atassi (3rd time)        (s.a.)
 6 Sep 1955 - 22 Feb 1958  Shukri al-Kuwatli (2nd time)       (s.a.)
29 Sep 1961 - 20 Nov 1961  Maamun al-Kuzbari (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                           (acting)
20 Nov 1961 - 14 Dec 1961  Izzat al-Nuss (acting)             (b. 1912)
14 Dec 1961 -  8 Mar 1963  Nazim al-Kudsi                     (b. 1906 - d. 1998)
28 Mar 1962 - 13 Apr 1962    Abdul Karim Zahreddin
                             (junta chief)
 9 Mar 1963 - 27 Jul 1963  Louai al-Atassi                    (b. 1926 - d. 2003)
                           (chairman National Revolutionary Command Council)
27 Jul 1963 - 23 Feb 1966  Amin al-Hafez                      (b. 1921? - d. 2009)
                           (chairman National Revolutionary Command Council to 13 May
                           1964, then chairman Presidential Council)
25 Feb 1966 - 18 Nov 1970  Nureddin al-Atassi                 (b. 1929 - d. 1992)
                           (Head of State)
18 Nov 1970 - 22 Feb 1971  Ahmed Khatib                       (b. 1933)
                           (Head of State)
22 Feb 1971 - 10 Jun 2000  Hafez al-Assad                     (b. 1930 - d. 2000)
                           (acting to 14 Mar 1971)
10 Jun 2000 - 17 Jul 2000  Abdul-Halim Khaddam (acting)       (b. 1932)
17 Jul 2000 -              Bashar al-Assad                    (b. 1965)

Prime ministers Mar 1920 - May 1920 Ali Rida Pasha al-Rikabi (s.a.) May 1920 - 28 Jul 1920 Hashim al-Atassi (1st time) (s.a.) 28 Jul 1920 - 21 Aug 1920 Ala ad-Din ad-Durubi Pasha (s.a.) 6 Sep 1920 - 30 Nov 1920 Jamil al-Ulshi (1st time) (s.a.) 7 Jun 1932 - 16 Mar 1934 Haqqi Bey al-Azm (s.a.) 16 Mar 1934 - 22 Feb 1936 Shaykh Taj ad-Din al-Hasani (s.a.) 22 Feb 1936 - 21 Dec 1936 Ata Bey al-Ayyubi (s.a.) 21 Dec 1936 - 18 Feb 1939 Jamil Mardam Bey (1st time) (b. 1893 - d. 1960) 23 Feb 1939 - 13 Mar 1939 Lutfi al-Haffar (b. 1891 - d. 1968) 6 Apr 1939 - 9 Jul 1939 Nasuhi al-Bukhari (s.a.) 4 Apr 1941 - 21 Sep 1941 Khalid al-Azm (1st time) (s.a.) 21 Sep 1941 - 19 Apr 1942 Hassan al-Hakim (1st time) (b. 1886 - d. 1988) 19 Apr 1942 - 10 Jan 1943 Husni al-Barazi (b. 1893 - d. 19...) 10 Jan 1943 - 25 Mar 1943 Jamil al-Ulshi (2nd time) (s.a.) 19 Aug 1943 - 14 Oct 1944 Saadallah al-Jabiri (1st time) (b. 1893 - d. 1947) 14 Oct 1944 - 1 Oct 1945 Faris al-Khuri (1st time) (b. 1877 - d. 1962) 1 Oct 1945 - 16 Dec 1946 Saadallah al-Jabiri (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 Dec 1946 - 29 Dec 1946 Khalid al-Azm (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.) 29 Dec 1946 - 16 Dec 1948 Jamil Mardam Bey (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 Dec 1948 - 30 Mar 1949 Khalid al-Azm (3rd time) (s.a.) 17 Apr 1949 - 26 Jun 1949 Husni az-Zaim (s.a.) 26 Jun 1949 - 14 Aug 1949 Muhsin al-Barazi (b. 1904 - d. 1949) 15 Aug 1949 - 24 Dec 1949 Hashim al-Atassi (2nd time) (s.a.) 24 Dec 1949 - 28 Dec 1949 Nazim al-Kudsi (1st time) (s.a.) 28 Dec 1949 - 4 Jun 1950 Khalid al-Azm (4th time) (s.a.) 4 Jun 1950 - 27 Mar 1951 Nazim al-Kudsi (2nd time) (s.a.) 27 Mar 1951 - 9 Aug 1951 Khalid al-Azm (5th time) (s.a.) 9 Aug 1951 - 13 Nov 1951 Hassan al-Hakim (2nd time) (s.a.) 13 Nov 1951 - 28 Nov 1951 Zaki al-Khatib (acting) 28 Nov 1951 - 29 Nov 1951 Maaruf al-Dawalibi (1st time) (b. 1907 - d. 2004) 3 Dec 1951 - 19 Jul 1953 Fawzi as-Silu (s.a.) 19 Jul 1953 - 1 Mar 1954 Adib al-Shishakli (s.a.) 1 Mar 1954 - 19 Jun 1954 Sabri al-Assali (1st time) (b. 1903 - d. 1976) 19 Jun 1954 - 29 Oct 1954 Said al-Ghazzi (1st time) (b. 1893 - d. 1967) 29 Oct 1954 - 13 Feb 1955 Faris al-Khuri (2nd time) (s.a.) 13 Feb 1955 - 13 Sep 1955 Sabri al-Assali (2nd time) (s.a.) 13 Sep 1955 - 14 Jun 1956 Said al-Ghazzi (2nd time) (s.a.) 14 Jun 1956 - 6 Mar 1958 Sabri al-Assali (3rd time) (s.a.) Chairmen of the Executive Council of the Syrian Region 7 Oct 1958 - 20 Sep 1960 Nureddin Kuhala 20 Sep 1960 - 16 Aug 1961 Abdul Hamid Serraj (b. c.1923 - d. 2013) Prime ministers 29 Sep 1961 - 20 Nov 1961 Maamun al-Kuzbari (s.a.) 20 Nov 1961 - 22 Dec 1961 Izzat al-Nuss (s.a.) 22 Dec 1961 - 28 Mar 1962 Maaruf al-Dawalibi (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 Apr 1962 - 17 Sep 1962 Ahmad Bashir al-Azmah (b. 1910 - d. 1992) 17 Sep 1962 - 8 Mar 1963 Khalid al-Azm (6th time) (s.a.) 9 Mar 1963 - 12 Nov 1963 Salah al-Din Bitar (1st time) (b. 1912 - d. 1980) 12 Nov 1963 - 13 May 1964 Amin al-Hafez (1st time) (s.a.) 13 May 1964 - 3 Oct 1964 Salah al-Din Bitar (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Oct 1964 - 23 Sep 1965 Amin al-Hafez (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Sep 1965 - 1 Jan 1966 Yusuf Zuaiyin (1st time) (b. 1931) 1 Jan 1966 - 23 Feb 1966 Salah al-Din Bitar (3rd time) (s.a.) 25 Feb 1966 - 29 Oct 1968 Yusuf Zuaiyin (2nd time) (s.a.) 29 Oct 1968 - 18 Nov 1970 Nureddin al-Atassi (s.a.) 18 Nov 1970 - 3 Apr 1971 Hafez al-Assad (s.a.) 3 Apr 1971 - 21 Dec 1972 Abdul Rahman Khleifawi (1st time) (b. 1930) 21 Dec 1972 - 7 Aug 1976 Mahmoud al-Ayoubi (b. 1932) 7 Aug 1976 - 27 Mar 1978 Abdul Rahman Khleifawi (2nd time) (s.a.) 27 Mar 1978 - 9 Jan 1980 Muhammad Ali al-Halabi (b. 1937) 9 Jan 1980 - 1 Nov 1987 Abdul Rauf al-Kasm (b. 1932) 1 Nov 1987 - 13 Mar 2000 Mahmoud Zuabi (b. 1938 - d. 2000) 13 Mar 2000 - 10 Sep 2003 Muhammad Mustafa Mero (b. 1941) 10 Sep 2003 - 14 Apr 2011 Muhammad Naji al-Otari (b. 1944) 14 Apr 2011 - 26 Jun 2012 Adel Safar (b. 1953) 26 Jun 2012 - 6 Aug 2012 Riyad Hijab (b. 1966) 6 Aug 2012 - 11 Aug 2012 Omar Ghalawanji (acting) (b. 1954) 11 Aug 2012 - Wael al-Halki (b. 1964) 19 Mar 2013 - 8 Jul 2013 Ghassan Hitto (b. 1963) (interim; in rebellion) 14 Sep 2013 - Ahmad Saleh Touma (interim; in rebellion)

French-mandated Syria and Lebanon (headquarters in Beirut, Lebanon)

High commissioners4
21 Nov 1919 - 23 Nov 1922  Henri Gouraud                      (b. 1867 - d. 1946)
23 Nov 1922 - 17 Apr 1923  Robert de Caix (acting)            (b. 1869 - d. 1970)
17 Apr 1923 -    Dec 1924  Maxime Weygand                     (b. 1867 - d. 1965)
 2 Jan 1925 - 30 Oct 1925  Maurice Sarrail                    (b. 1856 - d. 1929)
   Dec 1925 - 17 Jun 1926  Henry de Jouvenel                  (b. 1876 - d. 1935)
12 Oct 1926 - 12 Oct 1932  Henri Ponsot                       (b. 1877 - d. 1963)
   Jul 1933 -    Oct 1938  Damien de Martel                   (b. 1878 - d. 1940)
   Jan 1939 -    Dec 1940  Gabriel Puaux                      (b. 1883 - d. 1970)
29 Dec 1940 - 14 Jun 1941  Henri Fernand Dentz                (b. 1881 - d. 1945)
Delegates-general
21 Jun 1941 -  7 Jun 1943  Georges Catroux                    (b. 1877 - d. 1969)
 7 Jun 1943 - 22 Nov 1943  Jean Helleu                        (b. 1885 - d. 1955)
22 Nov 1943 -  9 Mar 1944  Yves Chataigneau                   (b. 1891 - d. 1961)
 9 Mar 1944 -  6 Jul 1946  Étienne Beynet                     (b. 1883 - d. 1969)

Alawite Territory

 2 Sep 1920                Alawite Territory
 1 Jul 1922                incorporated into Syria
 1 Jan 1925                Alawite State
       1930                State of Latakia
 5 Dec 1936                incorporated into Syria

Governors
 2 Sep 1920 -    Aug 1921  Joseph Niéger                      (b. 1874 - d. 1951)
   Aug 1921 -  1 Jul 1922  Gaston Billotte                    (b. 1875 - d. 1940)
 1 Jan 1925 -        1925  Léon Cayla                         (b. 1881 - d. 1965)
   Jul 1925 -  5 Dec 1936  Ernest Schoeffler

Jebel Druze

 1 May 1921                autonomous
 2 Dec 1936                incorporated into Syria

Governors
 1 May 1921 - 15 Sep 1923  Amir Salim Pasha al-Atrash         (b. ... - d. 1923)
   Sep 1923 -  6 Mar 1924  Trenga (provisional)
 6 Mar 1924 - 14 Oct 1925  Gabriel Marie Victor Carbillet     (b. 1884 - d. 19...)
                           (provisional to 1 Oct 1924)
14 Oct 1925 -        1927  Charles Andréa
       1927                Marie Joseph Léon Augustin Henry   (b. 1870 - d. 1942)
       1927 -        1932  Abel Clément-Grandcourt            (b. 1873 - d. 1948)
 3 Feb 1932 - 28 Jan 1934  Renaud Massiet                     (b. 1877 - d. 1947)
       1934 -        1935  Devic
       1935 -  2 Dec 1936  Tarrit